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Encyclopedia > Rotavirus
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Rotaviruses

Virus classification
Group: Group III (dsRNA)
Family: Reoviridae
Genus: Rotavirus
Species

Rotavirus A (RV-A)
Rotavirus B (RV-B)
Rotavirus C (RV-C)
Rotavirus D (RV-D)
Rotavirus E (RV-E)
Rotavirus F (RV-F)
Rotavirus G (RV-G)
From http://www. ... Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Genera Orthoreovirus Orbivirus Rotavirus Coltivirus Aquareovirus Cypovirus Fijivirus Phytoreovirus Oryzavirus The Reoviridae are a family of viruses that includes some viruses that affect the gastrointestinal system (such as Rotavirus), and some that cause respiratory infections. ...

Rotaviruses are a genus of viruses belonging to the Reoviridae family. Seven major groups have been identified, three of which (groups A, B, and C) infect humans, with group A being the most common and widespread one. They cause vomiting and diarrhea and are the most common cause of severe diarrhea in children, killing about 600,000 children every year in developing countries (as of 2005). New vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective in 2006 [1]. Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus is a microscopic particle (ranging in size from 20 - 300 nm) that can infect the cells of a biological organism. ... Genera Orthoreovirus Orbivirus Rotavirus Coltivirus Aquareovirus Cypovirus Fijivirus Phytoreovirus Oryzavirus The Reoviridae are a family of viruses that includes some viruses that affect the gastrointestinal system (such as Rotavirus), and some that cause respiratory infections. ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a generally unpleasant condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the ancient Greek word διαρροή = leakage; literally meaning to run through). Acute infectious... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ...

Contents

Microbiology

An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ...

Structure

Rotaviruses have a genome consisting of 11 double-stranded RNA segments surrounded by a distinctive three-layered icosahedral protein capsid. The first layer is formed by the protein VP2, with each vertex having a copy of the proteins VP1 and VP3. The second layer is formed by the protein VP6. The outermost protein layer is composed of the structural glycoprotein VP7 and the spike protein VP4. Viral particles are up to 100 nm in diameter and have a buoyant density of 1.36 g/ml in CsCl. Look up Structure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An icosahedron noun (plural: -drons, -dra ) is a polyhedron having 20 faces, but usually a regular icosahedron is implied, which has equilateral triangles as faces. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... The outer shell of a virus is called the capsid. ... A glycoprotein is a macromolecule composed of a protein and a carbohydrate (an oligosaccharide). ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10 nm and 100 nm (10-8 and 10-7 m). ... Caesium chloride is an ionic compound best known as a structural type. ...


Cell Infection

Rotaviruses tend to affect gastrointestinal epithelial cells that are at the tip of the villus. Their triple protein coats make them very resistant to the normally prohibitive pH of the stomach, and also digestive enzymes (lipases and proteases) in the gastrointestinal tract. Villi (singular: villus) are tiny, finger-like structures that protrude from the wall of the intestine to help absorb nutrients in the lumen. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... The correct title of this article is . ...


When they infect a cell, they are ingested by the cell in endocytosis in a vesicle known as an endosome. Proteins in the third layer (VP7 and the VP4 spike) disrupt the membrane of the endosome, creating a difference in the Ca2+ concentration. This facilitates the breakdown of VP7 trimers into single protein subunits, leaving the VP2 and VP6 coats around the viral dsRNA, forming a double-layer particle (DLP). Trimer might refer to: trimer (chemistry), a reaction product composed of three identical molecules trimer (biochemistry), a compound of three macromolecules non-covalently bound This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


While the eleven dsRNA strands are still within the protection of the two protein shells, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase creates viral mRNA transcripts of the double-stranded viral genome. This is more easily done within the environment in the "core" of the virus than in the host cell's aqueous environment, which significantly slows down the detachment of the two RNA strands to begin mRNA synthesis. Encapsidation of the viral RNA may also serve to evade host immune responses that are triggered by the presence of double-stranded RNA. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... RNA replicase is a polymerase enzyme that catalyzes the self-replication of single-stranded RNA. it is RNA dependent RNA plwhich is not haVING PRROFREEDING ACTIVITY. THIS IS ANOTHER EXTENSION IN THE CENTRADOGMA. IT IS MADE UP OF THREE SUBUNIT. Categories: | ... The interaction of mRNA in a eukaryote cell. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The interaction of mRNA in a eukaryote cell. ...


During the infection, rotavirus produces mRNA to support both protein translation and genome replication. Most of the rotavirus proteins accumulate in structures known as viroplasms, where the RNA is replicated and the DLPs are assembled. Viroplasms are electron-dense, perinuclear, punctate structures found as early as 2 hours after virus infection. Viroplasms are viral factories and are thought to be formed by two viral non-structural proteins, NSP5 and NSP2. Expression of certain forms of NSP5, especially one that is tagged at the NH2-terminus, results in the formation of viroplasms. Inhibition of NSP5 using intrabodies or RNA interference results in a profound decrease in rotavirus replication. The DLPs can migrate to the endoplasmic reticulum where they obtain their third, outer layer (formed by VP7 and VP4). There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Nature of acute disease

Rotaviruses cause acute gastroenteritis. "Infantile diarrhea", "winter diarrhea", "stomach flu", "acute nonbacterial infectious gastroenteritis", and "acute viral gastroenteritis" are other names applied to this disease. Gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, is an illness of fever, diarrhoea and/or vomiting caused by an infectious virus, bacterium or parasite. ...


Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a self-limiting, mild to severe disease characterized by vomiting, watery diarrhea, and low-grade fever. The infective dose is presumed to be 10-100 infectious viral particles. Because a person with rotavirus diarrhea often excretes large numbers of virus (108-1010 infectious particles/ml of feces), infection doses can be readily acquired through contaminated hands, objects, or utensils. Asymptomatic rotavirus excretion has been well documented and may play a role in perpetuating endemic disease. Vomiting (also throwing up or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a generally unpleasant condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the ancient Greek word διαρροή = leakage; literally meaning to run through). Acute infectious... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ...


The virus infects enterocytes of the villi of the small intestine, leading to structural changes of the epithelium and diarrhea. Enterocyte is a type of epithelial cell of the superficial layer of the small and large intestine tissue. ... Villi (singular: villus) are tiny, finger-like structures that protrude from the wall of the intestine and have additional extensions called microvilli (singular: microvillus) which protrude from epithelial cells lining villi. ... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine. ... Types of epithelium This article discusses the epithelium, an animal anatomical structure. ...


The incubation period ranges from 1-3 days. Symptoms often start with vomiting followed by 4-8 days of diarrhea. Temporary lactose intolerance may occur. Recovery is usually complete. However, severe diarrhea without fluid and electrolyte replacement may result in death. Childhood mortality caused by rotavirus is relatively low in the U.S., with an estimated 100 cases/year, but reaches over 500,000 cases/year worldwide (as of 2005). Association with other enteric pathogens may play a role in the severity of the disease. 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Clinically adults have more severe symptoms than children.


Target populations and frequency

Humans of all ages are susceptible to rotavirus infection. Children 6 months to 2 years of age, premature infants, the elderly, and the immunocompromised are particularly prone to more severe symptoms caused by infection with group A rotavirus.


Group A rotavirus is endemic worldwide. It is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among infants and children, being responsible for about 20% of cases, and accounts for about half of the cases requiring hospitalization. Almost every child has been infected with rotavirus by age 5. Over 3 million cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis occur annually in the U.S. In temperate areas, it occurs primarily in the winter, but in the tropics it occurs throughout the year. The number attributable to food contamination is unknown.


Group B rotavirus, also called adult diarrhea rotavirus or ADRV, has caused major epidemics of severe diarrhea affecting thousands of persons of all ages in China. In a group B epidemic in China in 1982, more than a million people were affected. Group B rotavirus has also been identified after the Chinese epidemics from Calcutta, India in 1998 and this strain was named CAL. Unlike ADRV, the CAL strain is endemic and does not cause known epidemics.


Group C rotavirus has been associated with rare and sporadic cases of diarrhea in children in many countries. However, the first outbreaks were reported from Japan and England.


About 120 million rotavirus infections occur every year, causing the death of 600,000 to 650,000 children.[citation needed]


Diagnosis of human illness

Specific diagnosis of the disease is made by identification of the virus in the patient's stool. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is the test most widely used to screen clinical specimens, and several commercial kits are available for group A rotavirus. Electron microscopy and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis are used in some laboratories in addition or as an alternative to EIA. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been developed to detect and identify all three groups of human rotaviruses. An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the level of bodily reaction to a foreign object. ... The electron microscope is a microscope that can magnify very small details with high resolving power due to the use of electrons rather than light to scatter off material, magnifying at levels up to 500,000 times. ... SDS-PAGE autoradiography DNA agarose gel Gel electrophoresis is a group of techniques used by scientists to separate molecules based on physical characteristics such as size, shape, or isoelectric point. ... RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription-PCR) is a modification of PCR in which an RNA strand is first reverse transcribed into its DNA complement or cDNA, followed by amplification of the resulting DNA using PCR. This can either be a 1 or 2 step process. ...


Transmission and associated foods

Rotaviruses are transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Person-to-person spread through contaminated hands is probably the most important means by which rotaviruses are transmitted in close communities such as pediatric and geriatric wards, day care centers and family homes.


Infected food handlers may contaminate foods that require handling and no further cooking, such as salads, fruits, and hors d'oeuvres. Rotaviruses are quite stable in the environment and have been found in estuary samples at levels as high as 1-5 infectious particles/gal. Sanitary measures adequate for bacteria and parasites seem to be ineffective in endemic control of rotavirus, as similar incidence of rotavirus infection is observed in countries with both high and low health standards. Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ...


The virus has not been isolated from any food associated with an outbreak, and no satisfactory method is available for routine analysis of food. However, it should be possible to apply procedures that have been used to detect the virus in water and in clinical specimens, of which reverse transcription (RT)-PCR amplification is the most sensitive method to food analysis.


Vaccines

In 2006, two vaccines against Rotavirus infection were shown to be safe and effective in children: Rotarix by GlaxoSmithKline and RotaTeq by Merck. Both are taken orally and contain disabled live virus. In February 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved RotaTeq for use in the United States. Merck announced a price of $187.50 for the standard three-dose regimen; this is much more expensive than other standard childhood immunizations and, even allowing for discounts, will probably prevent widespread use of the vaccine in poor countries. However, Merck is selling vaccines at dramatically lower prices in developing world countries and is working with a range of partners including the Rotavirus Vaccine Project, PATH and other governmental and non-governmental organizations to develop and implement mechanisms for providing access to this vaccine in the developing world. GlaxoSmithKline plc (LSE: GSK NYSE: GSK) is a British based pharmaceutical, biologicals, and healthcare company. ... Merck & Co. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ...


An earlier vaccine, Rotashield by Wyeth-Ayerst, had to be taken off the market in the late 1990s after it was discovered in rare cases to be linked to a severe complication called intussusception. This event was so rare that widespread adoption of Rotashield in developing countries would nevertheless have saved millions of lives, but use of a vaccine deemed unsafe in the U.S. was seen as unacceptable. Wyeth-Ayerst is a large American pharmaceutical company. ... An intussusception is a situation in which a part of the intestine has prolapsed into another section of intestine, similar to the way in which the parts of a collapsible telescope slide into one another. ...


Selected outbreaks

Literature references can be found at the links below.


MMWR 48(27):1999 On August 31, 1998, a tetravalent rhesus-based rotavirus vaccine (RotaShield[Registered]*, Wyeth Laboratories, Inc., Marietta, Pennsylvania) (RRV-TV) was licensed in the United States for vaccination of infants. The Advisorp0pl[]pl.[plysicians have recommended routine use of RRV-TV for vaccination of healthy infants (1,2). During September 1, 1998-July 7, 1999, 15 cases of intussusception (a bowel obstruction in which one segment of bowel becomes enfolded within another segment) among infants who had received RRV-TV were reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS).


Outbreaks of group A rotavirus diarrhea are common among hospitalized infants, young children attending day care centers, and elder persons in nursing homes. Among adults, multiple foods served in banquets were implicated in 2 outbreaks. An outbreak due to contaminated municipal water occurred in Colorado, 1981. Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ...


Several large outbreaks of group B rotavirus involving millions of persons as a result of sewage contamination of drinking water supplies have occurred in China since 1982. Although to date outbreaks caused by group B rotavirus have been confined to mainland China, seroepidemiological surveys have indicated lack of immunity to this group of virus in the U.S. Recent studies led to the identification of group B rotavirus occurring at a sporadic frequency in Calcutta, India and subsequently from other Asian countries as well. Thus, group B rotavirus infection may be more common than presumed earlier, but studies on this pathogen are very limited. Group B rotaviruses are diffuclt to isolate and cannot be easily adapted to cell culture, a property that precludes their detailed analysis.


The newly recognized group C rotavirus has been implicated in rare and isolated cases of gastroenteritis. However, it was associated with three outbreaks among school children: one in Japan, 1989, and two in England, 1990.


MMWR 47(45):1998 In August 1998, the first live attenuated rotavirus vaccine (Rotashield{registered} {Wyeth Lederle Vaccines and Pediatrics}) was approved for use in infants by the Food and Drug Administration. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recommended that this vaccine be given as a three-dose schedule to infants aged 2, 4, and 6 months. Since 1991, rotavirus activity in the United States has been prospectively monitored by the National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS), a voluntary, laboratory-based system. This report summarizes surveillance data from NREVSS during the 1997-1998 rotavirus season and reviews issues related to rotavirus surveillance that are important for a national rotavirus vaccine program. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is responsible for regulating food (humans and animal), dietary supplements, drugs (human and animal), cosmetics, medical devices (human and animal) and radiation emitting devices (including non-medical devices), biologics, and...


MMWR 47(19):1998 On June 24, 1996, the Livingston County (New York) Department of Health (LCDOH) was notified of a cluster of diarrheal illness following a party on June 22, at which approximately 30 persons had become ill. This report summarizes the findings of the investigation, which implicated a deficient water supply system as the cause of an outbreak of diarrheal illness caused by Salmonella serotype Hartford and P. shigelloides. Unfiltered, untreated surface water led to contamination of food during its preparation.


MMWR 40(5)1991 A discussion of rotavirus surveillance in the US.


For more information on recent outbreaks see the CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports.


Complication

Repeated rotavirus infections may increase the risk of celiac disease in genetically susceptible children. Intestinal infections have long been thought to contribute to the development of celiac disease, a common digestive disorder triggered by eating wheat products and other foods containing the protein gluten. Few studies, however, have looked at the role of specific infectious agents in the development of the disease. As participants in a study of the natural history and environmental triggers of diabetes and celiac disease, 1,931 children from the Denver metropolitan area who are genetically susceptible to celiac disease were monitored from infancy for rotavirus infection and the development of celiac disease autoimmunity -- an erroneous immune reaction against "self" proteins. Each "study" child was matched to two "control" children. Dr. Marian Rewers from the University of Colorado School of Medicine in Aurora and colleagues report that 54 study children developed celiac disease autoimmunity at a median of 4.4 years of age. Thirty-six of these children had an intestinal biopsy, of which 27 (75 percent) were positive for celiac disease. According to the team, frequent rotavirus infections predicted a higher risk of celiac disease autoimmunity. The rate ratio for celiac autoimmunity was 1.94 for one rotavirus infection and 3.76 for two or more rotavirus infections compared with zero rotavirus infections. The current study "provides the first indication that a high frequency of rotavirus infections may increase the risk of celiac disease autoimmunity in childhood in genetically predisposed individuals."American Journal of Gastroenterology, October 2006. Coeliac disease (also termed non-tropical sprue, celiac disease and gluten intolerance) is an autoimmune disease characterised by chronic inflammation of the proximal portion of the small intestine caused by exposure to certain dietary gluten proteins. ...


Sources

Foodborne illness or food poisoning is caused by consuming food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, toxins, viruses, prions or parasites. ... The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is responsible for regulating food (humans and animal), dietary supplements, drugs (human and animal), cosmetics, medical devices (human and animal) and radiation emitting devices (including non-medical devices), biologics, and...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Rotavirus (1024 words)
Rotavirus is an important cause of gastroenteritis in infants and young children in both developed and developing countries (4).
Although coryza and cough may precede GI symptoms, replication of rotavirus in the upper respiratory tract is not important in the spread of the virus (4).
The mode of transmission of rotavirus infection is primarily fecal-oral.
Dr. Koop - Rotavirus Infection- Health Encyclopedia and Reference (620 words)
Rotavirus infection is the major cause of severely dehydrating diarrhea in early childhood.
Rotavirus replicates in the epithelial (lining) cells of the intestine and is a cause of acute gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines) with diarrhea, particularly in infants.
Rotavirus infection typically starts with mild to moderate fever and vomiting, followed by the onset of watery stools.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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