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Encyclopedia > Ross River virus
Ross River virus
Virus classification
Group: Group IV ((+)ssRNA)
Family: Togaviridae
Genus: Alphavirus
Species: Ross River virus

Ross River virus (RRV) is an arbovirus of the genus Alphavirus. In humans, it is the cause of an 'epidemic polyarthritis' commonly known as Ross River fever, that in Australia infected an average of about 4,000 people annually in the decade 1995-2004 [1]. Ross River fever is a notifiable disease in Australia (see List of notifiable diseases#Australia). Viruses can be classified in several ways, such as by their geometry, by whether they have envelopes, by the identity of the host organism they can infect, by mode of transmission, or by the type of disease they cause. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Rubella (also known as epidemic roseola, German measles or three-day measles) is a disease caused by the Rubella virus. ... An Arbovirus (short for Arthropod borne virus) is a virus that is primarily transmitted by arthropods, such as ticks and mosquitoes. ... An epidemic is generally a widespread disease that affects many individuals in a population. ... Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only country to occupy an entire continent, and the largest in the region of Australasia/Oceania. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Diseases which must, by law, be reported to governmental authorities by medical practitioners are called notifiable diseases or reportable diseases. ...

Ross River virus is endemic to Australia and Papua New Guinea, and was observed in an outbreak in the South Pacific during 1979-1980. It was named following the isolation of an arbovirus from mosquitoes trapped beside Ross River, near Townsville, Queensland, in 1959, and the subsequent identification of this virus as the one responsible for cases of epidemic polyarthritis in Queensland and New South Wales. Outbreaks as long ago as 1928 are now attributed to Ross River virus. [3] Endemic, in a broad sense, can mean belonging or native to, characteristic of, or prevalent in a particular geography, race, field, area, or environment; Native to an area or scope. ... Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only country to occupy an entire continent, and the largest in the region of Australasia/Oceania. ... The Independent State of Papua New Guinea, often referred to by just the initials, PNG, is a country in Oceania, occupying the eastern half of the island of New Guinea (the other half is the Papua province of Indonesia). ... South Pacific is a musical play by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II, which opened on Broadway on April 7, 1949. ... 1979 is a common year starting on Monday. ... 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... This article is about the insect; for the WWII aircraft see De Havilland Mosquito. ... Townsville in 2004. ... 1959 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Motto: Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Governor HE Ms Quentin Bryce Premier Peter Beattie (ALP) Area 1,852,642 km² (2st)  - Land 1,730,648 km²  - Water 121,994 km² (6. ... Motto: Orta Recens Quam Pura Nites (Newly Risen, How Brightly You Shine) Other Australian states and territories Capital Sydney Governor HE Professor Marie Bashir Premier Bob Carr (ALP) Area 809,444 km² (5th)  - Land 800,642 km²  - Water 8,802 km² (1. ... 1928 was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Ross River fever is also known as Ross River virus infection or Ross River virus disease, since not all patients experience symptoms of fever. A review of a number of studies concluded that between 20% and 60% of patients experience fever. Similarly, the name epidemic polyarthritis fell out of use because arthritic symptoms are not observed in all patients; the same review found that between 83% and 98% of patients experienced joint pain. Other symptoms include rash. Although there is some (mostly) anecdotal evidence of long-term chronic effects due to Ross River virus, particularly joint pain, patients can typically expect to recover within a month after the onset of symptoms. (See [3] for more details.)

In rural and regional areas of Australia, the continued prevalence of Ross River virus is thought to be supported by 'reservoir' hosts such as large marsupial mammals, but antibodies to Ross River virus have been found in a wide variety of placental and marsupial mammals, and also in a number of bird species. It is not presently known what reservoir hosts support Ross River virus in metropolitan areas such as Brisbane. [3] In biology, a host is an organism that harbors a parasite, mutual partner, or commensal partner, typically providing nourishment and shelter. ... When the word metropolitan (from the Greek metera = mother and polis = town) is used as an adjective, as in metropolitan bishop, metropolitan France, or metropolitan area it can mean: of or characteristic of a metropolis; see also metropolitan area of or belonging to the home territories of a country, as... This article is about the Australian city. ...


  1. Communicable Diseases Australia, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (http://www1.health.gov.au/cda/Source/CDA-index.cfm).
  2. Information on RRV (http://www.panbio.com.au/modules.php?name=Content&pa=showpage&pid=38) from a company that produces test kits for RRV antibodies.
  3. D. Harley, A. Sleigh, and S. Ritchie (2001). Ross River Virus Transmission, Infection, and Disease: a Cross-Disciplinary Review. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 14(4):909-932.



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