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Encyclopedia > Rose
Rose
Bridal Pink, Hybrid Tea Rose, Morwell Rose Garden
Bridal Pink, Hybrid Tea Rose, Morwell Rose Garden
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Rosoideae
Genus: Rosa L.
Species

Between 100 and 150, see list // Look up rose, Rose, rosé in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1067 pixel, file size: 346 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Bridal Pink Boerner USA 1967; hybrid tea rose taken in the Morwell Rose Garden in March 2007 If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class of flowering plants. ... Families Barbeyaceae Cannabaceae (hemp family) Dirachmaceae Elaeagnaceae Moraceae (mulberry family) Rosaceae (rose family) Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family) Ulmaceae (elm family) Urticaceae (nettle family) For the Philippine municipality, see Rosales, Pangasinan. ... Global distribution of Rosaceae Subfamilies Rosoideae Spiraeoideae Maloideae Amygdaloideae or Prunoideae The Rosaceae or rose family is a large family of plants, with about 3,000-4,000 species in 100-120 genera. ... Genera Aphanes Dryas - mountain avens Filipendula Fragaria - strawberry Geum - avens Kerria Potentilla - cinquefoil Rhodotypos Rosa - rose Rubus - bramble fruit Waldsteinia The rose subfamily Rosoideae includes many shrubs and perennial herbs. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... There is significant disagreement over the number of true rose species. ...

Meillandine rose in a terra cotta flowerpot
Meillandine rose in a terra cotta flowerpot

A rose is a flowering shrub of the genus Rosa, and the flower of this shrub. There are more than a hundred species of wild roses, all from the northern hemisphere and mostly from temperate regions. The species form a group of generally prickly shrubs or climbers, and sometimes trailing plants, reaching 2–5 metres tall, occasionally reaching as high as 20 metres by climbing over other plants. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 394 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,135 × 3,244 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 394 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,135 × 3,244 pixels, file size: 1. ... Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... Liana tangle across a forest in the Western Ghats Woman swinging on a liana in Aokigahara forest, Japan A canopy that has formed over Monkey Ladder Vine A liana is a woody climber [1] that starts at ground level, and uses trees to climb up to the canopy where it... This article is about the unit of length. ...


The name originates from Latin rosa, borrowed through Oscan from colonial Greek in southern Italy: rhodon (Aeolic form: wrodon), from Aramaic wurrdā, from Assyrian wurtinnu, from Old Iranian *warda (cf. Armenian vard, Avestan warda, Sogdian ward, Parthian wâr). For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Denarius of Marsican Confederation with Oscan legend. ... Magna Graecia around 280 b. ... Linguists use the term Aeolic to describe a set of rather archaic Greek sub-dialects, spoken mainly in Boeotia (a region in Central Greece), in Lesbos (an island close to Asia Minor) and in other Greek colonies. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... The term Assyrian language can mean one of: Assyrian Neo-Aramaic: a language spoken in Israel, Syria, and Mesopotamia from perhaps 700 BC until now. ... Yasna 28. ... The Sogdian language is a Middle Iranian language spoken in Sogdiana (Zarafshan River Valley) in the modern day republics of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (chief cities: Samarkand, Panjikent, Ferghana). ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo-European language family with estimated 150-200 million native speakers. ...


Rose hips are sometimes eaten, mainly for their vitamin C content. They are usually pressed and filtered to make rose hip syrup, as the fine hairs surrounding the seeds are unpleasant to eat (resembling itching powder). They can also be used to make herbal tea, jam, jelly and marmalade. A rose that has aged or gone rotten may not be particularly fragrant, but the rose's basic chemistry prevents it from producing a pungent odor of any kind. Notably, when balled and mashed together the fragrance of the rose is enhanced. The fragrance of particularly large balls of mashed roses is enhanced even further. Rose hips are also used to produce an oil used in skin products. Rose shrubs are often used by homeowners and landscape architects for home security purposes. The sharp thorns of many rose species deter unauthorized persons from entering private properties, and may prevent break-ins if planted under windows and near drainpipes. The aesthetic characteristics of rose shrubs, in conjunction with their home security qualities, makes them a considerable alternative to artificial fences and walls.[1][2] Dog Rose showing the bright red hips Wild rose hip of unknown species The rose hip, also called the rose haw, is the pomaceous fruit of the rose plant. ... Itching powder refers to a group of powders or powder-like substances which induce itching when applied onto human skin. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... Jam from berries Jam (also known as jelly or preserves) is a type of sweet spread or condiment made with fruits or sometimes vegetables, sugar, and sometimes pectin if the fruits natural pectin content is insufficient to produce a thick product. ... Jam from berries Fruit preserves refers to fruit, or vegetables, that have been prepared and canned for long term storage. ... For other uses, see Marmalade (disambiguation). ... Rose hip seed oil is a pressed seed oil, extracted from the seeds of a rose bush (Rosa rubiginosa) which grows wild in the southern Andes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Landscape architecture. ... Burglar (or intrusion), fire and safety alarms are commonly found in electronic form today. ... A fence in Westtown Township, Pennsylvania. ... A brick wall A wall is a usually solid structure that defines and sometimes protects an area. ...

Contents

Botany

The leaves of most species are 5–15 centimetres long, pinnate, with (3–) 5–9 (–13) leaflets and basal stipules; the leaflets usually have a serrated margin, and often a few small prickles on the underside of the stem. The vast majority of roses are deciduous, but a few (particularly in Southeast Asia) are evergreen or nearly so. Rose hips (Rosa canina) - photo User:MPF File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Rose hips (Rosa canina) - photo User:MPF File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Rosa canina L. Rosa canina (lit. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... Look up Pinnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... This article is about plant types. ...


The flowers of most species roses have five petals, with the exception of Rosa sericea, which usually has only four. Each petal is divided into two distinct lobes and is usually white or pink, though in a few species yellow or red. Beneath the petals are five sepals (or in the case of some Rosa sericea, four). These may be long enough to be visible when viewed from above and appear as green points alternating with the rounded petals. The ovary is inferior, developing below the petals and sepals. For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Rosa sericea Lindl. ... Binomial name Rosa sericea Lindl. ...


The aggregate fruit of the rose is a berry-like structure called a rose hip. Rose species that produce open-faced flowers are attractive to pollinating bees and other insects, thus more apt to produce hips. Many of the domestic cultivars are so tightly petalled that they do not provide access for pollination. The hips of most species are red, but a few (e.g. Rosa pimpinellifolia) have dark purple to black hips. Each hip comprises an outer fleshy layer, the hypanthium, which contains 5–160 "seeds" (technically dry single-seeded fruits called achenes) embedded in a matrix of fine, but stiff, hairs. Rose hips of some species, especially the Dog Rose (Rosa canina) and Rugosa Rose (Rosa rugosa), are very rich in vitamin C, among the richest sources of any plant. The hips are eaten by fruit-eating birds such as thrushes and waxwings, which then disperse the seeds in their droppings. Some birds, particularly finches, also eat the seeds. For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Dog Rose showing the bright red hips Wild rose hip of unknown species The rose hip, also called the rose haw, is the pomaceous fruit of the rose plant. ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant carpel, the structure that contains the ovule (female gamete). ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Binomial name Rosa pimpinellifolia L. Rosa pimpinellifolia (Burnet Rose) is a species of rose native to western, central and southern Europe (north to Iceland and Norway) and northwest Africa. ... A hypanthium is a bowl-shaped part of a flower consisting of the bottoms of the sepals, petals, and stamens stuck together. ... An achene is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. ... The Dog Rose (Rosa canina) is a scrambling shrub-like rose species native to Europe, northwest Africa and western Asia. ... Binomial name Rosa rugosa Thunb. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Genera 22 genera, see text The Thrushes, family Turdidae, are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly but not exclusively in the Old World. ... Species B. garrulus B. cedrorum The waxwings are a group of passerine birds characterised by soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. ... For other meanings, see Finch (disambiguation). ...


While the sharp objects along a rose stem are commonly called "thorns", they are actually prickles — outgrowths of the epidermis (the outer layer of tissue of the stem). True thorns, as produced by e.g. Citrus or Pyracantha, are modified stems, which always originate at a node and which have nodes and internodes along the length of the thorn itself. Rose prickles are typically sickle-shaped hooks, which aid the rose in hanging onto other vegetation when growing over it. Some species such as Rosa rugosa and R. pimpinellifolia have densely packed straight spines, probably an adaptation to reduce browsing by animals, but also possibly an adaptation to trap wind-blown sand and so reduce erosion and protect their roots (both of these species grow naturally on coastal sand dunes). Despite the presence of prickles, roses are frequently browsed by deer. A few species of roses only have vestigial prickles that have no points. For other uses, see Citrus (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Coast (disambiguation). ... This article is about sand formations. ... This article is about the ruminent animal. ...


Species

Further information: List of Rosa species

Some representative rose species There is significant disagreement over the number of true rose species. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name Rosa multiflora Thunb. ...

Binomial name Rosa canina L. Rosa canina (lit. ... Binomial name Rosa chinensis Jacq. ... Binomial name Rosa dumalis Bechst. ... Binomial name Rosa gallica L. The Gallic Rose (also French Rose, Rose of Provinces) is a Rose species native to Southern and Central Europe and is one of the earliest cultivated species of roses, being cultivated by the Greek and Romans and it was commonly used in Mediaeval gardens. ... Binomial name Rosa gigantea Collett ex Crép. ... Binomial name Rosa glauca Pourret Redleaf Rose (), formerly , is a shrub-like rose species native to mountains of central and southern Europe. ... Binomial name Rosa laevigata Michx. ... Binomial name Rosa multiflora Thunb. ... Binomial name Rosa rubiginosa L. Rosa rubiginosa (Sweet briar or Eglantine Rose; syn. ... Binomial name Rosa rugosa Thunb. ... Binomial name Rosa virginiana P.Mill. ...

Pests and diseases

Main articles: Pests and diseases of roses and List of rose diseases

Roses are subject to several diseases. The most serious is rose rust (Phragmidium mucronatum), a species of rust fungus, which can defoliate the plant. More common, though less debilitating, are rose black spot, caused by the fungus Diplocarpon rosae, which makes circular black spots on the leaves in summer, and powdery mildew, caused by Sphaerotheca pannosa. Fungal diseases are best solved by a preventative fungicidal spray program rather than by trying to cure an infection after it is visible. After the disease is visible, its spread can be minimized through pruning and use of fungicides although actual infection cannot be reversed. Some rose varieties are considerably less susceptible than others to fungal disease. Roses are susceptible to a number of pests, diseases and disorders. ... This article is a list of diseases of roses (Rosa spp. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Families Pucciniaceae Melampsoraceae Coleosporiaceae Cronartiaceae Phragmidiaceae Pucciniastraceae Rusts are fungi of the order Uredinales. ... <= Black spot This article is about the disease of roses, for blackspot of strawberries see Colletotrichum acutatum, for the definition relating to pirates, see The Black Spot. ... Powdery mildew Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that affects a wide range of plants. ... A Fungicide is one of three main methods of pest control- chemical control of fungi in this case. ...


The main insect pest affecting roses is the aphid (greenfly), which sucks the sap and weakens the plant. Ladybirds are a predator of aphids and should be encouraged in the rose garden. Spraying with insecticide is often recommended but should be done with care to minimize loss of beneficial insects. Roses are also used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species; see list of Lepidoptera which feed on Roses. Families There are 10 families: Anoeciidae Aphididae Drepanosiphidae Greenideidae Hormaphididae Lachnidae Mindaridae Pemphigidae Phloeomyzidae Thelaxidae Aphids, also known as greenfly or plant lice, are minute plant-feeding insects. ... Ladybird and ladybug redirect here. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... The order Lepidoptera is the second most speciose order in the class Insecta and includes the butterflies, moths and skippers. ... Roses (Rosa spp) are used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species including: Brown-tail (Euproctis chrysorrhoea) Buff-tip (Phalera bucephala) Common Emerald (Hemithea aestivaria) Common Marbled Carpet (Chloroclysta truncata) Copper Underwing (Amphipyra pyramidea) Coxcomb Prominent (Ptilodon capucina) Dark Dagger (Acronicta tridens) Double-striped Pug...


Cultivation

See also: Rose cultivars named after celebrities
Rose-picking in the Rose Valley near the town of Kazanlak in Bulgaria, 1870ies, engraving by Austro-Hungarian traveller F. Kanitz
Rose-picking in the Rose Valley near the town of Kazanlak in Bulgaria, 1870ies, engraving by Austro-Hungarian traveller F. Kanitz
Rosa x alba 'Alba Semiplena', an Alba rose
Rosa x alba 'Alba Semiplena', an Alba rose
Rosa 'Maiden's Blush', an Alba rose
Rosa 'Maiden's Blush', an Alba rose
'Rosa 'Zéphirine Drouhin', a Bourbon rose
'Rosa 'Zéphirine Drouhin', a Bourbon rose
Rosa 'Cajun Sunrise', a modern Hybrid Tea rose
Rosa 'Cajun Sunrise', a modern Hybrid Tea rose
Rosa 'Borussia', a modern Floribunda rose
Rosa 'Borussia', a modern Floribunda rose
Rosa 'Climbing Souvenir de la Malmaison', a Bourbon rose
Rosa 'Climbing Souvenir de la Malmaison', a Bourbon rose

Roses are one of the most popular garden shrubs, as well as the most popular and commonly-sold florists' flowers. In addition to their great economic importance as a florists' crop, roses are also of great value to the perfume industry. Rose cultivators often name new cultivars after famous persons - celebrities. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 391 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,074 × 3,179 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 391 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,074 × 3,179 pixels, file size: 1. ... Rose oil, meaning either rose otto or rose absolute, is the essential oil extracted from the petals of various types of rose. ... Rose Valley is a region in Bulgaria located just south of the Balkan mountains and famous for its rose growing industry from which 70% of the worlds rose oil is produced. ... Kazanlak (Bulgarian: ) is a town located in Stara Zagora Province, Bulgaria. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Felix Philipp Kanitz (Bulgarian and Serbian Cyrillic: Феликс Филип Каниц) (2 August 1829-8 January 1904) was an Austro-Hungarian naturalist, geographer, ethnographer, archaeologist and author of travel notes. ... Rosa Alba Semi-plena This picture was taken by me at the National Rose Garden (U.S. National Arboretum). ... Rosa Alba Semi-plena This picture was taken by me at the National Rose Garden (U.S. National Arboretum). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (500x750, 110 KB)Rose Zépherine Drouhin This photograph taken by me on May 15, 2004. ... Download high resolution version (500x750, 110 KB)Rose Zépherine Drouhin This photograph taken by me on May 15, 2004. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 192 KB) Cajun Sunrise, Albury Botanical Gardens. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 192 KB) Cajun Sunrise, Albury Botanical Gardens. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2848 × 2136 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2848 × 2136 pixel, file size: 1. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Floristry is most often understood as referring to the cultivation of flowers as well as their arrangement, rather than to the business of selling them. ... For other uses, see Perfume (disambiguation). ...


Many thousands of rose hybrids and cultivars have been bred and selected for garden use, mostly double-flowered with many or all of the stamens mutated into additional petals. As long ago as 1840 a collection numbering over one thousand different cultivars, varieties and species was possible when a rosarium was planted by Loddiges nursery for Abney Park Cemetery, an early Victorian garden cemetery and arboretum in England. Twentieth-century rose breeders generally emphasized size and color, producing large, attractive blooms with little or no scent. Many wild and "old-fashioned" roses, by contrast, have a strong sweet scent. This article is about a biological term. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... Stamens of the Amaryllis with prominent anthers carrying pollen Insects, while collecting nectar, unintentionally transfer pollen from one flower to another, bringing about pollination The stamen (from Latin stamen meaning thread of the warp) is the male organ of a flower. ... It has been suggested that Corolla be merged into this article or section. ... Bamboo foliage with black stems (probably Phyllostachys nigra; a bamboo introduced into western cultivation by Loddiges Nursery) The Loddiges family (not uncommonly mis-spelt Loddige) managed one of the most notable of the eighteenth and nineteenth century plant nurseries that traded in and introduced exotic plants, trees, shrubs, ferns, plams... Abney Park Cemetery—every turn of the path reveals a new and unique landscape (September 2005). ...


Roses thrive in temperate climates, though certain species and cultivars can flourish in sub-tropical and even tropical climates, especially when grafted onto appropriate rootstock. In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... Grafted apple tree Malus sp. ... Grafting is a method of plant propagation by which one woody plant is mechanically attached to another so that the two eventually fuse together. ...


There is no single system of classification for garden roses. In general, however, roses are placed in one of three main groups:

  • Wild Roses — The wild roses includes the species listed above and some of their hybrids.
  • Old Garden Roses — Most Old Garden Roses are classified into one of the following groups. In general, Old Garden Roses of European or Mediterranean origin are once-blooming shrubs, with notably fragrant, double-flowered blooms primarily in shades of white, pink and red. The shrubs' foliage tends to be highly disease-resistant, and they generally bloom only on two-year-old canes.
    • Alba — Literally "white roses", derived from R. arvensis and the closely allied R. alba. These are some of the oldest garden roses, probably brought to Great Britain by the Romans. The shrubs flower once yearly in the spring with blossoms of white or pale pink. The shrubs frequently feature gray-green foliage and a climbing habit of growth . Examples: 'Alba Semiplena', 'White Rose of York'.
    • Gallica — The gallica roses have been developed from R. gallica, which is a native of central and southern Europe. They flower once in the summer over low shrubs rarely over 4' tall. Unlike most other once-blooming Old Garden Roses, the gallica class includes shades of red, maroon and deep purplish crimson. Examples: 'Cardinal de Richelieu', 'Charles de Mills', 'Rosa Mundi' (R. gallica versicolor).
    • Damask — Robert de Brie is given credit for bringing them from Persia to Europe sometime between 1254 and 1276, although there is evidence from ancient Roman frescoes that at least one damask rose, the Autumn Damask, existed in Europe for hundreds of years prior. Summer damasks (crosses between gallica roses and R. phoenicea) bloom once in summer. Autumn damasks (Gallicas crossed with R. moschata) bloom again later, in the autumn. Shrubs tend to have rangy to sprawly growth habits and vicious thorns. The flowers typically have a more loose petal formation than gallicas, as well as a stronger, tangy fragrance. Examples: 'Ispahan', 'Madame Hardy'.
    • Centifolia (or Provence) — These roses, raised in the seventeenth century in the Netherlands, are named for their "one hundred" petals; they are often called "cabbage" roses due to the globular shape of the flowers. The result of damask roses crossed with albas, the centifolias are all once-flowering. As a class, they are notable for their inclination to produce mutations of various sizes and forms, including moss roses and some of the first miniature roses (see below) . Examples: 'Centifolia', 'Paul Ricault'.
    • Moss — Mutations of primarily centifolia roses (or sometimes damasks), these have a mossy excrescence on the stems and sepals that often emits a pleasant woodsy or balsam scent when rubbed. Moss roses are cherised for this unique trait, but as a group they have contributed nothing to the development of new rose classifications. Moss roses with centifolia background are once-flowering; some moss roses exhibit repeat-blooming, indicative of Autumn Damask parentage. Example: 'Common Moss' (centifolia-moss), 'Alfred de Dalmas' (Autumn Damask moss).
    • China — The China roses were grown in East Asia for thousands of years and finally reached Western Europe in the late 1700s. Compared to the aforementioned European rose classes, the China roses had smaller, less fragrant, more poorly formed blooms carried over twiggier, more cold-sensitive shrubs. Yet they possessed the amazing ability to bloom repeatedly throughout the summer and into late autumn, unlike their European counterpants. This made they highly desirable for hybridization purposes in the early 1800s. The flowers of China roses were also notable for their tendency to "suntan," or darken over time — unlike the blooms of European roses, which tended to fade after opening. Four China roses ('Slater's Crimson China', 1792; 'Parsons' Pink China', 1793; 'Hume's Blush China', 1809; and 'Parks' Yellow Tea Scented China', 1824) were brought to Europe in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. This brought about the creation of the first classes of repeat-flowering Old Garden Roses, and later the Modern Garden Roses. Examples: 'Old Blush China', 'Mutabilis'.
    • Portland — The Portland roses represent the first group of crosses between China roses and European roses, specifically gallicas and damasks. They were named after the Duchess of Portland who received (from Italy in 1800) a rose then known as R. paestana or 'Scarlet Four Seasons' Rose' (now known simply as 'The Portland Rose'). The whole class of Portland roses was thence developed from that one rose. The first repeat-flowering class of rose with fancy European-style blossoms, they are mostly descended from hybrids between damask and China roses. The plants tend to be fairly short and shrubby, with proportionately short flower stalks. Example: 'James Veitch', 'Rose de Rescht', 'Comte de Chambourd'.
    • Bourbon — Bourbons originated on l'Île de Bourbon (now called Réunion) off the coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean. They are most likely the result of a cross between the Autumn Damask and the 'Old Blush' China rose, both of which were frequently used as hedging materials on the island. They flower repeatedly over vigorous, frequently semi-climbing shrubs with glossy foliage and purple-tinted canes. They were first Introduced in France in 1823. Examples: 'Louise Odier', 'Mme. Pierre Oger', 'Zéphirine Drouhin'.
    • Noisette — The first Noisette rose was raised as a hybrid seedling by a South Carolina rice planter named John Champneys. Its parents were the China Rose 'Parson's Pink' and the autumn-flowering musk rose (Rosa moschata), resulting in a vigorous climbing rose producing huge clusters of small pink flowers from spring to fall. Champneys sent seedlings of his rose (called 'Champneys' Pink Cluster') to his gardening friend, Philippe Noisette, who in turn sent plants to his brother Louis in Paris, who then introduced 'Blush Noisette' in 1817. The first Noisettes were small-blossomed, fairly winter-hardy climbers, but later infusions of Tea rose genes created a Tea-Noisette subclass with larger flowers, smaller clusters, and considerably reduced winter hardiness. Examples: 'Blush Noisette', 'Mme. Alfred Carriere' (Noisette), 'Marechal Niel' (Tea-Noisette). (See French and German articles on Noisette roses)
    • Tea — The result of crossing two of the original China roses ('Hume's Blush China' and 'Parks' Yellow Tea Scented China') with various Bourbons and Noisette roses, tea roses are considerably more tender than other Old Garden Roses (due to cold-tender Rosa gigantea in the ancestry of the 'Parks' Yellow' rose). The teas are repeat-flowering roses, named for their fragrance being reminiscent of Chinese black tea (although this is not always the case). The color range includes pastel shades of white, pink and yellow, and the petals tend to roll back at the edges, producing a petal with a pointed tip. The individual flowers of many cultivars are semi-pendent and nodding, due to weak flower stalks. Examples: 'Lady Hillingdon', 'Maman Cochet'.
    • Hybrid Perpetual — The dominant class of roses in Victorian England, they first emerged in 1838 and were derived to a great extent from the Bourbons. They became the most popular garden and florist roses of northern Europe at the time, as the tender tea roses would not thrive in cold climates. The "perpetual" in the name hints at repeat-flowering, but many varieties of this class had poor reflowering habits; the tendency was for a massive spring bloom, followed by either scattered summer flowering, a smaller autumn burst, or sometimes nothing at all until next spring. Due to a limited color palette (white, pink, red) and lack of reliable repeat-bloom, the hybrid perpetuals were ultimately overshadowed by their own descendants, the Hybrid Teas. Examples: 'Ferdinand Pichard', 'Reine Des Violettes', 'Paul Neyron'.
    • Bermuda "Mystery" Roses — A group of several dozen "found" roses that have been grown in Bermuda for at least a century. The roses have significant value and interest for those growing roses in tropical and semi-tropical regions, since they are highly resistant to both nematode damage and the fungal diseases that plague rose culture in hot, humid areas, and capable of blooming in hot and humid weather. Most of these roses are likely Old Garden Rose cultivars that have otherwise dropped out of cultivation, or sports thereof. They are "mystery roses" because their "proper" historical names have been lost. Tradition dictates that they are named after the owner of the garden where they were rediscovered.
    • Miscellaneous — There are also a few smaller classes (such as Scots, Sweet Brier) and some climbing classes of old roses (including Ayrshire, Climbing China, Laevigata, Sempervirens, Boursault, Climbing Tea, and Climbing Bourbon). Those classes with both climbing and shrub forms are often grouped together.
  • Modern Garden Roses — Classification of modern roses can be quite confusing because many modern roses have old garden roses in their ancestry and their form varies so much. The classifications tend to be by growth and flowering characteristics, such as "large-flowered shrub", "recurrent, large-flowered shrub", "cluster-flowered", "rambler recurrent", or "ground-cover non-recurrent". The following includes the most notable and popular classifications of Modern Garden Roses:
    • Hybrid Tea — The favourite rose for much of the history of modern roses, hybrid teas were initially created by hybridizing Hybrid Perpetuals with Tea roses in the late 1800s. 'La France,' created in 1867, is universally acknowledged as the first indication of a new class of roses. Hybrid teas exhibit traits midway between both parents: hardier than the teas but less hardy than the hybrid perpetuals, and more everblooming than the hybrid perpetuals but less so than the teas. The flowers are well-formed with large, high-centered buds, and each flowering stem typically terminates in a single shapely bloom. The shrubs tend to be stiffly upright and sparsely foliaged, which today is often seen as a liability in the landscape. The hybrid tea class is important in being the first class of roses to include genes from the old Austrian brier rose (Rosa foetida). This resulted in an entirely new color range for roses: shades of deep yellow, apricot, copper, orange, true scarlet, yellow bicolors, lavender, gray, and even brown were now possible. The new color range did much to skyrocket hybrid tea popularity in the 20th century, but these colors came at a price: Rosa foetida also passed on a tendency toward disease-susceptibility, scentless blooms, and an intolerance of pruning, to its descendants. Hybrid teas became the single most popular class of garden rose of the 20th century; today, their reputation as being more high maintenance than many other rose classes has led to a decline in hybrid tea popularity among gardeners and landscapers in favor of lower-maintenance "landscape" roses. The hybrid tea remains the standard rose of the floral industry, however, and is still favoured in small gardens in formal situations. Examples: 'Peace', 'Mr. Lincoln,' 'Double Delight.'
    • Polyantha — Literally "many-flowered" roses, from the Greek "poly" (many) and "anthos" (flower). Originally derived from crosses between two East Asian species (Rosa chinensis and R. multiflora), polyanthas first appeared in France in the late 1800s alongside the hybrid teas. They featured short plants — some compact, others spreading in habit — with tiny blooms (1" in diameter on average) carried in large sprays, in the typical rose colors of white, pink and red. Their main claim to fame was their prolific bloom: From spring to fall, a healthy polyantha shrub might be literally covered in flowers, creating a strong color impact in the landscape. Polyantha roses are still regarded as low-maintenance, disease-resistant garden roses today, and remain popular for that reason. Examples: 'Cecile Brunner', 'The Fairy', 'Red Fairy'.
    • Floribunda — Rose breeders quickly saw the value in crossing polyanthas with hybrid teas, to create roses with that bloomed with the polyantha profusion, but with hybrid tea floral beauty and color range. In 1909, the first polyantha/hybrid tea cross, 'Gruss an Aachen,' was created, with characteristics midway between both parent classes. As the larger, more shapely flowers and hybrid-tea-like growth habit separated these new roses from polyanthas and hybrid teas alike, a new class was created and named Floribunda, Latin for "many-flowering." Typical floribundas feature stiff shrubs, smaller and bushier than the average hybrid tea but less dense and sprawling than the average polyantha. The flowers are often smaller than hybrid teas but are carried in large sprays, giving a better floral effect in the garden. Floribundas are found in all hybrid tea colors and with the classic hybrid tea-shaped blossom, sometimes differing from hybrid teas only in their cluster-flowering habit. Today they are still used in large bedding schemes in public parks and similar spaces. Examples: 'Dainty Maid', 'Iceberg', 'Tuscan Sun'.
    • Grandiflora — Grandifloras (Latin for "large-flowered") were the class of roses created in the mid 1900s to designate back-crosses between hybrid teas and floribundas that fit neither category — specifically, the 'Queen Elizabeth' rose, which was introduced in 1954[3]. Grandiflora shrubs are typically larger than either hybrid teas or floribundas, and feature hybrid tea-style flowers borne in small clusters of three to five, similar to a floribunda. Grandifloras maintained some popularity from about the 1950s to the 1980s but today they are much less popular than either the hybrid teas or the floribundas. Examples: 'Queen Elizabeth', 'Comanche,' 'Montezuma'.
    • Miniature — All of the classes of Old Garden Roses — gallicas, centifolias, etc. — had corresponding miniature forms, although these were once-flowering just as their larger forms were. As with the standard-sized varieties, miniature Old Garden roses were crossed with repeat-blooming Asian species to produce everblooming miniature roses. Today, miniature roses are represented by twiggy, repeat-flowering shrubs ranging from 6" to 36" in height, with most falling in the 12"–24" height range. Blooms come in all the hybrid tea colors; many varieties also emulate the classic high-centered hybrid tea flower shape. Miniature roses are often marketed and sold by the floral industry as houseplants, but it is important to remember that these plants are largely descended from outdoor shrubs native to temperate regions; thus, most miniature rose varieties require an annual period of cold dormancy to survive. Examples: 'Petite de Hollande' (Miniature Centifolia, once-blooming), 'Cupcake' (Modern Miniature, repeat-blooming).
    • Climbing/Rambling — As is the case with Miniature roses, all aforementioned classes of roses, both Old and Modern, have "climbing" forms, whereby the canes of the shrubs grow much longer and more flexible than the normal ("bush") forms. In the Old Garden Roses, this is often simply the natural growth habit of many cultivars and varieties; in many Modern roses, however, climbing roses are the results of spontaneous mutations. For example, 'Climbing Peace' is designated as a "Climbing Hybrid Tea," for it is genetically identical to the normal "shrub" form of the 'Peace' hybrid tea rose, except that its canes are long and flexible, i.e. "climbing." Most Climbing roses grow anywhere from 8'–20' in height and exhibit repeat-bloom. Rambler roses, although technically a separate class, are often lumped together with climbing roses. They also exhibit long, flexible canes, but are distinguished from true climbers in two ways: A larger overall size (20'–30' tall is common), and a once-blooming habit. It should be noted that both climbing roses and rambling roses are not true vines such as ivy, clematis or wisteria; they lack the ability to cling to supports on their own, and must be manually trained and tied over structures such as arbors and pergolas. Examples: 'Blaze' (repeat-blooming climber), 'American Pillar' (once-blooming rambler).
    • English/David Austin — Although not officially recognized as a separate class of roses by any established rose authority, English (aka David Austin) roses are often set aside as such by consumers and retailers alike. They were conceptualized and created in the 1960s by David Austin of Shropshire, England, who wanted to rekindle interest in Old Garden Roses by hybridizing OGRs with modern hybrid teas and floribundas. The idea was to create a new group of roses that featured blooms with old-fashioned shapes and fragrances, evocative of classic gallica, alba and damask roses, but with modern repeat-blooming characteristics and the larger modern color range as well. Austin mostly succeeded in his mission; his tribe of "English" roses, now numbering hundreds of varieties, has been warmly embraced by the gardening public and are widely available to consumers. It should be noted that the typical winter-hardiness and disease-resistance of the classic Old Garden Roses has largely been compromised in the process; many English roses are susceptible to the same disease problems that plague modern hybrid teas and floribundas, and many are not hardy north of USDA Zone 5. Examples: 'Mary Rose,' 'Graham Thomas', 'Tamora'.
  • Landscape Roses — These are a modern classifation of rose developed mainly for mass amenity planting. In the late 20th century, traditional hybrid tea and floribunda rose varieties fell out of favor amid gardeners and landscapers, as they are often labor- and chemical-intensive plants susceptible to myriad pest and disease problems. So-called "landscape" roses have thus been developed to fill the consumer desire for a garden rose that offers color, form and fragrance, but is also low maintenance and easy to care for. Most landscape roses having the following characteristics:
    • Good disease resistance
    • Lower growing habit, usually under 60cm
    • Repeat flowering
    • Disease and pest resistance
    • Non suckering, growing on their own roots.

Principal parties involved in the breeding of new Landscape Roses varieties are Werner Noak (Germany) Meidiland Roses (France) Boot&Co. (Netherlands) For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The White Rose of York (Rosa alba) is the symbol of the House of York and latterly of Yorkshire. ... Binomial name Rosa gallica L. The Gallic Rose (also French Rose, Rose of Provinces) is a Rose species native to Southern and Central Europe and is one of the earliest cultivated species of roses, being cultivated by the Greek and Romans and it was commonly used in Mediaeval gardens. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Damasks are an important type of Old Roses, also for their prominent place in the pedigree of many other types. ... Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE   -  Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE   -  Sassanid dynastic empire 224–651 CE   -  Safavid dynasty... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... January 21 - Pope Innocent V succeeds Pope Gregory X as the 185th pope. ... Ispahan is a kind of Damask rose. ... Binomial name Rosa centifolia L. Rosa centifolia (lit. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Stem showing internode and nodes plus leaf petiole and new stem rising from node. ... Flower of the Primrose Willowherb (Ludwigia octovalvis) showing petals and sepals A sepal is one member or part of the calyx of a flower. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century &#8212; 19th century &#8212; 20th century &#8212; more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Duke of Portland is a peerage title created in 1716 for Henry Bentinck, who was already Earl of Portland. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Classes Adenophorea    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria    Subclass Tylenchia The nematodes or roundworms (Phylum nematoda from Greek (nema): thread + -ode like) are one of the most common phyla of animals, with over 80,000 different described species (over 15,000 are parasitic). ... Black spot Black Spot or Black Spot of Rose is a disease common to roses, caused by the fungus Diplocarpon rosae. ... Hybrid Tea is a Cultivar Group of roses, created by cross-breeding two different types of roses. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901&#8211;2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900&#8211;1999... The Peace rose is the most famous and successful garden rose of all time. ... Species Cipocereus crassisepalus Cipocereus pusilliflorus Cipocereus bradei Cipocereus is a genus of cacti from Brazil. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Look up miniature in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Species Hedera algeriensis – Algerian Ivy Hedera azorica – Azores Ivy Hedera canariensis – Canaries Ivy Hedera caucasigena Hedera colchica – Caucasian Ivy Hedera cypria Hedera helix – Common Ivy Hedera hibernica – Irish Ivy Hedera maderensis – Madeiran Ivy Hedera maroccana Hedera nepalensis – Himalayan Ivy Hedera pastuchowii – Pastuchovs Ivy Hedera rhombea – Japanese Ivy Hedera sinensis... Species See text. ... Species See text. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... David C.H. Austin (born 1926) is a rose breeder and writer who lives in Shropshire, England. ... Shropshire (pronounced /, -/), alternatively known as Salop[6] or abbreviated Shrops[7], is a county in the West Midlands of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Pruning

Rose pruning, sometimes regarded as a horticultural art form, is largely dependant on the type of rose to be pruned, the reason for pruning, and the time of year it is at the time of the desired pruning. In microeconomics, pruning taken as a metaphor from gardening, refers to the removal of excess items from a budget. ...


Most Old Garden Roses of strict European heritage (albas, damasks, gallicas, etc.) are shrubs that bloom once yearly, in late spring or early summer, on two-year-old (or older) canes. As such, their pruning requirements are quite minimal, and are overall similar to any other analogous shrub, such as lilac or forsythia. Generally, only old, spindly canes should be pruned away, to make room for new canes. One-year-old canes should never be pruned because doing so will remove next year's flower buds. The shrubs can also be pruned back lightly, immediately after the blooms fade, to reduce the overall height or width of the plant. In general, pruning requirements for OGRs are much less laborious and regimented than for Modern hybrids. Look up lilac in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Species See text. ...


Modern hybrids, including the hybrid teas, floribundas, grandifloras, modern miniatures, and English roses, have a complex genetic background that almost always includes China roses (R. chinensis). China roses were evergrowing, everblooming roses from humid subtropical regions that bloomed constantly on any new vegetative growth produced during the growing season. Their modern hybrid descendants exhibit similar habits: Unlike Old Garden Roses, modern hybrids bloom continuously (until stopped by frost) on any new canes produced during the growing season. They therefore require pruning away of any spent flowering stem, in order to divert the plant's energy into producing new growth and thence new flowers.


Additionally, Modern Hybrids planted in cold-winter climates will almost universally require a "hard" annual pruning (reducing all canes to 8"–12" in height) in early spring. Again, because of their complex China rose background, Modern Hybrids are typically not as cold-hardy as European OGRs, and low winter temperatures often desiccate or kill exposed canes. In spring, if left unpruned, these damanged canes will often die back all the way to the shrub's root zone, resulting in a weakened, disfigured plant. The annual "hard" pruning of hybrid teas, floribundas, etc. should generally be done in early spring; most gardeneres coincide this pruning with the blooming of forsythia shrubs. Canes should be cut about 1/2" above a vegetative bud (identifiable as a point on a cane where a leaf once grew).


For both Old Garden Roses and Modern Hybrids, any weak, damaged or diseased growth should be pruned away completely, regardless of the time of year. Any pruning of any rose should also be done so that the cut is made at a 45-degree angle above a vegetative bud. This helps the pruned stem callus-over more quickly, and also mitigates moisture buildup over the cut, which can lead to disease problems.


For all general rose pruning (including cutting flowers for arrangements), sharp secateurs (hand-held, sickle-bladed pruners) should be used to cut any growth 1/2" or less in diameter. For canes of a thickness greater than 1/2", pole loppers or a small handsaw are generally more effective; secateurs may be damaged or broken in such instances.


Deadheading

Deadheading is the simple practice of manually removing any spent, faded, withered or discolored flowers from rose shrubs over the course of the blooming season. In Modern Hybrid roses, this is done for several reasons: To promote rebloom, to keep shrubs looking tidy, to eliminate stem dieback (see Pruning, above) and to eliminate excess debris accumulation in the garden. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pruning. ...


Deadheading is less necessary with Old Garden Roses, as it will not promote rebloom in any once-blooming varieties, but can still be done after the flowers fade for aesthetic purposes.


History

The rose has always been valued for its beauty and has a long history of symbolism. The ancient Greeks and Romans identified the rose with their goddesses of love referred to as Aphrodite and Venus. In Rome a wild rose would be placed on the door of a room where secret or confidential matters were discussed. The phrase sub rosa, or "under the rose", means to keep a secret — derived from this ancient Roman practice. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Look up sub rosa in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Early Christians identified the five petals of the rose with the five wounds of Christ. Despite this interpretation, their leaders were hesitant to adopt it because of its association with Roman excesses and pagan ritual. The red rose was eventually adopted as a symbol of the blood of the Christian martyrs. Roses also later came to be associated with the Virgin Mary. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...


Rose culture came into its own in Europe in the 1800s with the introduction of perpetual blooming roses from China. There are currently thousands of varieties of roses developed for bloom shape, size, fragrance and even for lack of prickles. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Culture

A Red rose
A Red rose

Roses are ancient symbols of love and beauty. The rose was sacred to a number of goddesses (including Isis and Aphrodite), and is often used as a symbol of the Virgin Mary. Roses are so important that the word means pink or red in a variety of languages (such as Romance languages, Greek, and Polish). Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,632 × 1,224 pixels, file size: 305 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,632 × 1,224 pixels, file size: 305 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... For beauty as a characteristic of a persons appearance, see Physical attractiveness. ... For the 1934 film, see The Goddess (1934 film). ... This article discusses the ancient goddess Isis. ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... Gabriel delivering the Annunciation to Mary. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ...


The rose is the national flower of England and the United States, as well as being the symbol of England Rugby, and of the Rugby Football Union. It is also the provincial flower of Yorkshire and Lancashire in England (the white rose and red rose respectively) and of Alberta (the wild rose), and the state flower of four US states: Iowa and North Dakota (R. arkansana), Georgia (R. laevigata), and New York[4] (Rosa generally). Portland, Oregon counts "City of Roses" among its nicknames, and holds an annual Rose Festival. A national emblem is a symbol that represents a nation. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... England Rugby is the name of the English national rugby union team. ... The Rugby Football Union (RFU) is the rugby union governing body in England. ... Yorkshire is a historic county of northern England. ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Largest metro area Des Moines metropolitan area Area  Ranked 26th  - Total 56,272 sq mi (145,743 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 199 miles (320 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... Binomial name Rosa arkansana Porter The Wild Prairie Rose, Rosa arkansana, also known as Rosa pratincola, Rosa suffulta, and Rosa suffulta var. ... Binomial name Rosa laevigata Michx. ... This article is about the state. ... Species About 100, see text References:   U. of Illinois 2002-05-29 A rose is a flowering shrub of the genus Rosa and the flower of this shrub. ... Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State Counties Multnomah County Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - Total 376. ...


Roses are occasionally the basis of design for rose windows, such windows comprising five or ten segments (the five petals and five sepals of a rose) or multiples thereof; however most Gothic rose windows are much more elaborate and were probably based originally on the wheel and other symbolism. The rose window in Bristol Cathedral, Bristol, England, at the western end of the nave. ...


A red rose (often held in a hand) is also a symbol of socialism or social democracy; it is also used as a symbol by the British and Irish Labour Parties, as well as by the French, Spanish (Spanish Socialist Workers' Party), Portuguese, Norwegian, Danish, Swedish, Finnish, Brazilian, Dutch (Partij van de Arbeid) and European socialist parties. This originates from the red rose used as a badge by the marchers in the May 1968 street protests in Paris. White Rose was a World War II non-violent resistance group in Germany. Socialism is a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Political Parties redirects here. ... For the Belgian political party of the same name, see Partij van de Arbeid (Belgium). ... A May 1968 poster: Be young and shut up, with stereotypical silhouette of General de Gaulle. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the German resistance movement. ...


Symbolism

Further information: Rose (symbolism)

According to the Robert Bangert"language of flowers", certain rose colors carry specific symbolic meanings. For additional symbolism of the Rose, see these other articles: Rose Cross The Rose (from the Dark Tower series) Black Rose (symbolism) Categories: | ... For the indie pop band, see Language of Flowers (band). ...

  • Red: love, "I Love You"
  • Pink: grace, gentle feelings of love
  • Dark Pink: gratitude
  • Light Pink: admiration, sympathy
  • White: innocence, purity, secrecy, friendship, reverence and humility.
  • Yellow: often akin to joy and deep friendship or platonic love. In German-speaking countries, however, they can mean jealousy and infidelity.
  • Yellow with red tips: Friendship, falling in love
  • Orange: passion
  • Burgundy: beauty
  • Blue: mystery
Further information: blue rose
  • Green: calm
  • Black: used to signify death (black being the color of death) often of old habits. In a positive light it signifies rebirth after death. Also, slavish devotion (as a true black rose is impossible to produce).
  • Purple: protection (paternal/maternal love)

The rose also has various supernatural and literary attributes. Platonic love in its modern popular sense is an affectionate relationship into which the sexual element does not enter, especially in cases where one might easily assume otherwise. ... Since roses lack a gene to produce delphinidin, the primary plant pigment that produces true blue flowers, blue roses were traditionally created by dyeing white roses. ...


In art

Roses are often portrayed by artists. The French artist Pierre-Joseph Redouté produced some of the most detailed paintings of roses. roses in a vase painted by Pierre-Auguste Renois This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... roses in a vase painted by Pierre-Auguste Renois This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Pierre-Auguste Renoir (February 25, 1841–December 3, 1919) was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. ... Binomial name Rosa centifolia L. Rosa centifolia (lit. ... The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of activities to do with creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. ... Pierre-Joseph Redouté (1759 - 1840) was a French painter, best known for his paintings of the flowers at Malmaison. ...


Henri Fantin-Latour was also a prolific painter of still life, particularly flowers including roses. The Rose 'Fantin-Latour' was named after the artist. Self Portrait by Henri Fantin-Latour (1859), at the Musée des Beaux-Arts, Grenoble Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Henri Fantin-Latour Henri Fantin-Latour (January 14, 1836 - August 25, 1904) was a French painter and lithographer. ...


Other impressionists including Claude Monet and Paul Cézanne have paintings of roses among their works. Claude Monet also known as Oscar-Claude Monet or Claude Oscar Monet (November 14, 1840 – December 5, 1926)[1] was a founder of French impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movements philosophy of expressing ones perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein... Cezanne redirects here. ...


Quotes

And the white rose breathes of love;
O, the red rose is a falcon,
And the white rose is a dove.
But I send you a cream-white rosebud
With a flush on its petal tips;
For the love that is purest and sweetest
Has a kiss of desire on the lips - John Boyle O'Reilly, A White Rose Rumi (born November 29, 1982) is a Persian-Canadian Singer-songwriter and a Photographer who is currently based in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Romeo and Juliet in the famous balcony scene by Ford Madox Brown For other uses, see Romeo and Juliet (disambiguation). ... For the chain gang fugitive and author from Georgia, see Robert Elliott Burns. ... A Red, Red Rose is a 1794 song in Scots by Robert Burns based on traditional sources. ... Rose oil, meaning either rose otto or rose absolute, is the essential oil extracted from the petals of various types of rose. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Roughing It is a semi-non-fiction work written by American author Mark Twain. ... John Boyle OReilly John Boyle OReilly (28 June 1844–10 August 1890) was an Irish-born poet and novelist. ...

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the band, see Bread and Roses (band). ... The sentence Rose is a rose is a rose is a rose. ... Gertrude Stein (February 3, 1874 – July 27, 1946) was an American writer who became a catalyst in the development of modern art and literature. ... Jeremy Hilary Boob Ph. ... Nowhere Man is a song by British 1960s rock group The Beatles, on their hit album Rubber Soul (in the US on the Yesterday . ... For the song, see Yellow Submarine (song). ... The Tick is the name of a series of comic books and an animated TV series created in 1986 by Ben Edlund, following the exploits of a blue-skinned muscular man named The Tick who fights crime in a place simply called The City. He is an absurdist spoof of... Poison is an American glam metal band which originally achieved popular success in the late 1980s and early 1990s. ...

Perfume

Main article: Rose oil

Rose perfumes are made from attar of roses or rose oil, which is a mixture of volatile essential oils obtained by steam-distilling the crushed petals of roses. The technique originated in Persia (the word Rose itself is from Persian) then spread through Arabia and India, but nowadays about 70% to 80% of production is in the Rose Valley near Kazanluk in Bulgaria, with some production in Qamsar in Iran and Germany.[citation needed] The Kaaba in Mecca is annually washed by the Iranian rose water from Qamsar. In Bulgaria, Iran and Germany, damask roses (Rosa damascena 'Trigintipetala') are used. In the French rose oil industry Rosa centifolia is used. The oil, pale yellow or yellow-grey in color, is sometimes called 'Rose Absolute' oil to distinguish it from diluted versions. The weight of oil extracted is about one three-thousandth to one six-thousandth of the weight of the flowers; for example, about 2,000 flowers are required to produce one gram of oil. Rose oil, meaning either rose otto or rose absolute, is the essential oil extracted from the petals of various types of rose. ... Attar of Roses, an essential oil obtained by distilling rose leaves of certain species in water, of very strong odor, pleasant when diluted; is used for perfume; it used to be made in India, Persia, Syria, and the Ottoman Empire. ... An essential oil is a concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aromatic compounds from plants. ... Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE   -  Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE   -  Sassanid dynastic empire 224–651 CE   -  Safavid dynasty... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Rose Valley is a region in Bulgaria located just south of the Balkan mountains and famous for its rose growing industry from which 70% of the worlds rose oil is produced. ... Kazanluk is a small town in Bulgaria lying at the eastern end of the world-famous Rose Valley. ... Qamsar is a city in the Isfahan province of Iran near the city of Kashan. ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Rosewater is the hydrosol portion of the distillate of rose petals. ...


The main constituents of attar of roses are the fragrant alcohols geraniol, which has the empirical formula C10H18O and the structural formula CH3.C[CH3]:CH.CH2.CH2.C[CH3]:CH.CH2OH and l-citronellol; and rose camphor, an odourless paraffin.There is also a balm consisting of crushed raspberries, strawberries, blackberries, and rose petals which make your skin softer that is commonly used in the United States and in Mexico. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Geraniol, also called rhodinol, is a monoterpenoid and an alcohol. ... Citronellol, or dihydrogeraniol, is a natural acyclic monoterpenoid. ... For other uses, see Paraffin (disambiguation). ...


Notable rose growers

Some rose growers are known for their particular contributions to the field. These include:

David C.H. Austin (born 1926) is a rose breeder and writer who lives in Shropshire, England. ... Joséphine de Beauharnais (nee Marie Josèphe Rose Tascher de la Pagerie June 23, 1763 – May 29, 1814) was the first wife of Napoléon Bonaparte and thus the first Empress of the French. ... Griffith Buck (1915 â€“ 28 March 1991) was a professor of horticulture who created over 80 named cultivars of the rose, all of which are capable of withstanding temperatures of -20°F and need no pesticides or fungicides to thrive. ... Conard Pyle Co, the world-famous horticultural house, based for over 100 years in West Grove, Pennsylvania, USA, and the introducer of the Peace rose, did not always specialise in rose production, but at one time was the leading Canmna grower and hybridiser in the USA. // 1855 Alfred Conard formed... Jules Gravereaux (1844-1916) was a French rosarian. ... Meilland International SA is a family-owned rose growing business founded c. ... Jean Claude Pernet, père (October 15, 1832 - March 31, 1896) was a French rosarian known for his cultivation of rose varieties. ... Joseph Pernet-Ducher (1859-1928) was a French rosarian and hybridizer. ... Suzuki Seizo is a Japanese rose hybridizer and the director of the Keisei Rose Research Institute in Japan. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Shrub Rose, an article from Home Security Guru
  2. ^ Yard Protection: Your First Line of Defense, an article from Home Security Guru
  3. ^ The Great Roses: Queen Elizabeth
  4. ^ New York State Flower. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

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COMMENTARY     

Ms. Potent
12th September 2010
Can you provide the diagrams of the rose where the ovaries, the stamens, the stigmas and anthers, etc. are exposed? It would be very helpful although this is the best article I have read on roses so far. Thank you!
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