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In vascularplants, the root is that organ of a plant body that typically lies below the surface of the soil (though not always) and whose major functions are to absorb water and inorganic nutrients and to anchor the plant body to the substrate.
The outside surface of a root is the epidermis, an outer single-layered group of cells covering the young tissues and leaves of a plant.
The deepest roots are generally found in deserts and temperate coniferous forests; the shallowest in tundra, boreal forest, and temperate grasslands.
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