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Encyclopedia > Rongorongo
Rongorongo
Type Undeciphered
Languages Rapa Nui Austro-tai language
Created by Polynesian people
Time period Time of creation unknown, a lot of tablets disappeared (tribal wars 1850 and slavery by 1862)
Parent systems artificial script
Rongorongo
Sister systems Modern Ta'u script
written stones
ISO 15924 Rongorongo

Rongorongo or ko hau rongo rongo (Rapa Nui kohau rongorongo "wooden messenger, talking wood"[citation needed]) is the undeciphered script of Easter Island. Rongorongo is usually written in such a way that the reader must begin in the bottom left hand corner, read a line from left to right, and then rotate the tablet upside down before moving on to the next line [1]. Texts were carved, possibly using shark's teeth or obsidian into wooden boards and therefore disappeared quickly. 26 Rongorongo texts exist, in several museums of the world, but none remain on Rapa Nui. The Rapa Nui language (also Rapanui) is the Eastern Polynesian language of Easter Island, forming its own subgroup of that classification. ... An artificial or constructed script (also conscript or neography) is a new writing system specifically created by an individual or group, rather than having evolved as part of a language or culture like a natural script. ... ISO 15924, Codes for the representation of names of scripts, defines two sets of codes for a number of writing systems (scripts). ... Image File history File links The rongorongo script of the w:en:Easter Island Source: public domain File links The following pages link to this file: Rongorongo ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the worlds writing systems. ... The Rapa Nui language (also Rapanui) is the Eastern Polynesian language of Easter Island, forming its own subgroup of that classification. ... motto: ( Rapa Nui ) Also called Te Pito O Te Henua (Ombligo del mundo) (Navel of the world) Capital Hanga Roa Area  - City Proper  163. ... Easter Island and its location Easter Island (Polynesian: Rapa Nui (Great Rapa), Spanish: Isla de Pascua) is an island in the south Pacific Ocean belonging to Chile. ...

Contents

Method of inscription

The Swiss anthropologist Alfred Métraux(1940:404) has given an account on the way the Rongorongo tablets were incised.A few tablets have been named after their whereabouts, principally the Jaussen tablets, others according the name of their owners or such as the sizable St. Petersburg tablet, though the partially translated on one face Mamari tablet, our only example of possible translation Rongorongo, has been given a Rapa Nui name, egg form or the name of this owner: Waka Mamari Pane Kairoro. Four of the Jaussen tablets belonged to the Hotu Iti clan, but we can suppose they belonged to the Miru clan before, we need an observation of a diaporama rongorongo to understand the classical writing of Oceania in a web page [2].


Raw Material

Wood was extremely precious on Easter island at the time and irregular shapes were used completely rather than squaring them off and inevitably making them smaller. The wood of some tablets has been analyzed, and discovered to be from trees such as thespesia populnea, sophora tetraptera & fraxinus excelsior. Binomial name Thespesia populnea (L.) Sol ex Correa The Portia tree (Thespesia populnea; Family Malvaceae) is a small tree or arborescent shrub 5-10 (-20) m high that is pantropical in littoral environments, although probably native only to the Old World. ... Binomial name Fraxinus excelsior L. The European Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) is a tall tree, native to most of Europe, with the exception of northern Scandinavia and southern Mediterranean Europe. ...


Arrival and disappearance of the script

In an alleged prophetic statement, Hotu Matu'a, the legendary first settler of Rapa Nui, is said to have brought 67 tablets from his unknown homeland, and proclaimed, or so we are told, that decipherment of a small fraction of the Rongorongo tablets would be attempted by others, in this sense foreign or alien, great ma'ori (skilled or old ones), and that these attempts would fail, and that the vast majority of them would perish. We know that waka (boat) maori was sculpted and the name kohau is also a piece of a canoe. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Steven Fischer published the corpus again in 1993. He suggests that the islanders developed the script after encountering writing, and not merely with a passing glance, when Spanish ships captained by D. Felipe González y Haedo called at Easter Island in 1770, and signed a treaty in Spanish with the islanders. However Katherine Routledge wrote that in 1770 the islanders had marked the treaty in their own script. In linguistics, a corpus (plural corpora) or text corpus is a large and structured set of texts (now usually electronically stored and processed). ... Katherine Maria Routledge, née Pease (1866-1935) was a British archaeologist who initiated (but did not complete) the first true survey of Easter Island. ...


In the tribal wars in the 18th century and 19th century, followed by raids by Peruvian slavers and also epidemics of European diseases reduced the population by 98% or 99% from 17th century levels to of up to 15,000 Rapa Nui to 111 in the late 19th century. During this period much Rapa Nui culture was lost or after the 1860s suppressed by missionaries (whilst it is known that the missionaries forbade tattooing it is unclear whether they were the suppressors of Rongorongo or the preservers of its last vestiges). The NgaAra Miru clan was destroyed and a lot of the tablets were burned. It is impossible to evaluate the lost data in epigraphy. NgaAra was the final king who understood the rongorongo script. Anakena annual linguistic ceremonies stopped immediately and a majority of the tablets were burned when NgaAra died. Anakena is a white coral sand beach in Rapa Nui National Park on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) a Chilean island in the Pacific Ocean. ...


Only a few tablets remain.


Attempts at decipherment

Only a portion of the tablet "Mamari", which has been shown to be a lunar calendar, or so it is called, as its function is to decide where to place two intercalary nights during the 29.52 day lunar month rather than record the date, these remain undeciphered. As with most undeciphered scripts, there is all manner of fanciful interpretations and claimed translations of the Rongorongo texts. It has also been suggested that Rongorongo is not a writing system proper but a genealogy, a mnemonic device, a choreography, something to trade with or sidereal navigation information (by Michael Dietrich). Lorena Bettocchi and Dominique Proust (French CNRS astronom) are presently working on Mamari tablet and both, they think that it contains data about a super-nova, and also lunar calendar phases. There was a supernova visible in the Southern hemisphere in 1054. For Professor Lorena Bettocchi no one can read rongorongo tablets. It is contrary to the very semantic Austronesian languages [3]. Many translations are possible but rongorongo is an example of lost words of an ancient language (LA PAROLE PERDUE is the title of her book). Her method about the study of rongorongo is different from that of other linguists, with all her researches forming a complement. She uses e’o enata, arero rapanui, and arero Rarotonga (the ancient Tongan language) to try to find possible significants, with ancient words or with Polynesian nucleus words. She looks for simple names, verb-groups and name groups or sentences. Only semantics meanings. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Intercalation is the insertion of an extra day, week or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons. ...


About first decipherment: From 1869 to 1874 a Catholic bishop in Tahiti, Fr. Florentin Jaussen, worked with Metoro Tauaouré to create a list of Rongorongo signs and translations. The Metoro 'translations' no help in deciphering Rongorongo whatsoever, and many suspect that Taouaouré did not actually know the script, or ‘if he knew anything, he was careful not to reveal it’ (Guy 1999:125). According to Lorena Bettocchi studies about Metoro recitations, Metoro described signs, or sign group in semantics, according to his Polynesian experience. Interpretation of the ancient student rongorongo according to his mental and souvenirs, sometimes logic semantic appears, sometimes he is very falacious. He has memory and intelligence. Metoro chants are database ethnolinguistic information with mixed words reo maohi and ancient arero rapanui. Lorena Bettocchi who studied the Jaussen list found mistakes in each page. But she also finds the school of the leprosy (1936). The Rapanui men Arturo Teao, Juan Araki and Gabriel Veri-veri corrected this list and give us semantic significations of signs in four unexpected pages: witness documents of Rapanui initiated men (not more than four) having knowledge of the rongorongo morphologic structure. Immediately this discovery was published in French Polynesia. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


An instance similar to the bishop Jaussen work occurred with Mayan glyphs & the first Bishop of Yucatan, Fr. Diego de Landa. Unlike the Mayan script, however, very few Rongorongo tablets, and a shockingly small portion of the originals, exist, and we have gained no products, such as cacao, as we did from the Mayans, which could be identified with particular boards, and boards do not seem to have held any classifying function. This "dictionary", unfortunately, is the closest that we may ever come to total decipherment, as wood rots quickly and more tablets would be needed to find any of several missing links. Maya glyphs in stucco at the Museo de sitio in Palenque, Mexico The Maya script, commonly known as Maya hieroglyphs, was the writing system of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica, presently the only deciphered script of the Mesoamerican writing systems. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about a title... Diego de Landa Calderón (1524 – 1579) was Bishop of Yucatán. ...


In 1949, [4] Boris Kudrjavtsev noticed a repeated sequence in two tablets, which has since been found in others. Thomas Barthel published line drawings of the entire corpus in 1958, 24 Items of the Corpus Inscriptonium Paschalis Insulae. Barthel showed that a portion of one of the tablets, the Mamaari, is akin to a lunar calendar, although this is not the function of that portion, as is stated above. By 1971 he claimed to have reduced the inventory of signs 790 to 120 but never published evidence for it. Later the signs 'moon', 'lizard', and the god Tane were primary identified, and fused glyphs were recognized. Barthel catalog isn't presently sufficient and complete for epigraphy studies. Paris CEIPP group is working on a new catalog very, from Barthel but several steps more, very useful for epigraphic studies. We know that any one simple sign can contains several words and several significances of course, it is the particularity of the Austronesian family language [5]. In Polynesian mythology (specifically: New Zealand), Tane is the god of trees and light, and the first son of Rangi and Papa. ...


Online, rongorongo.org has become a central source for information about the script, including the primary sources describing it and complete transcriptions of its texts. Its anonymous author is skeptical about attempts to decipher the script but recognizes the key advances towards understanding it. Transcription is the conversion into written, typewritten or printed form, of a spoken language source, such as the proceedings of a court hearing. ...


On the IV Jornada Historica of Valparaiso (Maritim Museum October 2006) Lorena Bettocchi [6] offers us historical researches about Gonzalez de Haedo letters and different thesis. Gonzalez de Haedo know that the natives have their own character for writing. The island was not visited entirely and chiefs weren't maori rongorongo so they sign with their logo: petroglyphs. A San Petersburg wood tablet was dated: 1680/1740 and its writing structured. It appears, among the signs, the Chilean palm definitively disappeared in Rapanui from 15e century (It disappears from the pollen record in 1650).


We have a number of Rapa Nui "signatures" on Spanish treaties which are not all recognizable Rongorongo characters, but perhaps boustrophédon. At least two of the signs scribbled by the natives appear to be connected to petroglyphic inventory of the island, thus improving one side of the argument. In any case, this proves that the inhabitants of Rapa Nui came into very close contact with alphabetic writing, and may have had it explained to them. Unlike Sequoyah, however, the alphabet has a distinct Polynesian aesthetic and does not resemble Roman, Greek, Hebrew or any other tested western majuscules or miniscules. It does, however, resemble several Indus script glyphs, and the idea that the Indus Valley Civilization is in some manner related to that of Rapa Nui has been put forth, though with poor results. The exposure was brief, unlike Sequoyah's, and may only have inspired the idea of a writing system. It does not seem even to serve the same function as the treaties, an understandable result, as they had nothing akin to ink or paper on their isolated Rapa Nui. We are left, perhaps, even more in the dark after this question. Petroglyphs on Newspaper Rock State Historic Monument, southern Utah, USA Petroglyphs are images created by removing part of a rock surfaces by incising, pecking, carving, and abrading. ... For other uses, see Alphabet (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... Minuscule, or lower case, is the smaller form (case) of letters (in the Roman alphabet: a, b, c, ...). Originally alphabets were written entirely in majuscule (capital) letters which were spaced between well-defined upper and lower bounds. ...   An Indus Valley seal with the seated figure termed pashupati. ... The // (c. ...


Sergei V. Rjabchikov in a number of works (see Journal of the Polynesian Society, 1987, etc.) concluded that the Rongorongo script is hieroglyphic, it consists of ideograms, determitatives and even syllables. The basis of this decipherment is the structural linguistics.


Martha Macri of the University of California at Davis, who has also worked on the Mayan script, suggests that the majority of the glyphs are in fact fused compounds of a limited set of basic signs. The number of these signs, which she numbers at less than 70, suggests that Rongorongo may be a syllabary augmented by perhaps a dozen logograms, as 55 would be required for a pure syllabary of ten consonants and five vowels (10×5 consonant-vowel syllables plus 5 vowel-only syllables). The suspected logograms, such as the lunar crescent and the lizard mentioned above, don't form compounds. Many of the basic signs appear to be cognate with petroglyphs found around the island. The number of signs fused together (1 to 4 or 5, averaging about 2) suggests that each of the larger units might represent a word. Indeed, this "is consistent with the assertion of islanders that each graphic unit represents a single word". Maya hieroglyphics is the common name for the system of writing which was used by the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of the Mesoamerican region. ... The word ligature can mean more than one thing. ... A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent (or approximate) syllables, which make up words. ... Egyptian hieroglyphs, which have their origins as logograms. ... Petroglyphs on Newspaper Rock State Historic Monument, southern Utah, USA Petroglyphs are images created by removing part of a rock surfaces by incising, pecking, carving, and abrading. ...


If the script is indeed a syllabary, and especially if it's divided into words in the European fashion, this would support Fischer's suggestion that the idea for writing came from European explorers through contact diffusion. [When people are exposed to the idea of phonetic writing, without understanding the alphabetic system, and then set out to create scripts of their own, they usually create syllabaries. E.g., Cherokee of the US, Vai of Liberia, Afaka of Suriname] The diffusion of ideas or artifacts from one culture to another is a well-attested and uncontroversial concept of cultural anthropology. ... Original distribution of the Cherokee language Cherokee (; Tsalagi) is an Iroquoian language spoken by the Cherokee people which uses a unique syllabary writing system. ... The Afaka script (afaka sikifi) is a syllabary of 56 letters devised in 1908 for the Ndyuka language, an English creole of Surinam. ...


However, the few cases we have of scripts created ex nihilo, which Rongorongo has been proposed to be, in ancient times (Sumerian/Egyptian/Elamite, Shang/Chinese, Olmec/Mayan) are logogram-based systems. Ex nihilo is a Latin term meaning out of nothing. It is often used in conjunction with the term creation, as in creatio ex nihilo, meaning creation out of nothing. Due to the nature of this, the term is often used in philosophical or creationistic arguments, as a number of...


José Imbelloni, Monseigneur Lechea'h, Jacques Guy and Lorena Bettocchi thinks about an oriental structure. Lorena Bettocchi founded verbal groups, nominal groups, sentences in each sign. She works about morphologic structure. [7]. She says "Never we will read rongorongo, the ancient rapanui people never read, they created and explain in semantics methods timo te ako ako, the great sign recitation. They were the best linguists of Oceania".


Ta'u script

The word ta'u has been used by some to mean a variety of the Rongorongo script of Easter Island. There is a first evidence of such a script having existed, because in NgaAra at each years ceremonies, Maori rongo rongo introduced students and their signs and they explain the significance. First ta'u manuscript (ca 1914) were collected by Katherine Routledge, with the initiated man, a leper named Tomenika a TeaTea. This document is a first a genealogy with the song of nature in the ancestral names. Tau is to day claimed in Tapanui: it is the ancestral home. motto: ( Rapa Nui ) Also called Te Pito O Te Henua (Ombligo del mundo) (Navel of the world) Capital Hanga Roa Area  - City Proper  163. ... Katherine Maria Routledge, née Pease (1866-1935) was a British archaeologist who initiated (but did not complete) the first true survey of Easter Island. ...


Manuscripts

The 1955 Norwegian Archaeological Expedition to Easter Island directed by Thor Heyerdahl, discovered manuscript copybooks, which are clearly inspired from the Jaussen List and more... writing creations. Thomas Barthel discovered others a few years after. And Lorena Bettocchi discovered the end manuscript in 2006, they were created at the leprosy after the Alfred Metraux, Thomas Lavachery expedition [8]. Thor Heyerdahl Thor Heyerdahl (October 6, 1914, in Larvik, Norway – April 18, 2002, in Colla Micheri, Italy) was a Norwegian ethnographer and adventurer with a scientific background in zoology and geography. ...


Since ta'u means "year" in the Rapanui language, (cf. the entry for ta'u in Sebastian Englert's dictionary) it is probable that ta'u meant "years," hence "annals". This fact seems to have been also noticed by the German ethnographer and epigrapher Thomas S. Barthel (1958b:66) in his article ‘The “Talking Boards” of Easter Island’ while he points out that ‘The Islanders had another writing (the so-called “ta’u script”) which recorded their annals and other secular matters, but this has disappeared.’ Ethnography (from the Greek ethnos = nation and graphe = writing) refers to the qualitative description of human social phenomena, based on months or years of fieldwork. ... Epigraphy (Greek, επιγραφή - written upon) is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs engraved into stone or other permanent materials, or cast in metal, the science of classifying them as to cultural context and date, elucidating them and assessing what conclusions can be deduced from them. ...


In that case the Santiago Staff might be a unique example of ta'u, first because it is a great priest object, used for ceremonial meeting of each year in Anakena, and given its distinctive text which seems to be composed mostly of persons' names each with a patronymic, marking it as an isolate . Nonetheless, the accuracy of this proposed model — plausible as it seems — will remain an informed guess, since it needs to be independently tested in another Rongorongo text with the same features as the 'Santiago staff', the spread of glyph 076, accounting most likely for a particular genre, and the vertical separators that irregularly occur on it. In the absence of such document, the proposal remains non-falsifiable. In this connection, Mair (1992:99) notes, ‘The smaller the corpus and the greater its bias in terms of textual composition, the less likely it is that observations can be generalized.’ Anakena is a white coral sand beach in Rapa Nui National Park on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) a Chilean island in the Pacific Ocean. ...


Lorena Bettocchi explain: Santiago staff isn't completely finished. The end line stopped in the middle of the artifact end line. It's a Maori rongorongo staff, perhaps the NgaAra staff, a ta'u of the annals ceremonies.


About manuscripts Lorena Bettocchi is editor of www.ile-de-paques.com (in french) [9]who containts a very serious study of manuscripts and 8 stones with writing (modern writing rapanui) who are actually museums objects but no artifacts.


Written Rapa Nui stones

A very complete study about stones with several kinds of writing were published by Lorena Bettocchi with the museums collaboration. Two stones were sculpted with the help of a book, Die Osterinsel published in 1932, written by Schulze-Mazier (Reed stone and Campbell stone) offered by the sculptor to officers Chilean navy. Arequipa stone is modern style, Kon Tiki is copied by Old-ones manuscripts, Sebastian Englert stones by Echancrée photography. Tahiti stone by the tau of Tomenika ; the same style about whales-bones sculpted. All are modern objects of the first middle 20th century. Epigraphic studies of Lorena Bettocchi are on www.ile-de-paques.com [10].


See also

The Angono Petroglyphs is the oldest known work of art in the Philippines. ...

Selected bibliography

  • BARTHEL, Thomas S. 1958a. Grundlagen zur Entzifferung der Osterinselschrift. Hamburg: Cram, de Gruyter.
  • BARTHEL, Thomas S. 1958b, The ‘Talking Boards’ of Easter Island. Scientific American, 198:61-68
  • BETTOCCHI, Lorena 1998 La parole perdue Rongo O'ono. Tahiti
  • BETTOCCHI, Lorena 2006 Les derniers Maoris rongorongo du 20e siècle corrigent le répertoire de Monseigneur Tepano Jaussen Tahiti Pacifique Magazine n° 185
  • BETTOCCHI, Lorena 2007. Los origenes de la Antigua escritura de la Isla de Pascua Archivum revista historica Vina del Mar Chile.
  • BETTOCCHI, Lorena 2007. Datos historicos sobre la Antigua escritura de la Isla de Pascua Actas 4°Jornada historica Museo Mairitimo de Valaparaiso.
  • BETTOCCHI, Lorena 2007 About Easter Island stones with rongorongo, modern writing. Archivos y Museos Biblioteca Nacional de Santiago
  • BUTINOV, Nikolai A., & Yuri V. KNOROZOV. 1957. Preliminary Report on the Study of the Written Language of Easter Island. Journal of the Polynesian Society 66. 1.
  • ENGLERT, Sebastian F. 1970. Island at the Center of the World. Translated and Edited by William Mulloy. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
  • FEDOROVA, Irina K. 1965. Versions of Myths and Legends in Manuscripts from Easter Island. In: Heyerdahl et al (eds.), Miscellaneous Papers: Reports of the Norwegian Archaeological Expedition to Easter Island and East Pacific 2. 395-401. Stockholm: Forum.
  • FISCHER, Steven Roger. 1995. Preliminary Evidence for Cosmogonic Texts in Rapanui’s Rongorongo Inscriptions. Journal of the Polynesian Society 104. 303-21.
  • FISCHER, Steven Roger. 1997. Glyph-breaker: A Decipherer's Story. N.Y.: Copernicus/Springer-Verlag.
  • FISCHER, Steven Roger. 1997. RongoRongo, the Easter Island Script: History, Traditions, Texts. Oxford and N.Y.: Oxford University Press.
  • GUY, Jacques B.M. 1985. On a fragment of the “Tahua” Tablet. Journal of the Polynesian Society 94. 367-87.
  • GUY, Jacques B.M. 1988. Rjabchikov’s Decipherments Examined. Journal of the Polynesian Society 97. 321-3.
  • GUY, Jacques B.M. 1990. On the Lunar Calendar of Tablet Mamari. Journal de la Société des Océanistes 91:2.135-49.
  • GUY, Jacques B.M. 1999. Peut-on se Fonder sur le Témoignage de Métoro pour Déchiffrer les Rongo-Rongo? Journal de la Société des Océanistes 108. 125-32.
  • HEYERDAHL, Thor. 1965. The Concept of Rongorongo Among the Historic Population of Easter Island. In: Thor Heyerdahl & Edwin N. Ferdon Jr. (eds. and others.), 1961-65. Stockholm: Forum.
  • HEYERDAHL, Thor. 1968. Sea Routes to Polynesia. American Indians and Early Asiatics in the Pacific. Chicago - New York - San Francisco: Rand McNally & Company.
  • HEYERDAHL, Thor. 1976. The Art of Easter Island. London: George Allen & Unwin.
  • IMBELLONI, José. 1951. Las Tabletas Parlantes de Pascua, Monumentos de un Sistema Gráfico Indo-oceánico. Runa 4. 89-177.
  • LECLEA'H, Hervé, Mgr Eveque des Marquises Pona te kao Lexique marquisien-français. Tahiti 1998.
  • LEE, Georgia. 1992. The Rock Art of Easter Island. Symbols of Power, Prayers to the Gods. Los Angeles: The Institute of Archaeology Publications (UCLA).
  • MAIR, Christian. 1992. Comments. In: Jan Svartvik (ed). Directions in Corpus Linguistics. Proceedings of Nobel Symposium 82. Stockholm, 4-8 August 1991. Berlin - New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • MÉTRAUX, Alfred. 1940. Ethnology of Easter Island. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 160. Honolulu: Bernice P. Bishop Museum Press.
  • POZDNIAKOV, Konstantin. 1996. Les Bases du Déchiffrement de l'Écriture de l'Ile de Pâques. Journal de la Societé des Océanistes 103:2.289-303.
  • RJABCHIKOV, Sergei V. 1987. Progress Report on the Decipherment of the Easter Island Writing System. Journal of the Polynesian Society, 96: 361-736.
  • RJABCHIKOV, Sergei V. 1988. Allographic Variations of Easter Island Glyphs. Journal of the Polynesian Society, 97: 313-320.
  • RJABCHIKOV, Sergei V. 1989. Novye dannye po starorapanuyskomu yazyku. Sovetskaya etnografiya, 6: 122-125.
  • RJABCHIKOV, Sergei V. 1993. Rapanuyskie texty (k probleme rasshifrovki). Etnograficheskoe obozrenie, 4: 124-141.
  • RJABCHIKOV, Sergei V. 1997. Easter Island Writing: Speculation and Sense. Journal of the Polynesian Society, 106: 203-205.
  • RJABCHIKOV, Sergei V. 1997. A Key to the Easter Island (Rapa Nui) Petroglyphs. Journal de la Société des Océanistes, 104(1): 111.
  • RJABCHIKOV, Sergei V. 1998. Polynesian Petroglyphs: Reports about Solar Eclipses. Journal de la Société des Océanistes, 107(2): 231-232.
  • RJABCHIKOV, Sergei V. 1999. [A Review:]Fischer, Steven Roger, 1997. Glyphbreaker, New York, Copernicus. Journal de la Société des Océanistes, 108(1): 168-169.
  • RJABCHIKOV, Sergei V. 1999. [A Review:]Fischer, Steven Roger, 1997. Glyphbreaker, New York, Copernicus. Word, 50(3): 440-441.
  • RJABCHIKOV, Sergei V. 1999. Guy's Reviews Examined. RONGORONGO, Easter Island Writing.
  • RJABCHIKOV, Sergei V. 2000. La trompette du dieu Hiro. Journal de la Société des Océanistes, 110(1): 115-116.
  • RJABCHIKOV, Sergei V. 2001. Fijian and Polynesian String Figures Help Decipher Fijian Petroglyphs. Bulletin of the International String Figure Association, 8: 39-45.
  • RJABCHIKOV, Sergei V. 2001. Rongorongo Glyphs Clarify Easter Island Rock Drawings. Journal de la Société des Océanistes, 113(2): 215-220.
  • RJABCHIKOV, Sergei V. 2005. Rezidentsiya koroley ostrova Paskhi: simvoly i texty. Visnik Mizhnarodnogo doslidnogo tsentru "Lyudina: mova, kul'tura, piznannya", 6(2): 33-36.
  • ROBINSON, Andrew, Edited by Brian M. Fagan. 2001. The Seventy Great Mysteries of the Ancient World: Unlocking the Secrets of Past Civilizations. Thames & Hudson. 266-268
  • ROUTLEDGE, Katherine. 1919. The Mystery of Easter Island. The story of an expedition. London and Aylesbury: Hazell, Watson and Viney, LD.
  • THOMSON, William J. 1891. Te Pito te Henua, or Easter Island. Report of the United States National Museum for the Year Ending June 30, 1889. Annual Reports of the Smithsonian Institution for 1889. 447-552. Washington: Smithsonian Institution.
  • VAN TILBURG, Jo Anne. 1994. Easter Island: Archaeology, Ecology and Culture. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • A. Robinson (ed. B.M. Fagan), The Seventy Great Mysteries of the Ancient World: Unlocking the Secrets of Past Civilizations, London: Thames & Hudson, 2001:266-268.

is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Rongorongo script and the Rapanui language (303 words)
The people of Easter Island were possibly inspired to invent the Rongorongo script after seeing the writing used by the Spanish when they annexed the island in 1770.
Rongorongo was used until the 1860s, after which knowledge of the script was lost.
Rongorongo was used be priests to write a limited range of rhetorical statements and helped to reassert their authority.
Easter Island/Rapa Nui (642 words)
Rongorongo is a word in Rapanui having to do with sharing messages or information.
Rongorongo writing was carved mostly on wood, but some small samples exist on stone.
However, for a very different idea of Rongorongo, its origin and meaning, visit the intriguing website of Steven Fischer's interpretation, a nice man we met at our hotel and who is a tour leader, author, and recognized expert on Rapa Nui.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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