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Encyclopedia > Rotten borough

The term "rotten borough" referred to a parliamentary borough or constituency in Great Britain and Ireland which, due to size and population, was "controlled" and used by a patron to exercise undue and unrepresentative influence within parliament. Rotten boroughs existed for centuries, although the term rotten borough only came into usage in the 18th century. Typically rotten boroughs were boroughs which once had been flourishing cities with remarkable population, but which had deteriorated, declined and become deserted during the centuries (see ghost town). A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The true rotten borough was a borough of an extraordinarily small electorate. A similar type of corrupt constituency was the pocket borough — a borough constituency with a small enough electorate to be under the effective control (or in the pocket) of a major landowner.

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Rotten boroughs

For many years, constituencies did not change to reflect population shifts, and in some places the number of electors became so few that they could be bribed. A member of Parliament for one borough might represent only a few people (or even just one — the buyer), whereas entire cities (such as Manchester) might have no separate representation at all (eligible city residents were, however, able to vote in the corresponding county constituency — in this case Lancashire). For example, in 1831: A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Look up Borough in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... Lancashire is a county in North West England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ...

All of these boroughs could elect two MPs. At one point, out of 405 elected MPs, 293 were chosen by fewer than 500 voters each. Many such rotten boroughs were controlled by peers who 'gave' the seats to their sons, thus having influence in the House of Commons while also holding seats themselves in the House of Lords. Prior to being awarded a peerage, Arthur Wellesley, the Duke of Wellington, served as MP for the rotten borough of Trim in County Meath in the Irish House of Commons. This article needs to be wikified. ... Wiltshire (abbreviated Wilts) is a large southern English county. ... Looe: showing the bridge linking the East and West parts of the town. ... Cornwall (Cornish: ) is a county in South West England, United Kingdom, on the peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar and Devon. ... Dunwich (IPA: ) is a town in the county of Suffolk in England, the remnant of what was once a prosperous seaport and centre of the wool trade during the early middle ages, with a natural harbour formed by the mouths of the River Blyth and the River Dunwich. ... Suffolk (pronounced ) is a large historic and modern non-metropolitan county in East Anglia, England. ... Plympton is a suburb located in south-east Plymouth. ... “Devonshire” redirects here. ... Gatton was a small town near Reigate in Surrey, United Kingdom. ... Not to be confused with Surry. ... Newtown is a small hamlet on the Isle of Wight, in England. ... The Isle of Wight is an English island and county, off the southern English coast, to the south of the county of Hampshire. ... Bramber is a small town in in West Sussex (in England), on a small hill stand the small remains of a castle with just one wall still standing. ... West Sussex is a county in the south of England, bordering onto East Sussex (with Brighton and Hove), Hampshire and Surrey. ... Callington (Cornish Kelliwik) is a small town and civil parish in southeast Cornwall, UK. The civil parish had a population of 4,783 in 2001, according to the 2001 census, although recent figures show that the population has risen to around 6000. ... Cornwall (Cornish: ) is a county in South West England, United Kingdom, on the peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar and Devon. ... An election is a decision making process where people choose people to hold official offices. ... Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ... The Dukedom of Wellington, derived from Wellington in Somerset, is a hereditary title and the senior Dukedom in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Navan Code: MH Area: 2,342 km² Population (2006) 162,621 Website: www. ... The Irish House of Commons by Francis Wheatley (1780) The Irish House of Commons was the lower house of the Parliament of Ireland, that existed from mediæval times until 1800. ...


Rotten boroughs were usually places which had once played a major role in England's politics, but had fallen into insignificance. For example, Old Sarum was a flourishing town as long ago as in the twelfth century, but the majority of the population relocated with the founding of Salisbury in a less exposed location nearby. The qualification "rotten" seemed to refer both to "corrupt" and "in decline for a very long time". (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


Pocket boroughs

In addition, there were boroughs where parliamentary representation was in the control of one or more 'patrons' by their power to either nominate or other machinations, such as burgage. Patronage and bribery were rife during this period, partly because there was no secret ballot. In some cases, wealthy individuals could "control" multiple boroughs — the Duke of Newcastle is said to have had seven boroughs "in his pocket". A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... a tenure under which property in England and Scotland was held under the king or a lord of a town was maintained for a yearly rent or for rendering a service such as watching and warding This article is a stub. ... Bribery is the practice of offering a professional money or other favours in order to circumvent ethics in a variety of professions. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voters choices are confidential. ... Wealth from the old English word weal, which means well-being or welfare. The term was originally an adjective to describe the possession of such qualities. ... Duke of Newcastle is a title which has been created several times in the peerages of England and Great Britain. ...


The pocket boroughs were seen (particularly by their owners) in the early 19th century as a valuable method of ensuring the representation of the landed interest in the House of Commons.


Among the few members in the House of Commons calling for parliamentary reform was Sir Francis Burdett (see External link below). Sir Francis Burdett Sir Francis Burdett, 5th Baronet (25 January 1770–23 January 1844) was an English reformist politician, the son of Francis Burdett by his wife Eleanor, daughter of William Jones of Ramsbury manor, Wiltshire, and grandson of Sir Robert Burdett, Bart. ...


End of the rotten boroughs

In the 19th century measures began to be taken against rotten boroughs, notably the Reform Act 1832 which disenfranchised the 56 rotten boroughs listed below and spread the representation across parliamentary seats aligning to population centres and significant industries. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Representation of the People Act 1832, commonly known as the Reform Act 1832, was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of the United Kingdom. ...

Pocket boroughs were finally abolished by the Reform Act of 1867. This considerably extended the borough franchise, and established the principle that each constituency should hold roughly the same number of electors. A Boundary Commission was set up by subsequent Acts of Parliament to maintain this principle as people moved about. Aldborough is a former parliamentary borough located in the West Riding of Yorkshire, abolished in the great reform act of 1832. ... Aldeburgh was a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and its predecessor bodies. ... Amersham was a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1832. ... Appleby was the name of a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom) for two periods, as a borough represented by two Members of Parliament from 1295 until abolished by the Great Reform Act of 1832, and later as a county constituency represented by... Bere Alston or Beeralston was a parliamentary borough in Devon, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1584 until 1832, when the constituency was abolished by the Great Reform Act as a rotten borough. ... Bishops Castle was a former borough constituency in Shropshire represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Bletchingley was a parliamentary borough in Surrey, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1295 until 1832, when the constituency was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... Boroughbridge was a parliamentary borough in Yorkshire from 1553 until 1832, when it was abolished under the Great Reform Act. ... Bossiney was a parliamentary constituency in Cornwall, one of a number of Cornish rotten boroughs, and returned two Members of Parliament to the British House of Commons from 1552 until 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... Brackley was a parliamentary borough in Northamptonshire, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1547 until 1832, when the constituency was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... Bramber was a parliamentary borough in Sussex, one of the most notorious of all the rotten boroughs. ... Callington was a rotten borough in Cornwall which returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons in the English and later British Parliament from 1585 to 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... Camelford was a rotten borough in Cornwall which returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons in the English and later British Parliament from 1552 to 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... Castle Rising was a parliamentary borough in Norfolk, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1558 until 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... Corfe Castle was a parliamentary borough in Dorset, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1572 until 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... Downton was a parliamentary borough in Wiltshire, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1295 until 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... Dunwich was a parliamentary borough in Suffolk, one of the most notorious of all the rotten boroughs. ... East Grinstead was a parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom. ... East Looe was a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Fowey was a rotten borough in Cornwall which returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons in the English and later British Parliament from 1572 to 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... Gatton was a parliamentary borough in Surrey, one of the most notorious of all the rotten boroughs. ... Great Bedwyn was a parliamentary borough in Wiltshire, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1295 until 1832, when the borough was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... Haslemere was a parliamentary borough in Surrey, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1584 until 1832, when the borough was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... Hedon, sometimes spelt Heydon, was a parliamentary borough in the East Riding of Yorkshire, represented by two Members of Parliament in the House of Commons briefly in the 13th century and again from 1547 to 1832. ... Heytesbury was a parliamentary borough in Wiltshire, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1449 until 1832, when the borough was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... Higham Ferrers was a parliamentary borough in Northamptonshire, which was represented in the House of Commons from 1558 until 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... Hindon was a parliamentary borough in Wiltshire, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1448 until 1832, when the borough was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... Ilchester was a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1832. ... Lostwithiel was a rotten borough in Cornwall which returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons in the English and later British Parliament from 1304 to 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... Ludgershall was a parliamentary borough in Wiltshire, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1295 until 1832, when the borough was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... Milborne Port is a former parliamentary borough located in Somerset. ... Minehead was a parliamentary borough in Somerset, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1563 until 1832, when the borough was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... Mitchell, or St Michael (sometimes also called St Michaels Borough or Michaelborough) was a rotten borough consisting of the town (or village) of Mitchell, Cornwall. ... New Romney was a parliamentary constituency in Kent, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1371 until 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... Newport was a rotten borough situated in Cornwall. ... Newton was a Borough constituency in the county of Lancashire of the House of Commons for the Parliament of England from 1559 to 1706 then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1832. ... Newtown is a former parliamentary seat located in Newtown, abolished in the great reform act of 1832. ... Okehampton was a parliamentary borough in Devon, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons in 1301 and 1313, then continuously from 1640 to 1832, when the borough was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Orford was a constituency of the House of Commons. ... Plympton Erle, also spelt Plympton Earle, was a parliamentary borough in Devon. ... Queenborough was a rotten borough situated on the Isle of Sheppey in Kent. ... Saltash, sometimes called Essay, was a rotten borough in Cornwall which returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons in the English and later British Parliament from 1552 to 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... The parliamentary constituency of Seaford was a rotten borough until it was disenfranchised in the Reform Act 1832 at which time representation was incorporated into the Lewes constituency. ... St Germans was a rotten borough in Cornwall which returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons in the English and later British Parliament from 1562 to 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... St Mawes was a rotten borough in Cornwall which returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons in the English and later British Parliament from 1562 to 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... Steyning was a parliamentary borough in Sussex, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons sporadically from 1298 and continuously from 1467 until 1832. ... Stockbridge was a parliamentary borough in Hampshire, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1563 until 1832, when the borough was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... Tregony was a rotten borough in Cornwall which was represented in the Model Parliament of 1295, and returned two Members of Parliament to the English and later British Parliament continuously from 1562 to 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... West Looe was a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Wendover was a borough constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1832. ... Weobley was a parliamentary borough in Herefordshire, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons in 1295 and from 1628 until 1832, when the borough was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... Whitchurch was a parliamentary borough in Hampshire, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1586 until 1832, when the borough was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... Winchelsea was a parliamentary constituency in Sussex, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1366 until 1832, when it was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... Wootton Bassett was a parliamentary borough in Wiltshire, which elected two Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons from 1447 until 1832, when the rotten borough was abolished by the Great Reform Act. ... Yarmouth, was a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1832. ... Contemporary cartoon of Disraeli outpacing Gladstone. ...


The introduction of the secret ballot in the 1880s helped prevent patrons from controlling districts, as they could no longer find out how a person had voted. An elector thus became free to vote as he himself, rather than his landlord, wished. At the same time the practice of 'treating' the electorate (by giving money or providing entertainment) was outlawed, and election expenses fell dramatically. Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voters choices are confidential. ...


Modern usage

Today, "rotten borough" is sometimes used to refer to a parliamentary constituency in which one particular political party has such massive support that its candidate is effectively uncontested; a more polite term is "safe seat". Sometimes this term is used for an individual or family who have represented the same area for a long period of time, particularly when changing party allegiance whilst retaining the support of their constituency. A safe seat is a seat in a legislature which is regarded as fully secured by a certain political party with very little chance of an election upset because of the nature of the electorate in the constituency concerned. ...


It is also used to refer to allegedly corrupt branches of local government — Private Eye has a column entitled Rotten Boroughs which lists stories of municipal wrongdoing. Private eye may mean: Look up Private eye on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Private Eye a fortnightly British satirical magazine-newspaper, edited by Ian Hislop (as of 2005) A private investigator, a private detective for hire (see also crime fiction and detective fiction) Private Eye, a song by Alkaline Trio...


Rotten boroughs in fiction

In the episode Dish and Dishonesty of the BBC comedy Blackadder the Third, Edmund Blackadder attempts to bolster the support of the Prince Regent in Parliament by having the incompetent Baldrick elected to the rotten borough of Dunny-on-the-Wold. This was easily accomplished with a result of 16,472 to one even though the constituency had only one voter. Baldrick ends up being tricked into voting the wrong way once he reaches Parliament and spends £400,000 in bribe money on a giant turnip. [1] Dish and Dishonesty is an episode of the BBC sitcom Blackadder. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion (US$7. ... Blackadder is the generic name that encompasses four series of an acclaimed BBC One historical sitcom, along with several one-off installments. ... Edmund Blackadder esq. ... Prince Regent (or Prince Regnant, as a direct borrowing from French language) is a prince who rules a country instead of a sovereign, e. ... The Houses of Parliament, as seen over Westminster Bridge The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories. ... Baldrick is a fictional character featured in the television series Blackadder. ... Bribery is the practice of offering a professional money or other favours in order to circumvent ethics in a variety of professions. ... Trinomial name Brassica rapa rapa L. For similar vegetables also called turnip, see Turnip (disambiguation). ...


In the Aubrey–Maturin series of seafaring tales, the pocket borough of Milport (also known as Milford) is initially held by General Aubrey, the father of protagonist Jack Aubrey. In the twelfth novel in the series, The Letter of Marque, Jack's father dies and the seat is offered to Jack himself by his cousin Edward Norton, the "owner" of the borough. The borough has just seventeen electors, all of whom are tenants of Mr Norton. The Aubrey–Maturin series, also known as the Aubreyad, is a sequence of 20 historical novels by Patrick OBrian, set during the Napoleonic Wars and centering on the friendship between Captain Jack Aubrey of the Royal Navy and his ships surgeon Stephen Maturin, who is also a physician...


In George MacDonald Fraser's Flashman series, the eponymous antihero, Harry Flashman, mentions in the first novel that his father, Sir Buckley Flashman, had been in Parliament, but "they did for him at Reform," implying that the elder Flashman's seat was in a rotten or pocket borough. George MacDonald Fraser (born 1926 in Carlisle, England) is a writer of Scottish descent. ... Harry Paget Flashman is a fictional character originally created by the author Thomas Hughes in his semi-autobiographical work Tom Browns Schooldays, first published in 1857. ...


In the satirical novel Melincourt, or Sir Oran Haut-Ton (1817) by Thomas Love Peacock, an orang-utan named Sir Oran Haut-ton is elected to parliament by the "ancient and honourable borough of Onevote". The election of Sir Oran forms part of the hero's plan to persuade civilisation to share his belief that orang-utans are a race of human beings who merely lack the power of speech. "The borough of Onevote stood in the middle of a heath, and consisted of a solitary farm, of which the land was so poor and intractable, that it would not have been worth the while of any human being to cultivate it, had not the Duke of Rottenburgh found it very well worth his to pay his tenant for living there, to keep the honourable borough in existence." The single voter of the borough is Mr Christopher Corporate, who elects two MPs, each of whom "can only be considered as the representative of half of him". Thomas Love Peacock (October 18, 1785 - January 23, 1866) was an English satirist and author. ... For the chess opening, see Sokolsky Opening. ...


In the parliamentary novels of Anthony Trollope rotten boroughs are a recurring theme. John Grey, Phineas Finn, and Lord Silverbridge are all elected to rotten boroughs. Anthony Trollope (April 24, 1815 – December 6, 1882) became one of the most successful, prolific and respected English novelists of the Victorian era. ...


Rotten Borough was a controversial book published by Oliver Anderson under the pen name Julian Pine in 1937 and then republished under the original title in 1989. Rotton Borough was a book published by the writer Oliver Anderson in 1937 and republished again in 1989. ... Andrew Bond Oliver Charles Anderson (30 September 1912 - 19 October 1996) was an English writer. ...


Quotes

  • "[Borough representation is] the rotten part of the constitution." — William Pitt the Elder
  • "The county of Yorkshire, which contains near a million souls, sends two county members; and so does the county of Rutland which contains not a hundredth part of that number. The town of Old Sarum, which contains not three houses, sends two members; and the town of Manchester, which contains upwards of sixty thousand souls, is not admitted to send any. Is there any principle in these things?" Tom Paine, from Rights of Man, 1791
  • From H.M.S. Pinafore by Gilbert and Sullivan:
Sir Joseph Porter: I grew so rich that I was sent
By a pocket borough into Parliament.
I always voted at my party's call,
And I never thought of thinking for myself at all.
Chorus: And he never thought of thinking for himself at all.
Sir Joseph: I thought so little, they rewarded me
By making me the Ruler of the Queen's Navee!
Fairy Queen: Let me see. I've a borough or two at my disposal. Would you like to go into Parliament?
'Could you not spend an afternoon at Milport, to meet the electors? There are not many of them, and those few are all my tenants, so it is no more than a formality; but there is a certain decency to be kept up. The writ will be issued very soon.'
  • The Borough of Queen's Crawley in Thackeray's Vanity Fair is a rotten borough eliminated by the Reform Act of 1832:
"When Colonel Dobbin quitted the service, which he did immediately after his marriage, he rented a pretty country place in Hampshire, not far from Queen's Crawley, where, after the passing of the Reform Bill, Sir Pitt and his family constantly resided now. All idea of a peerage was out of the question, the baronet's two seats in Parliament being lost. He was both out-of-pocket and out of spirits by that catastrophe, failed in his health, and prophesied the speedy ruin of the Empire."

William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham (15 November 1708–11 May 1778) was a British statesman who achieved his greatest fame as war minister during the Seven Years War and who was later Prime Minister of Great Britain. ... Thomas Paine Thomas Paine (January 29, 1737–June 8, 1809) was a widely recognized intellectual, scholar, and idealist who is considered to be one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: H.M.S. Pinafore H.M.S. Pinafore, or The Lass that Loved a Sailor, is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert. ... W. S. Gilbert Arthur Sullivan Librettist William Schwenck Gilbert (1836–1911) and composer Arthur Seymour Sullivan (1842–1900) collaborated on a series of fourteen comic operas in Victorian England between 1871 and 1896. ... Iolanthe, or The Peer and the Peri, is a comic opera with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert. ... W. S. Gilbert Arthur Sullivan Librettist William Schwenck Gilbert (1836–1911) and composer Arthur Seymour Sullivan (1842–1900) collaborated on a series of fourteen comic operas in Victorian England between 1871 and 1896. ... Patrick OBrian (December 12, 1914 – January 2, 2000; original name Richard Patrick Russ) was a novelist and translator, best known for his Aubrey–Maturin series of novels set in the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars and centered on the friendship of Captain Jack Aubrey and an Irish–Catalan... William Makepeace Thackeray (July 18, 1811 – December 24, 1863) was a British novelist of the 19th century. ... Title-page to Vanity Fair, drawn by Thackeray, who furnished the illustrations for many of his earlier editions Vanity Fair: A Novel without a Hero is a novel by William Makepeace Thackeray that satirizes society in early 19th-century England. ... Out-of-pocket expenses are direct outlays of cash which are not reimbursed. ...

References

  • Spielvogel, Western Civilization — Volume II: Since 1500 (2003) p.493

// Summary Jackson J. Spielvogel is an associate professor emeritus at Pennsylvania State University. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Sir Francis Burdett

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Rotten borough - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1062 words)
Many such rotten boroughs were controlled by peers who 'gave' the seats to their sons, thus having influence in the House of Commons while also holding seats themselves in the House of Lords.
The Duke of Wellington, prior to being awarded a peerage served as MP for the rotten borough of Trim in County Meath in the Irish House of Commons.
The pocket boroughs were seen (particularly by their owners) in the early 19th century as a valuable method of ensuring the representation of the landed interest in the House of Commons.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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