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Encyclopedia > Rope
Coils of rope used for long-line fishing

A rope (IPA: /rəʊp/) is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. It has tensile strength but is too flexible to provide compressive strength (i.e., it can be used for pulling, not pushing). Rope is thicker and stronger than similarly constructed cord, line, string, or twine. Common materials for rope include natural fibers such as Manila hemp, hemp, linen, cotton, coir, jute, and sisal. Synthetic fibers in use for rope-making include polypropylene, nylon, polyesters (e.g. PET, Vectran), polyethylene (e.g. Spectra) and Aramids (e.g. Twaron, Technora and Kevlar). Some ropes are constructed of mixtures of several fibres or use co-polymer fibres. Ropes can also be made out of metal fibers. Ropes have been constructed of other fibrous materials such as silk, wool, and hair, but such ropes are not generally available. Rayon is a regenerated fiber used to make decorative rope. Coils of rope. ... Coils of rope. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... A braid Step by step creation of a basic braid using three strings To braid is to interweave or twine three or more separate strands of one or more materials in a diagonally overlapping pattern. ... The term connection has various uses, including: An act of connecting two or more physical entities in a physical sense or connecting concepts in memory or imagination, see below Telecommunications circuit switching That which connects, relates or joins: An electrical connection A telecommunication circuit such as a fiber-optic connection... Tensile strength isthe measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ... Compressive strength is the capacity of a material to withstand axially directed pushing forces. ... Manila hemp, also known as manilla, is a type of fiber obtained from the leaves of the abaca (Musa textilis), a relative of the banana. ... U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... Torn linen cloth, recovered from the Dead Sea Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Coir (from Malayalam kayar, cord) is a coarse fibre extracted from the fibrous outer shell of a coconut. ... The word Jute is also used in reference to the Germanic people, the Jutes. ... Binomial name Agave sisalana Perrine Sisal or sisal hemp is an agave Agave sisalana that yields a stiff fiber used in making rope. ... Synthetic fibres are the result of extensive research by scientists to increase and improve upon the supply of naturally occurring animal and plant fibres that have been used in making cloth and rope. ... Polypropylene lid of a Tic Tacs box, with a living hinge and the resin identification code under its flap Micrograph of polypropylene Polypropylene or polypropene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer, made by the chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications, including food packaging, ropes, textiles, stationery, plastic... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester is a category of polymers, or, more specifically condensation polymers, which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... Polyethylene terephthalate (aka PET, PETE or the obsolete PETP or PET-P) is a thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in synthetic fibers; beverage, food and other liquid containers; thermoforming applications; and engineering resins often in combination with glass fiber. ... Vectran is a manufactured fibre, spun from a liquid crystal polymer created by Celanese Acetate LLC. These fibres are noted for thermal stability at high temperatures, high strength, and good chemical stability. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dyneema or Spectra is a synthetic fiber based on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene which is 15 times stronger than steel and up to 40% stronger than Kevlar. ... Aramid fiber (1961) is a fire-resistant and strong synthetic fiber. ... Chemical structure of Kevlar. ... Technora is the brandname of Teijin Twaron for a aromatic copolyamid. ... Kevlars molecular structure; BOLD: monomer unit; DASHED: hydrogen bonds. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... For the 1968 stage production, see Hair (musical), for the 1979 film, see Hair (film). ... Rayon is a manufactured regenerated cellulosic fiber. ...


Rope is of paramount importance in fields as diverse as construction, seafaring, exploration, sports and communications and has been since prehistoric times. In order to fasten rope, a large number of knots have been invented for various uses. Pulleys are used to redirect the pulling force to another direction, and may be used to create mechanical advantage, allowing multiple strands of rope to share a load and multiply the force applied to the end. Winches and capstans are machines designed to pull ropes. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... KNOT is a commercial Classic Country music radio station in Prescott, Arizona, broadcasting to the Flagstaff-Prescott, Arizona area on 1450 AM. Query the FCCs AM station database for KNOT Radio Locator Information on KNOT AM radio stations in the Flagstaff-Prescott, Arizona market (Arbitron #151) By frequency: By... For the band, see Pulley (band). ... In physics and engineering, mechanical advantage (MA) is the factor by which a mechanism multiplies the force put into it. ... Modern self-tailing winch on a sailing boat. ... A portion of a model depicting a manual capstan in use. ...

Contents

History

Ancient Egyptians were the first to document tools for ropemaking
Ancient Egyptians were the first to document tools for ropemaking
A German ropemaker, around 1470 AD
A German ropemaker, around 1470 AD
Public demonstration of historical ropemaking technique
Public demonstration of historical ropemaking technique

The use of ropes for hunting, pulling, fastening, attaching, carrying, lifting, and climbing dates back to prehistoric times and has always been essential to mankind's technological progress. It is likely that the earliest "ropes" were naturally occurring lengths of plant fiber, such as vines, followed soon by the first attempts at twisting and braiding these strands together to form the first proper ropes in the modern sense of the word. Fossilised fragments of "probably two-ply laid rope of about 7 mm diameter" were found in Lascaux cave, dating to approximately 17,000 BP.[1] Image File history File linksMetadata Ancient_Egypt_rope_manufacture. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ancient_Egypt_rope_manufacture. ... Image File history File links German_Ropemaker,_around_1460-1480. ... Image File history File links German_Ropemaker,_around_1460-1480. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... Painting of bison attacking a man, from the cave at Lascaux, c. ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ...


The ancient Egyptians were probably the first civilization to develop special tools to make rope. Egyptian rope dates back to 4000 to 3500 B.C. and was generally made of water reed fibers. Other rope in antiquity was made from the fibers of date palms, flax, grass, papyrus, leather, or animal hair. The use of such ropes pulled by thousands of workers allowed the Egyptians to move the heavy stones required to build their monuments. Starting from approximately 2800 B.C., rope made of hemp fibers was in use in China. Rope and the craft of rope making spread throughout Asia, India, and Europe over the next several thousand years. Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... Binomial name L. The Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is a palm in the genus Phoenix, extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ... For other uses, see Flax (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Grass (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ...


In the Middle Ages (from the thirteenth century to the eighteenth century), from the British Isles to Italy, ropes were constructed in so-called rope walks, very long buildings where strands the full length of the rope were spread out and then laid up or twisted together to form the rope. The cable length was thus set by the length of the available rope walk. This is related to the unit of length termed cable length. This allowed for long ropes of up to 300 yards long or longer to be made. Short ropes are useless on tall ships which require ropes to be long, relatively uniform in diameter, and strong. Short ropes would require splicing to make them long. The strongest form of splicing is the short splice, which doubles the diameter of the rope at the area of the splice. This would cause problems in the rigging hardware such as buckles and pulleys. Old Executive Office Building, Washington D.C. Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, China In architecture, construction, engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following: Any man-made structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or continuous occupancy, or An... For other uses of this word, see Length (disambiguation). ... A cable length is a nautical unit of measure, for which at least four definitions seem to exist: Common definition: 1/10 nautical mile, i. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Splicing (rope). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Splicing (rope). ...


Leonardo da Vinci drew sketches of a concept for a ropemaking machine, but just like many other of his inventions, they never got built. Nevertheless, remarkable feats of construction were accomplished without advanced technology: In 1586, Domenico Fontana erected the 327 ton obelisk on Rome's Saint Peter's Square with a concerted effort of 900 men, 75 horses, and countless pulleys and meters of rope. By the late 1700s several working machines had been built and patented. “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... For the musical form, see Invention (music). ... Domenico Fontana (1543 – 1607) was an Italian architect of the late Renaissance. ... The Luxor obelisk in the Place de la Concorde in Paris Obelisk outside Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome. ... Saint Peters Square, or Saint Peters Piazza (Piazza San Pietro, in Italian), is located directly in front of St. ...


Rope continued to be made from natural fibers until the 1950s when synthetic fibers such as nylon became popular. Synthetic fibres are the result of extensive research by scientists to increase and improve upon the supply of naturally occurring animal and plant fibres that have been used in making cloth and rope. ...


Styles of rope construction

Laid or twisted rope

Laid rope, also called twisted rope, is historically the prevalent form of rope, at least in modern western history. Most twisted rope consists of three strands and is normally right-laid, or given a right handed twist. Typically, a three strand laid rope is called a plain or hawser-laid rope. A four strand rope is usually called shroud-laid, and a rope twisted out of 3 or more ropes is called cable-laid. For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ...

Rope making using the twisted rope method on a 1928 Metters Rope Making Machine
Rope making using the twisted rope method on a 1928 Metters Rope Making Machine

Twisted ropes are built up in three steps. First, fibers are gathered and spun to form yarns. A number of these yarns are then twisted together to form strands. The strands are then twisted together to form the rope. The twist of the yarn is opposite to that of the strand, and that in turn is opposite to that of the rope. This counter-twisting helps keep the rope together. On the other hand, rope constructed in this manner untwists under tension, which is the cause of spinning, kinking, hockling and stretching. Any rope of this type must be bound at its end by some means to prevent untwisting. Twisted ropes have a preferred direction for coiling. Normal right laid rope should be coiled with the sun, or clockwise, to prevent kinking. Coiling this way imparts a twist to the rope. One of the drawbacks of this construction is that every fiber is exposed to abrasion numerous times along the length of the rope. This means that the rope can degrade to numerous inch-long fiber fragments, which is not easily detected visually. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2576x1932, 1359 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rope Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2576x1932, 1359 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Rope Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... Yarn Spools of thread Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and ropemaking. ... KINK is a commercial broadcast radio station serving the Portland, Oregon metro area. ... Whipping is the tying of several turns of twine around the end of a rope to prevent it from unravelling. ... A coil is a series of loops. ...


Braided rope

Closeup of rope.
Closeup of rope.

Braided ropes are generally made from nylon, polyester or polypropylene. Nylon is chosen for its elastic stretch properties and good resistance to ultraviolet light. Polyester is about 90% as strong as nylon but stretches less under load, is more abrasion resistant, has better UV resistance, and has less change in length when wet. Polypropylene is preferred for low cost and light weight (it floats on water). Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (3872 × 2592 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (3872 × 2592 pixel, file size: 2. ... A braid Step by step creation of a basic braid using three strings To braid is to interweave or twine three or more separate strands of one or more materials in a diagonally overlapping pattern. ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester is a category of polymers, or, more specifically condensation polymers, which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... Polypropylene lid of a Tic Tacs box, with a living hinge and the resin identification code under its flap Micrograph of polypropylene Polypropylene or polypropene (PP) is a thermoplastic polymer, made by the chemical industry and used in a wide variety of applications, including food packaging, ropes, textiles, stationery, plastic... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ...


There are many different kinds of braided line. Double braid line has an outer and inner braid that may be of the same or different material. Single braid (also called solid braid) has no outer braid while hollow braid has no inner braid. Kernmantle rope has a core (kern) of long twisted fibers in the center, with a braided outer sheath or mantle of woven fibers. The kern provides most of the strength (about 70%), while the mantle protects the kern and determines the handling properties of the rope (how easy it is to hold, to tie knots in, and so on). In dynamic climbing line, the core fibers are usually twisted, and chopped into shorter lengths which makes the rope more stretchy. Static kernmantle ropes are made with untwisted core fibers and tighter braid, which causes them to be stiffer in addition to limiting the stretch. Kernmantle rope is rope constructed with its interior core (the kern) protected with a woven exterior sheath (mantle) that is designed to optimize strength, durability, and flexibility. ... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ...


Braided ropes (and objects like garden hoses, fiber optic or coaxial cables, etc.) that have no lay, or inherent twist, will uncoil better if coiled into figure-8 coils, where the twist reverses regularly and essentially cancels out. Look up hose in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Optical fibers An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber designed to guide light along its length. ... Coaxial Cable For the weapon, see coaxial weapon. ... Figure 8 might refer to: Figure 8, an expression describing a Lissajous curve that resembles the number 8 Figure 8, the basis for compulsory figures in figure skating Figure 8 (album), a 2000 album recorded by American singer-songwriter Elliott Smith Figure-of-eight knot, (also called a Flemish Knot...


Other types

Plaited rope is made by braiding twisted strands, and is also called square braid. It is not as round as twisted rope and coarser to the touch. It is less prone to kinking than twisted rope and, depending on the material, very flexible and therefore easy to handle and knot. This construction exposes all fibers as well, with the same drawbacks as described above. Brait rope is a combination of braided and plaited, a non-rotating alternative to laid three-strand ropes. Due to its excellent energy-absorption characteristics, it is often used by arborists. It is also the most popular rope for anchoring and can be used as mooring warps. This type of construction was pioneered by Yale Cordage.


Handling rope

Cordage aboard the French training ship Mutin
Cordage aboard the French training ship Mutin

Rope made from hemp, cotton or nylon is generally stored in a cool dry place for proper storage. To prevent kinking it is usually coiled. To prevent fraying or unraveling, the ends of a rope are bound with twine, tape, or heat shrink tubing. The ends of plastic fiber ropes are often melted and fused solid. If a load-bearing rope gets a sharp or sudden jolt or the rope shows signs of deteriorating, it is recommended that the rope be replaced immediately and should be discarded or only used for non-load-bearing tasks. Image File history File links Sur le pont du Mutin (11 juillet 2002) Photograph by Yannick Le Bris http://www. ... Image File history File links Sur le pont du Mutin (11 juillet 2002) Photograph by Yannick Le Bris http://www. ... U.S. Marihuana production permit. ...


Line

A piece of rope that has a specific purpose is called a line, especially in nautical usage. Examples include clothesline, chalk line, anchor line, stern line, fishing line etc.


See also

An 1800 depiction of jumping rope A jump rope, skipping rope or skip rope is the primary tool used in the game of skipping played by children and many young adults, where one or more participants jump over a spinning rope so that it passes under their feet and over... KNOT is a commercial Classic Country music radio station in Prescott, Arizona, broadcasting to the Flagstaff-Prescott, Arizona area on 1450 AM. Query the FCCs AM station database for KNOT Radio Locator Information on KNOT AM radio stations in the Flagstaff-Prescott, Arizona market (Arbitron #151) By frequency: By... Rope bondage is bondage involving the use to rope to tie and wrap the body as part of BDSM activities. ... Ropework is commonly defined as the set of processes of making and repairing ropes; some, however, also include any other work that can be done with ropes, such as tying knots and splicing. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Splicing (rope). ... It has been suggested that Slackrope be merged into this article or section. ... Whipping is the tying of several turns of twine around the end of a rope to prevent it from unravelling. ... An incomplete list of remarkable spans, either used for powerline crossings of rivers, sea straits or valleys, as antenna or for aerial tramways. ... Chemical structure of Kevlar. ... Single Rope Technique (SRT) is a method (or rather set of methods) used in caving and potholing to descend and ascend vertical drops (pitches). SRT is also used in roped access for building maintenance. ... Whipping on a post Flagellation is the act of whipping (Latin flagellum, whip) the human body. ...

References

  1. ^ J.C. Turner and P. van de Griend (ed.), The History and Science of Knots (Singapore: World Scientific, 1996), 14.

Sources

  • Lane, Frederic Chapin, 1932. The Rope Factory and Hemp Trade of Venice in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries, Journal of Economic and Business History, Vol. 4 No. 4 Suppl. (August 1932).
  • Plymouth Cordage Company, 1931. The Story of Rope; The History and the Modern Development of Rope-Making, Plymouth Cordage Company, North Plymouth, Mass.
  • Sanctuary, Anthony, 1996. Rope, Twine and Net Making, Shire Publications Ltd., Cromwell House, Princes Risborough, Buckinghamshire.
  • Teeter, Emily, 1987. Techniques and Terminology of Rope-Making in Ancient Egypt, Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 73 (1987).
  • Tyson, William, no date. Rope, a History of the Hard Fibre Cordage Industry in the United Kingdom, Wheatland Journals, Ltd., London
  • Smith, Bruce&Padgett, Allen, 1996. On Rope. North American Vertical Rope Techniques, National Speleological Society, Huntsville, Alabama.
  • Gaitzsch, W. Antike Korb- und Seilerwaren, Schriften des Limesmuseums Aalen Nr. 38, 1986
  • Gubser, T. Die bäuerliche Seilerei, G. Krebs AG, Basel, 1965
  • Militzer-Schwenger, L.: Handwerkliche Seilherstellung, Landschaftsverband Westfalen-Lippe, 1992
  • Nilson, A. Studier i svenskt repslageri, Stockholm, 1961
  • Pierer, H.A. Universal-Lexikon, Altenburg, 1845
  • Schubert, Pit. Sicherheit und Risiko in Fels und Eis, Munich, 1998
  • Strunk, P.; Abels, J. Das große Abenteuer 2.Teil, Verlag Karl Wenzel, Marburg, 1986
  • Hearle, John W. S. & O'Hear & McKenna, N. H. A. Handbook of Fibre Rope Technology, CRC Press, 2004
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