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Encyclopedia > Room temperature

Room temperature (also referred to as ambient temperature) is a common term to denote a certain temperature within enclosed space at which human beings are accustomed. Room temperature is thus often indicated by general human comfort, with the common range of 18°C (64°F) to 23°C (73°F), though climate may acclimatise people to higher or lower temperatures. Room temperature may mean one of the following: The room temperature is the temperature that most humans are accustomed to. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ...


The term can also refer to a temperature of food to be consumed (e.g., red wine) which is placed in such a room for a given time. Furthermore, it may refer to a certain temperature within settings of scientific experiments and calculations.

Contents

Human comfort and health

For human comfort, desirable room temperature greatly depends on individual needs and various other factors. According to the West Midlands Public Health Observatory (UK)[1], 5 °C (70 °F) is the recommended living room temperature, whereas 5 °C (64 °F) for bedroom temperature. A study carried out at the University of Uppsala (Sweden)[2], on indoor air quality and subjective indoor air quality (SIAQ) in primary schools, states that perception of high room temperature was related to a poor climate of cooperation. To achieve a good SIAQ, it recommends room temperature should be at a maximum of 5.0 °C (0 °F). Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) deals with the content of interior air that could affect health and comfort of building occupants. ...


Scientific calculations

For scientific calculations, room temperature is taken to be roughly 20 to 23.5 degrees Celsius, 528 to 537 degrees Rankine (°R), or 293 to 298 kelvin (K), with an average of 21 °C, about 69.8 degrees Fahrenheit (°F).[3]. For numerical convenience, either 20 °C or 300 K is often used. However, room temperature is not a precisely defined scientific term as opposed to Standard Temperature and Pressure, which has several, slightly different, definitions.. Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For the idealized thermodynamic cycle for a steam engine, see Rankine cycle. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is a unit increment of temperature and is one of the seven SI base units. ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... In chemistry and other sciences, STP or standard temperature and pressure is a standard set of conditions for experimental measurements, to enable comparisons to be made between sets of data. ...


Condition for physical experiments

The progress and results of many scientific and industrial processes depends a little or not at all on the temperature of the surroundings of the equipment. For example, a measurement of the charge of the electron does not depend upon the temperature of the test equipment. In such cases if any mention of temperature is made, it is customary and sufficient to speak simply of "room temperature", which essentially implies simply that what is being spoken of has not been specifically heated or cooled. Usually this means a temperature at which many people are comfortable, around 20 °C. In most cases considerable temperature variations are irrelevant; work may be carried out in winter or summer without heating or air-conditioning, without mention of the temperature. However, productivity is dependent on thermal comfort. Human thermal comfort is the state of mind that expresses satisfaction with the surrounding environment, according to ASHRAE Standard 55. ...


The phenomena that researchers may choose to study at room temperature can naturally occur in the range of 20 to 23.5 °C, or they may not. Researchers will choose to study a process outside its natural temperature range when they expect the conclusions to a specific question to be the same at room temperature as at a more natural temperature. “Natural” redirects here. ...


Experimentalists have an advantage in anticipating aspects of a room-temperature experiment, because the temperature is close to 20 °C (68°F, 527.4 °R, 293 K), at which many of the material properties and physical constants in standards tables have been measured (more at standard state). By consulting such tables a researcher may estimate, for example, how fast a chemical reaction is likely to proceed at room temperature. In physics, a physical constant is a physical quantity of a value that is generally believed to be both universal in nature and not believed to change in time. ... In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals) and 25 degrees Celsius (298. ... Vapours of hydrogen chloride in a beaker and ammonia in a test tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances. ...


Unless there is a reason to work at a specific temperature, it is clearly more convenient not to control the temperature. Even in cases where a known, controlled, temperature is advantageous but not essential, work may be carried out at room temperature. But, for example, very large, warehouse-type experimental facilities may lack sufficient heating and cooling capabilities to maintain 'room temperatures'. HVAC systems use ventilation air ducts installed throughout a building that supply conditioned air to a room through rectangular or round outlet vents, called diffusers; and ducts that remove air from return-air grilles Fire-resistance rated mechanical shaft with HVAC sheet metal ducting and copper piping, as well as...


If it is believed that work which may have some dependence upon temperature has been carried out at temperatures significantly outside the range 20 to 23.5 °C, it may be reported that it was carried out at an ambient temperature of some approximate specified value.


An assumed typical ambient temperature may be used for general calculations; for example, the thermal efficiency of a typical internal combustion engine may be given as approximately 25%, with no mention of the air temperature: the actual efficiency will depend to some extent on ambient temperature, decreasing in extremely hot weather conditions due to lower air density. The thermal efficiency () is a dimensionless performance measure of a thermal device such as an internal combustion engine, a boiler, or a furnace, for example. ...


Ambient versus room temperature

Being an even less precise specification than "room temperature", "ambient temperature" is more certain to be accurate. Because scientists strive for accuracy in their reports, many use this specification exclusively just as a matter of course, even to describe experiments that they could justifiably characterize as having been conducted at room temperature. Specification may refer to several different concepts: Specification (standards) refers to specific standards Specificatio - a legal concept Specification (regression) refers to the practice of translating theory into a regression model Category: ... In the fields of science, engineering, industry and statistics, accuracy is the degree of conformity of a measured or calculated quantity to its actual (true) value. ...


This is a nebulous issue, depending upon the language used. In many languages, for example Spanish, there is no expression for "room", as distinct from "ambient", temperature.


Arguably, no precision is lost in this practice: in disciplines where experimenters always work in laboratories, and where temperature differences of a few degrees make little difference with regard to the questions that scientists ask, the distinction between ambient and room temperature literally is not worth making. And, of course, the ambient temperature of a room is usually room temperature.


Yet small temperature differences have large effects on many natural processes. Therefore scientists who do observe a distinction between the two specifications may be sticklers about which one to apply. For example, heat given off by electronics or motors may warm the area around an experiment relative to the rest of a room. Under such circumstances, and depending on the question under investigation, some scientists would consider it inaccurate to report that an experiment took place at room temperature.


See also

For the parapsychology phenomenon of distance knowledge, see psychometry. ... In chemistry and other sciences, STP or standard temperature and pressure is a standard set of conditions for experimental measurements, to enable comparisons to be made between sets of data. ...

References

  1. ^ Why more people die in the winter, by Michelle Roberts, Health reporter, BBC News
  2. ^ Dan Norbäck (1995) Subjective Indoor Air Quality in Schools - The Influence of High Room Temperature, Carpeting, Fleecy Wall Materials and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) Indoor Air 5(4), 237-246.
  3. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Room temperature - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (570 words)
Room temperature, in laboratory reports, is taken to be roughly 21–23 degrees Celsius (69-73 degrees Fahrenheit), or 294–296 kelvins.
Researchers choose to study a process outside its natural temperature range when they expect that the answer to their specific question ("What is the product of this enzymatic reaction?") will be the same at room temperature as it would have been had they conducted their experiment at a more naturalistic temperature.
And, of course, the ambient temperature of a room is room temperature.
Encyclopedia: Room temperature (1511 words)
The kelvin (symbol: K) is the SI unit of temperature, and is one of the seven SI base units.
Temperature is the physical property of a system which underlies the common notions of hot and cold; the material with the higher temperature is said to be hotter.
Science experiments Temperature is the physical property of a system which underlies the common notions of hot and cold; the material with the higher temperature is said to be hotter.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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