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Encyclopedia > Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Official flag of Rotterdam
Flag
Coat of arms of Rotterdam
Coat of arms
Nickname: Rotjeknor, Waterstad, Maasstad, Manhattan aan de Maas, Roffa
Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle)
Location of Rotterdam
Coordinates: 51°55′51″N 4°28′45″E / 51.93083, 4.47917
Country Netherlands
Province South Holland
Government
 - Mayor Ivo Opstelten
 - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu
Hamit Karakus
Orhan Kaya
Lucas Bolsius
Jantine Kriens
Dominic Schrijer
Roelf de Boer
Leonard Geluk
Area [1]
 - Total 319 km² (123.2 sq mi)
 - Land 206 km² (79.5 sq mi)
 - Water 113 km² (43.6 sq mi)
Population (January 1, 2006)[1][2]
 - Total 588,718
 - Density 2,851/km² (7,384.1/sq mi)
 - Randstad 6,659,300
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Website: www.rotterdam.nl

Rotterdam (pronunciation ) is the second largest municipality in the Netherlands after the capital, Amsterdam by population size, and the largest city in the province of Zuid-Holland (South Holland). The port of Rotterdam is the largest in Europe and was the world's busiest port from 1962 to 2004, when it was overtaken by Shanghai. Rotterdam is situated on the banks of the river Nieuwe Maas ('New Meuse'), one of the channels in the delta formed by the Rhine and Meuse rivers. The name Rotterdam derives from a dam in the Rotte river. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_Rotterdam. ... Image File history File links Arms_Rotterdam. ... EXAMPLE:Laughbox,Blondie,BamBam,Pinkie,etc. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Location of Rotterdam in the Netherlands - by nl:Gebruiker:Mtcv File links The following pages link to this file: Rotterdam ... South Holland (Dutch Zuid-Holland) is a province of the Netherlands, located in the west of the country on the North Sea coast. ... This is a list of mayors of Rotterdam (burgemeester van Rotterdam). ... An alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions. ... Lucas Bolsius (born 1958-12-16 in Den Haag, Zuid-Holland) is a Dutch historian and politician, alderman of the town of Rotterdam. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Schematic map of the Randstad. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Central European Time West Africa Time British Summer Time* Irish Summer Time* Western European Summer Time* Category: ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... Rotterdam may refer to: Rotterdam, a city in the Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Nl-Rotterdam. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... South Holland (Dutch Zuid-Holland) is a province of the Netherlands, located in the west of the country on the North Sea coast. ... For other uses, see Port (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The worlds busiest port is contested by several ports around the world, as there is as yet no standardised means of evaluating port performance and traffic. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Satellite image of the northwest part of the Rhine-Meuse delta showing river Nieuwe Maas (n). ... The Rhine canyon (Ruinaulta) in Graubünden in Switzerland Length 1. ... The Meuse (Maas) at Maastricht Meuse near Grave The Meuse (Dutch & German Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea. ... This article is about structures for water impoundment. ...

Contents

Municipality

On 1 January 2006 (source: Statistics Netherlands), the municipality covered an area of 304.22 km² (206.44 km² of which is land) with a population of 588,500. It is part of a larger metropolitan area called Rijnmond ('Mouth of the Rhine') with a total population of about 1.2 million. In 1965, the municipal population of Rotterdam reached its peak of 731,000, but by 1984 it had decreased to 555,000 as a result of suburbanization. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Statistics Netherlands is a Dutch governmental institution that gathers statistical information about the Netherlands. ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... Suburbanisation is a term used by many to describe the current social urban dynamic operating within many parts of the developed world and is related to the phenomenon of urban sprawl. ...


Rotterdam consists of 11 submunicipalities: Charlois (including Heijplaat), Delfshaven, Feijenoord, Hillegersberg-Schiebroek, Hoek van Holland, Hoogvliet, IJsselmonde, Kralingen-Crooswijk, Noord, Overschie, and Prins Alexander (the most populous submunicipality with around 85,000 inhabitants). Two other areas, Centrum ('Center') and Pernis, do not have official submunicipality status. Old Charlois (light green) within Rotterdam (purple). ... View of the harbour of Delfshaven as it appears today. ... Feijenoord is a district in Rotterdam and is located south of the Nieuwe Maas. ... Ferry terminal on the Nieuwe Waterweg Hoek van Holland (literally Corner of Holland, but known in English as the Hook or Hook of Holland) is a town in South Holland in the Netherlands. ... Hoogvliet is a town and separate borough within Rotterdam in the Netherlands. ... Kralingen-Crooswijk is a township of the city of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. ... Noord (North) is a district (wijk) of north Rotterdam, Netherlands also locally known as Oude Noorden (Old North). ... Overschie (light green) within Rotterdam (purple). ... Prins Alexander is the northeast part of Rotterdam. ... The raptor subfamily Perninae includes a number of medium-sized broad-winged species. ...


Rotterdam lies in the Zuidvleugel ('South Wing') of the Randstad ('Ring City') conurbation with 7.5 million inhabitants, the sixth largest metropolitan area in Europe (after Moscow, London, the Ruhr Area, Istanbul, and Paris). The Zuidvleugel includes Leiden, The Hague, Zoetermeer, Delft, Vlaardingen, Schiedam, Capelle aan den IJssel, Spijkenisse and Dordrecht, and has a population of around 3.5 million. Schematic map of the Randstad. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 23. ... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ... Zoetermeer (population: 118,483 on March 1, 2007) is a city in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 24. ... Queens Day performance outside the town hall Vlaardingen ( (help· info)) is a city in South Holland in the Netherlands. ... Nickname: Brandersstad Motto: Official website: http://www. ... Capelle aan den IJssel (population: 65,605 in 2005) is a town in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... Spijkenisse (population: 75,170 in 2004) is a town in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... Satellite image of part of the Rhine-Meuse delta, showing the Island of Dordrecht and the eponymous city (7) Dordrecht (population 119,649 (2004)), or in English: Dort, is a city in the Dutch province of South Holland, the third largest city of the province. ...


Municipal additions

The current size of the municipality of Rotterdam is the result of the amalgamation of the following former municipalities [3], some of which now are a submunicipality:

  • Delfshaven (added on January 30, 1886)
  • Charlois (added on February 28, 1895)
  • Kralingen (added on February 28, 1895)
  • Hoogvliet (added on May 1, 1934)
  • Pernis (added on May 1, 1934)
  • Hillegersberg (added on August 1, 1941)
  • IJsselmonde (added on August 1, 1941)
  • Overschie (added on August 1, 1941)
  • Schiebroek (added on August 1, 1941)

Hillegersberg is a former municipality of Zuid-Holland in The Netherlands. ... Schiebroek in 1865. ...

History

For the destruction of the city center in 1940, see Bombing of Rotterdam
Rotterdam, by Johan Barthold Jongkind (1856)
Rotterdam, by Johan Barthold Jongkind (1856)

Settlement at the lower end of the fen stream Rotte (or Rotta, as it was then known, from rot, 'muddy' and a, 'water', thus 'muddy water') dates from at least 900. Around 1150, large floods in the area ended development, leading to the construction of protective dikes and dams, including Schielands Hoge Zeedijk ('Schieland’s High Sea Dike') along the northern banks of the present-day Nieuwe Maas. A dam on the Rotte or 'Rotterdam' was built in the 1260s and was located at the present-day Hoogstraat ('High Street'). Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The bombing of Rotterdam was a terror bombardment by German forces on 14 May 1940, in the initial phases of World War II, when they invaded the Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x1294, 236 KB) Description: Title: de: Rotterdam Technique: de: Leinwand Dimensions: de: 56 × 68 cm Country of origin: de: Niederlande Current location (city): de: Amsterdam Current location (gallery): de: Stedelijk Museum Other notes: de: Landschaftsmalerei Source: The Yorck Project: DVD-ROM... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1576x1294, 236 KB) Description: Title: de: Rotterdam Technique: de: Leinwand Dimensions: de: 56 × 68 cm Country of origin: de: Niederlande Current location (city): de: Amsterdam Current location (gallery): de: Stedelijk Museum Other notes: de: Landschaftsmalerei Source: The Yorck Project: DVD-ROM... A fen is a sere, a phase in the natural ecological succession from the open water of a lake to (for example) woodland. ... Gyeonhwon formally establishes the kingdom of Hubaekje in southwestern Korea. ... A flood (in Old English flod, a word common to Teutonic languages; compare German Flut, Dutch vloed from the same root as is seen in flow, float) is an overflow of water, an expanse of water submerging land, a deluge. ... Afsluitdijk, a 32 km dike in the Netherlands. ...


On June 7, 1340, Count Willem IV of Holland granted city rights to Rotterdam, which then had approximately 2000 inhabitants. Around 1350 a shipping canal, the Rotterdamse Schie was completed, which provided Rotterdam access to the larger towns in the north, allowing it to become a local transshipment center between Holland, England and Germany, and to slowly urbanize. William IV of Avesnes (1307 - September 26, 1345) was count William II of Hainaut, William IV of Holland and count William III of Zeeland from 1337 to his death, succeeding his father, William III. He married Joanna, Duchess of Brabant and Limburg in 1334, but had no issue. ... City rights are a medieval phenomenon in the history of the Low Countries. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


The port of Rotterdam slowly but steadily grew into a port of importance, becoming the seat of one of the six 'chambers' of the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC), or the Dutch East India Company. This article is about the trading company. ...


The greatest spurt of growth, both in port activity and population, followed the completion of the Nieuwe Waterweg in 1872. The city and harbor started to expand on the south bank of the river. The Witte Huis or 'White House' skyscraper, inspired by American office buildings and built in 1898 in the French Chateau style is evidence of Rotterdam's rapid growth and success. It was at the time of completion the tallest office building in Europe, with a height of 45 m. Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The German army invaded the Netherlands on May 10, 1940. Germany had planned to conquer the country in one day, but after meeting unexpectedly fierce resistance, it finally forced the Dutch army to capitulate on May 14, 1940 by bombing Rotterdam and threatening to bomb other cities. The heart of the city was almost completely destroyed by the German Luftwaffe, and 800 people were killed, while about 80,000 others were made homeless. Ossip Zadkine later captured the event strikingly with his statue Stad zonder hart ('City without a heart'). The City Hall survived the bombing. The statue is now located near the Leuvehaven, not far from the Erasmusbrug in the north of the city. From the 1950s through the 1970s, the city was rebuilt. It remained quite windy and open until the city councils from the 1980s on began developing an active architectural policy. Daring and new styles of apartments, office buildings and recreation facilities resulted in a more 'livable' city center with a new skyline. In the 1990s, a new business center on the south bank of the river, the Kop van Zuid was built. Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The bombing of Rotterdam was a terror bombardment by German forces on 14 May 1940, in the initial phases of World War II, when they invaded the Netherlands. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon, pronounced lufft-va-fa, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Ossip Zadkine (July 14, 1890 – November 25, 1967) was an Russian Jewish artist and sculptor. ... The Erasmusbrug is a bridge next to the Willemsbrug and the second one over the Nieuwe Maas in the centre of Rotterdam. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The well-being or quality of life of a population is an important concern in economics and political science. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


Demographics

With 55% of the inhabitants earning a low income, Rotterdam has its fair share of typical urban problems, such as dilapidated inner city areas.


Ethnic make-up of the city

Figures are from 2006: Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

In the Netherlands, Rotterdam has the highest percentage of foreigners from non-industrialised nations. Nearly 50% of the population are not native to the Netherlands or have at least one parent born outside the country. Recent figures show that Muslims comprise close to 25% of the city's population.[4] The city is home to one of the largest Cape Verdean communities in the world, as well as the largest Dutch Antillean community. Motto Libertate unanimus (Latin: Unified by freedom) Anthem Anthem without a title Capital (and largest city) Willemstad Official languages Dutch, English, Papiamento Government  -  Monarch Beatrix  -  Governor Frits Goedgedrag  -  Prime minister Emily de Jongh-Elhage constitutional monarchy part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands  Area  -  Total 960 km² (184th) 371 sq...


Historical population

Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Geography

A satellite image of Rotterdam and its port
A satellite image of Rotterdam and its port
climate diagram
climate diagram

Rotterdam is divided into a northern and a southern part by the river Nieuwe Maas, connected by (from west to east): the Beneluxtunnel; the Maastunnel; the Erasmusbrug ('Erasmus Bridge'); a subway tunnel; the Willemsspoortunnel ('Willems railway tunnel'); the Willemsbrug ('Willems Bridge'); the Koninginnebrug ('Queen's Bridge'); and the Van Brienenoordbrug ('Van Brienenoord Bridge'). The former railway lift bridge De Hef ('the Lift') is preserved as a monument in lifted position between the Noordereiland ('North Island') and the south of Rotterdam. Download high resolution version (1024x702, 1312 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x702, 1312 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 548 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 685 pixel, file size: 69 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 548 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 685 pixel, file size: 69 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Satellite image of the northwest part of the Rhine-Meuse delta showing river Nieuwe Maas (n). ... This article is about the edifice (including an index to articles on specific bridge types). ...


The city center is located on the northern bank of the Nieuwe Maas, although recent urban development has extended the center to parts of southern Rotterdam known as De Kop van Zuid ('the Head of South', i.e. the northern part of southern Rotterdam). From its inland core, Rotterdam reaches the North Sea by a swathe of predominantly harbor area. The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ...


Built mostly behind dikes, large parts of the Rotterdam are below sea level. For instance, the Prins Alexander Polder in the northeast of Rotterdam extends 6 meters below sea level, or rather below Normaal Amsterdams Peil (NAP) or 'Amsterdam Ordnance Datum'. The lowest point in the Netherlands (6.76 meters (22 ft) below NAP) is situated just to the east of Rotterdam, in the municipality of Nieuwerkerk aan den IJssel. Normaal Amsterdams Peil (NAP) or Amsterdam Ordnance Datum is a vertical datum in use in large parts of Western Europe. ... Nieuwerkerk aan den IJssel (population: 22,344 in 2004) is a town in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ...


The Rotte river no longer joins the Nieuwe Maas directly. Since the early 1980s, when the construction of Rotterdam’s second subway line interfered with the Rotte’s course, its waters have been pumped through a pipe into the Nieuwe Maas via the Boerengat.


Commerce and industry

Rotterdam is home to the Dutch half of Unilever, and Mittal Steel Company N.V., the world's largest steel company. Unilever is a widely listed [2] [3] multi-national corporation, formed of Anglo-Dutch parentage, that owns many of the worlds consumer product brands in foods, beverages, cleaning agents and personal care products. ... // Mittal Steel Company N.V. (Euronext: MT, NYSE: MT) is the worlds largest steel producer. ...


The Erasmus University has a strong focus on research and education in management and economics. The University is located on the east side of the city and is surrounded by numerous multinational firms. On Brainpark I, Brainpark II, Brainpark III and Het Rivium are located offices of Deloitte, PricewaterhouseCoopers, AIG, KPMG, CMG,Sodexho, Coca Cola Company, Cap Gemini, Ernst and Young, etc. In the center of the city are the above-mentioned Unilever offices, but also Robeco, Fortis (including Mees Pierson and Stad Rotterdam Verzekeringen), ABN AMRO, ING (Nationale Nederlanden), and the Rotterdam WTC. Erasmus University Rotterdam is a university in the Netherlands, located in Rotterdam. ... A former PwC office building (Southwark Towers) in London, England. ... American International Group, Inc. ... KPMG is one of the largest professional services firms in the world. ... Sodexho Alliance, or simply Sodexho, (Euronext: SW) is a French multinational corporation and one of the largest food services and facilities management companies in the world. ... This article is about the beverage. ... Ernst & Young is one of the Big Four auditors. ... Unilever is a widely listed [2] [3] multi-national corporation, formed of Anglo-Dutch parentage, that owns many of the worlds consumer product brands in foods, beverages, cleaning agents and personal care products. ... Fortis may refer to Fortis (phonetics), a linguistic term Fortis (finance), a financial services company, based in Belgium and the Netherlands Fortis Inc. ... ABN AMRO (Euronext: AAB, NYSE: ABN) was in the period of 1991 till 2007 one of the largest banks in Europe and had operations in about 63 countries around the world. ... Look up -ing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Ports

Main article: Port of Rotterdam
The Waalhaven by night
The Waalhaven by night
Unmanned vehicles handle containers at Europe Container Terminals (ECT), the largest container terminal operator in Europe.
Unmanned vehicles handle containers at Europe Container Terminals (ECT), the largest container terminal operator in Europe.

Rotterdam has the largest port in Europe, with the rivers Meuse and Rhine providing excellent access to the hinterland upstream reaching to Basel, Switzerland and into France. In 2003 Singapore took over, and in 2005 Shanghai, as the world's busiest port. In 2006, Rotterdam was the seventh largest port in the world in terms of containers (TEU) handled.[5] port of Rotterdam lay-out and evolution The Waalhaven by night Europe Container Terminals The port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, located in the city of Rotterdam, South Holland, the Netherlands. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 546 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 546 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Port (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Meuse (Maas) at Maastricht Meuse near Grave The Meuse (Dutch & German Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... The meaning of hinterland and its history. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... The worlds busiest port is contested by several ports around the world, as there is as yet no standardised means of evaluating port performance and traffic. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty on European Union) was signed on 7 February 1992 in Maastricht between the members of the European Community and entered into force on 1 November 1993, under the Delors Commission. ...


The port's main activities are petrochemical industries and general cargo handling and transshipment. The harbour functions as an important transit point for bulk materials and between the European continent and overseas. From Rotterdam goods are transported by ship, river barge, train or road. Since 2000, the Betuweroute, a fast freight railway from Rotterdam to Germany, has been under construction. Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... This article is about transported goods. ... Transshipment is the shipment of goods to an intermediate destination, and then from there to yet another destination. ... Bulk Material Handling is an engineering field that is centred around the design of equipment (civil, structural, mechanical, electrical and control) used for the transportation of materials such as ores and cereals in loose bulk form. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... The Betuweroute is a new freight railway being constructed from Rotterdam to Germany. ...


In 1872, the Nieuwe Waterweg ('New Waterway') opened, a ship canal constructed to keep the city and port of Rotterdam accessible to seafaring vessels as the natural Meuse-Rhine channels silted up. The canal proper measures approximately 6.5 kilometers (4 mi) from the western tips of its protruding dams to the Maeslantkering ('Maeslant Barrier'). Many maps, however, include the Scheur as part of the Nieuwe Waterweg, leading to a length of approximately 19.5 kilometers (12 mi). Satellite image of the northwest part of the Rhine-Meuse delta showing the Nieuwe Waterweg (t) The Nieuwe Waterweg (New Waterway) is a ship canal in the Netherlands from het Scheur (a branch of the Rhine-Meuse delta) west of the town of Maassluis to the North Sea at Hook... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... Maeslant Barrier closed during testing. ... Satellite image of the northwest part of the Rhine-Meuse delta showing river Het Scheur (s). ...


In the first half of the twentieth century, the port's center of gravity shifted westward towards the North Sea. Covering 105 square kilometers (40.5 sq mi), the port of Rotterdam now stretches over a distance of 40 kilometers (25 mi). It consists of the city center's historic harbor area, including Delfshaven; the Maashaven/Rijnhaven/Feijenoord complex; the harbors around Nieuw-Mathenesse; Waalhaven; Vondelingenplaat; Eemhaven; Botlek; Europoort, situated along the Calandkanaal, Nieuwe Waterweg and Scheur (the latter two being continuations of the Nieuwe Maas); and the reclaimed Maasvlakte area, which projects into the North Sea. The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... View of the harbour of Delfshaven as it appears today. ... Feijenoord is a district in Rotterdam and is located south of the Nieuwe Maas. ... Satellite image of the Rhine-Meuse delta showing the Botlek (r). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port of Rotterdam. ... Satellite image of the northwest part of the Rhine-Meuse delta showing the Nieuwe Waterweg (t) The Nieuwe Waterweg (New Waterway) is a ship canal in the Netherlands from het Scheur (a branch of the Rhine-Meuse delta) west of the town of Maassluis to the North Sea at Hook... Satellite image of the northwest part of the Rhine-Meuse delta showing river Het Scheur (s). ... Maasvlakte is part of Europoort, the harbour and industrial area of the city of Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ...


The construction of a second Maasvlakte received initial political approval in 2004, but was stopped by the Raad van State (the Dutch Council of State, which advises the government and parliament on legislation and governance) in 2005, because the plans did not take enough account of environmental issues. On October 10, 2006, however, approval was acquired to start construction in 2008, aiming for the first ship to anchor in 2013. In the Netherlands, the Council of State is a constitutionally established advisory body to the government which consists of members of the royal family and Crown-appointed members generally having political, commercial, diplomatic, or military experience. ...


Education

Rotterdam has one major university, the Erasmus University Rotterdam, named after one of the city's famous former inhabitants, Desiderius Erasmus. Many of the departments are world renowned. The Woudestein campus houses (among others) the Rotterdam School of Management, which is a top ranked business school. In Financial Times' 2005 rankings it placed 29th globally and 7th in Europe. In the 2006 rankings of European Masters of Management, the school reached a second place with the CEMS Master in Management and a thirteenth place with its RSM Master in Management. The university is also home to Europe's largest student association, STAR Study Association RSM Erasmus University. Erasmus University is a university in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ... This article deals with the Erasmus, the theologian. ... The Rotterdam School of Management Erasmus University (or RSM Erasmus University) is an international business school located in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. ... The Financial Times (FT) is a British international business newspaper. ... CEMS is an acronym for Community of European Management Schools and International Companies, a cooperation of multinational enterprises and Europes leading business schools and universities. ... STAR (Study Association RSM Erasmus University) is a student association for business administration students of the Erasmus University Rotterdam based in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. ...


The Hoboken campus of EUR houses the Dijkzigt (general) hospital, the Sophia Hospital (for children) and the Medical Department of the University. These are known collectively as the Erasmus Medical Center, which is ranked third worldwide for medical research,[citation needed] behind the Harvard University and Johns Hopkins University. As a combined medical treatment and research center it is particularly noted for its patient cohort studies in which large numbers of patients are followed for long periods of time. Harvard redirects here. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ...


There are also three Hogescholen in Rotterdam. These schools award their students a Bachelor's degree and postgraduate or Master's degree. The three Hogescholen are Hogeschool Rotterdam, Hogeschool INHOLLAND and Hogeschool voor Muziek en Dans. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Hogeschool Rotterdam is a University of Professional Education (UPE) located in the city of Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ...


Culture

Alongside Porto, Rotterdam was European Capital of Culture in 2001. The city has its own orchestra, the Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra with its world famous musical director Valery Gergiev, a large congress and concert building called De Doelen, plus many theatres (including the new Luxor theatre) and movie theatres. The Ahoy complex in the south of the city is used for pop concerts, exhibitions, tennis tournaments and other activities. A major zoo called Diergaarde Blijdorp is situated at the northwest side of Rotterdam, complete with a walkthrough sea aquarium called the Oceanium. The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union for a period of one year during which it is given a chance to showcase its cultural life and cultural development. ... The Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra (RPHO) is a Dutch symphony orchestra based in Rotterdam. ... Valery Gergiev Valery Abisalovich Gergiev, Russian: Вале́рий Абиса́лович Ге́ргиев (born 1953) is a Russian conductor and opera company director. ... De Doelen is a 1300-seat concert hall in Rotterdam, Netherlands. ... Giraffes in Sydneys Taronga Zoo A zoological garden, zoological park, or zoo is a facility in which animals are confined within enclosures and displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred. ... Diergaarde Blijdorp (Official Stichting Koninklijke Rotterdamse Diergaarde) is a zoo in the northwestern part of Rotterdam, one of the oldest zoos in the Netherlands. ... The Oceanium, officially opened in 2001, is a massive aquarium. ...


The city is home to the Rotterdam Academy of Fine Arts ('Willem de Kooning Akademie').


Rotterdam is currently going through somewhat of a renaissance, with some urban renewal projects featuring ambitious architecture, an increasingly sparkling nightlife, and a host of summer festivals celebrating the city's multicultural population and identity, such as the Caribbean-inspired 'Summer Carnival', the Dance Parade, Rotterdam 666, the Metropolis pop festival and the World Harbor days. There are also the International Film Festival in January, the Poetry International Festival in June, the North Sea Jazz Festival in July, the Valery Gergiev Festival in September, September in Rotterdam and the World of the Witte de With. In June 1970, The Holland Pop Festival (which featured Jefferson Airplane, The Byrds, Canned Heat, It's a Beautiful Day, and Santana) was held and filmed at the Stamping Grounds in Rotterdam. Zomercarnaval 2007 The Summer Carnaval (Dutch:Zomercarnaval) is a yearly event in Rotterdam and Arnhem that mimics the Carnaval of South- Latin-America and the Cape Verde Islands. ... Jefferson Airplane is an American rock band from San Francisco, a pioneer of the psychedelic rock movement. ... The Byrds (formed in Los Angeles, California, in 1964) were an American rock band. ... Canned Heat is a blues-rock/boogie band that formed in Los Angeles in 1965. ... For the Beach Boys song see Its a Beautiful Day (song) Its A Beautiful Day (1969) Its A Beautiful Day was a band formed in San Francisco in 1967, and was the brainchild of violinist and vocalist David LaFlamme. ... Santana (originally the Santana Blues Band) is a flexible number of musicians accompanying Carlos Santana since the late 1960s. ...


The self-image of the city is that of a no-nonsense workers' city. In that sense, there is a healthy competition with Amsterdam, which is often viewed as the cultural capital of the Netherlands. There is a saying: "Amsterdam to party, Den Haag (The Hague) to live, Rotterdam to work". Another one, more popular by Rotterdammers, is "in Rotterdam the money is earned, in The Hague it's divided, and in Amsterdam it's spilled".


Rotterdam has had a rich hiphop scene since the early 1980s. It is also the home of Gabber, a type of music popular in the mid-1990s, with hard beats and samples. Bands like Neophyte and Rotterdam Terror Corps (RTC) started in Rotterdam. Gabber (IPA pronunciation: ), gabba, or hardcore, is a style of electronic music and a subgenre of hardcore techno. ... Neophyte is an influential and well-known hardcore, or gabber, group formed in 1992 in Rotterdam, Netherlands. ... RTC logo Rotterdam Terror Corps is a gabber group formed in 1993 that is well known for its hard beats and is considered by many as a pioneer in the genre. ...


The main cultural organisations in Amsterdam, such as the Concertgebouw and Holland Festival, have joint forces with similar organisations in Rotterdam, via A'R'dam. In 2007 these organisations published a manifesto with plans for co-operation. One of the goals is to strengthen the international position of culture and art in the Netherlands in the international context.


Museums

Rotterdam has many museums. Well known museums are the Boijmans-van Beuningen Museum, the NAi (Netherlands Architecture Institute), the Historisch Museum (Historical museum), the Volkenkundig Museum (foreign peoples and cultures), the Kunsthal (design by Rem Koolhaas),the center for contemporary art Witte de With,the Maritiem Museum and the Brandweermuseum (Fire brigade museum). Other museums include the tax museum, the nature historical museum, historical museum the Dubbelde Palmboom and the Schielandhuis. At the historical shipyard and museum Scheepswerf 'De Delft' the reconstruction of Ship of the Line 'De Delft' can be visited. The Palais du Louvre in Paris, which houses the Musée du Louvre, one of the worlds most famous museums, and most certainly the largest. ... Museum Boymans-van Beuningen is the main museum of arts in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. ... NAi Rotterdam The Netherlands Architercture Institute (NAi) is a Dutch architecture institute that consists of two museums in Rotterdam and Maastricht. ... The Kunsthal is a museum in Rotterdam, which opened its ports in 1992. ... Seattle Central Library, designed by OMA Rem Koolhaas (born November 17, 1944 in Rotterdam, Netherlands) is a Dutch architect, former journalist and screenwriter who studied architecture at the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London. ... Ships of the line were 1st, 2nd, or 3rd-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ...


Architecture and skyline

Modern residential architecture (cube houses) in downtown Rotterdam
Modern residential architecture (cube houses) in downtown Rotterdam

In 1898, the 45 meter high-rise office building, the White House, was completed, at that time the tallest office building in Europe. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (504x900, 89 KB) Summary Jan Prunk Picture taken in August 2005 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (504x900, 89 KB) Summary Jan Prunk Picture taken in August 2005 Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...


In the first decades of the 20th century, some influential architecture in the modern style was built in Rotterdam. Notable are the Van Nelle fabriek (1929) a monument of modern factory design by Brinkman en Van der Vlugt, the Jugenstil clubhouse of the Royal Maas Yacht Club designed by Hooijkaas jr. en Brinkman (1909), and Feyenoord's football stadium de Kuip (1936) also by Brinkman en Van der Vlugt. The architect J. J. P. Oud was a famous Rotterdammer in those days. During the early stages of World War II the center of Rotterdam was bombed by the Germans, destroying much of the older buildings in the center of the city. After initial crisis re-construction the center of Rotterdam has become the site of ambitious new architecture. Jugendstil is defined as a style of architecture or decorative art similar to Art Nouveau, popular in German-speaking areas of Europe during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[1] Jugendstil was also popular in the Nordic countries, where it became integrated with the National Romantic Style. ... The Royal Maas Yacht Club (Dutch: Koninklijke Roei- en Zeilvereniging De Maas) is a Dutch yacht club located in Rotterdam. ... The Feijenoord Stadion, nicknamed de Kuip (the Tub), is a stadium in Rotterdam, completed in 1937. ... Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud (February 9, 1890 - April 5, 1963) was a Dutch architect. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Rotterdam is also famous for its Kubuswoningen or cube houses built by architect Piet Blom in 1984. In addition to that there are many international well known architects based in Rotterdam like O.M.A (Rem Koolhaas), MVRDV, Neutelings & Riedijk and Erick van Egeraat to name a few. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kubuswoningen Piet Blom (Feb 8, 1934, Amsterdam – Jun 8, 1999, Denmark) was a Dutch architect best known for his Kubuswonigen buildings built in Helmond in the mid-1970s and in Rotterdam in the early 1980s. ... This article is about the year. ... Seattle Central Library, designed by OMA Rem Koolhaas (born November 17, 1944 in Rotterdam, Netherlands) is a Dutch architect, former journalist and screenwriter who studied architecture at the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London. ...

Rotterdam houses several of the tallest structures in the Netherlands. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2971x1400, 170 KB)Erasmus bridge, Rotterdam, The Netherlands 2005 self made photograph Template:GPD File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2971x1400, 170 KB)Erasmus bridge, Rotterdam, The Netherlands 2005 self made photograph Template:GPD File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Erasmus Bridge The Erasmus Bridge (Erasmusbrug) is the third longest cable stayed bridge in the world (2,600 feet) and is located in Rotterdam, Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2978x1747, 169 KB)Euromast, Rotterdam, The Netherlands 2005 self made photograph Template:GPD File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2978x1747, 169 KB)Euromast, Rotterdam, The Netherlands 2005 self made photograph Template:GPD File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Euromast The Euromast is a tower in Rotterdam constructed between 1958 and 1960, designed by H.A. Maaskant. ...

  • The Erasmus Bridge (1996) is a 2,600-foot cable stayed bridge linking the north and south of Rotterdam. It is held up by a 138 meters (453 ft) tall pylon with a characteristic bend, earning the bridge its nickname 'De Zwaan' ('the Swan').
  • Rotterdam has the tallest residential building in the Netherlands: the Montevideo Tower.
  • Rotterdam is also home to the tallest office building 'Delftse Poort' which houses Nationale-Nederlanden insurance company, part of ING Group. [2], [3]
  • The city also houses the 186 meters (610 ft) tall Euromast, which has long been a major tourist attraction. It was built in 1960, initially reaching a height of 101 meters (331 ft); in 1970, the Euromast was extended by 85 meters (279 ft) to its current height.

Rotterdam has a reputation in being a platform for architectural development and education through the Berlage Institute, a postgraduate laboratory of architecture, and the NAi Netherlands Architecture Institute), which is open to the public and has a variety of good exhibitions on architecture and urban planning issues. The Erasmus Bridge The Erasmus Bridge (Erasmusbrug) is the third longest cable stayed bridge in the world (2,600 feet) and is located in Rotterdam, Netherlands. ... The Montevideo Tower is the current tallest building in The Netherlands. ... ING House, ING headquarters in Amsterdam ING Groep N.V. (NYSE: ING, Euronext: INGA) (known as ING Group) is a financial institution of Dutch origin offering banking, insurance and asset management services. ... Euromast The Euromast is a tower in Rotterdam constructed between 1958 and 1960, designed by H.A. Maaskant. ... Tourist redirects here. ... NAi Rotterdam The Netherlands Architercture Institute (NAi) is a Dutch architecture institute that consists of two museums in Rotterdam and Maastricht. ...


Rotterdam is standing in the best European SkylineTop together with Frankfurt, Warsaw and Paris. More highrise projects are started in this city, including the 165 meters (541 ft) high 'Maas Tower' and the 'New Orleans Tower', which will be about 158 meters (518 ft). For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


Sports

Rotterdam is the home of three Eredivisie ('Honorary Division', or Dutch Premier League) football clubs: Feyenoord, Sparta and Excelsior. Rotterdam also has two Hoofdklasse (main class) club, PVV DOTO and TOGR. The Eredivisie (English: Honorary Division) is the highest football league in the Netherlands. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... Feyenoord team practice session in 2002. ... Sparta Rotterdam is the oldest professional football team in the Netherlands, established on April 1, 1888. ... Excelsior is a professional football club from Rotterdam, in the Kralingen-Crooswijk district. ... The Hoofdklasse is the third highest Dutch football league and the highest amateur league. ...


Feyenoord, founded in 1908 and the dominant of the three, has won fourteen national titles since the introduction of professional football in the Netherlands, the last in 1999. It won the European Cup as the first Dutch club in 1970, and won the World Cup for club teams in the same year. In 1974, they were the first Dutch club to win the UEFA Cup and in 2002, Feyenoord won the UEFA Cup again. Seating 51,480, its stadium, called Stadion Feijenoord but popularly known as De Kuip ('the Tub'), is the second largest in the country. De Kuip, located in the southeast of the city, has hosted many international football games, including the final of Euro 2000 and has been awarded a FIFA 5 star ranking. And Feyenoord has the biggest supporters group in the Netherlands. This article is about the year. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... The UEFA Cup (also known as European Cup 3, CE3 or C3) is a football competition for European club teams, organized by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Feijenoord Stadion, nicknamed de Kuip (the Tub), is a stadium in Rotterdam, completed in 1937. ... The 2000 UEFA European Championship, or Euro 2000, was the 11th edition of the UEFA European Championship, a competition between the national football teams of Europe held every four years and organised by UEFA, footballs governing body in Europe. ...


Sparta, founded in 1888 and situated in the northwest of Rotterdam, won the national title in 1959; Excelsior (founded 1902), in the northeast, has never won any.


Rotterdam has its own annual international marathon, which offers one of the fastest courses in the world. From 1985 until 1998, the world record was set in Rotterdam, first by Carlos Lopes and later in 1988 by Belayneh Dinsamo. The marathon starts and ends on the Coolsingel in the heart of Rotterdam. The Rotterdam Marathon is an annual marathon arranged in Rotterdam, Netherlands since 1981. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... This is a list of progressive record times for the marathon[1]. The actual distance for the pre-1925 races varied slightly from the present figure of 42. ... Carlos Lopes (born February 18, Portuguese athlete, winner of the marathon race at the 1984 Summer Olympics. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Belayneh Densamo (born 1965) is a long distance track and road running athlete from Ethiopia. ...


Since 1972 Rotterdam hosts the ABN AMRO World Tennis Tournament, part of the ATP Tour. The ABN AMRO World Tennis Tournament is a tennis tournament held in Rotterdam, Netherlands. ... The Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) was formed in 1972 to protect the interests of male professional tennis players. ...


Members of the student rowing club Skadi were part of the 'Holland Acht', winning a gold medal at the olympics in 1996. This article is about the Dutch rowing club, for information on the Scandinavian goddess see Skaði A.R.S.R. Skadi is a Dutch student rowing club, located in Rotterdam. ... Rowing has been contested since the 1900 Summer Olympics. ...


In field hockey, Rotterdam has the largest hockey club in the Netherlands, HC Rotterdam, with its own stadium in the north of the city and nearly 2,400 members. The first men's and women's teams both play on the highest level in the Dutch Hoofdklasse. A game of field hockey in progress Field hockey is a sport for men, women and children in many countries around the world. ... HC Rotterdam is a Dutch field hockey club, which was founded on September 16, 1925. ...


Since 1986, the city has selected its best sportsman, woman and team at the Rotterdam Sports Awards Election, held in December. Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... The Rotterdam Sportsman and Sportswoman of the Year is an annual election, organised by the citys division for topsport named Rotterdam Topsport. ...


Motor cycle speedway was staged in the Feyenoord Stadium after the second world war. The team which raced in a Dutch league was known as the Feyenoord Tigers. The team included Dutch riders and some English and Australian riders.


Shopping

Well-known streets in Rotterdam are the shopping center the Lijnbaan (the first set of pedestrian streets of the country, opened in 1953), the Hoogstraat, the Coolsingel with the city hall, and the Weena, which runs from the Central Station to the Hofplein (square). A modern shopping venue is the Beurstraverse ('Stock Exchange Traverse), better known by the informal name 'Koopgoot' ('Buying/Shopping Gutter', after its low-lying position, crossing Rotterdam's main street Coolsingel below street level). A drawing of a self-service store Retailing consists of the sale of goods/merchandise for personal or household consumption either from a fixed location such as a department store or kiosk, or away from a fixed location and related subordinated services (Definition of the WTO (last page). ... A pedestrian street is a street where pedestrian traffic is given partial or total priority over all other kinds of traffic. ...


The main shopping venue in the south of Rotterdam is Zuidplein, which lies close to Ahoy' Rotterdam, an accommodation center for shows, exhibitions, sporting events, concerts and congresses. Another prominent shopping center, called Alexandrium (sometimes still called by its former name Oosterhof), lies in the east of Rotterdam. It includes a large kitchen and furniture center. Ahoy Rotterdam is an indoor sporting arena located in Rotterdam, Netherlands. ...


Yearly events

IFFR logo The International Film Festival Rotterdam (IFFR) is one of the larger film festivals in Europe (arguably in the Big Five, alongside Cannes, Venice, Berlin and Locarno). ... The Rotterdam Marathon is an annual marathon arranged in Rotterdam, Netherlands since 1981. ... The North Sea Jazz Festival is an annual jazz festival held each second weekend of July in Den Haag, The Netherlands. ... Zomercarnaval 2007 The Summer Carnaval (Dutch:Zomercarnaval) is a yearly event in Rotterdam and Arnhem that mimics the Carnaval of South- Latin-America and the Cape Verde Islands. ... Heineken International is an Australian beer, founded in 1864 by Gerard Adriaan Heineken in Bunbury. ... A Technoparade (the word is German) is a parade of vehicles equipped with strong loudspeakers and amplifiers, along the streets of a municipality, which are closed down for this purpose. ...

Transportation

Rotterdam is well connected in international, national, regional and local public transport systems.


Airport

Although much smaller than the international hub Schiphol airport, Rotterdam Airport (formerly known as Zestienhoven) is the third largest airport in the country, just behind Eindhoven Airport. Located north of the city, it has shown a very strong growth over the past five years, mostly caused by the growth of the low-cost carrier market. For business travelers Zestienhoven Airport offers advantages due to rapid handling of passengers and baggage. Environmental regulations make further growth uncertain. Schiphol (IATA: AMS, ICAO: EHAM) (municipality Haarlemmermeer) is the Netherlands main airport. ... Rotterdam Airport (formerly (Dutch): Vliegveld Zestienhoven (translated: Airport Sixteencourts) (IATA: RTM, ICAO: EHRD) located in Rotterdam, is The Netherlands largest regional airport. ... Eindhoven Airport (IATA: EIN, ICAO: EHEH) is a small airport near Eindhoven, Netherlands. ... A Cebu Pacific Airbus A319 parked on the apron at Ninoy Aquino International Airport. ...


Train

Rotterdam Central Station, built in 1953, is currently undergoing massive redevelopment.
Rotterdam Central Station, built in 1953, is currently undergoing massive redevelopment.

Rotterdam is well connected to the Dutch railroad system, and has several international connections. The train system hosts: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1167 KB) Summary Current Centralstation, completed in 1953. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 1167 KB) Summary Current Centralstation, completed in 1953. ...


Four trainlines

  • South direction Dordrecht-and further (including international to Belgium/France)
  • West direction Hoek van Holland
  • North-West direction The Hague, Amsterdam
  • North-East direction Utrecht
  • A fifth alternative train system to the Hague, the Hofplein Line was converted to the light-rail system Randstadrail in 2006.

The four operating trainlines serve seven railway stations within the city boundaries (Rotterdam Centraal, Rotterdam Blaak, Rotterdam Alexander, Rotterdam Noord, Rotterdam Zuid, Rotterdam Lombardijen, Rotterdam Stadion (next to De Kuip, only open for events). Satellite image of part of the Rhine-Meuse delta, showing the Island of Dordrecht and the eponymous city (7) Dordrecht (population 119,649 (2004)), or in English: Dort, is a city in the Dutch province of South Holland, the third largest city of the province. ... Ferry terminal on the Nieuwe Waterweg Hoek van Holland (literally Corner of Holland, but known in English as the Hook or Hook of Holland) is a town in South Holland in the Netherlands. ... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Utrecht refers to various cities and areas: Utrecht (province), of the Netherlands Utrecht (city), Netherlands, and capital of the province of the same name Utrecht (municipality), includes the city of Utrecht and two neighbouring villages (Vleuten / de Meern) Utrecht (agglomeration), in the Netherlands, includes the city of Utrecht Diocese of... RandstadRail is a lightrail public transport system in the southern area of the Randstad conurbation in The Netherlands. ... The Feijenoord Stadion, nicknamed de Kuip (the Tub), is a stadium in Rotterdam, completed in 1937. ...


Main connections

Thalys PBKA Thalys is a high-speed train network built around the high-speed line between Paris and Brussels. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 23. ... Schiphol (IATA: AMS, ICAO: EHAM) (municipality Haarlemmermeer) is the Netherlands main airport. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Utrecht ( (help· info)) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. ... Raadhuisstraat in Enschede, with the Grote Kerk in the background Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Enschede Enschede or Eanske in the local dialect (Twents) is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands, in the province of Overijssel, in the Twente region. ... Leeuwarden ( (help· info), Frisian: Ljouwert) is a municipality and the capital city of the Dutch province of Friesland. ... For the German town, see Gröningen. ... Satellite image of part of the Rhine-Meuse delta, showing the Island of Dordrecht and the eponymous city (7) Dordrecht (population 119,649 (2004)), or in English: Dort, is a city in the Dutch province of South Holland, the third largest city of the province. ... Roosendaal ( (help· info)) is both a city and a municipality in the southern Netherlands. ... Flushing (Dutch Vlissingen) is a municipality and a city in the southwestern Netherlands on the former island of Walcheren. ... Satellite image of part of the Rhine-Meuse delta, showing the Island of Dordrecht and the eponymous city (7) Dordrecht (population 119,649 (2004)), or in English: Dort, is a city in the Dutch province of South Holland, the third largest city of the province. ... Grote Kerk (main church) or Onze Lieve Vrouwe Kerk (Church of Our Lady). ... Tilburg ( (help· info)) is a municipality and a city in the Netherlands, located in the southern province of Noord-Brabant. ... Country Province Government  - Mayor G.Braks (CDA) Area (2006)  - Municipality 88. ... Venlo ( (help· info)) is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands. ... Nederlandse Spoorwegen or NS (Dutch railways) is the main public transport railway company in the Netherlands. ...

Light Rail

To bridge the gap between national train services and local public transportation the Dutch Randstad is currently developing a regional lightrail system called Randstad Rail. First trains were scheduled for September 2006, but some derailings ceased traffic over the largest part of this track. Current estimates are April 2007 for a complete schedule. Schematic map of the Randstad. ... A tram of the Luas system in Dublin, Ireland A METRORail train approaching Preston Station in downtown Houston, Texas, USA. The Guadalajara urban L-train system (SITEUR), at first a trolleybus system, opened in 1980; the second line was opened in 1994, and a third line is in project. ... Randstad Rail (named after the Randstad agglomeration) is a project (expected to be operative in 2006) to: connect the Erasmus Line of the Rotterdam metro system to the existing railway Hofplein Line that is converted from heavy rail to light rail, allowing the Rotterdam metro trains to run to the...


Metro

Main article: Rotterdam Metro
See also: List of Rotterdam metro stations

In 1968 Rotterdam was the first Dutch city to open a metro system. Currently the system consists of two main lines, each of which has some variants. Rotterdam Metro sign at Delfshaven station MG2/1-metro series 5300, builded by Bombardier MG2-train in station The Rotterdam Metro is a subway operated in Rotterdam by RET. The first line, called Noord - Zuidlijn (North - South line) openend February 8, 1968, and ran from the Centraal Station to Zuidplein... The Rotterdam Metro has two metro lines, the Erasmus line and the Caland line. ... “Mass Transit” redirects here. ...

Rotterdam metro
Rotterdam metro
  • Erasmus Line: Rotterdam Central station - Albrandswaard (Rhoon, Poortugaal) - Hoogvliet - Spijkenisse
  • Caland Line: two lines from the northeast of Rotterdam (Ommoord and since September 2005 to the new constructed neighborhood Nesselande (before it ended at Zevenkamp which is one stop before Nesselande), both in Prins Alexander) and one from Capelle aan den IJssel join; the combined line terminated in the west of Rotterdam, but on November 4, 2002, an extension was opened: the line now connects to the main railway network at Schiedam railway station, has a stop in Pernis and joins the Erasmus Line in Hoogvliet; trains on the Caland Line, like those on the Erasmus Line, terminate in Spijkenisse.
The eastern parts of the Caland Line have some level crossings (with priority), and could therefore be called light rail instead of metro; however, they are integrated in the system; these parts have overhead wires, while the rest has a third rail, the vehicles can handle both.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 779 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1868 × 1437 pixel, file size: 173 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 779 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1868 × 1437 pixel, file size: 173 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Albrandswaard (population: 19,607 in 2004) is a municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... Spijkenisse (population: 75,170 in 2004) is a town in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... Prins Alexander is the northeast part of Rotterdam. ... Capelle aan den IJssel (population: 65,605 in 2005) is a town in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... Nickname: Brandersstad Motto: Official website: http://www. ... The raptor subfamily Perninae includes a number of medium-sized broad-winged species. ... The term level crossing (also called a railroad crossing, railway crossing, train crossing or grade crossing) is a crossing on one level (at-grade intersection) — without recourse to a bridge or tunnel — of a railway line by a road, path, or another railroad. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... Third rail at the West Falls Church Metro stop in Washington, D.C., electrified to 750 volts. ...

Tram

Rotterdam offers 10 tramlines with a total length of 93.4 kilometers.


Bus

Rotterdam offers 38 buslines with a total length of 432.7 kilometers.


Fast ferry

Every half hour a fast ferry goes from Rotterdam to Dordrecht and vice versa. The trip takes an hour, inclusive stops along the way. The ferry can carry about 130 passengers and there is space for 60 bicycles. The stops are: The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ... For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ...

Krimpen aan den IJssel (population: 29,046 in 2004) is a town in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... Ridderkerk (population: 45,528 in 2004) is a town in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... Alblasserdam (population: 18,386 in 2004) is a town in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. ... Papendrecht (population: 530,914 in 2004) is a town in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland, along the River Beneden Merwede. ... Satellite image of part of the Rhine-Meuse delta, showing the Island of Dordrecht and the eponymous city (7) Dordrecht (population 119,649 (2004)), or in English: Dort, is a city in the Dutch province of South Holland, the third largest city of the province. ...

Miscellaneous

Beaches

Since the summer of 2003 an artificial beach is created at the Boompjeskade along the Nieuwe Maas, between the Erasmus Bridge and the Willems Bridge. Swimming was not possible, digging pits was limited to the height of the layer of sand, ca. 50 cm. Alternatively people go the beach of Hoek van Holland or one of the beaches in Zeeland or the Zuid Hollandse Eilanden: Ouddorp, Oostvoorne, Renesse. For other uses, see Beach (disambiguation). ... Swimmer redirects here. ... Look up pit, pits, pitted, pitting in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... Ferry terminal on the Nieuwe Waterweg Hoek van Holland (literally Corner of Holland, but known in English as the Hook or Hook of Holland) is a town in South Holland in the Netherlands. ... Capital Middelburg Largest city Terneuzen Queens Commissioner Karla Peijs Religion (1999) Protestant 35% Catholic 23% Area  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water   1,788 km² (10th) 1,146 km² Population (2006)  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Density 380,186 (11th) 213/km² (10th) Anthem Zeeuws volkslied ISO NL-ZE Official website www. ... Oostvoorne () is a town in the Dutch province of South Holland. ... Schouwen-Duiveland is a municipality and an island in the southwestern Netherlands. ...


Notable Rotterdammers

Main article: List of people from Rotterdam

Statue of Erasmus This is a chronological list of the most notable people from Rotterdam, who were either born and raised there or were long-term residents. ...

Town twinning

Rotterdam participates in international town twinning. Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ...

  • 13 Sister Cities
  • 12 Partner Cities
  • 4 Sister Ports

Sister Cities

Partner Cities Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... District Luxembourg Canton Esch-sur-Alzette Geography Area Area rank 14. ... Luxembourg - a small country in west Europe Luxembourg (city) - the capital city of the country Luxembourg (district) - a district in the country Luxembourg, province of Belgium Luxemburg, Iowa - a city in the USA Luxemburg, Wisconsin - a village in the USA Luxembourg Garden, Paris, France Luxemburg Township, Minnesota - a township in... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Lille (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... For other uses, see Turin (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Geography Country Belgium Community French Community Region Walloon Region Province Liège Arrondissement Liège Coordinates , , Area 69. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Burgas (Bulgarian: , sometimes transliterated as Bourgas) is the second-largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast with population 205,821. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Constanţa (old names: Kustendji, Kustendja, Köstence, Constantza) is a seaport on the Black Sea and the capital of Constanţa county, Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (Neither rashly nor timidly) Voivodship Pomeranian Municipal government Rada miasta Gdańska Mayor Paweł Adamowicz Area 262 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 461 400 (2003) Ranked 6th 1... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Dresden (etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. ...

Sister Ports Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Hull or Kingston upon Hull is a British city situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... For other uses, see Basel (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... This article is about the capital of Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Duisburg is a German city and port in the western part of the Ruhr Area (Ruhrgebiet) in North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Nürnberg redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Osaka )   is a city in Japan, located at the mouth of the Yodo River on Osaka Bay, in the Kansai region of the main island of HonshÅ«. The city is the capital of Osaka Prefecture. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Region Districts Bratislava I-V City subdivisions 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907 Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský  - Headquarters Primates Palace Area [1]  - City 367. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... For other uses, see Durban (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... This article is about the Japanese city. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Busan Metropolitan City, also known as Pusan[1] is the largest port city in the Republic of Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ a b Kerncijfers Rotterdam 2006. www.rotterdam.nl. City of Rotterdam (May 2006). Retrieved on 2007-04-04.
  2. ^ Randstadmonitor 2006. www.regio-randstad.nl. Regio Randstad (January 2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-04.
  3. ^ Ad van der Meer and Onno Boonstra, "Repertorium van Nederlandse gemeenten", KNAW, 2006. [1]
  4. ^ Europe works to assimilate Muslims, Atlanta Journal Constitution
  5. ^ http://www.portofrotterdam.com/en/home/

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Coordinates: 51°55′18″N, 4°28′52″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Rotterdam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2552 words)
The Nieuwe Waterweg was dug from Rotterdam to the North Sea, a canal to disembogue the shallow Rhine and Meuse.
Rotterdam, Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and a number of smaller cities in the west of the country are expanding towards each other to the extent that the entire area is sometimes denoted as a single metropole known as Randstad.
Rotterdam participates in international town twinning and is twinned with Liverpool in the United Kingdom and Cologne and Dresden in Germany.
Rotterdam (14194 words)
In Rotterdam, an attempt is being made in five carefully selected areas of the city to break through the negative trend on the spot, through the deployment of funds and manpower in integrated, area-specific policy programmes.
Rotterdam has already been allocated financial resources for 3,260 jobs from this total for the period 1994-1997; up to the end of 1998, a total of 4,200 will be available.
Rotterdam is the second largest city in the Netherlands (in terms of population), with 600,000 inhabitants.
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