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Encyclopedia > Rosa Bonheur
Photograph of Rosa Bonheur (1880-90) in the garden of her Château at By
Photograph of Rosa Bonheur (1880-90) in the garden of her Château at By

Rosa Bonheur, née Marie-Rosalie Bonheur, (b. Bordeaux, France, March 16, 1822 – d. Thomery (By), France, May 25, 1899) was a French animalière and realist artist. As a painter she became famous primarily for two chief works: Ploughing in the Nivernais (in French Le labourage nivernais, le sombrage ), which was first exhibited at the Salon of 1848, and is now in the Musée d’Orsay in Paris depicts a team of oxen ploughing a field while attended by peasants set against a vast pastoral landscape; and, The Horse Fair (in French Le marché aux chevaux ), which was exhibited at the Salon of 1853 (finished in 1855) and is now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, in New York City. Bonheur is widely considered to have been the most famous woman painter of the nineteenth century.[1] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Coordinates Administration Country Region ÃŽle-de-France Department Seine-et-Marne Arrondissement Fontainebleau Canton Moret-sur-Loing Intercommunality Communauté de communes Moret Seine et Loing Mayor René-Jean Réyès (2001-2008) Statistics Altitude 42 m–96 m Land area¹ 3. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ... The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of activities to do with creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... The Salon (French: Salon), or rarely Paris Salon (French: Salon de Paris), is the official art exhibition of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris, France. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... , The Musée dOrsay (in English: The Orsay Museum) is a museum in Paris, France, on the left bank of the Seine, housed in the former railway station, the Gare dOrsay. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... The traditional way: a German farmer works the land with a horse and plough. ... Categories: 1911 Britannica | Historical stubs | Feudalism ... For other uses, see Pastoral (disambiguation). ... The Salon (French: Salon), or rarely Paris Salon (French: Salon de Paris), is the official art exhibition of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris, France. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as the Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Early development and artistic training

Portrait of a young Rosa Bonheur. Engraving based on a "Portrait of Rosa Bonheur" by Edouard Louis Dubufe which shows the artist with a bull, symbolic of her work as a painter of animals, or Animalière.

Bonheur was the eldest child in a family of artists. Her father Raimond Bonheur was a landscape and portrait painter and an early adherent of Saint-Simonianism, a Christian-socialist sect that promoted the education of women alongside men. The Saint-Simonians also prophesized the coming of a female messiah. Her mother Sophie (neé Marquis) who died when Rosa Bonheur was only eleven, had been a piano teacher. Bonheur's younger siblings included the animal painters Auguste Bonheur and Juliette Bonheur and the animal sculptor Isidore Jules Bonheur. That the Bonheur family was renowned as a family of artists is attested to by the fact that Francis Galton, the cousin of Charles Darwin used the Bonheurs as an example of "Hereditary Genius" in his 1869 essay of the same title.[2] Download high resolution version (764x1122, 151 KB)source: http://www. ... Download high resolution version (764x1122, 151 KB)source: http://www. ... Édouard Louis Dubufe (born April 30, 1820; died August 11, 1883) was a French painter. ... Landscape art depicts scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests. ... Portrait painting is a genre in painting, where the intent is to depict the visual appearance of the subject, mostly a person, whereas the portrait is expected to show the essence of the subject. ... Saint-Simonianism was a French socialist movement of the first half of the 19th century. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... For other uses, see Prophecy (disambiguation). ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... A short grand piano, with the lid up. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... See Heredity (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... A genius is a person of great intelligence. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Bonheur was born in Bordeaux (where her father had been friends with Francisco Goya who was living there in exile) but moved to Paris in 1828 at the age of six with her mother and brothers, her father having gone ahead of them to establish a residence and income. By family accounts, she had been an unruly child and had a difficult time learning to read. To remedy this her mother taught her to read and write by having her select and draw an animal for each letter of the alphabet.[3] To this practice in the company of her doting mother she attributed her love of drawing animals. For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ... “Goya” redirects here. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Income, generally defined, is the money that is received as a result of the normal business activities of an individual or a business. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... ABCs redirects here, for the Alien Big Cats, see British big cats. ... For scale drawings or plans, see Plans (drawings). ...


Although she was sent to school like her brothers, she was a disruptive force in the classroom and was consequently expelled from numerous schools.[4] Finally, after trying to apprentice her to a seamstress Raimond agreed to take her education as a painter upon himself. She was twelve at that point and would have been too young to attend the École des Beaux-Arts even if they had accepted women. Schoolsystem in France The French educational system is highly centralised, organised, and ramified. ... A university classroom with permanently-installed desk-chairs and green chalkboards. ... Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of skilled crafts practitioners, which is still popular in some countries. ... Sewn redirects here. ... École des Beaux-Arts (IPA ) refers to several art schools in France. ...


As was traditional in the art schools of the period, Bonheur began her artistic training by copying images from drawing books and by sketching from plaster models. As her training progressed she began to make studies of domesticated animals from life, to include horses, sheep, cows, goats, rabbits and other animals in the pastures on the perimeter of Paris, the open fields of Villiers and the (then) still-wild Bois de Boulogne. At age fourteen she began to copy from paintings at the Louvre. Among her favorite painters were Nicholas Poussin and Peter Paul Rubens, but she also copied the paintings of Paulus Potter, Porbus, Léopold Robert, Salvatore Rosa, and Karel Dujardin.[5] École des Beaux-Arts (IPA ) refers to several art schools in France. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Species See text. ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... This article is about the domestic species. ... For other uses, see Rabbit (disambiguation). ... Villiers is the name of several places, of families in France and the UK, and of products and companies: // Switzerland Villiers (NE), in the Val-de-Ruz district of the canton of Neuchâtel France Villiers is the name or part of the name of several communes in France: Villiers... The upper lake, with rowboats The Bois de Boulogne is a park located along the western edge of the 16ème arrondissement of Paris, near the suburb of Boulogne-Billancourt. ... This article is about the museum. ... Et in Arcadia ego by Nicolas Poussin. ... Peter Paul Rubens (June 28, 1577 – May 30, 1640) was a prolific seventeenth-century Flemish and European painter, and a proponent of an exuberant Baroque style that emphasized movement, color, and sensuality. ... The young bull, 2. ... Louis-Leopold Robert (May 13, 1794 - March 20, 1835), French painter, was born at La Chaux-de-Fonds (Neuchâtel) in Switzerland, but left his native place with the engraver Girardet at the age of sixteen for Paris. ... Salvator Rosa (1615 - March 15, 1673) was an Italian painter and poet of the Neapolitan school. ... Karel Dujardin (1640-1678), Dutch wildlife and landscape painter. ...


She also studied animal anatomy and osteology by visiting the abattoirs of Paris and by performing dissections of animals[6] [7] at the École nationale vétérinaire d'Alfort, the National Veterinary Institute in Paris. There she prepared detailed studies which she would later use as references for her paintings and sculptures. During this period, too, she met and became friends with the father and son comparative anatomists and zoologists Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire and Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire by whom her father was employed to create natural history illustrations.[8] Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Osteology is the scientific study of bones. ... For the Batman villain, see Abattoir (comics). ... Dissected rat showing major organs. ... Veterinary medicine is the application of medical, diagnostic, and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife, and production animals. ... Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of organisms. ... Zoology (Greek zoon = animal and logos = word) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... An engraving of Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. ... Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (December 16, 1805 - November 10, 1861) was a French zoologist and an authority on deviation from normal structure. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ...


Early success

The Horse Fair, 1853-1855. The original hangs in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
The Horse Fair, 1853-1855. The original hangs in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.

Rosa Bonheur received a French government commission which lead to her first great success, Ploughing in the Nivernais, exhibited in 1849. Her most famous work was the monumental Horse Fair, completed in 1855, which measured eight feet high by sixteen feet wide.[9] Its subject is the horse market held in Paris on the tree-lined boulevard de l’Hôpital, near the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, visible in the background on the left. It led to international fame and recognition and that same year she travelled to Scotland, enroute meeting Queen Victoria, who admired her work, and where she completed sketches for later works including A Scottish Raid completed in 1860, and Highland Shepherd. These were anachronistic pieces, as they depicted a way of life in the Scottish highlands that had disappeared a century earlier. Nonetheless, they had enormous appeal to Victorian sensibilities. She was especially popular in England and less so in her native France. Image File history File links Description The Horse Fair, 1853-1855 Source Artist: Rosa Bonheur http://www. ... Image File history File links Description The Horse Fair, 1853-1855 Source Artist: Rosa Bonheur http://www. ... The Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital is a hospital in Paris. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... Look up Anachronism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her ascension to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ...


Patronage and the market for her work

She was represented by private art galleries, and in particular that of Ernest Gambart (1814-1902), which would purchase the reproduction rights to her work and sell engraved copies of her paintings. It was Gambart who brought Bonheur to the United Kingdom in 1855.[10] Many engravings were created by the skillful Charles George Lewis (1808-1880), one of the finest engravers of his day. Gambart sold through his gallery in London's Pall Mall. Ernest Gambart (1814-1902) Ernest Gambart (October 12, 1814; died Nice, France April 12, 1902) was a Belgian-born English art publisher and dealer who dominated the London art world in the middle of the nineteenth century. ... This article is about the London street. ...


Claims for her lesbian status

Bonheur lived for fifty years with her female companion Nathalie Micas (and with Micas's mother) in the Château near Fontainebleau. The two women had been best friends since the age of twelve. Raimond Bonheur had been commissioned to paint the young Micas's portrait because she was a sickly child and her parents feared that she was going to die. After Micas's death many years later, Bonheur lived the last year of her life with the American painter Anna Elizabeth Klumpke while Klumpke wrote Bonheur's (auto)biography and painted her portrait.[11] Upon Bonheur's death Klumpke inherited the estate. Because of these relationships, and Bonheur's failure to marry, it is often claimed in current scholarship that she was a lesbian. However, there were no such claims made in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century accounts of her life. A critic might claim that society at the time did not allow for such disclosures to be made public, while others would counter that categories such as lesbian in the sense that we currently apply them were just being created at the time. Coordinates Administration Country Region ÃŽle-de-France Department Seine-et-Marne (sous-préfecture) Arrondissement Fontainebleau Canton Fontainebleau (chief town) Intercommunality Communauté de communes de Fontainebleau-Avon Mayor Frédéric Valletoux (2005-2008) Statistics Altitude 42–150 (avg. ... Anna Elizabeth Klumpke (October 28, 1856 - 1942) was American portrait and genre painter born in San Francisco, California, United States. ... This article is about same-sex desire and sexuality among women. ...


Legacy

Due to a tendency in 1980s-1990s academic criticism to locate Bonheur as a proto-Feminist and as a pivotal figure for Queer theory she is perhaps most famous today because she was known for wearing men's clothing and living with women. This is ironic because (as a woman and possible lesbian) the practice that she devoted her working life to as an artist is now largely forgotten or dismissed as secondary in importance to her clothing, her female companions and her penchant for smoking cigarettes.[12] On her wearing of trousers, she said at the time that this was simply practical, as it facilitated her work with animals: "I was forced to recognize that the clothing of my sex was a constant bother. That is why I decided to solicit the authorization to wear men's clothing from the prefect of police. But the suit I wear is my work attire, and nothing else. The epithets of imbeciles have never bothered me...." [13] The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ... Feminists redirects here. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... For the food preparation, see Smoking (cooking). ... A cigarette will burn to ash on one end. ...


She died at the age of 77. Many of her paintings, which had not been shown publicly, were sold at auction in Paris in 1900. [14]


Biographical works

Lion, 1872
Weaning the Calves, 1879
Weaning the Calves, 1879

While there are many sources of biographical information about Rosa Bonheur, there are three primary texts which are most consulted and cited in the subsequent literature; the first is a pamphlet written by Eugène de Mirecourt, Les Contemporains: Rosa Bonheur which appeared in 1856 just after her Salon success with The Horse Fair.[15] When, in 1897, Venancio Deslandes came across a copy of this pamphlet he sent it to Bonheur with a request that she might tell him if it were accurate.[16] This document, corrected and annotated by Rosa Bonheur herself is a key primary biographical source. The second account was written by Anna Klumpke, an American painter from Boston who made Bonheur’s acquaintance in 1887 while serving as a translator for an American collector of her work and later became the older artist’s companion in the last year of her life. This account, published in 1909 as Rosa Bonheur: sa vie, son oeuvre was translated in 1997 by Gretchen Van Slyke as Rosa Bonheur: The Artist's (Auto)biography because Klumpke had written Bonheur’s biography in the first-person voice.[17] The third, and most authoritative work is Reminiscences of Rosa Bonheur, edited by Theodore Stanton (the son of Elizabeth Cady Stanton the American feminist), and published simultaneously in London and New York in 1910. This particular volume includes numerous correspondence between Bonheur and her family and friends, subsequently lending the deepest insight into the artist’s life as well as her understanding of her own art-making practices and the art world in general. The volume is arranged in a loosely chronological fashion, except when letters and reviews are grouped by correspondent or critic.[18] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 780 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (976 × 750 pixel, file size: 338 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) painting by Rosa Bonheur File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 780 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (976 × 750 pixel, file size: 338 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) painting by Rosa Bonheur File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A primary source is any piece of information that is used for constructing history as an artifact of its times. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... First-person narrative is a literary technique in which the story is narrated by one character, who explicitly refers to him or herself in the first person, that is, I. the narrator is a fool putting his nose into the storytelling exercise. ... Elizabeth Cady Stanton, (November 12, 1815 – October 26, 1902), was an American social activist and leading figure of the early womans movement . ... Feminists redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the state. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For the novel by Michael Crichton, see Timeline (novel). ...


See also

// Professor and art historian Linda Nochlin began her deliberately provocative 1971 Artnews article with the question Why are there no great women artists? This question was, in essence, a challenge to traditional art history and to feminist art history. ... Rosa Bonheur Memorial Park is a pet cemetery located in Elkridge, Maryland, USA. The cemetery was established in 1935, and was actively operated until 2002. ...

References

  1. ^ Janson: History of Art, page 674.
  2. ^ Galton, Francis. Hereditary Genius: An Inquiry into its Laws and Consequences. Second edition. (London: MacMillan and Co, 1892), p. 247. Original 1869.
  3. ^ Rosalia Shriver, Rosa Bonheur: With a Checklist of Works in American Collections (Philadelphia: Art Alliance Press, 1982) 2-12. (It must be said that, as a reference source this book is itself riddled with inaccuracies and mis-attributions but it accords with the consensus account on this matter.)
  4. ^ Theodore Stanton, Reminiscences of Rosa Bonheur (New York: D. Appleton and company, 1910), Theodore Stanton, Reminiscences of Rosa Bonheur (London: Andrew Melrose, 1910).
  5. ^ Boime, Albert. “The Case of Rosa Bonheur: Why Should a Woman Want to be More Like a Man?”, Art History v. 4 (December 1981), p. 384-409.
  6. ^ Wild Spirit: The Work of Rosa Bonheur by Jen Longshaw
  7. ^ Rosa Bonheur at The Bronze Gallery
  8. ^ Ashton, Dore and Denise Browne Hare. Rosa Bonheur: A Life and a Legend, (New York: Viking, 1981), 206pp.
  9. ^ http://www.albrightknox.org/ArtStart/Bonheur.html The Horse Fair at Albright Knox Gallery, sketch for the London version; the sketch for the New York version is in the Ludwig Nissen Foundation, see: C. Steckner, in: Bilder aus der Neuen und Alten Welt. Die Sammlung des Diamantenhändlers Ludwig Nissen, 1993, p. 142 and http://www.spaeth.net/galerie/bonheur.htm .
  10. ^ Ernest Gambart 1814 -1902
  11. ^ Lockard, Ray Anne (2002), "Bonheur, Rosa", glbtq.com, <http://www.glbtq.com/arts/bonheur_r.html>. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  12. ^ See, for instance, Dwyer, Britta C. “Bridging the gap of difference: Anna Klumpke's “union” with Rosa Bonheur”, Out of context. (New York: Greenwood Press, 2004), p. 69-79.; Lampela, Laurel, “Daring to be different: a look at three lesbian artists”, Art Education v.54 no. 2 (March 2001), p. 45-51. and Van Slyke, Gretchen. “The sexual and textual politics of dress: Rosa Bonheur and her cross-dressing permits”, Nineteenth-Century French Studies v. 26 no. 3-4 (Spring/Summer 1998) p. 321-35.
  13. ^ Janson: History of Art, page 929
  14. ^ 1911 Encyclopedia article - on Rosa Bonheur
  15. ^ Eugène de Mirecourt, Les Contemporains : Rosa Bonheur (Paris: Gustave Havard, 15 Rue Guénégaud, 1856) 20.
  16. ^ Venancio Deslandes was the former head of the National Printing Office of Lisbon.
  17. ^ Anna Klumpke, Rosa Bonheur : Sa Vie, Son Oeuvre (Paris: E. Flammarion, 1909), Anna Klumpke, Rosa Bonheur: The Artist's (Auto)Biography, trans. Gretchen Van Slyke (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998).
  18. ^ Theodore Stanton, Reminiscences of Rosa Bonheur (New York: D. Appleton and company, 1910), Theodore Stanton, Reminiscences of Rosa Bonheur (London: Andrew Melrose, 1910).
Further reading
  • Dore Ashton, Rosa Bonheur: A Life and a Legend. Illustrations and Captions by Denise Browne Harethe. New York: A Studio Book/The Viking Press, 1981 NYT Review

glbtq. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ... National Museum of Women in the Arts The National Museum of Women in the Arts (NMWA), located in Washington, D.C. is the only museum solely dedicated to celebrating women’s achievements in the visual, performing, and literary arts. ...

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