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Encyclopedia > Root
Primary and secondary roots in a cotton plant
Primary and secondary roots in a cotton plant

In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant body that typically lies below the surface of the soil (compare with stem). However, this is not always the case, since a root can also be aerial (that is, growing above the ground) or aerating (that is, growing up above the ground or especially above water). On the other hand, a stem normally occurring below ground is not exceptional either (see rhizome). So, it is better to define root as a part of a plant body that bears no leaves, and therefore also lacks nodes. There are also important internal structural differences between stems and roots. The two major functions of roots are 1.) absorption of water and inorganic nutrients and 2.) anchoring the plant body to the ground. Roots also function in cytokinin synthesis, which supplies some of shoot needs. They often function in storage of food. The roots of most vascular plant species enter into symbiosis with certain fungi to form mycorrhizas, and a large range of other organisms including bacteria also closely associate with roots. Look up root in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Primary_and_secondary_cotton_roots. ... Image File history File links Primary_and_secondary_cotton_roots. ... Divisions Non-seed-bearing plants †Rhyniophyta †Zosterophyllophyta Lycopodiophyta †Trimerophytophyta Pteridophyta Ophioglossophyta Superdivision Spermatophyta †Pteridospermatophyta Pinophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Magnoliophyta The vascular plants, tracheophytes or higher plants are plants in the kingdom Plantae that have specialized tissues for conducting water, minerals, and photosynthetic products through the plant. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... Stem showing internode and nodes plus leaf petiole and new stem rising from node. ... Pneumatophore redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rhizome (disambiguation). ... A node is the place on a stem where a lateral meristem develops as either a lateral bud or a secondary shoot, often subtended by a leaf. ... Zeatin is named after the genera of corn, Zea as it was first discovered in corn. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... A mycorrhiza (typically seen in the plural forms mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas, Greek for fungus roots) is the result of a mutualistic association between a fungus and a plant. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ...

Contents

Root structure

Roots of a hydroponically grown plant
Roots of a hydroponically grown plant

At the tip of every growing root is a conical covering of tissue called the root cap. It usually is not visible to the naked eye. It consists of undifferentiated soft tissue (parenchyma) with unthickened walls covering the apical meristem. The root cap provides mechanical protection to the meristem cells as the root advances through the soil, its cells worn away but quickly replaced by new cells generated by cell division within the meristem. The root cap is also involved in the production of mucigel, a sticky mucilage that coats the new formed cells. These cells contain statoliths, starch grains that move in response to gravity and thus control root orientation. Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Root ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Root ... Hydroponics is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions instead of soil. ... Tunica-Corpus model of the apical meristem. ... Mucigel is a slimy substance that covers the rootcap of the roots of plants. ...


The outside surface of the primary root is the epidermis. Recently produced epidermal cells absorb water from the surrounding environment and produce outgrowths called root hairs that greatly increase the cell's absorptive surface. Root-hairs are very delicate and generally short-lived, remaining functional for only a few days. However, as the root grows, new epidermal cells emerge and these form new root hairs, replacing those that die. The process by which water is absorbed into the epidermal cells from the soil is known as osmosis. For this reason, water that is saline is more difficult for most plant species to absorb. The epidermis is the outer multi-layered group of cells covering the leaf and young tissues of a plant. ... Trichomes, from the Greek meaning growth of hair, are fine outgrowths or appendages on plants and protists. ... Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from a region of low solute concentration to a solution with a high solute concentration, down a solute concentration gradient. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ...

Cross section of the root of a dicotyledon
Cross section of the root of a dicotyledon

Beneath the epidermis is the cortex, which comprises the bulk of the primary root. Its main function is storage of starch. Intercellular spaces in the cortex aerate cells for respiration. An endodermis is a thin layer of small cells forming the innermost part of the cortex and surrounding the vascular tissues deeper in the root. The tightly packed cells of the endodermis contain a substance known as suberin in their cell walls. This suberin layer is the Casparian strip, which creates an impermeable barrier of sorts. Mineral nutrients can only move passively within root cell walls until they reach the endodermis. At that point, they must be actively transported across a cell membrane to continue further into the root. This allows the plant to accumulate mineral nutrients in the stele. Image File history File linksMetadata Root(cross_section). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Root(cross_section). ... Orders See text. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... Cellular respiration was discovered by mad scientist Mr. ... Endodermis is the bottom layer of skin. ... Cross section of celery stalk, showing vascular bundles, which include both phloem and xylem. ... Suberin is a waxy substance found in higher plants. ... Suberin is a waxy substance found in higher plants. ... In a vascular plant, the stele is the central part of the root or stem containing the vascular tissue and occasionally a pith. ...


The vascular cylinder, or stele, consists of the cells inside the endodermis. The outer part, known as the pericycle, surrounds the actual vascular tissue. In monocotyledonous plants, the xylem and phloem cells are arranged in a circle around a pith or center, whereas in dicotyledons, the xylem cells form a central "hub" with lobes, and phloem cells fill in the spaces between the lobes. Found in the stele of plants, the pericycle is a cylinder of parenchyma cells that lies just inside the endodermis. ... Cross section of celery stalk, showing vascular bundles, which include both phloem and xylem. ... Hemerocallis flower, with three flower parts in each whorl Wheat, an economically important monocot The monocotyledons or Monocots are a group of flowering plants, (angiosperms) dominating great parts of the earth. ... In vascular plants, xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue, phloem being the other one. ... In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that carries organic nutrients, particularly sucrose, a sugar, to all parts of the plant where needed. ... The centre dark spot (about 1 mm diameter) in this yew wood is the pith Elderberry shoot cut longitudinally to show the broad, solid pith (rough-textured, white) inside the wood (smooth, yellow-tinged). ... Orders See text. ...


Secondary growth

All roots have primary growth or growth in length. Roots of many vascular plants, especially dicots and gymnosperms, often undergo secondary growth, which is an increase in diameter. A vascular cambium forms in the stele to produce secondary phloem and secondary xylem. The epidermis is replaced by a periderm. As the stele increases in diameter, the cortex, pericycle and endodermis are lost. Even nonwoody roots often undergo secondary growth, including those of tomato and alfalfa. Orders see text Dicotyledons or dicots are flowering plants whose seed contains two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. ... In vascular plants, xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue, phloem being the other one. ...


Root growth

Root systems of prairie plants

Early root growth is one of the functions of the apical meristem located near the tip of the root. The meristem cells more or less continuously divide, producing more meristem, root cap cells (these sacrificed to protect the meristem), and undifferentiated root cells. The latter will become the primary tissues of the root, first undergoing elongation, a process that pushes the root tip forward in the growing medium. Gradually these cells differentiate and mature into specialized cells of the root tissues. Download high resolution version (500x795, 83 KB)Root system Downloaded from : [[1]] Credits : US Environmental Protection Agency File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (500x795, 83 KB)Root system Downloaded from : [[1]] Credits : US Environmental Protection Agency File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Prairie (disambiguation). ...


Roots will generally grow in any direction where the correct environment of air, mineral nutrients and water exists to meet the plant's needs. Roots will not grow in dry soil. Over time, given the right conditions, roots can crack foundations, snap water lines, and lift sidewalks. At germination, roots grow downward due to gravitropism, the growth mechanism of plants that also causes the shoot to grow upward. In some plants (such as ivy), the "root" actually clings to walls and structures. Air redirects here. ... Nutrients and the body A nutrient is any element or compound necessary for or contributing to an organisms metabolism, growth, or other functioning. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Not to be confused with Gemination in phonetics. ... Gravitropism [or geotropism] is a turning or growth movement by a plant or fungi in response to gravity. ... Species Hedera algeriensis – Algerian Ivy Hedera azorica – Azores Ivy Hedera canariensis – Canaries Ivy Hedera caucasigena Hedera colchica – Caucasian Ivy Hedera cypria Hedera helix – Common Ivy Hedera hibernica – Irish Ivy Hedera maderensis – Madeiran Ivy Hedera maroccana Hedera nepalensis – Himalayan Ivy Hedera pastuchowii – Pastuchovs Ivy Hedera rhombea – Japanese Ivy Hedera sinensis...


Growth from apical meristems is known as primary growth, which encompasses all elongation. Secondary growth encompasses all growth in diameter, a major component of woody plant tissues and many nonwoody plants. For example, storage roots of sweet potato have secondary growth but are not woody. Secondary growth occurs at the lateral meristems, namely the vascular cambium and cork cambium. The former forms secondary xylem and secondary phloem, while the latter forms the periderm. A woody plant is a vascular plant that has a stem (or more than one stem) that is lignified to a high degree. ... Binomial name (L.) Lam. ... Lateral meristems give rise to the secondary plant body. ... The vascular cambium is a lateral meristem: The vascular cambium is the source of both the secondary xylem (inwards) and the secondary phloem (outwards), and hence is located between these tissues in the stem. ... Cork cambium is a tissue found in many vascular plants as part of the periderm. ... Secondary xylem is formed by a vascular cambium. ... In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that carries organic nutrients, particularly sucrose, a sugar, to all parts of the plant where needed. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Bark. ...


In plants with secondary growth, the vascular cambium, originating between the xylem and the phloem, forms a cylinder of tissue along the stem and root. The cambium layer forms new cells on both the inside and outside of the cambium cylinder, with those on the inside forming secondary xylem cells, and those on the outside forming secondary phloem cells. As secondary xylem accumulates, the "girth" (lateral dimensions) of the stem and root increases. As a result, tissues beyond the secondary phloem (including the epidermis and cortex, in many cases) tend to be pushed outward and are eventually "sloughed off" (shed). A right circular cylinder An elliptic cylinder In mathematics, a cylinder is a quadric surface, with the following equation in Cartesian coordinates: This equation is for an elliptic cylinder, a generalization of the ordinary, circular cylinder (a = b). ... Stem showing internode and nodes plus leaf petiole and new stem rising from node. ...


At this point, the cork cambium begins to form the periderm, consisting of protective cork cells containing suberin. In roots, the cork cambium originates in the pericycle, a component of the vascular cylinder. For other uses, see Cork. ...

Stilt roots in the Amazon Rainforest support a tree in very soft, wet soil conditions
Stilt roots in the Amazon Rainforest support a tree in very soft, wet soil conditions

The vascular cambium produces new layers of secondary xylem annually. The xylem vessels are dead at maturity but are responsible for most water transport through the vascular tissue in stems and roots. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 352 KB) Stilt roots of a Rhizophora mangrove tree captured on a small river in Salinas - Pará - Brazil auteur : cesarpb origine : http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x960, 352 KB) Stilt roots of a Rhizophora mangrove tree captured on a small river in Salinas - Pará - Brazil auteur : cesarpb origine : http://www. ... Map of the Amazon rainforest ecoregions as delineated by the WWF. Yellow line encloses the Amazon rainforest. ...


Types of roots

A true root system consists of a primary root and secondary roots (or lateral roots). Lateral roots extend horizontally from the primary root and serve to anchor the plant securely into the soil. ...


The primary root originates in the radicle of the seedling. It is the first part of the root to be originated. During its growth it rebranches to form the lateral roots. It usually grows downwards. Generally, two categories are recognized: In botany, the radicle is the first part of a seedling (a growing plant embryo) to emerge from the seed during germination. ...

  • the taproot system: the primary root is prominent and has a single, dominant axis; there are fibrous secondary roots running outward. Usually allows for deeper roots capable of reaching low water tables. Most common in dicots. The main function of the taproot is to store food.
  • the diffuse root system: the primary root is not dominant; the whole root system is fibrous and branches in all directions. Most common in monocots. The main function of the fibrous root is to anchor the plant.

This article is about the plant root system. ... Orders see text Dicotyledons or dicots are flowering plants whose seed contains two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. ... This article is about the plant root system. ... Orders Base Monocots: Acorus Alismatales Asparagales Dioscoreales Liliales Pandanales Family Petrosaviaceae Commelinids: Arecales Commelinales Poales Zingiberales Family Dasypogonaceae Monocotyledons or monocots are a group of flowering plants usually ranked as a class and once called the Monocotyledoneae. ...

Specialized roots

Aerating roots of a mangrove
Aerating roots of a mangrove
Buttress roots of Ceiba pentandra
Buttress roots of Ceiba pentandra

The roots, or parts of roots, of many plant species have become specialized to serve adaptive purposes besides the two primary functions described in the introduction. Mangrove swamp, partly underwater image showing the root system. ... Mangrove swamp, partly underwater image showing the root system. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1136x852, 521 KB) Beschreibung Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Root Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1136x852, 521 KB) Beschreibung Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Root Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Binomial name Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. ...

  • Adventitious roots arise out-of-sequence from the more usual root formation of branches of a primary root, and instead originate from the stem, branches, leaves, or old woody roots. They commonly occur in monocots and pteridophytes, but also in many dicots, such as clover (Trifolium), ivy (Hedera), strawberry (Fragaria) and willow (Salix). Most aerial roots and stilt roots are adventitious. In some conifers adventitious roots can form the largest part of the root system.
  • Aerating roots (or pneumatophores): roots rising above the ground, especially above water such as in some mangrove genera (Avicennia, Sonneratia). In some plants like Avicennia the erect roots have a large number of breathing pores for exchange of gases.
  • Aerial roots: roots entirely above the ground, such as in ivy (Hedera) or in epiphytic orchids. They function as prop roots, as in maize or anchor roots or as the trunk in strangler fig.
  • Contractile roots: they pull bulbs or corms of monocots, such as hyacinth and lily, and some taproots, such as dandelion, deeper in the soil through expanding radially and contracting longitudinally. They have a wrinkled surface.
  • Coarse roots: Roots that have undergone secondary thickening and have a woody structure. These roots have some ability to absorb water and nutrients, but their main function is transport and to provide a structure to connect the smaller diameter, fine roots to the rest of the plant.
  • Fine roots: Primary roots usually <2 mm diameter that have the function of water and nutrient uptake. They are often heavily branched and support mycorrhizas. These roots may be short lived, but are replaced by the plant in an ongoing process of root 'turnover'.
  • Haustorial roots: roots of parasitic plants that can absorb water and nutrients from another plant, such as in mistletoe (Viscum album) and dodder.
  • Propagative roots: roots that form adventitious buds that develop into aboveground shoots, termed suckers, which form new plants, as in Canada thistle, cherry and many others.
  • Proteoid roots or cluster roots: dense clusters of rootlets of limited growth that develop under low phosphate or low iron conditions in Proteaceae and some plants from the following families Betulaceae, Casuarinaceae, Eleagnaceae, Moraceae, Fabaceae and Myricaceae.
  • Stilt roots: these are adventitious support roots, common among mangroves. They grow down from lateral branches, branching in the soil.
  • Storage roots: these roots are modified for storage of food or water, such as carrots and beets. They include some taproots and tuberous roots.
  • Structural roots: large roots that have undergone considerable secondary thickening and provide mechanical support to woody plants and trees.
  • Surface roots: These proliferate close below the soil surface, exploiting water and easily available nutrients. Where conditions are close to optimum in the surface layers of soil, the growth of surface roots is encouraged and they commonly become the dominant roots.
  • Tuberous roots: A portion of a root swells for food or water storage, e.g. sweet potato. A type of storage root distinct from taproot.
Roots from a fallen redwood at Yosemite National Park.
Roots from a fallen redwood at Yosemite National Park.

Orders Base Monocots: Acorus Alismatales Asparagales Dioscoreales Liliales Pandanales Family Petrosaviaceae Commelinids: Arecales Commelinales Poales Zingiberales Family Dasypogonaceae Monocotyledons or monocots are a group of flowering plants usually ranked as a class and once called the Monocotyledoneae. ... Orders see text Dicotyledons or dicots are flowering plants whose seed contains two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. ... For other uses, see Clover (disambiguation). ... Species Hedera algeriensis – Algerian Ivy Hedera azorica – Azores Ivy Hedera canariensis – Canaries Ivy Hedera caucasigena Hedera colchica – Caucasian Ivy Hedera cypria Hedera helix – Common Ivy Hedera hibernica – Irish Ivy Hedera maderensis – Madeiran Ivy Hedera maroccana Hedera nepalensis – Himalayan Ivy Hedera pastuchowii – Pastuchovs Ivy Hedera rhombea – Japanese Ivy Hedera sinensis... For other uses, see Strawberry (disambiguation). ... Species About 350, including: Salix acutifolia - Violet Willow Salix alaxensis - Alaska Willow Salix alba - White Willow Salix alpina - Alpine Willow Salix amygdaloides - Peachleaf Willow Salix arbuscula - Mountain Willow Salix arbusculoides - Littletree Willow Salix arctica - Arctic Willow Salix atrocinerea Salix aurita - Eared Willow Salix babylonica - Peking Willow Salix bakko Salix barrattiana... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... Species See text Avicennia is a genus of mangrove tree. ... Sonneratia is a genus of plants in the family Lythraceae. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Orchid re-directs here; for alternate uses see Orchid (disambiguation) Genera Over 800 See List of Orchidaceae genera. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... hi Strangler Figs are species of fig that begin their lives as epiphytes as their seed lodge in the cracks and crevices of the bark of a host tree. ... Orders Base Monocots: Acorus Alismatales Asparagales Dioscoreales Liliales Pandanales Family Petrosaviaceae Commelinids: Arecales Commelinales Poales Zingiberales Family Dasypogonaceae Monocotyledons or monocots are a group of flowering plants usually ranked as a class and once called the Monocotyledoneae. ... The name Hyacinth can refer to: the Hyacinth from Greek mythology. ... lily is the best name in the whole wide world. ... For other uses, see Dandelion (disambiguation). ... Families Santalaceae (Viscaceae) Loranthaceae Misodendraceae Mistletoe is a plant parasitic on the branches of a tree or shrub. ... The term Dodder may refer to a number of topics: The parasitic Cuscuta plant. ... A sucker emerging from the base of a young tree This stump is almost entirely obscured by suckers. ... Binomial name Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. ... For other uses, see Cherry (disambiguation). ... Proteoid roots of Leucospermum cordifolium Proteoid roots, also known as cluster roots, are plant roots that form clusters of closely spaced short lateral rootlets. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Genera See text The Proteaceae are a large family of flowering plants, which includes 75-80 genera and 1500 species of evergreen trees, shrubs, and herbs. ... Genera Alnus - Alder Betula - Birch Carpinus - Hornbeam Corylus - Hazel Ostrya - Hop-hornbeam Ostryopsis - Hazel-hornbeam Betulaceae, or the Birch Family, includes six genera of deciduous nut-bearing trees and shrubs, including the birches, alders, hazels, hornbeams and hop-hornbeams, numbering about 130 species. ... Genera Allocasuarina Casuarina Gymnostoma Casuarinaceae is a family of dicotyledonous flowering plants placed in the order Fagales, consisting of 3 or 4 genera and approximately 70 species of trees and shrubs native to the Old World tropics (Indo-Malaysia), Australia, and the Pacific islands. ... Genera Antiaris Artocarpus - Breadfruit, Jackfruit Brosimum Broussonetia - Paper Mulberry Castilloa Cecropia Chlorophora Dorstenia Ficus - Fig, Banyan Maclura - Osage-orange Morus - Mulberry Musanga Pseudolmedia Streblus Treculia The flowering plant family Moraceae (Mulberry family) comprises some 40 genera and over 1000 species of plants widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, less common... Subfamilies Faboideae Caesalpinioideae Mimosoideae References GRIN-CA 2002-09-01 The name Fabaceae belongs to either of two families, depending on viewpoint. ... Genera Canacomyrica Guillaumin Comptonia LHer. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... This article is about the cultivated vegetable. ... Binomial name Carolus Linnaeus Beta vulgaris, commonly known as beet is a flowering plant species in the family Chenopodiaceae. ... Binomial name (L.) Lam. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 1308 KB) Photograph created by Mary-Irene Lang I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 1308 KB) Photograph created by Mary-Irene Lang I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Yosemite redirects here. ...

Rooting depths

The distribution of vascular plant roots within soil depends on plant form, the spatial and temporal availability of water and nutrients, and the physical properties of the soil. The deepest roots are generally found in deserts and temperate coniferous forests; the shallowest in tundra, boreal forest and temperate grasslands. The deepest observed living root, at least 60 m below the ground surface, was observed during the excavation of an open-pit mine in Arizona, USA. Some roots can grow as deep as the tree is high. The majority of roots on most plants are however found relatively close to the surface where nutrient availability and aeration are more favourable for growth. Rooting depth may be physically restricted by rock or compacted soil close below the surface, or by anaerobic soil conditions.


Root architecture

The pattern of development of a root system is termed 'root architecture', and is important in providing a plant with a secure supply of nutrients and water as well as anchorage and support. The architecture of a root system can be considered in a similar way to above-ground architecture of a plant - i.e. in terms of the size, branching and distribution of the component parts. In roots, the architecture of fine roots and coarse roots can both be described by variation in topology and distribution of biomass within and between roots. Having a balanced architecture allows fine roots to exploit soil efficiently around a plant, but the 'plastic' nature of root growth allows the plant to then concentrate its resources where nutrients and water are more easily available. A balanced coarse root architecture, with roots distributed relatively evenly around the stem base, is necessary to provide support to larger plants and trees.


Economic importance

Roots can also protect the environment by holding the soil to prevent soil erosion
Roots can also protect the environment by holding the soil to prevent soil erosion

The term root crops refers to any edible underground plant structure, but many root crops are actually stems, such as potato tubers. Edible roots include cassava, sweet potato, beet, carrot, rutabaga, turnip, parsnip, radish, yam and horseradish. Spices obtained from roots include sassafras, angelica, sasparilla and licorice. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,048 × 1,360 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,048 × 1,360 pixels, file size: 2. ... Root vegetables are underground plant parts used as vegetables. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Yuca redirects here. ... Binomial name (L.) Lam. ... Binomial name Carolus Linnaeus Beta vulgaris, commonly known as beet is a flowering plant species in the family Chenopodiaceae. ... This article is about the cultivated vegetable. ... Binomial name Mill. ... Trinomial name Brassica rapa rapa L. For similar vegetables also called turnip, see Turnip (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Pastinaca sativa L. The parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) is a root vegetable related to the carrot. ... This article is about the vegetable. ... Yam may refer to: Yam (vegetable), common name for members of Dioscorea Yam (god), a Levantine deity A colloquially American term for Shellfish Yam (route), a Mongolian supply point system An animal in the same family as the Yak and Wild Buffalo A colloquially American term for sweet potato A... Binomial name P.G. Gaertn. ... This article is about the Sassafras tree. ... Species About 50 species; see text For other uses, see Angelica (disambiguation). ... Sarsaparilla is a vine that bears roots with many useful properties. ... Species Glycyrrhiza acanthocarpa Glycyrrhiza aspera Glycyrrhiza astragalina Glycyrrhiza bucharica Glycyrrhiza echinata Glycyrrhiza eurycarpa Glycyrrhiza foetida Glycyrrhiza glabra Glycyrrhiza iconica Glycyrrhiza korshinskyi Glycyrrhiza lepidota Glycyrrhiza pallidiflora Glycyrrhiza triphylla Glycyrrhiza uralensis Glycyrrhiza yunnanensis Ref: ILDIS Version 6. ...


Sugar beet is an important source of sugar. Yam roots are a source of estrogen compounds used in birth control pills. The fish poison and insecticide rotenone is obtained from roots of Lonchocarpus spp. Important medicines from roots are ginseng, aconite, ipecac, gentian and reserpine. Several legumes that have nitrogen-fixing root nodules are used as green manure crops, which provide nitrogen fertilizer for other crops when plowed under. Specialized bald cypress roots, termed knees, are sold as souvenirs, lamp bases and carved into folk art. Native Americans used the flexible roots of white spruce for basketry. Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ... Yam may refer to: Yam (vegetable), common name for members of Dioscorea Yam (god), a Levantine deity A colloquially American term for Shellfish Yam (route), a Mongolian supply point system An animal in the same family as the Yak and Wild Buffalo A colloquially American term for sweet potato A... Rotenone is a colorless-to-red, odorless solid. ... Not to be confused with ginger. ... Species About 60: see text Aconitum is a genus of plants belonging to the buttercup family Ranunculaceae. ... Syrup of Ipecac (derived from the dried rhizome and roots of the Ipecacuanha plant), is an emetic—a substance used to induce vomiting. ... Species See text. ... Reserpine is an indole alkaloid antipsychotic and antihypertensive drug that has been used for the control of high blood pressure and for the relief of psychotic behaviors, although because of the development of better drugs for these purposes and because of its numerous side-effects, it is rarely used today. ... Binomial name Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich. ... Binomial name (Moench) Voss The White Spruce (Picea glauca) is a medium-sized evergreen tree growing to 15-30 m tall, rarely to 40 m tall, and with a trunk diameter of up to 1 m. ...


Tree roots can heave and destroy concrete sidewalks and crush or clog buried pipes. The aerial roots of strangler fig have damaged ancient Mayan temples in Central America and the temple of Angkor Wat in Cambodia. The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... hi Strangler Figs are species of fig that begin their lives as epiphytes as their seed lodge in the cracks and crevices of the bark of a host tree. ... As unique and spectacular as any Greek or Roman architecture, Maya architecture spans many thousands of years. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... Aerial view of Angkor Wat The main entrance to the temple proper, seen from the eastern end of the Naga causeway Angkor Wat (or Angkor Vat) is a temple at Angkor, Cambodia, built for King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century as his state temple and capital city. ...


Vegetative propagation of plants via cuttings depends on adventitious root formation. Hundreds of millions of plants are propagated via cuttings annually including chrysanthemum, poinsettia, carnation, ornamental shrubs and many houseplants. Production of new individuals along a leaf margin of the air plant, Kalanchoë pinnata. ... Species Chrysanthemum aphrodite Chrysanthemum arcticum Chrysanthemum argyrophyllum Chrysanthemum arisanense Chrysanthemum boreale Chrysanthemum chalchingolicum Chrysanthemum chanetii Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium Chrysanthemum coronarium, Crown daisy Chrysanthemum crassum Chrysanthemum glabriusculum Chrysanthemum hypargyrum Chrysanthemum indicum Chrysanthemum japonense Chrysanthemum japonicum Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium Chrysanthemum mawii Chrysanthemum maximowiczii Chrysanthemum mongolicum Chrysanthemum morifolium Chrysanthemum morii Chrysanthemum okiense Chrysanthemum oreastrum Chrysanthemum... Binomial name Willd. ... Binomial name L. The carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) is a flowering plant native to the Near East and has been cultivated for the last 2,000 years. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... Golden Pothos, a typical potted houseplant A houseplant is usually a tropical or semi-tropical plant that is grown indoors in places such as residencess and offices. ...


Roots can also protect the environment by holding the soil to prevent soil erosion.


See also

IAA appears to be the most active Auxin in plant growth. ... Example of Taking a Cutting [1] Plant cutting, also known as striking, is a technique for vegetatively (asexually) propagating plants in which a piece of the source plant containing at least one stem cell is placed in a suitable medium such as moist soil, potting mix, coir or rock wool. ... A mycorrhiza (typically seen in the plural forms mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas, Greek for fungus roots) is the result of a mutualistic association between a fungus and a plant. ... A fibrous root system (sometimes also called adventitious root system) is the opposite of a tap root system. ... Silverweed (Argentina anserina) picture showing red stolons. ...

References

  • Brundrett, M. C. 2002. Coevolution of roots and mycorrhizas of land plants. New phytologist 154(2): 275-304. (Available online: DOI | Abstract | Full text (HTML) | Full text (PDF))
  • Chen, R., E. Rosen, P. H. Masson. 1999. Gravitropism in Higher Plants. Plant Physiology 120 (2): 343-350. (Available online: Full text (HTML) | Full text (PDF)) - article about how the roots sense gravity.
  • Clark, Lynn. 2004. Primary Root Structure and Development - lecture notes
  • Raven, J. A., D. Edwards. 2001. Roots: evolutionary origins and biogeochemical significance. Journal of Experimental Botany 52 (Suppl 1): 381-401. (Available online: Abstract | Full text (HTML) | Full text (PDF))
  • Schenk, H.J., and R.B. Jackson. 2002. The global biogeography of roots. Ecological Monographs 72 (3): 311-328.
  • Sutton, R.F., and R.W. Tinus. 1983. Root and root system terminology. Forest Science Monograph 24 pp 137.
  • Phillips, W.S. 1963. Depth of roots in soil. Ecology 44 (2): 424.

External links

  • Introduction to Botany - University of Arkansas



  Results from FactBites:
 
Root - New World Encyclopedia (1558 words)
In vascular plants, the root is that organ of a plant body that typically lies below the surface of the soil (though not always) and whose major functions are to absorb water and inorganic nutrients and to anchor the plant body to the substrate.
The outside surface of a root is the epidermis, an outer single-layered group of cells covering the young tissues and leaves of a plant.
The deepest roots are generally found in deserts and temperate coniferous forests; the shallowest in tundra, boreal forest, and temperate grasslands.
Root - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1831 words)
The outside surface of a primary root is the epidermis.
Roots of many vascular plants, especially dicots and gymnosperms, often undergo secondary growth, which is an increase in diameter.
The aerial roots of strangler fig have damaged ancient Mayan temples in Central America and the temple of Angkor Wat in Cambodia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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