FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Rosa Luxemburg
Rosa Luxemburg
Rosa Luxemburg

Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 – January 15, 1919, in Polish Róża Luksemburg) was a Jewish Polish-born Marxist political theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. She was a theorist of the Social Democratic Party of the Kingdom of Poland, later becoming involved in the German SPD, followed by the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany. She started the journal Die Rote Fahne (The Red Flag). After the support by the SPD for the German participation in World War I, she co-founded (with Karl Liebknecht) the Spartacist League (German: Spartakusbund), a revolutionary group that later became the Communist Party of Germany. It took part in an unsuccessful revolution in Berlin in January 1919. The uprising was accompanied by Luxemburg's propaganda, and crushed by the remnants of the monarchist army and right wing freelance militias collectively called the Freikorps. Luxemburg and hundreds of others were captured, tortured, and killed. Since their deaths, Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht have attained great symbolic status amongst democratic socialists and Marxists. Image File history File linksMetadata Rosa_Luxemburg. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Rosa_Luxemburg. ... March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (65th in leap years). ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... The Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania (Socjaldemokracja Krolestwa Polskiego i Litwy or SDKPiL) was a Marxist political party founded in 1893. ... SPD redirects here. ... For the Independent Social Democratic Party of Romania, see Romanian Social Democratic Party (defunct). ... The German newspaper Die Rote Fahne (The Red Flag) was created on 9 November 1918 by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg in Berlin, first as organ of the left wing revolutionary Spartakusbund. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... â–¶ (help· info) (August 13, 1871 - January 15, 1919) was a German socialist and a co-founder of the Spartacist League and the Communist Party of Germany. ... The Spartacist League (Spartakusbund in German) was a left-wing Marxist revolutionary movement organized in Germany during and just after the politically volatile years of World War I. It was founded by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg (nicknamed Red Rosa) along with others such as Clara Zetkin. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ... The Spartacist uprising, also known as the January uprising, was a general strike (and the armed battles accompanying it) in Germany from January 5 to January 12, 1919. ... Lexington Minuteman representing militia minuteman John Parker Militia is the activity of one or more citizens organized to provide defense or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... The designation of Freikorps (German for Free Corps, i. ... â–¶ (help· info) (August 13, 1871 - January 15, 1919) was a German socialist and a co-founder of the Spartacist League and the Communist Party of Germany. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Marxism refers to the philosophy and social theory based on Karl Marxs work on one hand, and the political practice based on Marxist theory on the other hand (namely, parts of the First International during Marxs time, communist parties and later states). ...

Contents

Life

Poland

Rosa Luxemburg was born Rosalia Luxemburg on March 5, 1870 or 1871, to a Jewish family in Zamość near Lublin in the then Russian-controlled Congress Poland. Sources differ on the year of her birth - she gave her birth year as 1871 on her CV for Zürich University, but her 1887 Abitur certificate says she was 17, in which case she was born in 1870. She was the fifth child of the timber trader Eliasz Luxemburg III and his wife Line (maiden name: Löwenstein). Rosa had a growth defect and was physically handicapped all her life.[citation needed] March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (65th in leap years). ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... For other uses, see Lublin (disambiguation). ... Map of Congress Poland. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Abitur (from Latin abire = go away, go off) is the word commonly used in Germany for the final exams young adults (aged 18, 19 or 20) take at the end of their secondary education, usually after 12 or 13 years of schooling. ...


After her family moved to Warsaw, Rosa attended a girls' Gymnasium there from 1880. Even in those early days she was a member of the "Proletariat", a left-wing Polish party, from 1886. The Proletariat had been founded in 1882, twenty years before the Russian workers' parties, and started off by organising a general strike. As a result, four of its leaders were put to death and the party was broken up. Some of its members managed to meet in secret; Rosa joined one of these groups. Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: Country Poland Voivodeship Masovian Voivodeship Powiat (County) Gmina (Commune) Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz Area  - City 516. ... A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ...


In 1887 Rosa passed her Abitur with flying colours. After fleeing to Switzerland from imminent detention in 1889, she attended Zurich University, along with other socialist figures such as Anatoli Lunacharsky and Leo Jogiches. She studied philosophy, history, politics, economics and mathematics simultaneously. Her specialised subjects were Staatswissenschaft (the science of forms of state), the Middle Ages and economic and stock exchange crises. 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Abitur (from Latin abire = go away, go off) is the word commonly used in Germany for the final exams young adults (aged 18, 19 or 20) take at the end of their secondary education, usually after 12 or 13 years of schooling. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The University of Zurich (in German: Universität Zürich) is the largest university of Switzerland. ... Anatoli Lunacharsky (November 23 [November 11, Old Style], 1875 - December 26, Russian communist. ... Leo Jogiches Leo Jogiches, also known by his party name Tyska or Tyshko (was born 17 July 1867 in the multi national city of Vilnius and died 10 March 1919 in Berlin). ... This article is 58 kilobytes or more in size. ... History studies the past in human terms. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A form of government is a colloquial term that refers to the set of political institutions by which a state is organized in order to exert its powers over a political community. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


In 1890, Bismarck's laws against social democracy were annulled and the SPD was legally able to gain seats in the Reichstag. But despite their revolutionary talk, the socialist members of parliament focused more and more on gaining further parliamentary rights and on material wealth. 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... Alternate meanings: See Bismarck (disambiguation). ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... SPD redirects here. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ...


Rosa Luxemburg, on the contrary, stuck to her revolutionary Marxist principles. In 1893, along with Leo Jogiches and Julian Marchlewski (alias Julius Karski), she founded the newspaper Sprawa Robotnicza ("The Workers' Cause"), in opposition to the nationalist policies of the Polish Socialist Party. Luxemburg believed that an independent Poland could only come about through revolutions in Germany, Austria, and Russia. She maintained that the struggle should be against capitalism itself, and not for an independent Poland. Luxemburg denied the right of self-determination for nations under socialism, which later caused tensions with Vladimir Lenin. Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Leo Jogiches Leo Jogiches, also known by his party name Tyska or Tyshko (was born 17 July 1867 in the multi national city of Vilnius and died 10 March 1919 in Berlin). ... Julian Marchlewski (May 17, 1866 - March 22, 1925) was a Polish and Soviet communist functionary with an education in economics. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... The Polish Socialist Party (Polska Partia Socjalistyczna, PPS) was one of the two most important Polish political parties from its inception in 1892 until 1948, when it merged with the Stalinist Polish Workers Party (PPR) to form the Polish United Workers Party (PZPR), the ruling party in the Peoples... Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately[1] owned and operated for profit, and in which distribution, production and pricing of goods and services are determined in a largely free market. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... Lenin redirects here. ...


With Leo Jogiches, (who was also her long-time lover), she co-founded the Social Democratic Party of the Kingdom of Poland (SDKP), which was later to become the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania (SDKPiL) by merging with Lithuania's social democratic organisation. Despite living in Germany for most of her adult life, Luxemburg was to remain the principal theoretician of the Polish Social Democrats, and led the party in a partnership with Jogiches, its principal organiser. Leo Jogiches Leo Jogiches, also known by his party name Tyska or Tyshko (was born 17 July 1867 in the multi national city of Vilnius and died 10 March 1919 in Berlin). ... The Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania (Socjaldemokracja Krolestwa Polskiego i Litwy or SDKPiL) was a Marxist political party founded in 1893. ...


Germany

In 1898, Luxemburg obtained German citizenship by her marriage to Gustav Lübeck, and moved to Berlin. She became active in the left wing of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), where she sharply defined the border between her faction and the Revisionism Theory of Eduard Bernstein, attacking him in 1899 in a brochure entitled "Social Reform or Revolution?". Luxemburg's grasp of rhetoric soon made her a leading spokesperson for the party. Overall, she denounced the increasingly conformist parliamentary course of the SPD in the face of the increasingly obvious likelihood of war. Luxemburg insisted that the critical difference between capital and labour could only be countered if the proletariat took over power and revolutionary changes in the whole environment of production methods occurred. She wanted the Revisionists to leave the SPD. This did not take place, but at least Karl Kautsky's party leadership kept Marxism on the programme, even if his main aim was to improve the number of seats the party held in the Reichstag. 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city or town but now usually a country) and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms that refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially but not exclusively in the American sense of the word... SPD redirects here. ... Reformism (also called revisionism or revisionist theory) is the belief that gradual changes in a society can ultimately change its fundamental structures. ... Eduard Bernstein Eduard Bernstein (January 6, 1850 - December 18, 1932) was a German social democratic theoretician and politician, member of the SPD, and founder of evolutionary socialism or reformism. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Social Reform or Revolution is the title of a pamphlet written by Rosa Luxemburg. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral language and written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has been contested since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in Universities. ... Capital has a number of related meanings in economics, finance and accounting. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... Karl Kautsky (October 18, 1854 - October 17, 1938) was a leading theoretician of social democracy. ...


From 1900, Rosa Luxemburg voiced her opinions on current economic and social problems in various newspaper articles all over Europe. Her attacks on German militarism and imperialism became heftier as she foresaw the approach of war, and she tried to persuade the SPD to steer in the opposite direction. Luxemburg wanted to organise a general strike to rouse the workers into solidarity and prevent war, but the party leadership refused, and in 1910 she split off from Kautsky. Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... // Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


Between 1904 and 1906 her work was interrupted by three prison terms for political activities. 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Nonetheless, Luxemburg kept up her political activities; in 1907 she took part in the Russian Social Democrats' Fifth Party Day in London, where she met Vladimir Lenin. At the Second International (Socialist) Congress, in Stuttgart, she suggested a resolution, which was accepted, that all European workers' parties should unite in their attempts to stop the war. 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Lenin redirects here. ... City Center seen from Weinsteige Road Stuttgart Palace Square - New Palace Solitude Palace The 1956 TV Tower U.S. Army Kelley Barracks Stuttgart [], located in southern Germany, is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg with a population of 591,528 (as of April 2006) in the city...


At this time, Luxemburg began teaching Marxism and Economics at the SPD party training centre in Berlin. One of her students was the later leader of the SPD, the first president of the Weimar Republic Friedrich Ebert. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Anthem: Das Lied der Deutschen The Länder of Germany during the Weimar Republic, with the Free State of Prussia (Freistaat Preußen) as the largest Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1919-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann  - 1933 Adolf Hitler... This is not the Friedrich Ebert involved in the founding of the GDR, but rather his father. ...


In 1912 her position as a representative of the SPD took Luxemburg to European Socialists congresses such as that in Paris. Along with the French socialist Jean Jaurès, she ensured that in case of war breaking out, the European workers' parties were committed to a general strike. When the crisis in the Balkans came to a head in 1914, war seemed even more inevitable and she organised demonstrations (e.g. in Frankfurt) calling for conscientious objection to military service and refusal to obey orders. Because of this, she was accused of "enciting to disobedience against the authorities' law and order" and sentenced to a year in prison. Her detention did not begin directly, however, so she was able to take part in a meeting of the Socialist Office in July. She was devastated to recognise there that the workers' parties' nationalism was stronger than their class consciousness. 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Jean Jaurès. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... A conscientious objector is an individual whose personal beliefs are incompatible with military service, or sometimes with any role in the armed forces. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... Class consciousness is a category of Marxist theory, referring to the self-awareness of a social class, its capacity to act in its own rational interests, or measuring the extent to which an individual is conscious of the historical tasks their class (or class allegiance) sets for them. ...


On July 28, World War I started when Austria-Hungary declared war against Serbia. On August 3, 1914 the German Empire declared war against Russia. The following day, the Reichstag unanimously agreed to finance the war by war bonds. All SPD representatives voted in favour of this bill and the party also agreed to a truce ("Burgfrieden") with the government, promising to refrain from any strikes during the war. For Luxemburg, this was a personal catastrophe which even led her to briefly contemplate suicide: Revisionism, which she had fought against since 1899, had triumphed, and war was on its way. July 28 is the 209th day (210th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 156 days remaining. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Anthem: Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city)  Belgrade Official languages Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  Independence c. ... August 3 is the 215th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (216th in leap years), with 150 days remaining. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Categories: Stub ... Burgfrieden - literally peace of the castle - is a German term used for the civil truce the Social Democratic Party of Germany and other socialist organizations such as the Free Trade Unions associated with the SPD agreed to during World War I. The trade unions refrained from striking, the SPD voted... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Statue of Rosa Luxemburg
Statue of Rosa Luxemburg

Together with Karl Liebknecht and some others, such as Clara Zetkin and Franz Mehring, Luxemburg created the Internationale group on 5 August 1914. This became the Spartacist League on January 1, 1916. They produced a number of illegal pamphlets signed "Spartacus" after the Thracian gladiator who tried to free slaves from the Romans. Luxemburg herself took on the name "Junius", after Lucius Junius Brutus, who was said to have founded the Roman Republic. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1712x2288, 555 KB) Sculpture of Rosa Luxemburg from Ralf Biebl, standing in front of the Builiding of Neues Deutschland, photo by User:Necrophorus File links The following pages link to this file: Rosa Luxemburg Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1712x2288, 555 KB) Sculpture of Rosa Luxemburg from Ralf Biebl, standing in front of the Builiding of Neues Deutschland, photo by User:Necrophorus File links The following pages link to this file: Rosa Luxemburg Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... ▶ (help· info) (August 13, 1871 - January 15, 1919) was a German socialist and a co-founder of the Spartacist League and the Communist Party of Germany. ... Clara Zetkin, maiden name Eissner (born 5 July 1857 in Wiederau, Saxony; died 20 June 1933 in Archangelskoye near Moscow) was an influential socialist German politician and a fighter for womens rights. ... Franz Erdmann Mehring (born 27 February 1846 in Pomerania, died 29 January 1919 in Berlin, was a German publicist, politician and historian. ... The Internationale (LInternationale in French) is the most famous socialist song and one of the most widely recognized songs in the world. ... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Spartacist League (Spartakusbund in German) was a left-wing Marxist revolutionary movement organized in Germany during and just after the politically volatile years of World War I. It was founded by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg (nicknamed Red Rosa) along with others such as Clara Zetkin. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Spartacus by Denis Foyatier, 1830 Spartacus (ca. ... Thraciae veteris typvs. ... The Roman Kingdom (Latin: Regnum Romanum) was the monarchal government for the city of Rome and its territories from its founding. ... Lucius Iunius Brutus Lucius Junius Brutus was the founder of the Roman Republic and traditionally one of the first Consuls in 509 BC. Prior to the establishment of the Roman Republic, Rome had been ruled by kings. ... See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ...


The group rejected the SPD's "ceasefire" with the German government under Kaiser Wilhelm II in the question of endorsing World War I, and fought against it vehemently, trying to lead back towards a general strike. As a result, as early as 28 June 1916 Luxemburg was sentenced to two and a half years' imprisonment, at almost the same time as Karl Liebknecht. During her stay in the penitentiary she was relocated twice, first to Poznań (Posen) and then to Wrocław (Breslau). During this time she wrote several articles, using the name "Junius", which her friends smuggled out and published illegally. These included "The Russian Revolution", which criticised the Bolsheviks on a number of scores, and presciently warned of the danger that a dictatorship would develop under Bolshevik rule. (She nonetheless continued to call for a "dictatorship of the proletariat," albeit not on the Bolshevik model of a one-party state.) It was in this context that she famously wrote "Freiheit ist immer die Freiheit des Andersdenkenden" ("Freedom is always and exclusively freedom for the one who thinks differently"). Another publication, in June 1916, was "Die Krise der Sozialdemokratie" ("The Crisis of Social Democracy"). German Emperor Wilhelm (born Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht, Prince of Prussia 27 January 1859–4 June 1941), was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (de: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. ... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... PoznaÅ„ ( ; full official name: The Capital City of PoznaÅ„, Latin: , German: , Yiddish: פּױזן Poyzn) is a city in west-central Poland with over 578,900 inhabitants (2002). ... WrocÅ‚aw ( ; German: ; Czech: ; Latin: Wratislavia or Vratislavia) is the capital of Lower Silesia in southwestern Poland, situated on the Oder River (Odra). ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a...


In 1917, when the USA joined the war, the Spartacist League affiliated to the Independent Social Democratic Party (USPD), another group of anti-war ex-SPD members, founded by Karl Kautsky. On 9 November 1918, the USPD were catapulted into power as rulers of the new republic alongside the SPD, after the abdication of the Kaiser. This followed an uprising (the German revolution) which had begun in Kiel on 4 November 1918, when 40,000 sailors and marines took over the port in protest at a proposed engagement with the British Navy by German Naval Command, despite the fact it was clear that the war had been lost. By 8 November, Workers' and Soldiers' Councils had seized most of western Germany, laying the foundations for the so-called Räterepublik ("Council Republic"), modelled on the system of Soviets seen in Russia in the revolutions of 1905 and 1917. Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... For the Independent Social Democratic Party of Romania, see Romanian Social Democratic Party (defunct). ... Karl Kautsky (October 18, 1854 - October 17, 1938) was a leading theoretician of social democracy. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... German Emperor Wilhelm (born Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht, Prince of Prussia 27 January 1859–4 June 1941), was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (de: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. ... Karl Liebknecht on 9 November 1918 in the Berliner Tiergarten The German November Revolution was one of many Revolutions across Europe at the end of World War I in 1918-1919. ... Kiel ( ) is a city in northern Germany and the capital of the Bundesland Schleswig-Holstein. ... November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... A soviet (Russian: , IPA: , council[1]) originally was a workers local council in late Imperial Russia. ... The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an empire-wide struggle of both anti-government and undirected violence. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ...


Luxemburg was released from prison in Wrocław on 8 November and Liebknecht had also recently been freed and reorganised the Spartacus League. Together they now produced Die Rote Fahne, the Red Flag newspaper. In one of the first articles she wrote, Luxemburg demanded an amnesty for all political prisoners and called for an end to capital punishment. The German newspaper Die Rote Fahne (The Red Flag) was created on 9 November 1918 by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg in Berlin, first as organ of the left wing revolutionary Spartakusbund. ... Historically, and most generally, the red flag is an international symbol for the blood of angry workers. ... Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ...


However, the united front disintegrated in late December 1918 as the USPD left the coalition in protest at perceived SPD compromises with the (capitalist) status quo. On 1 January 1919, the Spartacus League, together with other socialist and communist groups (including the International Communists of Germany, IKD), created the Communist Party of Germany (KPD), above all on the initiative of Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg. Luxemburg supported the KPD's involvement in the national constitutional assembly which ultimately was to found the Weimar Republic; but she was outvoted. In January a second revolutionary wave swept Germany. Luxemburg wrote leading articles in Die Rote Fahne, and encouraged the rebels to occupy the editorial offices of the liberal press. January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ... Anthem: Das Lied der Deutschen The Länder of Germany during the Weimar Republic, with the Free State of Prussia (Freistaat Preußen) as the largest Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1919-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann  - 1933 Adolf Hitler...


In response, the Social Democratic leader Friedrich Ebert employed nationalist militia, the Freikorps, to suppress the uprising. Both Luxemburg and Liebknecht were captured in Berlin by the Freikorps on 15 January 1919 and murdered on the same day. Luxemburg was knocked out with a rifle butt and afterwards shot in the head. Her body was thrown into a nearby river. Liebknecht was also hit with a rifle and shot in the head, and was then deposited as an unknown body in a nearby mortuary. Hundreds of KPD members were similarly killed, and the councils suppressed. Luxemburg's body eventually washed up in May. One member of the Freikorps served 2 years in jail for participation in her death. This is not the Friedrich Ebert involved in the founding of the GDR, but rather his father. ... The designation of Freikorps (German for Free Corps, i. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The designation of Freikorps (German for Free Corps, i. ...


Dialectic of Spontaneity and Organization

The central feature of her thought was the "Dialectic of Spontaneity and Organization", in which "spontaneity" can be considered akin to a grass roots (or even anarchistic) approach, and organization to a more party-oriented approach to the class struggle. According to this Dialectic, spontaneity and organization are not two separable or even separate things, but rather different moments of the same process, so that one cannot exist without the other. These theoretical insights arise from the elementary and spontaneous class struggle; and through these insights, the class struggle develops to a higher level. Grassroots democracy is the political processes which are driven by groups of ordinary citizens, as opposed to larger organisations or wealthy individuals with concentrated vested interests in particular policies. ... Anarchy, in its broadest sense, refers to a political and social theory in which human society exists without government. ... Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ...

"The working classes in every country only learn to fight in the course of their struggles... Social democracy.. is only the advance guard of the proletariat, a small piece of the total working masses; blood from their blood, and flesh from their flesh. Social democracy seeks and finds the ways, and particular slogans, of the workers' struggle only in the course of the development of this struggle, and gains directions for the way forward through this struggle alone." (In a Revolutionary Hour: What Next?, Collected Works 1.2, p. 554) The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ...

Spontaneity is always mediated by organization, just as organization must be mediated by spontaneity. Nothing could be more wrong than to accuse Rosa Luxemburg of holding the idea of an abstract "spontaneism". Spontaneism is a tendency exhibited by certain ultra-left political factions, the belief that revolution occurs spontaneously from below and cannot be brought about by the actions of individuals or parties who attempt to foment revolution. ...


She developed the Dialectic of Spontaneity and Organization under the influence of a wave of mass strikes in Europe, especially the Russian Revolution of 1905. Unlike the social democratic orthodoxy of the Second International, she did not regard organization as the product of scientific-theoretic insight into historical imperatives, but rather as the product of the struggles of the working classes. This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an empire-wide struggle of both anti-government and undirected violence. ... The phrase Second International has two meanings: For the international association of socialist parties of the late 19th century, see Second International (politics) and a successor organization, the Socialist International For one of the Merriam-Webster dictionaries of American English, see Websters New International Dictionary, Second Edition This is...

"Social democracy is simply the embodiment of the modern proletariat's class struggle, a struggle which is driven by a consciousness of its own historic consequences. The masses are in reality their own leaders, dialectically creating their own development process. The more that social democracy develops, grows, and becomes stronger, the more the enlightened masses of workers will take their own destinies, the leadership of their movement, and the determination of its direction into their own hands. And as the entire social democracy movement is only the conscious advance guard of the proletarian class movement, which in the words of the Communist Manifesto represent in every single moment of the struggle the permanent interests of liberation and the partial group interests of the workforce vis à vis the interests of the movement as whole, so within the social democracy its leaders are the more powerful, the more influential, the more clearly and consciously they make themselves merely the mouthpiece of the will and striving of the enlightened masses, merely the agents of the objective laws of the class movement." (The Political Leader of the German Working Classes, Collected Works 2, p. 280) Malayalam editon of the Manifesto The Communist Manifesto, also known as The Manifesto of the Communist Party, first published on February 21, 1848 by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, is one of the worlds most historically influential political tracts. ...

and

"The modern proletarian class doesn't carry out its struggle according to a plan set out in some book or theory; the modern workers' struggle is a part of history, a part of social progress, and in the middle of history, in the middle of progress, in the middle of the fight, we learn how we must fight... That's exactly what is laudable about it, that's exactly why this colossal piece of culture, within the modern workers' movement, is epoch-defining: that the great masses of the working people first forge from their own consciousness, from their own belief, and even from their own understanding the weapons of their own liberation." (The Politics of Mass Strikes and Unions, Collected Works 2, p. 465)

Criticism of the October Revolution

Part of the Politics series on
Left Communism

Basic concepts
Internationalism
Class Consciousness
Class Struggle
Mass Strike
Workers Council
World Revolution
Communism
Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... Left Communism is a term describing a whole range of communist viewpoints which oppose the political ideas of the Bolsheviks from a position which is asserted to be more authentically Marxist and proletarian than the views held by the Communist International after its first two Congresses. ... Image File history File links Sickle. ... International Socialism redirects here. ... Class consciousness is a category of Marxist theory, referring to the self-awareness of a social class, its capacity to act in its own rational interests, or measuring the extent to which an individual is conscious of the historical tasks their class (or class allegiance) sets for them. ... Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ... A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ... A workers council is a council, or deliberative body, composed of working class or proletarian members. ... World revolution is a Marxist concept of a violent overthrow of capitalism that would take place in all countries, although not necessarily simultaneously. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


Influential Figures
Marx · Engels
Luxemburg · Rühle
Bordiga · Damen
Gorter . Pannekoek
Myasnikov · Korsch
Pankhurst · Rubel
Appel · Chirik
Mattick · Munis
Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820, Wuppertal – August 5, 1895, London), a 19th-century German political philosopher, developed communist theory alongside his better-known collaborator, Karl Marx, co-authoring The Communist Manifesto (1848). ... Otto Rühle (1874 - 1943) was a German Left Communist active in opposition to both the First and Second World Wars, and a founder with along with Karl Liebknecht, Rosa Luxemburg, Franz Mehring and others of the group and magazine Internationale, which posed a revolutionary internationalism against a world of... Amadeo Bordiga. ... Onorato Damen (4 December 1893 - 14 October 1979), was an Italian left communist revolutionary who was first active in the Communist Party of Italy. ... Herman Gorter (born Wormerveer, Netherlands, 1864) was a late 19th century and early 20th century Dutch poet and Socialist. ... Anton Pannekoek Antonie (Anton) Pannekoek (January 2, 1873, Vaassen – April 28, 1960, Wageningen) was a Dutch astronomer and Marxist theorist. ... Gavril Ilyich Myasnikov (1889-1945), also transliterated as Gavriil Ilich Miasnikov, was a Russian metalworker from the Urals, who participated in the Revolution of 1905 and became a Bolshevik underground activist in 1906. ... Karl Korsch (August 15, 1886 - October 21, 1961) was a German Marxist theorist. ... Sylvia Pankhurst Estelle Sylvia Pankhurst (May 5, 1882 - September 27, 1960) was a campaigner in the suffragette movement in the United Kingdom, and a prominent left communist. ... Maximilien Rubel (1905 in Chernivtsi - 1996 in Paris) was famous Marxist historian. ... We dont have an article called Jan Appel Start this article Search for Jan Appel in. ... Mark Chirik (1907-1990) born in Russia. ... Paul Mattick (1904-1981): Born in Pomerania in 1904 and raised in Berlin by class conscious parents, Mattick was already at the age of 14 a member of the Spartacists Freie Sozialistische Jugend. ... Grandizo Munis (1912-1989) was a Spanish politician. ...


Prominent Organizations
Communist Workers International
International Communist Party
International Communist Current
International Bureau
The Communist Workers International (German: Kommunistische Arbeiter-Internationale, KAI) or Fourth Categories: ... The Socialist Equality Party is the name of several branches of the Trotskyist International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI), the largest being in the United States. ... The International Communist Current is a centralised international left communist organisation with sections throughout the world. ... The International Bureau for the Revolutionary Party is an international tendency whose member organisations identify with the Italian left communist tradition. ...


Related Subjects
Luxemburgism
Council communism
Ultra leftism
Libertarian Marxism
Anarchist communism
Autonomism
Situationist International
Luxemburgism (also written Luxembourgism) is a specific revolutionary theory within communism, based on the writings of Rosa Luxemburg. ... Council communism is a Radical Left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s. ... Ultra-leftism is a term used initially to the Ultra Left current of Marxist communism closely related to council communism and left communism and, later, to identify and criticise positions, especially by those within the mainstream historical Marxist parties, to describe a position which is adopted without taking notice of... Libertarian Marxism is a school of Marxism that takes a less authoritarian view of Marxist theory than conventional currents such as Stalinism, Trotskyism, and other forms of Marxism-Leninism, as well as a generally less reformist view than do Social Democrats. ... Anarchist communism is a form of anarchism that advocates the abolition of the State and capitalism in favor of a horizontal network of voluntary associations through which everyone will be free to satisfy his or her needs. ... For other meanings of autonomism, see autonomism (disambiguation) page Raised fist, stenciled protest symbol of Autonome at the Ernst-Kirchweger-Haus in Vienna, Austria Autonomism refers to a set of left-wing political and social movements and theories close to the socialist movement. ... The Situationist International (SI), an international political and artistic movement, originated in the Italian village of Cosio dArroscia on 28 July 1957 with the fusion of several extremely small artistic tendencies: the Lettrist International, the International movement for an imaginist Bauhaus, and the London Psychogeographical Association. ...


Communism Portal
This box: view  talk  edit

In an article published just before the October Revolution, Luxemburg characterized the Russian February Revolution of 1917 as a revolution of the proletariat, and said that the liberal bourgeoisie were pushed to movement by the display of proletarian power. The task of the Russian proletariat was now to end the imperialist world war, in addition to struggling against the imperialist bourgeoisie. The imperialist world war made Russia ripe for a socialist revolution. Therefore "the German proletariat are also ... posed a question of honour, and a very fateful question." (ibid., p. 245) Red October redirects here. ... The February Revolution (N.S.: March Revolution) of 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Bourgeoisie (RP [], GA []) is a classification used in analysing human societies to describe a class of people who are in the upper class, whose status or power comes from employment, education, and wealth as opposed to aristocratic origin. ... Imperialism is the policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics and/or economy of other countries. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna...


In an essay written from jail and published posthumously by her last companion, Paul Levi (publication of which precipitated his expulsion from the Third International) entitled "The Russian Revolution,"[1] Luxemburg sharply criticized the Bolsheviks' absolutist political practice and opportunist policies--i.e., their suppression of the Constituent Assembly in January 1918, their support for the partition of the old feudal estates to the peasant communes, their policy of supported the purported right of all national peoples to "self-determination." Her criticisms of the Bolsheviks' simultaneously despotic and opportunist practice, vis. the peasantry (and the workers as well), stem in large part from Luxemburg's fidelity to Marx's original concept of the "revolution in permanence." Marx outlines this strategy in his March 1850 "Address to the Central Committee of the Communist League." As opposed to the Bolsheviks own neo-Blanquist concept of "permanent revolution," Marx argued that the role of the working class revolutionary party was not to create a one-party state, nor to give away land--even in semi-feudal countries like Germany in 1850--or Russia in 1917--where the working class was in the minority. Rather, Marx argued that the role of the working class was, within structures of radical democracy, to organize, arm and defend themselves in workers councils and militias, to campaign for their own socialist political program, to expand workers rights, and to seize and farm intensively and collectively the old feudal estates, so as to feed the cities. According to Luxemburg, the Bolsheviks' failure to carry out this strategy created tremendous dangers for the Revolution: a) its bureaucratization b) starvation in the cities c) weakening of the Revolution's military defenses, as the peasant soldiers rushed home to get in on the land grab, which also contributed to d) the disastrous Brest Litovsk treaty with the German empire. For as a result of the loss of morale and desertions in the Russian army, the German Empire was able to seize the Ukraine, the breadbasket of Russia, for itself--and justify this an act of "national self-determination," preached by the Bolsheviks themselves!


Her sharp criticism of the October Revolution and the Bolsheviks was lessened insofar as she explained the errors of the revolution and of the Bolsheviks with the "complete failure of the international proletariat" (On the Russian Revolution, GW 4, p. 334). Despite all the criticism, it remains to the Bolsheviks' credit that they dared to execute the revolution at all.

"In this erupting of the social divide in the very lap of bourgeois society, in this international deepening and heightening of class antagonism lies the historical merit of Bolshevism, and with this feat — as always in large historic connections — the particular mistakes and errors of the Bolsheviks disappear without trace. (Fragment on War, National Questions, and Revolution, Collected Works 4, p. 366)

After the October Revolution, it becomes the "historic responsibility" of the German workers to carry out a revolution for themselves, and thereby end the war (The Historic Responsibility, GW 4, p. 374). When a revolution also broke out in Germany in November, of 1918, Rosa Luxemburg immediately began agitating for a social revolution: Karl Liebknecht on 9 November 1918 in the Berliner Tiergarten The German November Revolution was one of many Revolutions across Europe at the end of World War I in 1918-1919. ...

"The abolition of the rule of capital, the realization of a socialist social order — this, and nothing less, is the historical theme of the present revolution. It is a formidable undertaking, and one that will not be accomplished in the blink of an eye just by the issuing of a few decrees from above. Only through the conscious action of the working masses in city and country can it be brought to life, only through the people's highest intellectual maturity and inexhaustible idealism can it be brought safely through all storms and find its way to port." (The Beginning, Collected Works 4, p. 397)

The social revolution demands that power is in the hands of the masses, in the hands of the workers' and soldiers' councils. This is the program of the revolution. It is, however, a long way from soldier — from the "Guards of the Reaction" (Gendarmen der Reaktion) — to revolutionary proletarian.


The Role of the party

The party, the advance guard of the working class, has only to give the masses of workers the insight that socialism is the means to free themselves from exploitation, and put forth the socialist revolution. The internal contradictions of capitalism, the antagonism between capital and labor, will keep the revolution occupied. The revolution will, however, educate the masses, and will make revolutionaries out of them:

"History is the only true teacher, the revolution the best school for the proletariat. They will ensure that the "small horde" of the most slandered and persecuted becomes, step by step, that which their world view destines them: the struggling and victorious mass of the revolutionary, socialist proletariat." (The National Conference of the Spartacist League, Collected Works 4, p. 478)

The task of the party is only to educate the backwards masses towards independence, to enable them to take over power themselves. It is the teaching of the subjective element of the revolution, that is the consciousness of the working class of their historic mission, which the party can achieve. The revolution itself can only be brought about through the working class. A Party that speaks for the workers, 'represents' them — for example in parliaments — and acts instead of them, will get bogged down and itself become an instrument of the counterrevolution.


Last words: belief in the revolution

Rosa Luxemburg's last known words, written on the evening of her murder, were about her belief in the masses, and in the inevitability of revolution:

"The leadership has failed. Even so, the leadership can and must be recreated from the masses and out of the masses. The masses are the decisive element, they are the rock on which the final victory of the revolution will be built. The masses were on the heights; they have developed this 'defeat' into one of the historical defeats which are the pride and strength of international socialism. And that is why the future victory will bloom from this 'defeat'.
'Order reigns in Berlin!' You stupid henchmen! Your 'order' is built on sand. Tomorrow the revolution will already 'raise itself with a rattle' and announce with fanfare, to your terror:
I was, I am, I shall be!"
(Order reigns in Berlin, Collected Works 4, p. 536) [2]

Quotes

  • Probably her most famous quotation is "Freedom is always the freedom of dissenters" (Freiheit ist immer Freiheit der Andersdenkenden, usually cited as "Freedom is always and exclusively freedom for the one who thinks differently"). This is part of a larger quote:
Freedom only for the members of the government, only for the members of the Party — though they are quite numerous — is no freedom at all. Freedom is always the freedom of dissenters. The essence of political freedom depends not on the fanatics of "justice", but rather on all the invigorating, beneficial, and detergent effects of dissenters. If "freedom" becomes "privilege", the workings of political freedom are broken.
  • "Marxism is a revolutionary worldview that must always struggle for new revelations. Marxism must abhor nothing so much as the possibility that it becomes congealed in its current form. It is at its best when butting heads in self-criticism, and in historical thunder and lightning, it retains its strength."
  • "Only the working class, through its own activity, can make the word flesh."
  • "Without general elections, without unrestricted freedom of press and assembly, without a free struggle of opinion, life dies out in every public institution, becomes a mere semblance of life, in which only the bureaucracy remains as the active element."
  • "For us there is no minimal and no maximal program; socialism is one and the same thing: this is the minimum we have to realize today."

Memorials

The East German government named Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz and its U-Bahn station on the U2 line in Berlin's historic city center, Mitte, after her. The Volksbühne (People's Theatre) sits on Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz. The name has been left unchanged since reunification. GDR redirects here. ... Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 - January 15, 1919, in Polish language Róża Luksemburg) was a Polish and German Jewish Marxist politician, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. ... U-Bahn is the German abbreviation for Untergrund-Bahn (literally, underground railway), referring to a means of urban rapid transit, internationally known as subway, underground or metro. ... Berlin is the capital city and one of the sixteen states of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... The location of Mitte in Berlin. ... Volksbühne, Berlin The Volksbühne (German for Peoples Theatre) is a theatre in Berlin, Germany. ...


A poetic Memorial for Rosa Luxemburg (Epitaph (1919)) was written by Bertolt Brecht, and set to music by Kurt Weill in 1928 (The Berlin Requiem): This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An album of Weills music by operatic soprano Teresa Stratas… …and one by industrial music band The Young Gods. ...

Red Rosa now has vanished too. (...)
She told the poor what life is about,
And so the rich have rubbed her out.
May she rest in peace.

Trotskyist writer and historian Isaac Deutscher wrote of Luxemburg, "In her assassination Hohenzollern Germany celebrated its last triumph and Nazi Germany its first." Isaac Deutscher (3 April 1907 – 19 August 1967), British journalist, historian and political activist of Polish-Jewish birth, became well-known as the biographer of Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin and as a commentator on Soviet affairs. ...


Works

  • The Accumulation of Capital. Trans. A. Schwarzschild in 1951. Routledge Classics edition, 2003. Originally published as Die Akkumulation des Kapitals in 1913.
  • Gesammelte Werke ("Collected Works"), 5 volumes, Berlin 1970–1975.
  • Gesammelte Briefe ("Collected Letters"), 6 volumes, Berlin 1982–1997.
  • Politische Schriften ("Political Writings"), edited and preface by Ossip K. Flechtheim, 3 volumes, Frankfurt am Main 1966 ff.

Further reading

  • Stephen Eric Bronner: Rosa Luxemburg: A Revolutionary for Our Times, 1984
  • Elzbieta Ettinger: Rosa Luxemburg: A Life, 1988
  • Paul Frölich: Rosa Luxemburg: Her Life and Work, 1939
  • Norman Geras The legacy of Rosa Luxemburg, 1976
  • Klaus Gietinger: Eine Leiche im Landwehrkanal – Die Ermordung der Rosa L. (A Corpse in the Landwehrkanal - The Murder of Rosa L.), Verlag 1900 Berlin – ISBN 3-930278-02-2
  • Peter Hudis (Editor), Kevin B. Anderson: The Rosa Luxemburg Reader, 2004
  • J. P. Nettl, Rosa Luxemburg, 1966 - long considered the definitive biography of Luxemburg
  • Donald E. Shepardson: Rosa Luxemburg and the Noble Dream, New York 1996
  • Raya Duayevskaya: "Rosa Luxemburg, Women's Liberation, and Marx's Philosophy of Revolution," New Jersey, 1982

Film

Die Geduld der Rosa Luxemburg (1986), in German & Polish, Directed by Margarethe von Trotta IMDB link


See also

Wikibooks

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Luxemburgism (also written Luxembourgism) is a specific revolutionary theory within communism, based on the writings of Rosa Luxemburg. ...

External links

Find more information on Rosa Luxemburg by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
 Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
 Textbooks from Wikibooks
 Quotations from Wikiquote
 Source texts from Wikisource
 Images and media from Commons
 News stories from Wikinews
 Learning resources from Wikiversity

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ...

English language

The Marxists Internet Archive (also known as MIA or Marxists. ... Tony Cliff (May 20, 1917 – May 9, 2000) was a Trotskyist revolutionary activist. ... The Marxists Internet Archive (also known as MIA or Marxists. ... Find A Grave logo. ...

German language


  Results from FactBites:
 
Rosa Luxemburg - Wikipedia (7189 words)
Rosa Luxemburg vertrat dagegen eine konsequent marxistische Haltung.
Rosa Luxemburgs marxistische Klassenkampftheorie entstand ihrerseits in Folge realer Prozesse: Um 1900 brachen in Europa, besonders in Russland und Polen immer mehr und größere Massenstreiks aus.
Rosa Luxemburg gewann ihre proletarische Überzeugung in der Zeit der Massenstreiks in Polen und Russland seit 1900.
Rosa Luxemburg - definition of Rosa Luxemburg - Labor Law Talk Dictionary (2288 words)
Rosa Luxemburg was born Rosalia Luxemburg on March 5, 1870 or 1871 in Zamość; near Lublin in what is now Poland.
Overall, Luxemburg denounced the increasingly conformist parliamentary course of the SPD in the face of the increasingly obvious likelihood of war.
Luxemburg supported the KPD's involvement in the national constitutional assembly which ultimately was to found the Weimar Republic; but she was outvoted.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m