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Encyclopedia > Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks in 1955, with Martin Luther King, Jr. in the background.
Born February 4, 1913
Tuskegee, Alabama, USA
Died October 24, 2005
Detroit, Michigan, USA

Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913October 24, 2005) was an African American civil rights activist and seamstress whom the U.S. Congress dubbed the "Mother of the Modern-Day Civil Rights Movement". Image File history File links Size of this preview: 421 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (562 × 800 pixel, file size: 267 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph of Rosa Parks with Dr. King (ca. ... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Tuskegee is a city located in Macon County, Alabama. ... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (Latin for, We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes) Location in Wayne County, Michigan Coordinates: Country United States State Michigan County Wayne County Government  - Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick Area  - City  143. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change. ... It has been suggested that seam allowance be merged into this article or section. ... Congress in Joint Session. ... Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ...


Parks is famous for her refusal on December 1, 1955 to obey bus driver James Blake's demand that she relinquish her seat to a white man. Her subsequent arrest and trial for this act of civil disobedience triggered the Montgomery Bus Boycott, one of the largest and most successful mass movements against racial segregation in history, and launched Martin Luther King, Jr., one of the organizers of the boycott, to the forefront of the civil rights movement. Her role in American history earned her an iconic status in American culture, and her actions have left an enduring legacy for civil rights movements around the world. December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... First page of Parks arrest report. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An anti-war activist is arrested for civil disobedience on the steps of the Supreme Court of the United States on February 9, 2005. ... Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white man. ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterized by separation of different races in daily life when both are doing equal tasks, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or... Martin Luther King, Jr. ...

Contents

Early years

Rosa Parks was born Rosa Louise McCauley in Tuskegee, Alabama on February 4, 1913 to James McCauley and Leona Edwards, respectively a carpenter and a teacher. Small, even for a child, she suffered poor health and had chronic tonsillitis. When her parents separated, she moved with her mother to Pine Level, Alabama, just outside Montgomery. There she grew up on a farm with her maternal grandparents, mother, and younger brother Sylvester, and began her lifelong membership in the African Methodist Episcopal Church. She was homeschooled by her mother until she was eleven, then enrolled at the Industrial School for Girls in Montgomery where she took academic and vocational courses. Parks then went on to a laboratory school set up by the Alabama State Teachers College for Negroes for secondary education, but was forced to drop out to care for her grandmother, and later for her mother, after they became ill. Tuskegee is a city located in Macon County, Alabama. ... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ... February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Carpenters in an Indian village. ... Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils in the mouth and will often, but not necessarily, cause a sore throat and fever. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Coordinates: Country United States State Alabama County Montgomery Incorporated December 3, 1819 Mayor Bobby Bright Area    - City 404. ... The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the AME Church, is a Christian denomination founded by Bishop Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816. ... Homeschooling (also called home education) is the education of children at home and in the community, in contrast to education in an institution such as a public or parochial school. ... Alabama State Universitys mascot is known as the Hornet Alabama State University, founded 1867, is a historically black university located in Montgomery, Alabama. ...


Under Jim Crow laws, black and white people were segregated in virtually every aspect of daily life in the South, including public transportation. Bus and train companies did not provide separate vehicles for the different races, but did enforce seating policies that allocated separate sections for blacks and whites. School bus transportation, however, was unavailable in any form for black schoolchildren in the South. Parks recalled going to elementary school in Pine Level, where school buses took white students to their new school and black students had to walk to theirs: "I'd see the bus pass every day… But to me, that was a way of life; we had no choice but to accept what was the custom. The bus was among the first ways I realized there was a black world and a white world." The term Jim Crow laws refers to a series of laws enacted mostly in the Southern United States in the later half of the 19th century that restricted most of the new privileges granted to African-Americans after the Civil War. ... Historic Southern United States. ...


Although Parks' autobiography recounts that some of her earliest memories are of the kindness of white strangers, her situation made it impossible to ignore racism. When the Ku Klux Klan marched down the street in front of her house, Parks recalls her grandfather guarding the front door with a shotgun. The Montgomery Industrial School, founded and staffed by white Northerners for black children, was burned twice by arsonists, and its faculty was ostracized by the white community. Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights Gays/Transsexes/Intersexes rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... The Skyline Parkway Motel in Afton, Virginia after an arson fire on July 9, 2004. ...


In 1932, Rosa married Raymond Parks, a barber from Montgomery, at her mother's house. Raymond was a member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), at the time collecting money to support the Scottsboro Boys, a group of black men falsely accused of raping two white women. After her marriage, Rosa took a number of jobs, ranging from domestic worker to hospital aide. At her husband's urging, she finished her high school studies in 1933, at a time when less than 7% of African Americans had a high school diploma. Despite the Jim Crow laws that made political participation by black people difficult, she succeeded in registering to vote on her third try. A boy visiting a barber A barber (from the Latin barba, beard) is someone whose occupation is to cut any type of hair, give shaves, and trim beards. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... The case of the Scottsboro Boys arose in Scottsboro, Alabama during the 1930s, when nine black youths, ranging in age from thirteen to nineteen, were accused of raping two white women, one of whom would later recant. ...


In December 1943, Parks became active in the Civil Rights Movement, joined the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP, and was elected volunteer secretary to its president, Edgar Nixon. Of her position, she later said, "I was the only woman there, and they needed a secretary, and I was too timid to say no." She would continue as secretary until 1957. In the 1940s, Parks and her husband were also members of the Voters' League. Sometime soon after 1944, she held a brief job at Maxwell Air Force Base, a federally owned area where racial segregation was not allowed, and rode on an integrated trolley. Speaking to her biographer, Parks noted, "You might just say Maxwell opened my eyes up." Parks also worked as a housekeeper and seamstress for a white couple, Clifford and Virginia Durr. The politically liberal Durrs became her friends, and encouraged Parks to attend, and eventually helped sponsor her at the Highlander Folk School, an education center for workers' rights and racial equality in Monteagle, Tennessee, in the summer of 1955. Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ... Edgar Daniel Nixon (July 12, 1899 – February 25, 1987) was an American civil rights leader and union organizer, and played an important role in organizing the Montgomery Bus Boycott. ... Maxwell Air Force Base (offically known as Maxwell-Gunter Air Force Base) is a United States Air Force facility near Montgomery, Alabama. ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterized by separation of different races in daily life when both are doing equal tasks, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or... Clifford Durr (1899 – 1975) was a Birmingham, Alabama lawyer, known for defending political activists, who represented Rosa Parks in Federal court after the Montgomery Bus Boycott. ... American liberalism—that is, liberalism in the United States of America—is a broad political and philosophical mindset, favoring individual liberty, and opposing restrictions on liberty, whether they come from established religion, from government regulation, from the existing class structure, or from multi-national corporations. ... In 1932, Myles Horton and Don West founded the Highlander Folk School outside the town of Monteagle in Grundy County, Tennessee in order to provide an educational center in the South for the training of rural and industrial leaders, and for the conservation and enrichment of the indigenous cultural values... Monteagle is a town located atop a mountain in southeastern Tennessee. ...


Like many black people, Parks was deeply moved by the brutal murder of Emmett Till in August 1955. On November 27, 1955—only four days before she refused to give up her seat—she later recalled that she had attended a mass meeting in Montgomery which focused on this case as well as the recent murders of George W. Lee and Lamar Smith. The featured speaker at the meeting was T.R.M. Howard, a black civil rights leader from Mississippi who headed the Regional Council of Negro Leadership. People also said that Rosa Parks was "Sweet and soft spoken but made a statement that screamed so loud." This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... George W. Lee (1904 —- May 7, 1955) was an African American civil rights leader, minister, and entrepreneur. ... Lamar Smith (c. ... Theodore Roosevelt Mason Howard (T.R.M. Howard) (March 4, 1908 —- May 1, 1976) was an African American civil rights leader, fraternal organization leader, surgeon, and entrepreneur. ... The Regional Council of Negro Leadership (RCNL) was probably the leading civil rights organization in Mississippi during the early 1950s. ...


Civil rights activism

Events leading up to boycott

See also: Homer Plessy and Plessy v. Ferguson

In 1944, athletic star Jackie Robinson took a similar stand in a confrontation with an Army officer in Fort Hood, Texas, refusing to move to the back of a bus. Robinson was brought before a court-martial, which acquitted him.[1] The NAACP had accepted and litigated other cases before, such as that of Irene Morgan ten years earlier, which resulted in a victory in the U.S. Supreme Court on Commerce Clause grounds. That victory, however, overturned state segregation laws only insofar as they applied to travel in interstate commerce, such as interstate bus travel. Black activists had begun to build a case around the arrest of a 15-year-old girl, Claudette Colvin, a student at Booker T. Washington High School in Montgomery. On March 2, 1955, Colvin was handcuffed, arrested and forcibly removed from a public bus when she refused to give up her seat to a white man. She claimed that her constitutional rights were being violated. At the time, Colvin was active in the NAACP's Youth Council, a group to which Rosa Parks served as Advisor. Homer Adolph Plessy (March 17, 1863 – March 1, 1925) was the American plaintiff in the United States Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. ... Holding The separate but equal provision of public accommodations by state governments is constitutional under the Equal Protection Clause. ... Jack Roosevelt Jackie Robinson (January 31, 1919 – October 24, 1972) became the first African-American Major League Baseball player of the modern era in 1947. ... Fort Hood is a census-designated place and US Army post located outside of Killeen Texas. ... Official language(s) No Official Language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ... Irene Morgan was an important precursor to Rosa Parks in the successful fight to overturn segregationist laws in the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest judicial body in the... Article I, Section 8, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution, known as the Commerce Clause, empowers the United States Congress To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes. ... Claudette Colvin (born 1940) is a black woman from Alabama. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Seat layout on the bus where Parks sat, December 1, 1955.
Seat layout on the bus where Parks sat, December 1, 1955.

Colvin recollected, "Mrs. Parks said, 'do what is right.'" Parks was raising money for Colvin's defense, but when E.D. Nixon learned that Colvin was pregnant, it was decided that Colvin was an unsuitable symbol for their cause. Soon after her arrest she had conceived a child with a much older married man, a moral transgression that scandalized the deeply religious black community. Strategists believed that the segregationist white press would use Colvin's pregnancy to undermine any boycott. The NAACP also had considered, but rejected, earlier protesters deemed unable or unsuitable to withstand the pressures of cross-examination in a legal challenge to racial segregation laws. Colvin was also known to engage in verbal outbursts and cursing. Many of the legal charges against Colvin were dropped. A boycott and legal case never materialized from the Colvin case law, and legal strategists continued to seek a complainant beyond reproach.[2] Image File history File links Rosaparks_busdiagram. ... Image File history File links Rosaparks_busdiagram. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Edgar Daniel Nixon (July 12, 1899 – February 25, 1987) was an American civil rights leader and union organizer, and played an important role in organizing the Montgomery Bus Boycott. ...


In Montgomery, the first four rows of bus seats were reserved for white people. Buses had "colored" sections for black people—who made up more than 75 % of the bus system's riders—generally in the rear of the bus. These sections were not fixed in size, but were determined by the placement of a movable sign. Black people also could sit in the middle rows, until the white section was full. Then they had to move to seats in the rear, stand, or, if there was no room, leave the bus. Black people were not allowed to sit across the aisle from white people. The driver also could move the "colored" section sign, or remove it altogether. If white people were already sitting in the front, black people could board to pay the fare, but then had to disembark and reenter through the rear door. There were times when the bus departed before the black customers who had paid made it to the back entrance.


For years, the black community had complained that the situation was unfair, and Parks was no exception: "My resisting being mistreated on the bus did not begin with that particular arrest…I did a lot of walking in Montgomery." Parks had her first run-in on the public bus on a rainy day in 1943, when the bus driver, James Blake, demanded that she get off the bus and reenter through the back door. As she began to exit by the front door, she dropped her purse. Parks sat down for a moment in a seat for white passengers, apparently to pick up her purse. The bus driver was enraged and barely let her step off the bus before speeding off. Rosa walked more than five miles home in the rain. James F. Blake (April 14, 1912 – March 21, 2002) was the bus driver whom Rosa Parks defied in 1955, prompting the Montgomery Bus Boycott. ...


Montgomery Bus Boycott

Fingerprint card of Rosa Parks.
Fingerprint card of Rosa Parks.

After a day at work at Montgomery Fair department store, Parks boarded the Cleveland Avenue bus at around 6 p.m., Thursday, December 1, 1955, in downtown Montgomery. She paid her fare and sat in an empty seat in the first row of back seats reserved for blacks in the "colored" section, which was near the middle of the bus and directly behind the ten seats reserved for white passengers. Initially, she had not noticed that the bus driver was the same man, James F. Blake, who had left her in the rain in 1943. As the bus traveled along its regular route, all of the white-only seats in the bus filled up. The bus reached the third stop in front of the Empire Theater, and several white passengers boarded. Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white man. ... Image File history File links Rosaparks_fingerprints. ... Image File history File links Rosaparks_fingerprints. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... First page of Parks arrest report. ...


In 1900, Montgomery had passed a city ordinance for the purpose of segregating passengers by race. Conductors were given the power to assign seats to accomplish that purpose; however, no passengers would be required to move or give up their seat and stand if the bus was crowded and no other seats were available. Over time and by custom, however, Montgomery bus drivers had adopted the practice of requiring black riders to move whenever there were no white only seats left.


So, following standard practice, bus driver Blake noted that the front of the bus was filled with white passengers and there were two or three men standing, and thus moved the "colored" section sign behind Parks and demanded that four black people give up their seats in the middle section so that the white passengers could sit. Years later, in recalling the events of the day, Parks said, "When that white driver stepped back toward us, when he waved his hand and ordered us up and out of our seats, I felt a determination cover my body like a quilt on a winter night."


By Parks' account, Blake said, "Y'all better make it light on yourselves and let me have those seats." [3] Three of them complied. Parks said, "The driver wanted us to stand up, the four of us. We didn't move at the beginning, but he says, 'Let me have these seats.' And the other three people moved, but I didn't." [4] The black man sitting next to her gave up his seat. Parks moved, but toward the window seat; she did not get up to move to the newly repositioned colored section.[5] Blake then said, "Why don't you stand up?" Parks responded, "I don't think I should have to stand up." Blake called the police to arrest Parks. When recalling the incident for Eyes on the Prize, a 1987 public television series on the Civil Rights Movement, Parks said, "When he saw me still sitting, he asked if I was going to stand up, and I said, 'No, I'm not.' And he said, 'Well, if you don't stand up, I'm going to have to call the police and have you arrested.' I said, 'You may do that.'" Eyes on the Prize: Americas Civil Rights Years (1954-1965) is a documentary series about the American Civil Rights Movement. ...


During a 1956 radio interview with Sydney Rogers in West Oakland several months after her arrest, when asked why she had decided not to vacate her bus seat, Parks said, "I would have to know for once and for all what rights I had as a human being and a citizen of Montgomery, Alabama." 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... West Oakland is a neighborhood in Oakland, California. ...


She also detailed her motivation in her autobiography, My Story[6]

People always say that I didn't give up my seat because I was tired, but that isn't true. I was not tired physically, or no more tired than I usually was at the end of a working day. I was not old, although some people have an image of me as being old then. I was forty-two. No, the only tired I was, was tired of giving in.
Police report on Rosa Parks, December 1, 1955, page 1.
Police report on Rosa Parks, December 1, 1955, page 1.

When Parks refused to give up her seat, a police officer arrested her. As the officer took her away, she recalled that she asked, "Why do you push us around?" The officer's response as she remembered it was, "I don't know, but the law's the law, and you're under arrest." She later said, "I only knew that, as I was being arrested, that it was the very last time that I would ever ride in humiliation of this kind." Image File history File links Download high resolution version (632x800, 346 KB) Summary Police Report, December 1, 1955 Page 1 Civil Case 1147 Browder, et al v. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (632x800, 346 KB) Summary Police Report, December 1, 1955 Page 1 Civil Case 1147 Browder, et al v. ...


Parks was charged with a violation of Chapter 6, Section 11 segregation law of the Montgomery City code, even though she technically had not taken up a white-only seat—she had been in a colored section. E.D. Nixon and Clifford Durr bailed Parks out of jail the evening of December 1.


That evening, Nixon conferred with Alabama State College professor Jo Ann Robinson about Parks' case. Robinson, a member of the Women's Political Council (WPC), stayed up all night mimeographing over 35,000 handbills announcing a bus boycott. The Women's Political Council was the first group to officially endorse the boycott. Jo Ann Robinson was a black woman in Montgomery, Alabama she joined the Womens Political Council in 1946. ... The Womens Political Council was an organization that was part of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ... Mimeograph machine The Mimeograph machine (commonly abbreviated to Mimeo), or stencil duplicator was a printing machine that was far cheaper per copy than any other process in runs of several hundred to several thousand copies. ...


On Sunday, December 4, 1955, plans for the Montgomery Bus Boycott were announced at black churches in the area, and a front-page article in The Montgomery Advertiser helped spread the word. At a church rally that night, attendees unanimously agreed to continue the boycott until they were treated with the level of courtesy they expected, until black drivers were hired, and until seating in the middle of the bus was handled on a first-come basis. December 4th redirects here. ... The Montgomery Advertiser is a daily newspaper located in Montgomery, Alabama. ...


Four days later, Parks was tried on charges of disorderly conduct and violating a local ordinance. The trial lasted 30 minutes. Parks was found guilty and fined $10, plus $4 in court costs.[7] Parks appealed her conviction and formally challenged the legality of racial segregation. In a 1992 interview with National Public Radio's Lynn Neary, Parks recalled: In the criminal law of the United States of America, disorderly conduct is a name given to a rather ill defined crime. ... Offical NPR logo National Public Radio (NPR) is an independent, private, non-profit membership organization of public radio stations in the United States. ...

I did not want to be mistreated, I did not want to be deprived of a seat that I had paid for. It was just time... there was opportunity for me to take a stand to express the way I felt about being treated in that manner. I had not planned to get arrested. I had plenty to do without having to end up in jail. But when I had to face that decision, I didn't hesitate to do so because I felt that we had endured that too long. The more we gave in, the more we complied with that kind of treatment, the more oppressive it became.
Police report on Rosa Parks, December 1, 1955, page 2.
Police report on Rosa Parks, December 1, 1955, page 2.

On Monday, December 5, 1955, after the success of the one-day boycott, a group of 16 to 18 people gathered at the Mt. Zion AME Zion Church to discuss boycott strategies. The group agreed that a new organization was needed to lead the boycott effort if it were to continue. Rev. Ralph David Abernathy suggested the name "Montgomery Improvement Association" (MIA). The name was adopted, and the MIA was formed. Its members elected as their president a relative newcomer to Montgomery, a young and mostly unknown minister of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x623, 231 KB) Summary Police Report, December 1, 1955 Page 2 Civil Case 1147 Browder, et al v. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x623, 231 KB) Summary Police Report, December 1, 1955 Page 2 Civil Case 1147 Browder, et al v. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ralph David Abernathy (March 21, 1926 - April 17, 1990) was an American civil rights leader. ... Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white man. ... Martin Luther King Jr. ...


That Monday night, 50 leaders of the African American community gathered to discuss the proper actions to be taken in response to Parks' arrest. E.D. Nixon said, "My God, look what segregation has put in my hands!" Parks was the ideal plaintiff for a test case against city and state segregation laws. While the 15-year-old Claudette Colvin, unwed and pregnant, had been deemed unacceptable to be the center of a civil rights mobilization, King stated that, "Mrs. Parks, on the other hand, was regarded as one of the finest citizens of Montgomery—not one of the finest Negro citizens, but one of the finest citizens of Montgomery." Parks was securely married and employed, possessed a quiet and dignified demeanor, and was politically savvy. Claudette Colvin (born 1940) is a black woman from Alabama. ...

Deputy Sheriff D.H. Lackey fingerprints Parks on December 1, 1955 during the bus boycott arrests.
Deputy Sheriff D.H. Lackey fingerprints Parks on December 1, 1955 during the bus boycott arrests.

The day of Parks' trial — Monday, December 5, 1955 — the WPC distributed the 35,000 leaflets. The handbill read, "We are…asking every Negro to stay off the buses Monday in protest of the arrest and trial . . . You can afford to stay out of school for one day. If you work, take a cab, or walk. But please, children and grown-ups, don't ride the bus at all on Monday. Please stay off the buses Monday."[8] Image File history File links Rosaparksarrested. ... Image File history File links Rosaparksarrested. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


It rained that day, but the black community persevered in their boycott. Some rode in carpools, while others traveled in black-operated cabs that charged the same fare as the bus, 10 cents. Most of the remainder of the 40,000 black commuters walked, some as far as 20 miles. In the end, the boycott lasted for 382 days. Dozens of public buses stood idle for months, severely damaging the bus transit company's finances, until the law requiring segregation on public buses was lifted.


Some segregationists retaliated with terrorism. Black churches were burned or dynamited. Martin Luther King's home was bombed in the early morning hours of January 30, 1956, and E.D. Nixon's home was also attacked. However, the black community's bus boycott marked one of the largest and most successful mass movements against racial segregation. It sparked many other protests, and it catapulted King to the forefront of the Civil Rights Movement. January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Through her role in sparking the boycott, Rosa Parks played an important part in internationalizing the awareness of the plight of African Americans and the civil rights struggle. King wrote in his 1958 book Stride Toward Freedom that Parks' arrest was the precipitating factor, rather than the cause, of the protest: "The cause lay deep in the record of similar injustices…. Actually, no one can understand the action of Mrs. Parks unless he realizes that eventually the cup of endurance runs over, and the human personality cries out, 'I can take it no longer.'" Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Montgomery bus boycott was also the inspiration for the bus boycott in the township of Alexandria, Eastern Cape of South Africa which was one of the key events in the radicalization of the black majority of that country under the leadership of the African National Congress. Alexandria, South Africa, possibly established by Dutch Colonial Government in the late 18th Century but named as such in 1856 after Reverand Alexander Smith, is a small farming town in the Eastern Cape of South Africa and is situated 100 km North East of Port Elizabeth on the way to... For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ...


Browder v. Gayle

Main article: Browder v. Gayle

Immediately after the initiation of the bus boycott, legal strategists began to discuss the need for a federal lawsuit to challenge city and state bus segregation laws, and approximately two months after the boycott began, they reconsidered Claudette Colvin's case. Attorneys Fred Gray, E.D. Nixon and Clifford Durr (a white lawyer who, with his wife, Virginia, was an activist in the Civil Rights Movement and a former employer of Parks) searched for the ideal case law to challenge the constitutional legitimacy of city and state bus segregation laws. Parks' case was not used as the basis for the federal lawsuit because, as a criminal case, it would have had to make its way through the state criminal appeals process before a federal appeal could have been filed. City and state officials could have delayed a final rendering for years. Furthermore, attorney Durr believed it possible that the outcome would merely have been the vacating of Parks' conviction, with no changes in segregation laws.[9] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Fred Gray is a notable lawyer. ... Edgar Daniel Nixon (July 12, 1899 – February 25, 1987) was an American civil rights leader and union organizer, and played an important role in organizing the Montgomery Bus Boycott. ... Clifford Durr (1899 – 1975) was a Birmingham, Alabama lawyer, known for defending political activists, who represented Rosa Parks in Federal court after the Montgomery Bus Boycott. ...


Gray researched for a better lawsuit, consulting with NAACP legal counsels Robert Carter and Thurgood Marshall, who would later become U.S. Solicitor General and a U.S. Supreme Court justice. Gray approached Aurelia Browder, Susie McDonald, Claudette Colvin and Mary Louise Smith, all women who had had disputes involving the Montgomery bus system the previous year. They all agreed to become plaintiffs in a civil action law suit. Browder was a Montgomery housewife, Gayle the mayor of Montgomery. On February 1, 1956, the case of Browder v. Gayle was filed in U.S. District Court by Fred Gray. It was Browder v. Gayle that brought segregation to an end on public buses.[10] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Thurgood Marshall (July 2, 1908 – January 24, 1993) was an American jurist and the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States. ... The United States Solicitor General is the individual appointed to argue for the Government of the United States in front of the Supreme Court of the United States, when the government is party to a case. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest judicial body in the... February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


On June 19, 1956, the U.S. District Court's three-judge panel ruled that Section 301 (31a, 31b and 31c) of Title 48, Code of Alabama, 1940, as amended, and Sections 10 and 11 of Chapter 6 of the Code of the City of Montgomery, 1952, "deny and deprive plaintiffs and other Negro citizens similarly situated of the equal protection of the laws and due process of law secured by the Fourteenth Amendment" (Browder v. Gayle, 1956). The court essentially decided that the precedent of Brown v. Board of Education (1954) could be applied to Browder v. Gayle. On November 13, 1956, the United States Supreme Court outlawed racial segregation on buses, deeming it unconstitutional. The court order arrived in Montgomery, Alabama, on December 20, 1956, and the bus boycott ended the next day. However, more violence erupted following the court order, as snipers fired into buses and into King's home, and terrorists threw bombs into churches and into the homes of many church ministers, including Martin Luther King Jr.,'s friend Ralph Abernathy.[11] June 19 is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 195 days remaining. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Holding Segregation of students in public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, because separate facilities are inherently unequal. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest judicial body in the... Constitutionality is the status of a law, a procedure, or an acts accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution. ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Later years

Rosa Parks on a Montgomery bus on December 21, 1956, the day Montgomery's public transportation system was legally integrated. Behind Parks is Nicholas C. Chriss, a UPI reporter covering the event.
Rosa Parks on a Montgomery bus on December 21, 1956, the day Montgomery's public transportation system was legally integrated. Behind Parks is Nicholas C. Chriss, a UPI reporter covering the event.

After her arrest, Parks became an icon of the Civil Rights Movement, but suffered hardships as a result. She lost her job at the department store, and her husband quit his job after his boss forbade him from talking about his wife or the legal case. Parks traveled and spoke extensively. In 1957, Raymond and Rosa Parks left Montgomery for Hampton, Virginia; mostly because she was unable to find work, but also because of disagreements with King and other leaders of Montgomery's struggling civil rights movement. In Hampton, she found a job as a hostess in an inn at black Hampton Institute. Later that year, after the urging of her younger brother Sylvester Parks, her husband Raymond, and her mother Leona McCauley, moved to Detroit. Image File history File links Rosaparks_bus. ... Image File history File links Rosaparks_bus. ... Coordinates: Country United States State Alabama County Montgomery Incorporated December 3, 1819 Mayor Bobby Bright Area    - City 404. ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hampton University (formerly Hampton Institute) is an American university located in Hampton, Virginia. ... Nickname: Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (Latin for, We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes) Location in Wayne County, Michigan Coordinates: Country United States State Michigan County Wayne County Government  - Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick Area  - City  143. ...


Parks worked as a seamstress until 1965 when African-American U.S. Representative John Conyers (D-Michigan) hired her as a secretary and receptionist for his congressional office in Detroit. She held this position until she retired in 1988.[10] In a telephone interview with CNN on October 24, 2005, Conyers recalled, "You treated her with deference because she was so quiet, so serene—just a very special person…. There is only one Rosa Parks." Later in life, Parks also served as a member of the Board of Advocates of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America. Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ... John Conyers, Jr. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major United States political parties. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Planned Parenthoods Logo Planned Parenthood is the collective name of organizations worldwide who are members of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). ...


Rosa Parks and Elaine Eason Steele co-founded the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self Development in February 1987, in honor of Rosa's husband, who died from cancer in 1977. The institute runs the "Pathways to Freedom" bus tours, which introduce young people to important civil rights and Underground Railroad sites throughout the country. On a 1997 trip, the Pathways to Freedom bus drove into a river, resulting in the death of Adisa Foluke. Foluke, who was referred to as Parks' adopted grandson, also had been a chaperon on the bus. Several others were injured. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A chaperon (or chaperone) is an adult who accompanies or supervises one or more young, unmarried men or women during social occasions usually with the specific intent of preventing inappropriate social or sexual interactions. ...

Rosa Parks in 1964.
Rosa Parks in 1964.

In 1992, Parks published Rosa Parks: My Story, an autobiography aimed at younger readers which details her life leading up to her decision not to give up her seat. In 1995, she published her memoirs, titled Quiet Strength, which focuses on the role that her faith had played in her life. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2248x3624, 728 KB) Summary Rosa Parks. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2248x3624, 728 KB) Summary Rosa Parks. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


On August 30, 1994, Joseph Skipper, an African-American drug addict, attacked the then 81-year-old Parks in her home. The incident sparked outrage throughout America. After his arrest, Skipper said that he had not known he was in Parks' home, but recognized her after entering. Skipper asked, "Hey, aren't you Rosa Parks?" to which she replied, "Yes." She handed him $3 when he demanded money, and an additional $50 when he demanded more. Before fleeing, Skipper struck Parks in the face.[12] Skipper was arrested and charged with various breaking and entering offenses against Parks and other neighborhood victims. He admitted guilt and, on August 8, 1995, was sentenced to eight to 15 years in prison.[13] August 30 is the 242nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (243rd in leap years), with 123 days remaining. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A comedic scene in the 2002 film Barbershop featured a cantankerous barber, played by Cedric the Entertainer, arguing with co-workers and shop patrons that other African Americans before Parks had resisted giving up their seats in defiance of Jim Crow laws, and that she had received undeserved fame because of her status as an NAACP secretary. Activists Jesse Jackson and Al Sharpton launched a boycott against the film, contending it was "disrespectful", but then-NAACP president Kweisi Mfume stated he thought the controversy was "overblown."[14] The scene also offended Parks, who boycotted the NAACP 2003 Image Awards ceremony, which Cedric hosted. "Barbershop" received nominations in four awards categories that, including a "Best Supporting Actor in a Motion Picture" nomination for Cedric. He did not win in that category, however, but won an award for his work as a supporting actor in the television series The Proud Family. Barbershop is a motion picture directed by Tim Story, produced by George Tillman, Jr. ... Cedric the Asshole (born Cedric Antonio Kyles, April 24, 1964 in Jefferson City, Missouri) is an American actor and comedian. ... Jesse Louis Jackson (born October 8, 1941) is an American politician, civil rights activist, racist, and falseBaptist ministerwith no divinity degree. ... Al Sharpton Alfred Charles Al Sharpton Jr. ... Mfume delivering a speech at NOAA during Black History Month, 2005 Kweisi Mfume (born Frizzell Gerald Gray, October 24, 1948 in Baltimore, Maryland) is the former President/CEO of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), as well as a five-term Democratic Congressman from Marylands... The NAACP Image Award is an award presented annually by the NAACP to honor the top African-Americans in film, television, music and literature. ... The Proud Family is an American animated television series geared towards pre-teens and teenagers. ...


Lawsuits

In March 1999, a lawsuit was filed on Parks' behalf against American hip-hop duo OutKast and LaFace Records, claiming that the group had illegally used Rosa Parks' name without her permission for the song "Rosa Parks", the most successful radio single of OutKast's 1998 album Aquemini. The song's chorus, which Parks' legal defense felt was disrespectful to Parks, is as follows: "Ah ha, hush that fuss / Everybody move to the back of the bus / Do you want to bump and slump with us / We the type of people make the club get crunk." OutKast is a multi-Grammy American hip hop duo based out of Atlanta, Georgia. ... LaFace Records is an American record label, owned and operated by Sony BMG. Company history LaFace was formed in 1989 as a joint venture between the producing duo Antonio LA Reid & Kenneth Babyface Edmonds and Arista Records. ... Aquemini is a 1998 album by hip hop group OutKast (Big Boi, André Benjamin). ...


The case was dismissed in November 1999 by US District Court Judge Barbara Hackett. In August 2000, Parks hired attorney Johnnie Cochran to help her appeal the district court's decision. Cochran argued that the song did not have First Amendment protection because, although its title carried Parks' name, its lyrics were not about her. However, U.S. District Judge Barbara Hackett upheld OutKast's right to use Parks' name in November 1999, and Parks took the case to the 6th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, where some charges were remanded for further trial. Johnnie L. Cochran, Jr. ...


Parks' attorneys and caretaker, Elaine Steele, refiled in August 2004, and named BMG, Arista Records and LaFace Records as the defendants, along with several parties not directly connected to the songs, including Barnes & Noble and Borders Group for selling the songs, and Gregory Dark and Braddon Mendelson, the director and producer, respectively, of the 1998 music video, asking for $5 billion in damages. BMG (Bertelsmann Music Group) is one of the six divisions of Bertelsmann. ... Arista Records is an American record label that is a wholly owned subsidiary of Sony BMG, and operates under the RCA Records Group // After being fired from CBS Records, Columbia Pictures hired Clive Davis to be a consultant for the company’s record and music operations. ... A typical Barnes & Noble bookstore. ... Borders Group (NYSE: BGP) is an international bookseller based in Ann Arbor, Michigan. ...


In October 2004, U.S. District Judge George Caram Steeh appointed Dennis Archer, a former mayor of Detroit and Michigan Supreme Court justice, as guardian of legal matters for Parks after her family expressed concerns that her caretakers and her lawyer was pursuing the case based on their own financial interest.[15] "My auntie would never, ever go to this length to hurt some young artists trying to make it in the world," Parks' niece Rhea McCauley said in an Associated Press interview. "As a family, our fear is that during her last days Auntie Rosa will be surrounded by strangers trying to make money off of her name."[16] Former Mayor Dennis Archer Dennis Wayne Archer (born January 1, 1942 in Detroit, Michigan) is a former president of the American Bar Association, and was the first Black American to hold this office. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ...


The lawsuit was settled April 15, 2005. In the settlement agreement, OutKast and their producer and recorded labels paid Parks an undisclosed cash settlement and agreed to work with the Rosa and Raymond Parks Institute for Self Development in creating educational programs about the life of Rosa Parks. The record labels and OutKast admitted to no wrongdoing. It is not known whether Parks' legal fees were paid for from her settlement money or by the record companies.[17] April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ...


Death and funeral

October 25, 2005, edition of The Montgomery Advertiser after Rosa Parks' death.
October 25, 2005, edition of The Montgomery Advertiser after Rosa Parks' death.

Rosa Parks resided in Detroit until she died at the age of ninety-two on October 24, 2005, about 19:00 EDT, in her apartment on the east side of the city. She had been diagnosed the previous year with progressive dementia. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (452x800, 117 KB) Summary Front page of October 25, 2005 edition of the Montgomery Advertiser featuring Rosa Parks. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (452x800, 117 KB) Summary Front page of October 25, 2005 edition of the Montgomery Advertiser featuring Rosa Parks. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Montgomery Advertiser is a daily newspaper located in Montgomery, Alabama. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 68 days remaining. ... Eastern Daylight Time or EDT is equal to: In North America, Eastern Standard Time + 1, or UTC − 4 hours. ... For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ...


City officials in Montgomery and Detroit announced on October 27 that the front seats of their city buses would be reserved with black ribbons in honor of Parks until her funeral. Parks' coffin was flown to Montgomery and taken in a horse-drawn hearse to the St. Paul African Methodist Episcopal (AME) church, where she lay in repose at the altar, dressed in the uniform of a church deaconess, on October 29. A memorial service was held there the following morning, and one of the speakers, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, said that if it had not been for Rosa Parks, she would probably have never become the Secretary of State. In the evening the casket was transported to Washington, D.C., and taken, aboard a bus similar to the one in which she made her protest, to lie in honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda (making her the first woman and second African American ever to receive this honor). An estimated 50,000 people viewed the casket there, and the event was broadcast on television on October 31. This was followed by another memorial service at a different St. Paul AME church in Washington on the afternoon of October 31. For two days, she lay in repose at the Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History in Detroit. October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the AME Church, is a Christian denomination founded by Bishop Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816. ... Lying in repose is when the remains of a deceased person, often one of some stature, are available for viewing by the public. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D... Lying-in-state is the term used during a major funeral procession when the coffin is placed on public view to allow members of the public to pay their respects to the deceased. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... The Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History is located in Detroit, Michigan, in the citys Cultural Center. ...


Parks' funeral service, seven hours long, was held on Wednesday, November 2, at the Greater Grace Temple Church. After the funeral service, an honor guard from the Michigan National Guard laid the U.S. flag over the casket and carried it to a horse-drawn hearse, which had been intended to carry it, in daylight, to the cemetery. As the hearse passed the thousands of people who had turned out to view the procession, many clapped and released white balloons. Rosa was interred between her husband and mother at Detroit's Woodlawn Cemetery in the chapel's mausoleum. (The chapel was renamed the Rosa L. Parks Freedom Chapel just after her death.)[18] Parks had previously prepared and placed a headstone on the selected location with the inscription "Rosa L. Parks, wife, 1913–". This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 59 days remaining. ... The United States National Guard is a component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ...


Awards and honors

Rosa Parks with the NAACP's highest award, the Spingarn Medal, in 1979.
Rosa Parks with the NAACP's highest award, the Spingarn Medal, in 1979.
The Rosa Parks Congressional Gold Medal bears the legend "Mother of the Modern Day Civil Rights Movement".
The Rosa Parks Congressional Gold Medal bears the legend "Mother of the Modern Day Civil Rights Movement".

Parks received most of her national accolades very late in life, with relatively few awards and honors being given to her until many decades after the Montgomery Bus Boycott. In 1979, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People awarded Parks the Spingarn Medal, its highest honor, and she received the Martin Luther King Jr. Award the next year. She was inducted into the Michigan Women's Hall of Fame in 1983 for her achievements in civil rights. In 1990, she was called at the last moment to be part of the group welcoming Nelson Mandela, who had just been released from his imprisonment in South Africa. Upon spotting her in the reception line, Mandela called out her name and, hugging her, said, "You sustained me while I was in prison all those years." [19] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (654x1109, 66 KB) Summary Description: Rosa Louise McCauley Parks with NAACPs highest award, the Springarn Medal, in 1979. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (654x1109, 66 KB) Summary Description: Rosa Louise McCauley Parks with NAACPs highest award, the Springarn Medal, in 1979. ... The Spingarn Medal is awarded annually by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) for outstanding achievement by a Black American. ... Image File history File links Rosa_Parks_medal. ... Congressional Gold Medal presented to Navajo Code talkers in 2000 The Congressional Gold Medal of Honor is the highest award which may be bestowed by the Legislative Branch of the United States government. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP, generally pronounced as EN Double AY SEE PEE) is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ... The Spingarn Medal is awarded annually by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) for outstanding achievement by a Black American. ... The history of the Michigan Womens Hall of Fame is available online at michiganwomenshalloffame. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Mandela redirects here. ...


Parks received the Rosa Parks Peace Prize in 1994 in Stockholm, Sweden. On September 9, 1996, President Bill Clinton presented Parks with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest honor given by the U.S. executive branch. In 1998, she became the first recipient of the International Freedom Conductor Award given by the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center. The next year, Parks was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal, the highest award given by the U.S. legislative branch and also received the Detroit-Windsor International Freedom Festival Freedom Award. Parks was a guest of President Bill Clinton during his 1999 State of the Union Address. Also that year, Time magazine named Parks one of the 20 most influential and iconic figures of the twentieth century.[20] In 2000, her home state awarded her the Alabama Academy of Honor, as well as the first Governor's Medal of Honor for Extraordinary Courage. She was also awarded two dozen honorary doctorates from universities worldwide, and was made an honorary member of the Alpha Kappa Alpha sorority.   (IPA: ; UN/LOCODE: SE STO) is the capital of Sweden, and consequently the site of its Government and Parliament as well as the residence of the Swedish head of state, King Carl XVI Gustaf. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other major civilian award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal of Honor, which... Main entrance to the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center For the facility at the World Trade Center in New York which was proposed and withdrawn see International Freedom Center The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center is a museum in downtown Cincinnati, Ohio based on the history of the Underground Railroad. ... Congressional Gold Medal presented to Navajo Code talkers in 2000 The Congressional Gold Medal of Honor is the highest award which may be bestowed by the Legislative Branch of the United States government. ... After poor management and inclement weather caused great losses in 2003, this festival no longer exists in its usual form on the Windsor side of the border. ... Martin L. (Lenny) Skutnik III was a 28 year old office worker for a federal agency who acted heroically following the crash of Air Florida Flight 90 on January 13, 1982. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... 2003 State of the Union address given by U.S. President George W. Bush The State of the Union Address is an annual event in which the President of the United States reports on the status of the country, normally to a joint session of the U.S. Congress (the... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... Alpha Kappa Alpha (ΑΚΑ) Sorority, Incorporated, formed in January 15, 1908 at Howard University, became Americas first Greek-letter organization established by Black college women, and remains a predominately African-American sorority. ...

Rosa Parks and previous U.S. President Bill Clinton
Rosa Parks and previous U.S. President Bill Clinton

The Rosa Parks Library and Museum on the campus of Troy University in Montgomery, was dedicated to her on December 1, 2000. It is located on the corner where Parks boarded the famed bus. The most popular items in the museum are the interactive bus arrest of Mrs. Parks and a sculpture of Parks sitting on a bus bench. The documentary "Mighty Times: The Legacy of Rosa Parks" received a 2002 nomination for Academy Award for Documentary Short Subject. She also collaborated that year in a TV movie of her life starring Angela Bassett. Image File history File links RosaParks-BillClinton. ... Image File history File links RosaParks-BillClinton. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of films that have received an Oscar and nomination for best documentary short subject. ... Angela Bassett (born August 16, 1958) is an Emmy and Academy Award-nominated, and Golden Globe winning American actress. ...


The United States Senate passed a resolution on October 27, 2005 to honor Parks by allowing her body to lie in honor in the U.S. Capitol Rotunda. The House of Representatives approved the resolution on October 28. Since the founding of the practice of lying in state in the Rotunda in 1852, Parks was the 31st person, the first woman, the first American who had not been a U.S. government official, and the second non-government official (after Frenchman Pierre L'Enfant). She was also the second black person to lie in honor, after Jacob Chestnut, one of the two United States Capitol Police officers who were fatally shot by Russell Eugene Weston Jr. on July 24, 1998. Former President Gerald Ford was the last person to lie in state in the Rotunda -- in 2007. Seal of the U.S. Senate Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Senate composition following 2006 elections The United States Senate is... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... Lying-in-state is the term used during a major funeral procession when the coffin is placed on public view to allow members of the public to pay their respects to the deceased. ... The entire front of the Capitol Building. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      House of Representatives is a name used for legislative bodies in many countries. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Pierre Charles LEnfant ( 2 August 1754 – 14 June 1825) designed the street plan of the Federal City in the United States, now known as Washington, DC. Born in France, he came to the American colonies as a military engineer with General Lafayette and became closely identified with the... Russell Eugene Weston Jr. ... The United States Capitol Police (USCP) is a police force charged with protecting the United States Congress within the District of Columbia and throughout the United States and its territories. ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ...


On October 30, President George W. Bush issued a proclamation ordering that all flags on US public areas both within the country and abroad be flown at half-staff on the day of Parks' funeral. October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... // The United States flag flying at half-staff over the White House. ...

The No. 2857 bus which Rosa Parks was riding on before she was arrested (a GM "old-look" transit bus, serial number 1132), is now a museum exhibit at the Henry Ford Museum.
The No. 2857 bus which Rosa Parks was riding on before she was arrested (a GM "old-look" transit bus, serial number 1132), is now a museum exhibit at the Henry Ford Museum.

Metro Transit in King County, Washington placed stickers[21] dedicating the first forward-facing seat of all its buses in Parks' memory shortly after her death, and the American Public Transportation Association declared December 1, 2005, the 50th anniversary of her arrest, to be a "National Transit Tribute to Rosa Parks Day". [22] On that anniversary, President George W. Bush signed H. R. 4145, directing that a statue of Parks be placed in the United States Capitol's National Statuary Hall. In signing the resolution directing the Joint Commission on the Library to do so, the President stated: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1693x1105, 105 KB)The bus on which Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat sparking the Montgomery Bus Boycott, a U.S. civil rights landmark. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1693x1105, 105 KB)The bus on which Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat sparking the Montgomery Bus Boycott, a U.S. civil rights landmark. ... A 1958 General Motors TDH-4512, formerly owned by Unitrans in Davis, CA (photo taken in the early-mid 1990s) Interior of a 1958 General Motors TDH-4512, formerly owned by Unitrans in Davis, CA (photo taken in the early-mid 1990s) The GM old-look transit bus was... A Ford Model T, used for giving tourist rides, is shown above at Greenfield Village. ... Articulated bus Metro Transit, or Metro for short, is the public transit authority of King County, Washington, a division of the King County Department of Transportation. ... King County redirects here; you may be looking for King County, Texas. ... National Statuary Hall The National Statuary Hall is an area in the United States Capitol devoted to statues of people and symbols important in American history. ...

By placing her statue in the heart of the nation's Capitol, we commemorate her work for a more perfect union, and we commit ourselves to continue to struggle for justice for every American. [23]

On February 5, 2006, at Super Bowl XL, played at Detroit's Ford Field, Coretta Scott King and Parks, who had been a long-time resident of "The Motor City", were remembered and honored by a moment of silence. It was noted that the honor was to show respect for two women who had "helped make the nation as a whole great." The Super Bowl was dedicated to their memory. February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Date February 5, 2006 Stadium Ford Field City Detroit, Michigan MVP Hines Ward, wide receiver Favorite Steelers by 4 National anthem Aaron Neville, Aretha Franklin and Dr. John, ASL performed by Angela LaGuardia Coin toss Tom Brady Referee Bill Leavy Halftime show The Rolling Stones Attendance 68,206 TV in... Ford Field is an indoor football stadium located in Detroit, Michigan that is the home of the Detroit Lions of the NFL. It is across the street from Comerica Park. ... Coretta Scott King (April 27, 1927 – January 30, 2006) was the wife of the assassinated civil rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


In the Los Angeles County MetroRail system, the Imperial/Wilmington station, where the Blue Line connects with the Green Line, has been officially named the "Rosa Parks Station." Map of California showing Los Angeles County. ... The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (also known as Metro, MTA or LACMTA) is the state chartered regional transportation planning and public transportation operating agency for the county of Los Angeles. ... Imperial Highway is a road in Orange and Los Angeles Counties in California. ... The Imperial/Wilmington/Rosa Parks station is the hub for both the Blue and Green Metro lines. ... Metro Blue Line The Metro Blue Line of the Los Angeles County Metro Rail is a light rail line connecting Downtown Los Angeles at the 7th St/Metro Center station and Downtown Long Beach. ... Metro Green Line The Metro Green line of the Los Angeles County Metro Rail is a light rail line connecting Redondo Beach and Norwalk. ... The Imperial/Wilmington/Rosa Parks station is the hub for both the Blue and Green Metro lines. ...


Notes

  1. ^ "Jackie Robinson Profile", about.com
  2. ^ "Is Barbershop Right About Rosa Parks?", Slate, September 27, 2005
  3. ^ "Parks Recalls Bus Boycott, Excerpts from an interview with Lynn Neary", NPR, 1992
  4. ^ "Civil rights icon Rosa Parks dies at 92", CNN.com, October 25, 2005
  5. ^ Audio interview of Parks linked to from "Civil Rights Icon Rosa Parks Dies", National Public Radio, October 25, 2005
  6. ^ Rosa Parks, James Haskins (1992). Rosa Parks: My Story. Dial Books. ISBN 0-8037-0673-1. 
  7. ^ "Civil rights icon Rosa Parks dies at ,92, CNN.com, October 25, 2005
  8. ^ "Heroes and Icons: Rosa Parks", Time.com, June 14, 1999
  9. ^ "The Story of the Montgomery Bus Boycott," Montgomery Advertiser, 2005
  10. ^ "Browder v. Gayle: The Women Before Rosa Parks", Tolerance.org, 2005
  11. ^ a  "Rosa Parks, 92, Founding Symbol of Civil Rights Movement, Dies," New York Times, October 25, 2005
  12. ^ "Assailant Recognized Rosa Parks," Detroit Free Press, September 3, 1994
  13. ^ "Man Gets Prison Term For Attack on Rosa Parks", San Francisco Chronicle, August 8, 1995
  14. ^ CNN.com - Image Awards rekindle 'Barbershop' controversy - Mar. 9, 2003. Retrieved on 2005 December 4.
  15. ^ "'I understand I am a symbol, but I have never gotten used to being a public person'", Associated Press State & Local Wire, December 4, 2004
  16. ^ "Medical records show Rosa Parks had dementia as early as 2002", Associated Press State & Local Wire, January 13, 2005
  17. ^ "Parks settles OutKast lawsuit's", Detroit News, April 15, 2005
  18. ^ "Parks to remain private in death", Detroit News, November 3, 2005
  19. ^ "Tri-state Judge Says Rosa Parks' Work Goes On", WPCO News, October 25, 2005
  20. ^ "Rosa Parks: Her simple act of protest galvanized America's civil rights revolution", Time, June 14, 1999
  21. ^ "Rosa Parks Honored on Metro Bus Fleet", King County Metro Online
  22. ^ National Transit Tribute to Rosa Parks Day, American Public Transportation Association, accessed December 1, 2005.
  23. ^ President Signs H.R. 4145 to Place Statue of Rosa Parks in U.S. Capitol. Retrieved on 2005 December 4.

About. ... Slate Thick slate fragment Slate roof Slate is a fine-grained, homogeneous, metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low grade regional metamorphism. ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... NPR logo For other meanings of NPR see NPR (disambiguation) National Public Radio (NPR) is a private, not-for-profit corporation that sells programming to member radio stations; together they are a loosely organized public radio network in the United States. ... CNN.com is the news website maintained by CNN. The website debuted on August 30, 1995, and it describes itself as the first major news and information website on the Internet. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Offical NPR logo National Public Radio (NPR) is an independent, private, non-profit membership organization of public radio stations in the United States. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... CNN.com is the news website maintained by CNN. The website debuted on August 30, 1995, and it describes itself as the first major news and information website on the Internet. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (166th in leap years), with 200 days remaining. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... The Montgomery Advertiser is a daily newspaper located in Montgomery, Alabama. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Along with The Detroit News, the Detroit Free Press is one of the two major metro Detroit newspapers. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... December 4th redirects here. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Along with The Detroit Free Press, The Detroit News (owned by Gannett) is one of the two major Metro Detroit newspapers. ... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Along with The Detroit Free Press, The Detroit News (owned by Gannett) is one of the two major Metro Detroit newspapers. ... November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (166th in leap years), with 200 days remaining. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Articulated bus Metro Transit, or Metro for short, is the public transit authority of King County, Washington, a division of the King County Department of Transportation. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4th redirects here. ...

References

  • "The Story of the Montgomery Bus Boycott" by Ken Hare, Montgomery Advertiser, October 2005, retrieved November 5, 2005
  • "Browder v. Gayle: The Women Before Rosa Parks" by Tim Walker, Tolerance.org, retrieved October 27, 2005
  • "Heroes and Icons: Rosa Parks" by Rita Dove, Time.com, June 14, 1999, retrieved October 29, 2005
  • "Civil rights icon Rosa Parks dies at 92" by CNN.com, October 25, 2005, retrieved October 27, 2005
  • "Is Barbershop Right About Rosa Parks?" by Brendan I. Koerner, Slate, September 27, 2005, retrieved October 27, 2005
  • "Rosa Parks, 92, Founding Symbol of Civil Rights Movement, Dies" by E.R. Shipp, The New York Times, October 25, 2005, retrieved October 27, 2005
  • Editorial. 1974. "Two decades later." New York Times (May 17): 38. ("Within a year of Brown, Rosa Parks, a tired seamstress in Montgomery, Alabama, was, like Homer Plessy sixty years earlier, arrested for her refusal to move to the back of the bus.")
  • John Safran's Musical Jamboree

November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (166th in leap years), with 200 days remaining. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (138th in leap years). ... Holding Segregation of students in public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, because separate facilities are inherently unequal. ... Holding The separate but equal provision of public accommodations by state governments is constitutional under the Equal Protection Clause. ...

Further Reading

  • Rosa Parks with Jim Haskins, Rosa Parks: My Story (New York: Scholastic Inc., 1992). ISBN 0-590-46538-4
  • Douglas Brinkley, Rosa Parks (New York: Penguin Lives, 2000). ISBN 0-965-004612
  • Peter B. Gemma, ed., Shots Fired: Sam Francis on America's Culture War (Vienna, Virginia: Fitzgerald Griffin Foundation Books, 2006), pp. 162-164

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Persondata
NAME Parks, Rosa Louise McCauley
ALTERNATIVE NAMES McCauley, Rosa Louise
SHORT DESCRIPTION African American civil rights activist, seamstress
DATE OF BIRTH February 4, 1913
PLACE OF BIRTH Tuskegee, Alabama, United States
DATE OF DEATH October 24, 2005
PLACE OF DEATH Detroit, Michigan, United States

  Results from FactBites:
 
Rosa Parks - MSN Encarta (999 words)
Parks became increasingly committed to racial justice as she and her husband joined the campaign to save the 'Scottsboro Boys'—nine young fl men who were accused of raping two white teenagers near Scottsboro, Alabama, in 1931.
Parks was riding home from work on the Cleveland Avenue bus line in Montgomery when she refused to give up her place in the front row of the 'colored section' to a white man who could find no seat in the section reserved for whites.
Rosa Parks remained active in the NAACP and in other civil rights organizations, including the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), until advancing age slowed her down.
Rosa Parks: Biography and Much More from Answers.com (8320 words)
Rosa Parks was born Rosa Louise McCauley in Tuskegee, Alabama on February 4, 1913 to James and Leona McCauley, respectively, a carpenter and a teacher.
Rosa Parks resided in Detroit until she died at the age of 92 on October 24, 2005, at about 19:00 EDT, in her apartment on the east side of the city.
Parks' coffin was flown to Montgomery, Alabama and taken in a horse-drawn hearse to the St. Paul African Methodist Episcopal (AME) church, where she lay in repose at the altar, dressed in the uniform of a church deaconess, on October 29.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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