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Encyclopedia > Rosh Hodesh

Rosh Chodesh (Hebrew: "Head/Beginning [of the Hebrew] Month") is the name for the first day of every month in the Hebrew calendar. Although Rosh Chodesh is not considered a religious holiday, it is observed with additional Jewish prayers, including the Psalms of Hallel ("praise") in all Orthodox and Conservative synagogues. The occurrence of Rosh Chodesh was originally based on the testimony of witnesses observing the appearance of the "new moon," i.e., a sliver of light reflected from the moon, typically appearing one or two days after the astronomical new moon, when no moon is visible and only the shadowed side of the moon faces the earth, and also upon mathematical calculations to which the testimony was compared and regulated with. Hebrew (עִבְרִית ‘Ivrit) is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than seven million people in Israel and Jewish communities around the world. ... The Hebrew calendar (Hebrew: ) or Jewish calendar is the annual calendar used in Judaism. ... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ... Jewish services are the prayers recited as part of observance of Judaism. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Hallel (Hebrew: הלל Praise [God]) is part of Judaisms prayers, a verbatim derivation from Psalms 113-118, which is used for praise and thanksgiving that is recited by observant Jews on Jewish holidays. ... Orthodox Judaism is the stream of Judaism which adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonized in the Talmud (The Oral Law) and later codified in the Shulkhan Arukh (Code of Jewish Law). It is governed by these works and the Rabbinical commentary... Conservative Judaism, also known as Masorti Judaism, is a modern denomination of Judaism that arose in United States in the early 1900s. ... Lesko synagogue, Poland A synagogue (Hebrew: בית כנסת ; beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: שול, shul) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ... The lunar phase depends on the Moons position in orbit around Earth. ... Radio telescopes are among many different tools used by astronomers Astronomy (Greek: αστρονομία = άστρον + νόμος, astronomia = astron + nomos, literally, law of the stars) is the science of celestial objects and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere, such as stars, planets, comets, auroras, galaxies, and the cosmic background radiation. ... Bulk composition of the moons mantle and crust estimated, weight percent Oxygen 42. ...

Contents


Origin of Rosh Chodesh

In the Book of Exodus it is written, "And the LORD spoke unto Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying: 'This month shall be unto you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you.'" (12:1-2) It was decreed from that point that the Jews themselves should start counting the months. This article is about the second book in the Torah. ...


Determination of dates

Observational-Calculated calendar

A group of Rabbis from the Sanhedrin would accept the testimony of at least two witnesses that they had seen the new moon (while only two witnesses were required to declare a new month, other witnesses were also allowed to testify, since the Rabbis did not want to discourage anyone from coming to testify). If after 29 days there were no witnesses, or no credible witnesses, the 30th day was declared as Rosh Chodesh, making the month a full month (as opposed to a defective 29-day month). After the new month had been declared, the news of it would be broadcasted to the various Jewish communities. For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ...


At a later date a custom was developed in which a 30th day could be added if necessary to ensure that certain holidays did not fall on particular days (for example, to prevent Yom Kippur from falling on a Friday or Sunday, which would require the inconvenience of observing this holiday directly before or after the Shabbat). Yom Kippur (יום כיפור yom kippūr) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ... Shabbat (שבת shabbāt, rest Hebrew, or Shabbos in Ashkenazic pronunciation), is the weekly day of rest in Judaism. ...


Calculated calendar

In the 4th century CE, Hillel the younger disbanded the Sanhedrin and created a purely mathematical calendar. This was done due to the difficulties of that era in having the information about the New Moon broadcasted to the various dispersed Jewish communities. For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ...


Public announcement

The gabbai of the shul announces on the Sabbath before Rosh Chodesh the day (or days) of the week Rosh Chodesh will fall, as well as the day and time the New Moon will be visible over Jerusalem. If Rosh Chodesh occurs on a Sabbath, the announcement is made on the preceding Sabbath. This is done right after the reading of the Torah and is accompanied by a brief prayer for the coming month. A Gabbai (Hebrew: גבאי) is a person who assists in the running of a synagogue and ensures that the Jewish prayers run smoothly that and other needs are met. ... This article concerns the Sabbath in Christianity. ... Jerusalem (; Hebrew: Yerushalayim; Arabic: al-Quds; Greek Ιεροσόλυμα) is an ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea at an elevation of 650-840 meters. ... Torah () is a Hebrew word meaning teaching, instruction, or law. It is the central and most important document of Judaism revered by Jews through the ages. ...


Observances

General

The prayer ya'alei ve-yavo is added to the three regular prayers ; if it is forgotten, the morning and afternoon prayers are invalid and need to be repeated. After the morning Amidah, the Hallel (Psalms 113-118) are inserted. The Torah is read from Numbers (28:1-15, dealing with the offerings of Rosh Chodesh). An additional Amidah, termed mussaf is inserted to commemorate the sacrifices in the Jewish Temple. The ya'alei ve-yavo prayer is also inserted in the Grace after Meals (birkath ha-mazon). If Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbat, the regular Torah reading is supplemented with a reading of Numbers 28:9-15. In some months, a special Haftarah portion is read (additionally, a different Haftarah titled machar chodesh is often read if Rosh Chodesh occurs on the next day). In the mussaf of Shabbat the central benediction is replaced with a version (atta yetzarta) that mentions both the Shabbat and Rosh Chodesh. Jewish services are the communal prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... The Amidah (Standing), also called the Shemoneh Esreh (The Eighteen), is the central prayer in the Jewish liturgy that observant Jews recite each morning, afternoon, and evening. ... Hallel (Hebrew: הלל Praise [God]) is part of Judaisms prayers, a verbatim derivation from Psalms 113-118, which is used for praise and thanksgiving that is recited by observant Jews on Jewish holidays. ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... Korban (קרבן) (plural: Korbanot קרבנות) in Judaism, is commonly called a religious sacrifice or an offering in English, but is known as a Korban in Hebrew because its Hebrew root K [a] R [o] V (קרב) (or K [o] R [a] V) means to [come] Close (or Draw Near) [to God], which the... The Jerusalem Temple (Hebrew: beit ha-mikdash) was the center of Israelite and Jewish worship, primarily for the offering of sacrifices known as the korbanot. ... Shabbat (שבת shabbāt, rest Hebrew, or Shabbos in Ashkenazic pronunciation), is the weekly day of rest in Judaism. ... The haftarah (haftara, haphtara, haphtarah, Hebrew הפטרה‎; plural haftarot, haftaros, haphtarot, haphtaros) is a text selected from the books of Neviim (The Prophets) that is read publicly in the synagogue after the reading of the Torah on each Sabbath, as well as on Jewish festivals and fast days. ...


A Woman's Holiday

Rosh Chodesh has long been recognized as a women's holiday. According to the Talmud (tractate Megillah 22b) women are exempt from work on Rosh Chodesh, and Rashi, in commenting on this passage, delineates the activities from which they may refrain: spinning, weaving, and sewing — the skills which women so enthusiastically contributed to the building of the Mishkan (Tabernacle). According to midrash Pirke DeRabbi Eliezer (chapter 45), it is specifically the women who merit this monthly holiday in commemoration of the Biblical women's refusal to relinquish their earrings to the men who were building the Golden Calf. As a reward, God gave them an extra holy day each month, free from work. It is customary to wear new clothing on Rosh Chodesh, in celebration of the day's special character. The Talmud (תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions of Jewish law, ethics, customs, legends, and stories, which Jewish tradition considers authoritative. ... Rashi Rashi רשי, an acronym for Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac (Hebrew: רבי שלמה בן יצחק) or Shlomo Yitzchaki, (February 22, 1040 – July 17, 1105) is one of Judaisms classic meforshim (Bible and Talmud commentators), and wrote the first comprehensive commentaries on the Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible) and Talmud. ... The Tabernacle is known in Hebrew as the Mishkan (Place of [Divine] dwelling). It was to be a portable central place of worship for the Hebrews from the time they left ancient Egypt following the Exodus, through the time of the Book of Judges when they were engaged in conquering... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin: imagery influenced by the Greco-Roman bacchanal In the Hebrew Bible the golden calf was an idol made by Aaron for the Israelites during Mosess unexpectedly long absence. ...


See also

The Hebrew calendar (Hebrew: ) or Jewish calendar is the annual calendar used in Judaism. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Moshe ben Maimon (March 30, 1135–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher. ... The Metonic cycle or Enneadecaeteris in astronomy and calendar studies is a particular approximate common multiple of the tropical year and the synodic month. ... Solar year The period of time required for the earth to make one complete revolution around the sun, measured from one vernal equinox to the next. ... In astronomy, a phase of the Moon is any of the aspects or appearances presented by the Moon as seen from Earth, determined by the portion of the Moon that is visibly illuminated by the Sun. ...

External links

  • The Laws of Rosh Chodesh chabad.org
  • Jewish Virtual Library - Rosh Chodesh
  • Jewish Calendar for Outlook

- A solution for incorporating Jewish dates and holidays into Microsoft Outlook. Screenshot of Outlook 2003 Microsoft Outlook is a personal information manager from Microsoft, and is part of the Microsoft Office suite. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Rosh hodesh (1587 words)
The mythology of Rosh Hodesh was tied to the worship of goddesses, the use of fertility figures, to women's proclamation or oracles, and to the honoring of women's fertility cycles, but over the centuries the origins of the rituals were obscured.
Rosh Hodesh was once a time when men and women visited holy shrines to consult with oracle women to receive direction for the coming moon.
Rosh Hodesh Tevet is the seventh day of Hanukkah (which occurs around the winter solstice) and is celebrated as the day to remember Judith, the heroine who beheaded the wicked Holofernes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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