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Encyclopedia > Roots revival

A roots revival (folk revival) is a trend which includes young performers popularizing the traditional musical styles of their ancestors. Often, roots revivals include an addition of newly-composed songs with socially and politically aware lyrics, as well as a general modernization of the folk sound. A wave of roots revival swept the world in the 1960s and 70s. In most cases, the folk music being revived were not quite extinct, though some hadn't been played for years or were moribund; such cases include the Celtic music of Cornwall and the Isle of Man, for example. In other cases, such as Cameroon and the Dominican Republic, no revival was necessary as the music remained common, and was merely popularized and adapted for mainstream audiences at home and abroad. The 1960s in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1960 and 1969, but the expression has taken on a wider meaning over the past twenty years. ... The 1970s in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1970 and 1979. ... Folk music, in the original sense of the term, is music by and of the people. ... Celtic music is a broad grouping of musical genres that evolved out of the folk musical traditions of the Celtic peoples of Western Europe. ... Motto: Onan hag oll (Cornish: One and all) Cornwall, England Geography Status Ceremonial and (smaller) Non-metropolitan county Region South West England Area - Total - Admin. ...


The term roots revival is vague, and may not always refer to identical events. Characteristics associated with a roots revival include:

  • Popularization of previously non-mainstream folk music
  • Adaptation of folk styles to pop (or rock) structures
  • Invention of new formats like bands where only solo acts had existed before
  • Introduction of new instruments
  • Composition of works by those who perform them, as opposed to folk tunes mostly passed down orally (see singer-songwriter)
  • Incorporation of politically aware lyrics, often critical of a government, religion or other authority, or society in general.
  • Lyrics are the first from the nation to express more than simple desires and problems, and are often seen as the embodiment of a national character or literary tradition (in comparison to the legendary American songwriter, such composers are often said to be the "XXX Bob Dylan", as in Wannes Van de Velde is the Belgian Bob Dylan)

With such a vague and variable definition, roots revival could be seen as referring to the creation of any kind of pop music industry, though there are countries with well-developed pop traditions that have not had a period referred to as a roots revival (such as Jamaica, India, Cuba and Kenya). For example, homogenized pop has long had its fans in most every country in the world, but many of these nations have created their own indigenous pop styles out of folk music; this process could be called a roots revival, though in some cases the folk musics in question were still widespread and did not need to be revived. The term singer-songwriter refers to performers who both write and sing their own material. ... Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman on 24 May 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, musician and poet. ... Wannes Van de Velde is a Flemish singer-songwriter from Belgium, well-known throughout the Low Countries. ... Pop music, in popular and contemporary parlance, is a subgenre of popular music. ...


Roots revivals

Algerian music: Beginning as early as 1964, gaining steam in the 70s and continuing through the 1980s, a mainstream raï revival occurred, and pop-raï stars like Khaled and Chaba Fadela gained worldwide audiences; the same period saw similar trends occur among Kabylian musicians like Idir, Ferhat and Aït Menguellet, who popularized the native sounds of their people Algerian music is virtually synonymous with raï among foreigners; the musical genre has achieved great popularity in France, Spain and other parts of Europe. ... For the Nintendo 64 emulator, see 1964 (Emulator). ... Raï (Arabic: راي) is a form of folk music, originated in Oran, Algeria from Bedouin shepherds, mixed with Spanish, French, African-American and Arabic musical forms, which dates back to the 1930s and has been primarily evolved by women in the culture. ... Khaled, New York City Concert, February 8, 2002 Khaled [خالد] is an Algerian raï musician from Oran. ... This article focuses on the geographical area of Kabylie and its people. ... // Biography: Idir,was born in 1949 at Aït Lahcène a Berber village in Haute-Kabylia. ...


Argentinian music: In the 1960s, Andean nationalism was spreading across Argentina, Chile, Bolivia and Peru. Argentina's nativist scene includes landmark performers like Mercedes Sosa and Atahualpa Yupanqui, who helped spawn the nueva canción scene. Internationally, Argentina is known mostly for the tango, which developed in Buenos Aires and surrounding areas, as well as Montevideo, Uruguay. ... Mercedes Sosa (born 9 July 1935) is an Argentine singer immensely popular throughout Latin America. ... Atahualpa Yupanqui performing for Radio Nacional, Buenos Aires. ... Nueva canción (Spanish for new song) was a movement in Latin American music that emerged in the mid-1960s, taking root in South America, especially Chile and other Andean countries. ...


Australian music: Beginning in the 1980s, Australian Aborigines began turning to their native styles of folk music, which were updated, creating popular bands and styles like Aboriginal rock The earliest music of Australia was the folk music of the Australian Aborigines. ... The 1980s in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1980 and 1989. ... Australian Aborigines are the main indigenous people of Australia. ... Aboriginal rock is a rather nebulous term for a style of music which mixes traditional rock music elements (guitar, drums, bass etc) with the instrumentation of the Australian Aborigines (Didjeridu, clap-sticks etc). ...


Belgian music: Starting early in the 1960s, a wave of popular folk-based performers emerged, led by Wannes Van de Velde, who drew primarily on Flemish traditions. By the 1980s, popular bands included Brabants Volksorkest and the folk-rock band Kadril. Belgium is a cultural crossroads where Flemish Dutch-speaking and Walloon French-speaking inhabitants mix with German minorities and immigrant communities from Republic of the Congo and other distant countries. ... Wannes Van de Velde is a Flemish singer-songwriter from Belgium, well-known throughout the Low Countries. ... This article is about the Belgian region Flanders and the eponymous historical region of the Low Countries. ... Folk-rock is a musical genre, combining elements of folk music and rock music. ...


Beninese music: Artists like Tohon Stan have created a popular version of Benin's numerous styles of indigenous folk music, such as tchink-system, a derivative of the funeral genre of tchinkoumé Benin has played an important role in the African music scene, producing one of the biggest stars to come out of the continent in Angélique Kidjo. ... Underwater funeral in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea A funeral is a ceremony marking a persons death. ...


Bolivian music: The 1950s saw an increase in nationalist identity surrounding the Quechua and Aymara peoples, and a number of intellectuals began associating themselves with folk music, clothing, cuisine and other elements. By the mid-1960s, a folk revival was blossoming, led by Edgar Jofré. Out of all the Andean countries, Bolivia remains perhaps the most culturally linked to the indigenous peoples. ... Quechua (Standard Quechua, Runasimi Language of People) is an Native American language of South America. ... Aymara is the name of a South-American people and of their language. ...


Brazilian music: Beginning in the 1950s and continuing for several decades, a multitude of Brazilian styles (most importantly samba) and imported American jazz combined to create the wildly popular bossa nova scene. This soon evolved into the politically-charged Tropicalia genre, which starred controversial and acclaimed singer-songwriters Caetano Veloso and Gilberto Gil. Strong influences on the music of Brazil come from all part of the world but theres a regional music very popular with influence from Africa,Europe and the natives of the Amazon rainforest and of other parts of the country. ... Samba is one of the most famous of the various forms of music arising from African roots in Brazil. ... Jazz master Louis Armstrong remains one of the most loved and best known of all jazz musicians. ... Bossa nova is a style of Brazilian music invented in the late 1950s by a group of middle-class students and musicians living in the Copacabana and Ipanema beachside districts of Rio de Janeiro. ... Tropicalismo, otherwise known as Tropicália, is a form of Brazilian music that arose in the late 1960s from a melange of bossa nova, rock and roll, Bahia folk music, and perhaps Portuguese fado. ... Caetano Veloso (born 7 August 1942) is one of the most popular and influential Brazilian composers and singers. ... The minister sets the rhythm for Brazils culture policy Gilberto Gil (born June 26, 1942) is a Brazilian singer, guitarist and songwriter, and the countrys current Minister of Culture. ...


Cambodian music: The early 1960s saw a revival of classical music and dance, inspired by Princess Norophom Buppha Devi and led by Sinn Sisamouth, though the rise of the Khmer Rouge largely ended this trend. Music of Cambodia is classified into two forms, modern Cambodian culture is derived from the ancient Khmer Empire of the 8th to the 15th century. ... The 1960s in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1960 and 1969, but the expression has taken on a wider meaning over the past twenty years. ... Her Royal Highness Princess Norodom Bopha Devi of Cambodia was born on January 8, 1943 in Phnom Penh. ... Sinn Sisamouth was a very famous and a highly prolific Cambodian singer-songwriter of the 1960s and 70s. ... Some of the Khmer Rouge leadership during their period in power. ...


Cameroonian music: Beginning with bikutsi in the 1950s and continuing with makossa into the end of the 20th century, Cameroon's popularized folk musics have become among the most prominent in Africa. Messi Me Nkonda Martin undoubtedly did the most to evolve bikutsi from its folk origins into a popular style using electric guitars and other importations, while Manu Dibango brought makossa to new audiences around the world. Cameroon is best-known for makossa, a popular style that has gained fans across Africa, and its related dance craze bikutsi. ... Bikutsi is a musical genre from Cameroon. ... Makossa is a type of music which is most popular in urban areas in Cameroon. ... Manu Dibango (born December 12, 1933) is a Cameroonian saxophonist and vibraphone player. ...


Canadian music: Though some artists, like The Band, Neil Young and Joni Mitchell, had been integral parts of the 1960s American folk-rock scene, Canada has seen its own distinctive revival of styles. This includes the late 1970s scene in Maritime Canada, which glorified the area's Celtic heritage and was led by regional legends Figgy Duff and Stan Rogers, as well as the mid-1960s Quebecois revival led by Gilles Vigneault. More limited revivals of Acadian, Inuit and other folk styles have also occurred. Canadian music includes pop and folk genres; the latter includes forms derived from England, France (particularly in Quebec), Ireland, Scotland, and various Inuit and Indian ethnic groups. ... The Band were an influential Canadian-American rock and roll group of the 1960s and 1970s. ... Neil Young with guitar (from the 1991 Weld tour) Neil Percival Kenneth Robert Ragland Young, better known as Neil Young (born November 12, 1945), is a Canadian singer-songwriter who has become one of the most respected and influential musicians of his generation. ... Self portrait by Joni Mitchell, on the cover of her album Both Sides Now Joni Mitchell, CC (born Roberta Joan Anderson on November 7, 1943, in Fort Macleod, Alberta), is a legendary Canadian musician and painter. ... The Maritimes or Maritime provinces are a region of Canada on the Atlantic coast, consisting of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. ... A Celtic cross. ... Figgy Duff was a Canadian folk-rock band from Newfoundland. ... Stanley Allison Rogers (November 29, 1949–June 2, 1983) was a Canadian folk musician and composer. ... Quebec - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Gilles Vigneault (born 27 October 1928) is a poet, publisher and singer-songwriter from Quebec, and well-known Quebec nationalist and sovereigntist. ...


Chinese music: Partially as a reaction against attempts by the Communist government to subvert traditional styles to drum up patriotism and loyalty, the 1970s saw the creation of Chinese rock and Cantopop (in Hong Kong), both of which made some use of native folk styles, especially in vocal techniques. The leader of Chinese rock is undoubtedly Cui Jian. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Chinese rock (中国摇滚) is oftenly and inaccurately described as a style of music which combines Chinese musical instruments with techniques of Western-style rock and roll. ... Cantopop is a colloquial abbreviation for Cantonese pop music, a form of popular music that is a subgenre of C-pop. ... Cui Jian (崔健, Pinyin: Cuī Jiàn) (born August 2, 1961) is a native Beijinger, trumpet player, guitarist and composer. ...


Chilean music: In the early to mid-1960s, the burgeoning nueva canción movement spread throughout Chile, Argentina, Bolivia and Peru, featuring a wave of singer-songwriters who incorporated folk elements and nationalist lyrics, often critical of governmental authorities, and achieved great acclaim. Violeta Parra is sometimes viewed as the founder of the scene, for she popularized Quechua and Aymara songs and provided an outlet for performances by future luminaries like Victor Jara. Chile was an important center of culture in ancient Tahuantinsuyu (Inca empire), and was afterwards dominated by the Spanish. ... Nueva canción (Spanish for new song) was a movement in Latin American music that emerged in the mid-1960s, taking root in South America, especially Chile and other Andean countries. ... Violeta del Carmen Parra Sandoval (October 14, 1917 - February 5, 1967) was a notable Chilean folklorist. ... Víctor Lidio Jara Martínez (September 23, 1932 – September 16, 1973) was a Chilean folk singer and activist. ...


Ivorian music: Ernesto Djédjé's ziglibithy style incorporates a number of folk genres from across Côte d'Ivoire, a diverse country with hundred of ethnic groups; Djédjé's most immediate influence was the folk rhythms of the Bété. Côte dIvoires capital, Abidjan, is perhaps the most influential city in recorded African music, with performers coming from across the continent to record their singles and albums. ... Ernesto Djédjé is an Ivorian musician from Daloa. ... Ziglibithy is a style of Ivorian popular music that developed in the 1970s. ...


Croatian music: By the 1980s, Croatian pop-folk had seen some mainstream success, and a wave of bands appeared, inspired by Vještice, who combined Međimurje folk music with rock in an innovative fusion of sounds. The music of Croatia, like the country itself, has three major influences: the influence of the Mediterranean especially present in the coastal areas, of the Balkans especially in the mountainous, continental parts, and of central Europe in the central and northern parts of the country. ... MeÄ‘imurje (MeÄ‘imurska županija, Muraköz in Hungarian) is a triangle-shaped county in the northernmost part of Croatia. ...


Cuban music: By the 1960s, Cuban music had seen international success in the form of pop-mambo, chachacha and other genres, and many artists were disillusioned with these styles, which were seen as watered-down. A vanguard of singer-songwriters like Silvio Rodríguez and Pablo Milanés arose, composing politically-aware songs in a style that came to be called Nueva Trova. The Caribbean island of Cuba has been influential in the development of multiple musical styles in the 19th and 20th centuries. ... Mambo is a Cuban musical form and dance style. ... For the dance, see Cha-cha-cha (dance). ... Silvio Rodríguez Domínguez is a Cuban musician, and a leader of the nueva trova movement. ... Pablo Milanés born in Bayamo, Cuba on February 24, 1943. ... Nueva trova was a movement in Cuban music that emerged in the mid-1960s. ...


Czech music: In 1966, the Porta Festival was held, and a wave of singer-songwriters inspired by the likes of American Pete Seeger arose. Music in the Czech Republic has roots both in high culture opera and symphony and in the folk musics of Bohemia and Moravia. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ... Pete Seeger, 1944 Peter Seeger (born May 3, 1919 in New York City), almost universally known as Pete Seeger, is a folk singer and political activist. ...


Danish music: In contrast to its neighbors, Denmark did not see a roots revival until to the late 1990s, when performers like Morten Alfred Høirup gained a widespread following in the country. Denmark is a Nordic country that has long been a center of cultural innovation. ... Morten Alfred Høirup (born 1961) is a Danish guitarist, known for a modernized version of traditional Danish, Celtic, French and other kinds of music. ...


Dominican music: Merengue had been popular in the Dominican Republic for decades since evolving out of confusing folk origins, but did not truly become a form of pop music until the early 1960s, when legends like Johnny Ventura brought the music to new audiences at home and abroad. The Dominican Republic is known primarily for merengue, though bachata and other forms are also popular. ... Merengue can mean either: A style of music originating in the Dominican Republic; see merengue (music) A related style of dance; see merengue (dance) See also meringue, a type of dessert. ... Johnny Ventura (born Juan de Dios Ventura Soriano, March 8, 1940, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic) is a Dominican merengue composer and singer, the first to achieve widespread fame outside of the Dominican Republic. ...


Egyptian music: The city of Cairo is the most important center for Egyptian music, which includes a variety of popularized folk styles, including northern sawahii and southern saiyidi. The region around the Nile is one of the oldest continually-inhabited areas in the world. ...


Finnish music: Finland's folk styles include a variety of national genres and ballads, while the traditional rhyming sleigh songs rekilaulu have become an integral part of many pop singers. In 1967, the Savonlinna Opera Festival, the first of several similar festivals, contributed to a revival of Finnish opera and other more traditional styles. VÃ¥rt land (Maamme), the national anthem of Finland, from 1863 Much of the music of Finland is influenced by Karelian traditional tunes and lyrics, as comprised in the Kalevala. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... St. ...


French music: Though many of France's regional styles have seen popularization, the most vibrant scene is undoubtedly the traditional music of Brittany. The region boasts a uniquely Celtic heritage, which has been emphasized by the revival since its beginnings in the early 1970s, led by Alan Stivell. Corsican music has also seen a revival, though with little popular success, concurrent with the rise of Corsican nationalism in the 1970s. France has long been considered a centre for European art and music. ... Brittany is on the northwest coast of France and is a region unique in that country in its Celtic cultural derivation. ... Alan Stivell (born Alan Cochevelou January 6, 1944) is a Breton musician from the town of Gourin. ... Outside of France, the island of Corsica is perhaps best known musically for its polyphonic choral tradition. ...


Gambian music: By the 1970s, Gambian musicians were mostly playing popular merengue or other styles. A visit by pop band The Super Eagles to London to record saw a change, as they were encouraged to continue their practice of Gambian folk. The band became known as Ifang Bondi, and their music was called Afro-Manding blues. The Gambia is a West African country closely linked musically with its neighbor, Senegal. ...


Garifuna music: Starting in the 1970s and continuing into the following decades, the Garifunas, an Afro-Caribbean people found throughout Central America, began turning to their native punta sound and creating popular styles like punta rock, which found an audience across the area. Pen Cayetano was the most important figure in this scene. The Garifuna are descended from escaped Nigerian slaves and Island Caribs who were deported from St. ... The Garifuna or Garífuna are an ethnic group in the Caribbean area, descended from a mix of Amerindian and African people. ... Punta is a type of music found primarily in Honduras and Belize. ... Punta rock is a form of the traditional punta rhythm of the Garifuna people of Central America. ...


German music: Following the 1968 student revolution in West Germany, singer-songwriters playing a kind of expressive, melancholy music with traditional influences became popular. Due to governmental interference, East Germany did not see much of this influence until the mid-1970s. Forms of German music include Neue Deutsche Welle (NDW), krautrock, hamburger schule, volksmusic, German hip hop, Schlager and multiple varieties of folk music. ...


Ghanaian music: Ghana is best-known for the highlife style of music, which has been popular throughout the 20th century. By the late 1960s, however, the pop scene was dominated by generic guitar bands that imitated Western acts. The 1971 Soul to Soul festival, however, featured a number of African American musicians (like Wilson Pickett and Tina Turner), which had the effect of legitimizing African culture, thus causing a major roots revival that brought highlife to international audiences. The most well-known form of Ghanaian music is highlife, which has become popular all across Africa and much of the rest of the world. ... Highlife is a musical genre that originated in Ghana and Sierra Leone in the 1920s and spread to other West African countries. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) is a common year starting on Friday (click for link to calendar). ... Soul To Soul album cover Released by Stevie Ray Vaughan and Double Trouble in 1985. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... Wilson Pickett (born March 18, 1941, in Prattville, Alabama) was an American soul singer who began his career with The Falcons in the early 1960s. ... Tina Turner on the cover of her 1991 compilation album Simply the Best Tina Turner (born Anna Mae Bullock on November 26, 1939 in Nutbush, now Brownsville, Tennessee) is an American R&B, pop, rock and soul singer, Buddhist and occasional actress. ...


Greek music: The late 1960s and early 70s coup repressed rembétika, a style which had developed earlier in the century. This oppression ironically created a major boom in popularity for the genre, which became associated with political resistance and rebellion. Singer-songwriters like Dhionysis Savvopoulos also became wildly popular, and were seen as voices of the Greek nation. The musical legacy of Greece is as diverse as its history. ... ...


Irish music: There was a revival of Irish folk music that began in the early 20th century, based both in Dublin and Ireland, though the longer-lasting and more famous revival began in the 1960s. At the time, performers like Christy Moore and Ceoltóirí Chualann were inspired by American popular folk singers, and they took to modernizing and adapting Irish music for modern audiences. The result was a dramatic change from folk traditions, including the introduction of the bouzouki and influences including soul and rock. Ireland is internationally known for its folk music, which has remained a vibrant tradition throughout the 20th century, when many traditional forms worldwide lost popularity to pop music. ... Image:Cm. ... Ceoltóirí Chualann is an Irish traditional band, led by Seán Ó Riada and consisting of many members of Ríadas other band, The Chieftains. ... Greek (tetrachordo) Bouzouki The bouzouki (gr. ... Soul Music is a Discworld novel by Terry Pratchett, published in 1994. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ...


Israeli music: Israel has produced a number of folky singer-songwriters and bands, though the country's recent creation and the diverse cultural origins of its people means that there is no "Israeli" folk tradition to revive. Instead, performers like Chava Alberstein and Habrera Hativeet drew on Jewish, American, British, Russian and Slavic influences. Modern Israeli music is heavily influenced by its constituents, which include Palestinians (see Palestinian music) and Jewish immigrants (see Jewish music) from more than 120 countries around the world have brought their own musical traditions, making Israel a global melting pot. ... Chava Alberstein was born in Szczecin, Poland in 1949. ...


Italian music: The diverse regions of Italy are home to dozens of varieties of folk music. By the 1950s, their popularity was declining rapidly and a group of musicians and musicologists founded organizations like Instituto de Martino and Nuova Canzionere Italiano to help preserve folk cultures. The following decade saw a revival of a number of traditions, including Ciccio Busacca's fusions of Sicilian folk styles, central Italy's jazzy modern folk, pioneered by Canzioniere del Lasio, the re-appearance of the lira through the work of Re Niliu, the popularization of diverse genres of northern Italian music and some of the work of world-famous tenor Enrico Caruso, who revitalized Naples' canzone napoletana tradition. In contrast to many country's, Italy's roots revival has resulted in very little mainstream success. Since Roman times, Italy has been one of the cultural centers for all of Europe. ... Ciccio Busacca is a street singer from Sicily. ... Enrico Caruso Enrico Caruso (February 25, 1873–August 2, 1921) was one of the most famous tenors in the history of opera. ...


Japanese music: Though elements of traditional Japanese music can be found in some rock and pop from the country, the only major roots revival was Okinawan, and began in the late 1980s. Popularized Okinawan folk music includes genres like kawachi ondo and goshu ondo. For many outsiders, Japanese music is associated entirely with cheap, disposable bubblegum pop, of which there is plenty. ... This article is about the prefecture. ... Kawachi ondo (河内音頭) is a genre of Japanese music that evolved out of folk music which accompanied the bon-odori festival in Kawachi. ...


Korean music: In the early 1970s, a genre called t'ong guitar developed, performed by singer-songwriters inspired by the likes of American Bob Dylan and Joan Baez. Korean folk has seen little popular success, though there has been some for the pansori, nongak and sanjo styles. The first evidence of Korean music is ancient, and it has been well-documented by surviving written materials since the 15th century and was brought to heights of excellence during the Yi kings of the Joseon Dynasty. ... Tong guitar (or tong guitar) was a form of Korean music developed in the early 1970s. ... Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman on 24 May 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, musician and poet. ... Joan Baezs 1975 bestseller Diamonds & Rust. ... Pansori is a genre of Korean music. ... Pungmul, or nong-ak, is a Korean folk music tradition that includes drumming, dancing, and singing. ... Sanjo can refer to: Sanjo Sobiak, the retarded and obese CEO of JKCinema. ...


Latvian music: Its traditional long suppressed or appropriated by the Soviet Union, Latvia's kokle (an instrument similar to a zither) was revived and popular in the 1970s, led by Jānis Porikis. Traditional Latvian music is dominated by folk songs called dainas, featuring pre-Christian themes and legends, drone vocal styles and Baltic zithers. ... Traditional Latvian music is dominated by folk songs called dainas, featuring pre-Christian themes and legends, drone vocal styles and Baltic zithers. ... A Musima Guitar Zither 45 strings with 21 melody, 24 chords The zither is a musical string instrument, mainly used in folk music. ... Janis Poruks (1871 - 1911, also Janis Porikis) was a Latvian neoromantic author who also helped to re-popularize the kokle, a Latvian folk instrument. ...


Lithuanian music: The Soviet Union had sponsored some music festivals, such as the Dainu Sventes, but did not allow for much lyrical or musical innovation, and kept all songwriters from experimenting with politically-aware and dissident lyrics. An active cultural rebellion occurred in the 1960s, based around a series of national music festivals and concerts. Lithuania has a long history of unique polyphonic music played on flutes, zithers (kankles)and other instruments. ... A music festival is a festival that presents a number of musical performances usually tied together through a theme or genre. ...


Malian music: Cuban music had become extremely popular in Mali by the 1960s, and little folk music could compete. The country's second president, however, Moussa Traoré, encouraged the growth of a Malian music industry, resulting in a revival of some kinds of folk music, and a popularization led by Salif Keita. Later Fanto Sacko's bajourou music and wassoulou music also became popularized. However, by the 1980s, Malian pop had lost most traces of its folk origins and was simply dance music, even topping the European charts; another roots revival occurred, led by acoustic singer and kora player Jali Musa Jawara. The music of Mali is dominated by forms derived from the ancient Mande Empire. ... The Caribbean island of Cuba has been influential in the development of multiple musical styles in the 19th and 20th centuries. ... Moussa Traoré (born 25 September 1936) is a Malian soldier and politician. ... Salif Keita (born August 25, 1949) is an internationally recognized Afro-Pop singer and song writer from Mali. ... Fanta Sacko is a Malian musician, whose debut, self-titled LP launched the bajourou music genre. ... Wassoulou is a genre of West African popular music, named after the region of Wassoulou. ...


Mozambiquan music: Music was used in the 1960s by the independence movement in Mozambique. Leaders in this movement encouraged the growth of a national music industry. By the 1970s, native forms of music, such as marrabenta, had been popularized. Mozambique is a former Portuguese colony, and its native folk musics have been highly influenced by Portuguese forms. ... Marrabenta is a form of Mozambican dance music. ...


Dutch music: The late 1960s saw a revival of Dutch folk music, led by performers like Gerard van Maasakkers; popularity was limited, and soon ended, though region of Friesland has maintained a strong traditional music scene. The Netherlands has multiple musical traditions, mostly related to nearby German and Belgian forms. ... Fryslân province Frisian cattle The Frisian flag (water lily leaves on water) Friesland is a province in the north of the Netherlands. ...


Portuguese music: In the 1960s and 70s, José Afonso led a return to more traditionally styled fado music, which later evolved into a number of new song forms that incorporated socio-political lyrics and foreign influences. Portugal is internationally known in the music scene for its traditions of fado, a popular form of music that has undergone numerous mutations in the last half of the 20th century. ... José Manuel Cerqueira Afonso dos Santos, known as Zeca Afonso José Manuel Cerqueira Afonso dos Santos, better-known as Zeca Afonso or only Zeca (August 2, 1929 - February 23, 1987) was born in Aveiro, Portugal, son of José Nepomuceno Afonso, a judge, and Maria das Dores. ... Fado is a type of folk music which most likely originated in the 1820s in Portugal. ...


Russian music: Starting in about 1966, a group of bards arose, most prominently including Vladimir Vysotsky, and Vyacheslav Shchurov organized a number of concerts for folk singers. This led to a revival and revitalization of Russian folk songs, a trend which continued in ensuing decades. Russia is a large and extremely culturally diverse country, with dozens of ethnic groups, each with their own forms of folk music. ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ... The term bard came to use in the Soviet Union in the early 1960s (and continues to be used in Russia today) for popular poets and singers who wrote songs outside the Soviet establishment. ... Vladimir Semyonovich Vysotsky (Влади́мир Семёнович Высо́цкий) (January 25, 1938 – July 25, 1980) was a Russian singer, poet, theatre and movie actor, and writer. ...


Sami music: The Sami, an indigenous population found in northern Scandinava and Russia, have a tradition of folk songs called joiks, which have been popularized by the likes of Mari Boine, who remains a legend in the field. The Sami (or Lapp, Laplanders) people live in the northern sections of Finland, Sweden, Norway and the Kola Peninsula (Karelia, Russia). ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps and Laplanders) are an indigenous people of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and Russia, covering a total area in the Nordic countries corresponding to the size of Sweden. ... Yoik or juoiggus is a traditional Sami form of song. ... Mari Boine is a Norwegian Sami musician known for having added jazz and rock to the joiks of her native people. ...


US music: In the 1950s and 1960s, a loose network of folk and blues enthusiasts/musicians instigated a renaissance of Appalachian folk music and blues (poor black) music in America. Inspired by the rare records they were able to unearth from the pre-war period (before radio and records began to homogenize American culture), they searched out these musicians and revived the music themselves, influencing American musical culture and thereby the decades' effect on international popular music. Pop-folk stars had seen some previous fame, like the Almanac Trio, but it was not until the 1960s that popular musicians like Bob Dylan entered the spotlight. The 21st century saw another revival of Appalachian folk music with the release of the 2000 motion picture soundtrack to "O Brother, Where Art Thou?". Singers such as Gillian Welch and Alison Krauss and the bluegrass performer Ralph Stanley were featured on the album. The cover of Miles Daviss bestselling 1959 jazz album Kind of Blue. ... Appalachian folk music is a distinctive genre of folk music originating in the Appalachia region of the United States of America. ... The blues is a vocal and instrumental form of music based on a pentatonic scale as well as a characteristic twelve-bar chord progression. ... The Almanac Singers were a group of folk musicians who achieved brief popularity in the early 1940s. ... Bob Dylan (born Robert Allen Zimmerman on 24 May 1941) is an American singer-songwriter, musician and poet. ... Appalachian folk music is a distinctive genre of folk music originating in the Appalachia region of the United States of America. ... O Brother, Where Art Thou? is a musical comedy film written and directed by Joel and Ethan Coen, set in Mississippi during the Great Depression. ... Gillian Welch Gillian Welch is a singer/songwriter whose musical style combines elements of bluegrass, country, and folk into a rustic style that she dubs American Primitive. ... Alison Krauss on the cover of her album Forget About It Image:Akus3. ... Bluegrass has three principal meanings, the second two both deriving from the first listed. ... Ralph Stanley Ralph Stanley (born in 25 February 1927) is an American bluegrass musician. ...


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