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Encyclopedia > Rotary piston engine

For articles on non-piston rotary combustion engines, see: Many types of rotary combustion engine, like the Quasiturbine or the Wankel engine, have been devised [1], all having the same basic concept; to avoid the reciprocating motion of the piston with its inherent vibration and rotational-speed-related mechanical stress. ...


The rotary engine was a common type of internal combustion aircraft engine in the early years of the 20th century. It was also used in a few motorcycles and cars. Wankel Engine in Deutsches Museum Munich, Germany The Wankel rotary engine is a type of internal combustion engine, invented by German engineer Felix Wankel, which uses a rotor instead of reciprocating pistons. ... The Quasiturbine combustion cycle: Intake (aqua), Compression (fuchsia), Ignition (red), Exhaust (black). ... An internal combustion engine is an engine that is powered by the expansion of hot combustion products of fuel directly acting within an engine. ... The term aircraft engine, for the purposes of this article, refers to aircraft reciprocating, or rotary, internal combustion engines as opposed to jet engines or turboprops. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Imme R 100,Germany, 1948/1949 A 125 cc motorcycle, the Italian-manufactured Cagiva Planet. ... A small variety of cars, the most popular kind of automobile. ...


In concept, a rotary engine is simple. It is a standard Otto cycle engine, but instead of having an orthodox fixed cylinder block with rotating crankshaft, the crankshaft remains stationary and the entire cylinder block rotates around it. In the most common form, the crankshaft was fixed solidly to an aircraft frame, and the propeller simply bolted onto the front of the cylinder block. The four-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine is the cycle most commonly used for automotive and industrial purposes today ( cars and trucks, generators, etc). ... The cylinder block is a machined casting (or sometimes an assembly of modules) containing cylindrically bored holes for the pistons of a multi-cylinder reciprocating internal combustion engine, or for a similarly constructed device such as a pump. ... Crankshaft Continental engine marine crankshafts, 1942 Crankshaft is also the name of a comic strip about an old, curmudgeonly bus driver. ... This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ...


The effect of rotating such a large mass was an inherent large gyroscopic flywheel effect, smoothing out the power and reducing vibration. Vibration had been such a serious problem on other piston engine designs that a separate piece of metal had to be added as a flywheel, so the rotaries had a somewhat better power-to-weight ratio than other designs. Acrobatic bicycle is possible thanks to gyroscopic effects A gyroscope is a device which demonstrates the principle of conservation of angular momentum. ... Spoked flywheel A flywheel is a heavy rotating disk used as a repository for angular momentum. ... Power-to-weight ratio is a measure commonly used when comparing various vehicles (or engines), including automobiles, motorcycles and aircraft. ...


Most rotary engines were arranged with the cylinders pointed outwards from a single crankshaft, in the same general form as a radial, but there were also rotary boxer engines and even one cylinder rotaries. Radial engine of a biplane. ... Diagram of the opposing pistons in a boxer engine A flat engine or boxer engine or horizontally opposed engine is a type of engine where the pistons lie horizontally opposed, with pairs of cylinders on the left and the right, as opposed to most modern engines where all pistons are...

Contents


History in aircraft

The first effective rotaries were built by Stephen Balzer, who was interested in the design for two main reasons:

  • In order to generate 100 hp (75 kW) at the low RPM at which the engines of the day ran, the pulsation resulting from each combustion stroke was quite large. In order to damp out these pulses, engines needed to mount a large flywheel, which added weight. In the rotary design the engine itself doubled as its flywheel, thus rotaries were lighter than similarly sized engines of regular design.
  • The cylinders had good airflow over them even when sitting still, which was an important concern given the alloys they had to work with at the time. Balzer's early engines did not even use cooling-fins, a feature of every other air-cooled design, and one that is complex and expensive to manufacture.
  • Another advantage, not realized at first, is that the pistons do not actually reciprocate; rather, they travel in a circle around the common center of the connecting rods' "big ends", and only appear to reciprocate from the rotating frame of reference of the cylinders, which travel in a circle whose center is offset from that of the pistons. This lack of reciprocating mass leads to smoother running.

Balzer's first designs were ready for use in 1899, at which time they were the most advanced in the world. Other aircraft engines would not catch up in performance for a decade. He then became involved in Langley's Aerodrome attempts, which bankrupted him while he tried to make much larger versions. rpm or RPM may mean: revolutions per minute RPM Package Manager (originally called Red Hat Package Manager) RPM (movie) RPM (band), a Brazilian rock band RPM (magazine), a former Canadian music industry magazine In firearms, Rounds Per Minute: how many shots an automatic weapon can fire in one minute On... See also CPU cooling Watercooling Heat pipe cooling Peltier cooling External links http://www. ... piston + connecting rod In a reciprocating piston engine, the connecting rod or con rod connects the piston to the crankshaft. ... Frame of reference - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... 1899 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The next major advance in the design was Louis and Laurent Seguin's Gnome series from 1908. Believed to have been inspired by the American Adams-Farwell automobile's rotary engine concept, they started their development with the seven cylinder Gnôme Omega No.1, which still exists and is in the collection of the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum. A production version of the Omega then soon reached the aviation market, still as a 7-cylinder 50 hp (37 kW), which soon reached 80 hp (60 kW), and then 110 hp (80 kW). The engine was at this later standard when WWI started, and the Gnome quickly found itself being used in a large number of aircraft designs. It was so good that it was licensed by a number of companies, include the German Oberursel firm, later purchased by Fokker. It was not at all uncommon for French Gnomes to meet German versions in combat. Le Rhône 9C Gnome et Rhône was a major French aircraft engine manufacturer. ... 1908 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Adams-Farwell was a local American automobile manufacturer from Dubuque, Iowa, founded by Herbert and Eugene Adams and Fay Oliver Farwell at the end of the 19th century. ... Interior of museum, with Gemini capsule, Soviet rockets, and Wright Flyer visible The National Air and Space Museum (NASM) of the United States Smithsonian Institution maintains the largest collection of aircraft and spacecraft in the world. ... WWI may be an acronym for: World War I World Wrestling Industry This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Motorenfabrik Oberursel A.G. was a German manufacturer of automobile, locomotive and aircraft engines. ... Fokker 100 of British Midland Airways Fokker was a Dutch aircraft manufacturer named after its founder, Anthony Fokker. ...


The Gnome (and its copies) had a number of features that made them unique, even among the rotaries. Notably, the fuel was mixed and sprayed into the center of the engine through a hollow crankshaft, and then into the cylinders through the piston itself, a single valve on the top of the piston let the mixture in when opened. The valves were counter balanced so than only a small force was needed to open them, and releasing the force closed them without any springs. The center of the engine is normally where the oil would be, and the fuel would wash it away. To fix this, the oil was mixed in liberal quantities with the fuel, and the engine spewed smoke due to the burning oil. Finally, the Gnome had no throttle or carburetor; since the fuel being sprayed into the spinning engine, the motion alone was enough to mix the fuel fairly well. Of course with no throttle, the engine was either on or off, so something as simple as reducing power for landing required the pilot to cut the ignition, "blipping" the engine on and off, giving the characteristic sputtering sound as though the engine was nearly stalling. The term throttle may refer to: A type of valve that controls air and fuel flow into an engine, such as a butterfly valve in a carburetor. ... The carburetor (American spelling, carburettor or carburetter in Commonwealth countries, carb for short) is a device which mixes air and fuel for an internal-combustion engine. ...


Throughout the early period of the war, the power-to-weight ratio of the rotaries remained ahead of that of their competition. They were used almost universally in fighter aircraft, while traditional water cooled designs were used on larger aircraft. The engines had a number of disadvantages, notably very poor fuel consumption because the engine was always "full throttle". In combat the huge "flywheel" the rotary had originally been designed to create turned out to result in tricky handling due to gyroscope effects as well. But they maintained their edge through a series of small upgrades, and many newer designs continued to use them. Power-to-weight ratio is a measure commonly used when comparing various vehicles (or engines), including automobiles, motorcycles and aircraft. ...


1918 saw the introduction of the inline powered Fokker D.VII. Through superb design the D.VII was able to dogfight with the rotaries, and outclimb and outrun them with ease due to its 185 hp (140 kW) engine. Aircraft had evolved so that speed had become the most important aspect of ability, leading to the need for more power. Larger rotaries were attempted, but the gyroscopic effects from the larger and heavier engine were overwhelming and they proved to be largely unworkable. Inline engines were able to increase power through increased RPM, another trick the rotary couldn't match due to increased wind resistance on the cylinder heads as they rotated, an increase of 36% from a then-normal 1200 to 1400 rpm, energy that was not being put into the propeller. As construction methods improved engines running at 2000 rpm became common, and the rotary became a dead-end. 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The D.VII was a late World War I fighter aircraft designed by Anthony Fokker and Rheinhold Platz at the Fokker company. ...


One clever attempt to rescue the design was made by Siemens AG, who spun the propeller, crankcase and cylinders counterclockwise at 900 rpm and the engine's internal parts (the crankshaft, connecting rods and pistons) in a clockwise direction at the same speed through bevel gearing at the rear of the crankcase, resulting in an engine that ran at 1800 rpm and had little net torque. It apparently was also the only rotary engine to use a regular style of throttleable carburetor, just as in an in-line engine. Used on the superb Siemens-Schuckert D.IV, the Siemens-Halske Sh.III created what is considered by many to be the best aircraft of the war. By the end of the year only a single new rotary powered aircraft was designed, Fokker's own D-VIII, designed solely to provide some use for their Oberursel factory's backlog of now-useless Ur II 110hp engines, themselves clones of the Le Rhône 9J rotary. When the war ended, the rotary disappeared almost instantly, with WWI engines being used for training for a short time until their poor fuel economy drove the users to newer engines. Company headquarters in Munich, Germany Siemens AG NYSE: SI is the worlds largest electronics company. ... The Siemens-Schuckert D.IV was a late-World War I fighter aircraft from Siemens-Schuckert (SSW). ... Fuel efficiency, sometimes also referred to as fuel economy and commonly gas mileage in the United States, is a numeric measure often used to describe the amount of fuel consumed with regard to the distance travelled in a transportation vehicle, such as an automobile. ...


Use in Cars and Motorcycles

Although the rotary engines were mostly used in aircraft, there were also a few cars and motorcycles with rotary engines. The most famous motorcycle (probably because of winning many races) is the Megola motorcycle with a radial rotary engine inside the front wheel. Another motorcycle with a radial rotary engine was the Redrup Radial, which had a rotating 3 cylinder engine in its frame. The Megola was a German motorcycle produced between 1921 and 1925 in Munich. ...


In 1904, the Barry engine was built in Wales, a rotating 2 cylinder boxer engine inside a motorcycle frame, weighting 6.5 kg. In the 1940s Cyril Pullin developed the Powerwheel, a wheel with rotating one cylinder engine, clutch and drum brake inside the hub but it never went into serial production. 1904 is a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Diagram of the opposing pistons in a boxer engine A flat engine or boxer engine or horizontally opposed engine is a type of engine where the pistons lie horizontally opposed, with pairs of cylinders on the left and the right, as opposed to most modern engines where all pistons are... // Events and trends The 1940s were dominated by World War II, the most destructive armed conflict in history. ... This article is about an automotive technology. ... A drum brake is a brake in which the friction is caused by a set of shoes or pads that press against the inner surface of a rotating drum. ...


Cars with rotary engines were built (among others) by American companies Adams-Farwell, Bailey, Balzer and Intrepid. Adams-Farwell was a local American automobile manufacturer from Dubuque, Iowa, founded by Herbert and Eugene Adams and Fay Oliver Farwell at the end of the 19th century. ... Intrepid can refer to: HMS Intrepid (L11) HMS Intrepid (D10) William Stephenson USS Intrepid, a fictional starship in the Star Trek universe. ...


See also

Radial engine of a biplane. ... This article or section should be merged with Rotary piston engine. ...

External links


Lists of Aircraft | Aircraft manufacturers | Aircraft engines | Aircraft engine manufacturers This list of aircraft is sorted alphabetically, beginning with the name of the manufacturer (or, in certain cases, designer). ... This is a list of aircraft manufacturers (in alphabetic order). ... List of aircraft engines - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This is a list of aircraft engine manufacturers both past and present. ...


Airports | Airlines | Air forces | Aircraft weapons | Missiles | Timeline of aviation This is a list of airlines in operation. ... This is a list of Air Forces, sorted alphabetically by country. ... This is a list of aircraft weapons, past and present. ... Below is a list of (links to pages on) missiles, sorted alphabetically by name. ... This is a timeline of aviation history. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Rotary engine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1257 words)
The rotary engine was a common type of internal combustion aircraft engine in the early years of the 20th century.
Most rotary engines were arranged with the cylinders pointed outwards from a single crankshaft, in the same general form as a radial, but there were also rotary boxer engines and even one cylinder rotaries.
Another motorcycle with a radial rotary engine was the Redrup Radial, which had a rotating 3 cylinder engine in its frame.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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