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Encyclopedia > Rondane National Park
Rondane National Park
IUCN Category II (National Park)
A path in a u-valley, in summer
Location: Hedmark and Oppland, Norway
Nearest city: Otta
Coordinates: 61°50′″N, 9°30′″E
Area: 963 km²
(238,000 acres)
Established: December 21, 1962
Governing body: Directorate for Nature Management

Rondane National Park (Norwegian: Rondane nasjonalpark) is the oldest national park in Norway, established on December 21, 1962. The park contains a number of peaks above 2000 metres (6560 feet), with the highest being Rondslottet at an altitude of 2178 metres (7146 feet). The park is an important habitat for herds of wild reindeer. Image File history File links LinkFA-star. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Brecon Beacons National Park, Wales, UK A national park is a reserve of land, usually declared and owned by a national government, protected from most human development and pollution. ... Download high resolution version (1527x957, 95 KB) Rondane National Park by Summer, by Ot. ... Hedmark is a county in Norway, bordering Sør-Trøndelag, Oppland and Akershus. ... Oppland is a county in Norway, bordering Sør-Trøndelag, Møre og Romsdal, Sogn og Fjordane, Buskerud, Akershus, Oslo and Hedmark. ... Otta may refer to: A working name leading to what became the SI prefix for 1024. ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... The Norwegian Directorate for Nature Management is Norways national governmental body for preserving Norways natural environment, including establishing and regulating national parks and other protected areas. ... Brecon Beacons National Park, Wales, UK A national park is a reserve of land, usually declared and owned by a national government, protected from most human development and pollution. ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, 1758) The reindeer, known as caribou when wild in North America, is an Arctic and Subarctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ...


The park was extended in 2003, and now covers an area of 963 km² (372 mi²) in the counties Oppland and Hedmark. Rondane lies just to the east of Gudbrandsdal and two other mountain areas, Dovre and Jotunheimen are nearby. Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... Norway is divided into 19 administrative regions, called counties (fylker, singular - fylke, Nynorsk: singular and plural fylke; until 1918 known as singular and plural- amt), and 433 municipalities (kommuner - Nynorsk: kommunar). ... Oppland is a county in Norway, bordering Sør-Trøndelag, Møre og Romsdal, Sogn og Fjordane, Buskerud, Akershus, Oslo and Hedmark. ... Hedmark is a county in Norway, bordering Sør-Trøndelag, Oppland and Akershus. ... Gudbrandsdalen is a valley and traditional district in the Norwegian fylke (county) of Oppland. ... County Oppland Landscape Dovre region Municipality NO-0511 Administrative centre Dombås Mayor (2003) Erland A. Løkken (Sp) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 65 1,364 km² 1,348 km² 0. ... Jotunheimen is a mountain range in southern Norway covering an area of roughly 3,500 km². It is a part of the bigger Scandinavian Mountains mountain range. ...

Contents

Geography

Rondane is a typical high mountain area, with large plateaus and a total of ten peaks above 2000 metres (6560 feet). The highest point is Rondslottet ("The Rondane Castle") at an altitude of 2178 metres (7146 feet). The lowest point is just below the tree-line, which is approximately 1000 to 1100 metres (about 3300 to 3600 feet) above sea level. The climate is mild but relatively arid. Apart from the White Birch trees of the lower areas, the soil and rocks are covered by heather and lichen, since they lack nutrients. The largest mountains are almost entirely barren; above 1500 metres (5000 feet) nothing but the hardiest lichens grow on the bare stones. A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ... Monte Roraima In geology and earth science, a plateau, also called a high plateau or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat open country. ... In this view of an alpine tree-line, the distant line looks particularly sharp. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... An arid environment has a high precipitation deficit, receiving much less precipitation annually than would satisfy the climatological demand for evaporation and transpiration. ... Binomial name Betula pubescens Ehrh. ... Loess field in Germany Soil horizons are formed by combined biological, chemical and physical alterations. ... Heather may be: In botany, the plant Calluna vulgaris, or, more loosely, various species of the closely related genera Erica and Cassiope, low evergreen shrubs (also called heaths). The term is also used to describe land which is vegetated with these plants; In apparel or textiles, interwoven yarns with a... Lichenes from Ernst Haeckels Artforms of Nature, 1904 Crustose and foliose lichens on a wall A foliose lichen on basalt. ... Lichenes from Ernst Haeckels Artforms of Nature, 1904 Crustose and foliose lichens on a wall A foliose lichen on basalt. ...


The mountains are divided by marked valleys through the landscape; the deepest valley is filled by Rondvatnet, a narrow lake filling the steep space between the large Storronden-Rondslottet part and Smiubelgen ("The Forge"). The central massif is also cut by "botns": flat, dead stone valleys below the steep mountain walls of the peaks. Generally, Rondane does not receive enough precipitation to generate persistent glaciers, but glacier-like heaps of snow can be found in the flat back valleys. Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley Mt. ... A man-made lake in Keukenhof, Netherlands A lake is a body of water or other liquid of considerable size surrounded by land. ... Austrias longest glacier, the Pasterze, winds its 8 km (5 mile) route at the foot of Austrias highest mountain, the Grossglockner A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity. ... Animation of snowcover changing with the seasons. ...


The centre of the Park is the Rondvatnet lake, from which all the peaks beyond 2000 metres (6560 feet) of altitude can be reached in less than one day's walk. In this central region and north of it, the altitude is quite high compared with the flatter plateaus of the south. The top peaks are Rondslottet (2178 m; 7145 ft), Storronden (2138 m; 7014 ft) and Høgronden (2118 m; 6949 ft).


In many parts of the park, there are spread-out holes (kettle holes) created by small remains of ice age glaciers, and peculiar small hills called "eskers" made by ground moraine released by melting glaciers. An Australian park A park is any of a number of geographic features. ... A kettle hole is a geological feature formed by receding glaciers. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Eskers are long, winding ridges of stratified sand and gravel which occur in glaciated and formerly glaciated regions of Europe and North America. ... Moraine at Mono Lake, California, United States Moraines clearly seen on a side glacier of the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Switzerland. ...

The peaks of Rondane, seen from the south. Storronden and Rondslottet are the first two on the right. The left part of the massif is Smiubelgen ("The Forge").
The peaks of Rondane, seen from the south. Storronden and Rondslottet are the first two on the right. The left part of the massif is Smiubelgen ("The Forge").

Download high resolution version (1932x350, 212 KB)A panorama of the central massif of Rondane National Park as seen from Rondablikk hotel. ... Download high resolution version (1932x350, 212 KB)A panorama of the central massif of Rondane National Park as seen from Rondablikk hotel. ...

History

Prehistory

The history of life in the area of the Park begins at the end of the latest ice age. Large climate changes allowed reindeer to spread widely across Scandinavia, only to be forced back to a much smaller area — including the Rondane mountain area — only some hundreds of years later. Archaeologists have found that the forest quickly grew at high altitudes; birch trees found at 1030 metres (3379 feet) were 8500 years old. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, 1758) The reindeer, known as caribou when wild in North America, is an Arctic and Subarctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe. ... Archaeology, archeology, or archology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Eucalyptus Forest at Swifts Creek in East Gippsland, Victoria, Australia. ... Species Many species; see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ...


On the mountain plateaux, there is evidence that nomadic hunter-gatherers lived off reindeer. Large traps used to catch reindeer can be found at Gravhø and Bløyvangen and are also spread all throughout the park. These are constructed from stone to make holes or large fenced-in areas into which reindeer could be tricked or led. In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ...


In conjunction with these large traps, there are also small arched stone walls which are believed to have been used as hiding places for archers waiting for prey. Various dating methods have suggested that the earliest traps may be as old as 3500 years. Most of the findings, including remains of houses, date back to the years between 500 and 700 CE. It is thus known with confidence that the large traps and accompanying walls were used from the 6th century until the onset of the Black Death in the 14th century. Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ...


Establishment

Smiubelgen
Smiubelgen

After nearly a decade of planning, Rondane was established as the first Norwegian National Park on December 21, 1962. It was first established as a nature protection area, but was later named a national park. The main reasons for protecting the park were "to safeguard the natural environment with its native plants, animal life, and cultural heritage and also to secure the environment as a recreational area for future generations".[1]; Download high resolution version (1246x575, 242 KB)Rondane. ... Download high resolution version (1246x575, 242 KB)Rondane. ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... Brecon Beacons National Park, Wales, UK A national park is a reserve of land, usually declared and owned by a national government, protected from most human development and pollution. ...


Legal efforts to protect nature in Norway date from 1954, when the Nature protection law was passed. Soon after, in 1955, community meetings were held in the municipalities close to Rondane, and a commission was founded. Norman Heitkøtter was president of the commission, and made it possible by Royal resolution to establish Rondane National Park. At its establishment, the Park covered an area of 580 km² (224 mi²).


Although Rondane was the first national park in Norway, many others followed. The parks are maintained by the Norwegian Directorate for Nature Management. The Norwegian Directorate for Nature Management is Norways national governmental body for preserving Norways natural environment, including establishing and regulating national parks and other protected areas. ...


2003 expansion

As a special measure for the protection of the wild reindeer, the park was significantly enlarged in 2003, its area increasing from 580 to 963 km² (224 to 372 mi²). The park was enlarged mainly to the north-west, and slightly in the east and south. In addition, areas with lesser protection (landscape protection as well as nature protection areas) were established in connection with the park. A new national park, Dovre National Park, between Rondane and Dovrefjell-Sunndalsfjella National Park was also opened. Following the expansion, it is now only approximately 1 kilometre from the northern border of Rondane to the southern border of Dovre National Park, and large sections of adjacent mountain areas are protected by the three parks. Dovre National Park is a national park in Hedmark and Oppland, Norway, that was established in 2003. ... Overview Dovrefjell in late fall Dovre-Sunndalsfjella National Park was founded in 2002 to replace Dovrefjell National Park, founded 1974. ... Dovre National Park is a national park in Hedmark and Oppland, Norway, that was established in 2003. ...


Geology

Geology in Rondane; the rock shows signs of sedimentation.
Geology in Rondane; the rock shows signs of sedimentation.

The bedrock in Rondane comes from a shallow sea floor, created 500 to 600 million years ago. From this, changes in the Earth's crust created a mountain area of metamorphic rock and quartz. There are no fossils found in Rondane today and so it is thought the sea where the rock came from contained no animal life. Download high resolution version (768x1024, 412 KB)A fall on the mountain stream of Buåa, running down Vulufjell in southern Rondane National Park, Norway. ... Download high resolution version (768x1024, 412 KB)A fall on the mountain stream of Buåa, running down Vulufjell in southern Rondane National Park, Norway. ... Bedrock is the native consolidated rock underlying the Earths surface. ... Earth (IPA: , often referred to as the Earth, Terra, the World or Planet Earth) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth largest. ... Quartzite, a form of metamorphic rock, from the Museum of Geology at University of Tartu collection. ... Quartz is one of the most common minerals in the Earths continental crust. ... An ammonite fossil Eocene fossil fish of the genus Knightia Petrified wood fossil formed through permineralization. ...


The present landscape was mostly formed by the last ice age, nine to ten thousand years ago. At that time large quantities of ice were formed, and it is believed that the ice melted gradually in shifting cycles of melting and ice accumulation. The ice melting must have been rapid when it happened, digging deep river valleys. Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... River upstream of an Australian trout farm A river is a large natural waterway. ...


Rondane contains a few small canyons which were created by the rapid ice melting, most prominently Jutulhogget and Vesle-Ula.


Biology

Rondane is one of the few places in Scandinavia and Europe where wild reindeer (as opposed to the domestic breed) are found. The Directorate for Nature Management regards Rondane as "especially important as a life supporting area for the native reindeer"[2]. It is estimated that approximately 2000 to 4000 reindeer live in Rondane and the nearby Dovre area. To protect the reindeer population in their core area, during the last ten years hiking trails have been moved. The park was also enlarged in 2003 to provide increased protection for the reindeer. Binomial name Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, 1758) The reindeer, known as caribou when wild in North America, is an Arctic and Subarctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Other large game, including roe deer and elk (moose) are commonplace along the rims of the park and occasionally musk ox from Dovre can be seen. Wolverines and a small population of bears are also present, while wolves are rare. Tug of war is an easily organized, impromptu game that requires little equipment. ... Binomial name Capreolus capreolus, Capreolus pygargus (Linnaeus, 1758) There are two species of Roe Deer. ... Binomial name Alces alces (Linnaeus, 1758) Moose range map The moose (so named in North America) or elk (in Europe), Alces alces, is the largest member of the deer family Cervidae, distinguished from the others by the palmate antlers of its males. ... Binomial name Ovibos moschatus (Zimmermann, 1780) The Musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) is a bovine noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor of the male. ... For the Marvel comics character, see Wolverine (comics). ... Genera Ailuropoda Ailurus Helarctos Melursus Ursus Tremarctos Arctodus (extinct) A bear is a large mammal in the family Ursidae of the order Carnivora. ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call...


The reindeer largely rely on the lichen and reindeer moss that grow together with heather and hardy grass on the quite arid and nutrient-poor stony plateaus. The lichen provide food for the reindeer, but also fertilize the earth, making it possible for less hardy plants to grow, and mice and lemmings to feed. One of the flower species to survive very well is the Glacier Crowfoot, found up to 1700 metres (5580 feet). Lichenes from Ernst Haeckels Artforms of Nature, 1904 Crustose and foliose lichens on a wall A foliose lichen on basalt. ... Reindeer moss (c. ... An area of grass-like plants Grass generally describes a monocotyledonous green plant in the family Poaceae, botanically regarded as true grasses. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta - rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta - zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta - trimerophytes Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta... Feral mouse A mouse (Plural mice) is a mammal that belongs to one of numerous species of small rodents. ... Genera Dicrostonyx Lemmus Synaptomys Myopus  * Incomplete listing: see vole Lemmings are small rodents, usually found in or near the Arctic. ... Field of Poppy flowers Cluster of Clivia miniata flowers A flower, (<Old French flo(u)r<Latin florem<flos), also known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). ... Binomial name Ranunculus glacialis Glacier Crowfoot (Ranunculus glacialis) is a plant of the family Ranunculaceae. ...


Tourism

Red T-markings show the way on marked trails.
Red T-markings show the way on marked trails.

Visitors to Rondane are free to hike and camp in all areas of the park, except in the immediate vicinity of cabins. Apart from being closed for motor traffic, not many special regulations apply. Fishing and hunting is available to licensees. Download high resolution version (1154x1349, 526 KB)Rondane. ... Download high resolution version (1154x1349, 526 KB)Rondane. ...


The Norwegian Mountain Touring Association (DNT) is an association that owns and manages a network of mountain cabins in the service of hikers. In Rondane, there is a central cabin by the southern end of the lake Rondvatnet, Rondvassbu. There is also Dørålseter and Bjørnhollia at the northern and eastern rims of the park. All three cabins are manned, and provide food and limited accommodation (possible to book beforehand). There are also un-manned cabins in the Park, like Eldåbu where a key is needed. The Norwegian Mountain Touring Association (In Norwegian, Den Norske Turistforening &#8211; DNT) is a Norwegian association which maintains mountain trails and cabins in Norway. ...


DNT also mark trails in the Park, with red Ts that are easy to spot. The T-trails lead the way cabin-to-cabin, as well as marking the path to some of the peaks close to Rondvatnet. Recently, some of the trails have moved slightly to avoid the core areas of the wild reindeer.


The service cabins are also open during the winter season, although they are sometimes only self-serviced off season. Ski trails are marked and sometimes prepared, either by DNT or some of the hotels and skiing resorts close to the park.


Rondane in literature

Skiing in Rondane in winter
Skiing in Rondane in winter

The landscapes of Rondane have inspired many Norwegian writers. Probably the best-known work is Peer Gynt (1867), a play by Henrik Ibsen, which is partly set in Rondane: Rondane by winter File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Rondane by winter File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Peer Gynt is a play by the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. ... Photo of Henrik Ibsen in his older days Henrik Johan Ibsen (March 20, 1828 – May 23, 1906) was a major Norwegian playwright who was largely responsible for the rise of the modern realistic drama. ...

Act 2, Scene lV
(Among the Ronde mountains. Sunset. Shining snowpeaks all around.
Peer Gynt enters, dizzy and bewildered.)
Peer
Tower over tower arises!
Hei, what a glittering gate!
Stand! Will you stand! It's drifting
further and further away!
...

With this, Ibsen wrote Rondane into one of the best of dramas of the 19th century and made Rondane a symbol for the natural beauty of Norway.


Peter Christen Asbjørnsen, writer and gatherer of Norwegian folk tales in the mid-19th century, collected many stories connected with Rondane, including Peer Gynt, the story that inspired Ibsen. A third writer who set one of his famous works in Rondane is the poet Aasmund Olavsson Vinje with his poem No ser eg atter slike Fjell og Dalar. Peter Christian Asbjørnsen (1812-1885) was a Norwegian writer who together with Jørgen Moe compiled and edited an authoritative collection of Norwegian folk tales. ... Aasmund Olavsson Vinje (1818-1879) was a famous Norwegian poet and journalist who is remembered for poetry, travel writing, and his pioneering use of nynorsk. ...


See also

Rondane
Rondane

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1014x663, 168 KB) Rondane National Park, Norway. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1014x663, 168 KB) Rondane National Park, Norway. ... Dovre National Park is a national park in Hedmark and Oppland, Norway, that was established in 2003. ... Overview Dovrefjell in late fall Dovre-Sunndalsfjella National Park was founded in 2002 to replace Dovrefjell National Park, founded 1974. ... List of Norwegian national parks with date of establishment and area. ... Tourism > Tourism in Norway Norway by winter Norway is a country of impressive landscapes, and extends far north across the Arctic Circle. ... The Norwegian Mountain Touring Association (In Norwegian, Den Norske Turistforening &#8211; DNT) is a Norwegian association which maintains mountain trails and cabins in Norway. ... Peer Gynt is a play by the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. ...

References

  •  Directorate for Nature Management — Rondane National Park
  •  Norwegian Directorate for Nature Management on Rondane
  • (Norwegian) Barth, Edvard K, et al. Rondane. Gyldendal norsk forlag, 1984.

External links

  • VisitRondane.com
  • Norwegian Directorate for Nature Management map of Rondane
  • Rondvassbu

 
 

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