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Encyclopedia > Ronald Reagan
Ronald Wilson Reagan
Ronald Reagan

In office
January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989
Vice President(s) George H. W. Bush
Preceded by Jimmy Carter
Succeeded by George H. W. Bush

In office
January 3, 1967 – January 7, 1975
Lieutenant(s) Robert Finch
(1967–1969)
Ed Reinecke
(1969–1974)
John L. Harmer
(1974–1975)
Preceded by Edmund G. "Pat" Brown, Sr.
Succeeded by Edmund G. "Jerry" Brown, Jr.

Born February 6, 1911(1911-02-06)
Tampico, Illinois
Died June 5, 2004 (aged 93)
Bel Air, Los Angeles, California
Nationality American
Political party Republican
Spouse (1) Jane Wyman (married 1940, divorced 1948)
(2) Nancy Davis Reagan (married 1952)
Alma mater Eureka College
Occupation Actor
Religion Presbyterian
Signature

Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). Born in Illinois, Reagan moved to Los Angeles in the 1930s, where he became an actor, president of the Screen Actors Guild (SAG), and a spokesman for General Electric. Reagan became involved in politics during his work for G.E. and switched from the Democratic Party to the Republican Party in 1962. After delivering a rousing speech in support of Barry Goldwater's presidential candidacy in 1964, he was persuaded to seek the California Governorship, winning two years later and again in 1970. He was defeated in his run for the Republican presidential nomination in 1968 as well as 1976, but won both the nomination and election in 1980. Reagan, an Irish surname, may refer to: // Ronald Reagan, the 40th President of The United States Nancy Reagan, the wife of Ronald Reagan and influential First Lady Maureen Reagan, President Reagans daughter from his first marriage to Jane Wyman Michael Reagan, President Reagans son and conservative talk show... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (594x750, 49 KB) Official Portrait of President Reagan, 1981. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and Governor Gray Davis (right) with President George W. Bush in 2003 The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert H. Finch Robert Hutchison Finch (October 9, 1925-October 10, 1995) was a Republican politician from Southern California. ... Happy Day Dont Erase this. ... John L. Harmer was a California politician who served on the California state senate from 1966 to 1974. ... For other persons named Pat Brown, see Pat Brown (disambiguation). ... For the whistleblower, see Gerald W. Brown. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Tampico is a village located in Whiteside County, Illinois. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bel-Air is a neighborhood in the city of Los Angeles, California. ... GOP redirects here. ... Jane Wyman (January 5, 1917[1]– September 10, 2007) was an Oscar, Golden Globe-winning and Emmy-nominated American actress. ... Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6, 1921) is the widow of the former United States President Ronald Reagan and was First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. ... Photo of Eureka College, 1904 Eureka College is liberal arts college in Eureka, Illinois related by covenant to the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) and founded in 1855. ... For other uses, see Actor (disambiguation). ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 227 pixelsFull resolution (828 × 235 pixel, file size: 6 KB, MIME type: image/png) http://www. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and Governor Gray Davis (right) with President George W. Bush in 2003 The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... The Screen Actors Guild (S.A.G.) is the labor union representing over 120,000 film actors in the United States. ... “GE” redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... GOP redirects here. ... A Time for Choosing, also known as The Speech, was presented on a number of speaking occasions during the 1964 U.S. presidential election campaign by (later President) Ronald Reagan on behalf of Republican candidate Barry Goldwater. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


As president, Reagan implemented new political initiatives as well as economic policies, advocating a laissez-faire philosophy, but the extent to which these ideas were implemented is debatable. The policies, dubbed "Reaganomics," included substantial tax cuts implemented in 1981. After surviving an assassination attempt and ordering controversial military actions in Grenada and Libya, he was reelected in a landslide victory in 1984. Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... Ronald Reagan, the US president from which Reaganomics derives its name Reaganomics (a blend of Reagan and economics, coined by radio broadcaster Paul Harvey) is a term that has been used to both describe and decry free market advocacy economic policies of U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who served from... President Ronald Reagan signs the bill at his California ranch in 1981 The Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (also known as ERTA or the Kemp-Roth Tax Cut) was A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 to encourage economic growth through reductions in individual income tax... The Reagan assassination attempt occurred on March 30, 1981, just 69 days into the presidency of Ronald Reagan. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


Reagan's second term was marked by steps toward ending the Cold War, as well as the Iran-Contra Affair, one of a few administration scandals. The president ordered a massive military buildup in an arms race with the Soviet Union, rejecting the previous strategy of détente and directly confronting Communism. He portrayed the USSR as an "Evil Empire" and publicly supported anti-Communist movements worldwide. Despite his rejection of détente, he negotiated with Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to shrink both countries' nuclear arsenals, and is regarded as a major driving force behind the end of the Cold War. Reagan left office in 1989 and disclosed he had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease in 1994. He died ten years later at the age of ninety-three, and ranks today with a high approval rating among former U.S. presidents. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Iran-Contra Affair was a political scandal occurring in 1987 as a result of earlier events during the Reagan administration in which members of the executive branch sold weapons to Iran, an avowed enemy, and illegally used the profits to continue funding anti-Communist rebels, the Contras, in Nicaragua. ... Lt-Col. ... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... The term evil empire was applied to the former Soviet Union (USSR) by U.S. President Ronald Reagan, American conservatives, and other Americans, particularly hawks. ... The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States to oppose the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. ... Joseph Stalin, first General Secretary The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (First Secretary in 1953-1966) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenins death in 1924. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Ronald Reagan A portion of the two-page, handwritten letter Ronald Reagans Alzheimers letter was a hand-written letter authored by former United States President Ronald Reagan in November 1994, disclosing the fact he had recently been diagnosed with having Alzheimers disease and was departing from public... Former United States First Lady Nancy Reagan kisses the casket of her husband, Former U.S. President Ronald Reagan during the week long state funeral honoring him in June of 2004. ... Sculptor Gutzon Borglum and Presidents Calvin Coolidge selected Washington, Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Lincoln to appear on Mount Rushmore. ...

Contents

Early life

Ronald Reagan as a teenager in Dixon, Illinois
Ronald Reagan as a teenager in Dixon, Illinois

Ronald Reagan was born in an apartment above the local bank building in Tampico, Illinois on February 6, 1911 to John "Jack" Reagan and Nelle Wilson Reagan. As a boy, Reagan's father nicknamed him "Dutch", due to his "fat little Dutchman"-like appearance, and his "Dutchboy" haircut.[1] The nickname stuck with him throughout his youth. Reagan's family briefly lived in several Illinois towns, including Monmouth, Galesburg and Chicago, until 1919, when they returned to Tampico and lived above the H.C. Pitney Variety Store.[2] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 482 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (600 × 746 pixel, file size: 76 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ronald Reagan ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 482 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (600 × 746 pixel, file size: 76 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ronald Reagan ... The Dixon Memorial Arch. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Ronald Reagan Birthplace, also known as the Graham Building, is located in an apartment on the second floor of a late 19th century commercial building in Tampico, Illinois, United States. ... Tampico is a village located in Whiteside County, Illinois. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Monmouth is the county seat of Warren County in the U.S. state of Illinois. ... Galesburg is a city in Knox County, Illinois, in the United States. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... The H.C. Pitney Variety Store Building is a commercial building in downtown Tampico, Illinois, United States. ...


According to Paul Kengor, author of God and Ronald Reagan, Reagan had a particularly strong faith in the goodness of people, which stemmed from the optimistic faith of his mother, Nelle,[3] and the Disciples of Christ faith. For the time, Reagan was unusual in his opposition to racial discrimination, and recalled a time in Dixon when the local inn would not allow black people to stay there. Reagan brought them back to his house, where his mother invited them to stay the night and have breakfast the next morning.[4] Paul Kengor is an American conservative author and academic. ... The insignia of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). ... The Dixon Memorial Arch. ...


Following the closure of the Pitney Store in late 1920, the Reagans moved to Dixon, Illinois;[5] the midwestern "small universe" had a lasting impression on Ronald.[6] He attended Dixon High School, where he developed interests in acting and storytelling. His first job was as a lifeguard at the Rock River in Lowell Park, near Dixon, in 1926. "I saved 77 lives," Reagan said in an interview, and mentioned that he notched a mark on a wooden log for every life he saved.[7] After high school, Reagan attended Eureka College, where he was a member of the Tau Kappa Epsilon fraternity, majored in economics and sociology, and was very active in sports.[8] The Dixon Memorial Arch. ... Dixon High School (DHS) is a high school located on Lincoln Statue Drive on the northern side of Dixon, Illinois. ... Photo of Eureka College, 1904 Eureka College is liberal arts college in Eureka, Illinois related by covenant to the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) and founded in 1855. ... Tau Kappa Epsilon (TKE or Teke, pronounced T-K-E or IPA , as in teak wood) is a college fraternity with chapters in the USA, and Canada, and affiliation with a German fraternity system known as the Corps of the Weinheimer Senioren Convent (WSC). ...


Entertainment career

Radio and film

Reagan starred in Cowboy From Brooklyn in 1938
Reagan starred in Cowboy From Brooklyn in 1938

After graduating from Eureka in 1932, Reagan worked at radio stations WOC in Davenport, Iowa and WHO in Des Moines as an announcer for Chicago Cubs baseball games.[9] While traveling with the Cubs in California, Reagan took a screen test in 1937 that led to a seven-year contract with Warner Brothers studios. Image File history File links Ronald_Reagan_in_Cowboy_From_Brooklyn_trailer. ... Image File history File links Ronald_Reagan_in_Cowboy_From_Brooklyn_trailer. ... WOC is a radio station licensed to Davenport, Iowa, and has a news and talk radio format. ... Motto: Working together to serve you Location in the State of Iowa Coordinates: , Country State County Scott County Incorporated 1839 Government  - Mayor Ed Winborn Area  - City  64. ... WHO is a clear channel radio station broadcasting 50,000 watts on 1040 AM with a news/talk format. ... This article is about the state capital of Iowa. ... Major league affiliations National League (1876–present) Central Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 10, 14, 23, 26, 42 Name Chicago Cubs (1902–present) Chicago Orphans (1898-1901) Chicago Colts (1890-1897) Chicago White Stockings (1870-1871, 1874-1889) (a. ... “WB” redirects here. ...


His first screen credit was the starring role in the 1937 movie Love Is on the Air, and by the end of 1939 he had appeared in 19 films.[10] Before the film Santa Fe Trail in 1940, he played the role of George "The Gipper" Gipp in the film Knute Rockne, All American. He acquired the lifelong nickname "the Gipper" from this role.[11] Reagan's favorite acting role was in 1942's Kings Row,[12] but his performance did not meet with universal approval: one reviewer felt that Reagan had made "only casual acquaintance with the [character]".[13] Reagan also acted in Tennessee's Partner, Hellcats of the Navy, This Is the Army, Bedtime for Bonzo, Cattle Queen of Montana, and The Killers (his final film) in a 1964 remake. Love is on the Air. ... Santa Fe Trail is a 1940 western film directed by Michael Curtiz and starring Errol Flynn and Olivia de Havilland. ... It has been suggested that George Gipp Memorial Park be merged into this article or section. ... Knute Rockne, All American is a 1940 biographical film which tells the story of Knute Rockne, perhaps the most famous of all of the football coaches at Notre Dame, one of the most successful football programs in history. ... Kings Row is a 1942 film which tells the story of a group of children who grow up leading supposedly idyllic lives in a small town with disturbing secrets. ... Tennessees Partner is a 1955 film starring Ronald Reagan in what Peter Bogdanovich calls his most likeable performance. ... Hellcats of the Navy is a movie starring Ronald Reagan and wife Nancy Davis (her then professional name) — a moral WWII submarine tale — the only film in which they appear together. ... This Is the Army is a 1943 American motion picture produced by Hal B. Wallis and Jack L. Warner, and directed by Michael Curtiz. ... Bedtime for Bonzo is a 1951 comedy film directed by Frederick De Cordova. ... Cattle Queen of Montana is a 1954 Western film starring Barbara Stanwyck and Ronald Reagan. ... The Killers, sometimes called Ernest Hemingways The Killers, released by Universal Studios in 1964, was Hollywoods second adaptation of the Hemingway short story. ...


Military service

After completing fourteen home-study Army Extension Courses, Reagan enlisted in the Army Enlisted Reserve on April 29, 1937, as a private assigned to Troop B, 322nd Cavalry at Des Moines, Iowa.[14] He was appointed Second Lieutenant in the Officers Reserve Corps of the Cavalry on May 25, 1937, and on June 18 was assigned to the 323rd Cavalry.[15] is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Cavalry was a horse-mounted cavalry force that existed in various forms between 1775 and 1942. ... “Des Moines” redirects here. ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Reagan was ordered to active duty for the first time on April 18, 1942. Due to his nearsightedness, he was classified for limited service only, which excluded him from serving overseas.[16] His first assignment was at the San Francisco Port of Embarkation at Fort Mason, California, as a liaison officer of the Port and Transportation Office. Upon the request of the Army Air Force (AAF), he applied for a transfer from the Cavalry to the AAF on May 15 1942, and was assigned to AAF Public Relations and subsequently to the 1st Motion Picture Unit in Culver City, California. On January 14, 1943 he was promoted to First Lieutenant and was sent to the Provisional Task Force Show Unit of This Is The Army at Burbank, California. Following this duty, he returned to the 1st Motion Picture Unit and was promoted to Captain on July 22, 1943.[14] is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Historic wharves near Fort Mason Fort Mason in San Francisco, California is a former U.S. Army base located at the northern Marina District, alongside San Francisco Bay. ... USAAF recruitment poster. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: The Heart of Screenland Location of Culver City in Los Angeles County, California Coordinates: , Country State County Los Angeles Incorporated (city) 1917-09-07 [2] Government  - City Manager Jerry Fulwood [1] Area  - City  5. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Burbank is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In January 1944, Captain Reagan was ordered to temporary duty in New York City to participate in the opening of the sixth War Loan Drive. He was assigned to the 18th AAF Base Unit, Culver City, California on November 14, 1944, where he remained until the end of the World War II. He was recommended for promotion to Major on February 2 1945, but this recommendation was disapproved on July 17 of that year. He returned to Fort MacArthur, California, where he was separated from active duty on December 9 1945.[14] By the end of the war, his units had produced some 400 training films for the AAF.[14] New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fort MacArthur is a former U.S. Army installation in San Pedro, California (now the port community of Los Angeles), named for General Arthur MacArthur, Jr. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Television and SAG President

Television star Ronald Reagan as the host of General Electric Theater
Television star Ronald Reagan as the host of General Electric Theater

Reagan landed fewer film roles in the late 1950s and moved to television as the host of General Electric Theater, earning approximately $125,000 per year ($800,000 in 2006 dollars), until he was fired by General Electric in 1962.[17][18] His final work as a professional actor was as host and performer from 1964 to 1965 on the television series Death Valley Days. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 473 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 761 pixel, file size: 51 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ronald Reagan and General Electric Theater, 1954-62. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 473 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 761 pixel, file size: 51 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ronald Reagan and General Electric Theater, 1954-62. ... General Electric Theater was a half-hour CBS television anthology broadcast every Sunday evening beginning February 1, 1953 and ending May 27, 1962. ... Death Valley Days was a long-running American radio and television anthology about true stories of the old American West, particularly the Death Valley area. ...


Reagan was first elected to the Board of Directors of the Screen Actors Guild in 1941, serving as an alternate. Following World War II, he resumed service and became 3rd Vice president in 1946.[19] The adoption of conflict-of-interest bylaws in 1947 led the SAG president and six board members to resign; Reagan was nominated in a special election for the position of president and was elected. He would subsequently be chosen by the membership to seven additional one-year terms, from 1947 to 1952 and in 1959. Reagan led SAG through eventful years that were marked by labor-management disputes, the Taft-Hartley Act, House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) hearings and the Hollywood blacklist era.[19] The Screen Actors Guild (S.A.G.) is the labor union representing over 120,000 film actors in the United States. ... The Labor-Management Relations Act, commonly known as the Taft-Hartley Act, is a United States federal law that greatly restricts the activities and power of labor unions. ... The House Committee on Un-American Activities or HUAC (1945-1975) was an investigating committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... blacklisting is gay ...


In 1947, as SAG president, Reagan testified before HUAC regarding the influence of Communists in the motion picture industry. Strongly opposed to communism, he reaffirmed his commitment to democratic principles, stating, "As a citizen, I would hesitate to see any political party outlawed on the basis of its political ideology. However, if it is proven that an organization is an agent of foreign power, or in any way not a legitimate political party—and I think the government is capable of proving that—then that is another matter. [...] but at the same time I never as a citizen want to see our country become urged, by either fear or resentment of this group, that we ever compromise with any of our democratic principles through that fear or resentment."[20]


Marriages and children

Ronald and Nancy Reagan aboard a boat in California in 1964
Ronald and Nancy Reagan aboard a boat in California in 1964

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 563 × 450 pixelsFull resolution (563 × 450 pixel, file size: 42 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ronald Reagan and Nancy Reagan aboard a boat in California, 1964. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 563 × 450 pixelsFull resolution (563 × 450 pixel, file size: 42 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ronald Reagan and Nancy Reagan aboard a boat in California, 1964. ... Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6, 1921) is the widow of the former United States President Ronald Reagan and was First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. ...

Jane Wyman

In 1938, Reagan co-starred in the film Brother Rat with actress Jane Wyman (1917–2007). They were engaged at the Chicago Theatre,[21] and married on January 26, 1940, at the Wee Kirk o' the Heather church in Forest Lawn, California.[22] Together they had two children, Maureen (1941–2001) and Christine (born and died June 26, 1947), and adopted a third, Michael (born 1945). Reagan and Wyman divorced on June 28, 1948 following arguments about Reagan's political ambitions,[11] making him the only American president to have been divorced.[23] Jane Wyman (January 5, 1917[1]– September 10, 2007) was an Oscar, Golden Globe-winning and Emmy-nominated American actress. ... This article is about the landmark theater. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Maureen Elizabeth Reagan Revell (January 4, 1941 – August 8, 2001) was the daughter of former President Ronald Reagan and his first wife, Jane Wyman. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Michael Edward Reagan (born March 18, 1945 as John L. Flaugher), adopted son of the late United States President Ronald Reagan and his first wife, the late Jane Wyman, is the host of a conservative talk radio show, the Michael Reagan Show, which is syndicated to radio stations in the... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Nancy Davis

Reagan met actress Nancy Davis (born 1921)[24] in 1949 after Davis contacted then-president of the Screen Actors Guild Reagan to help her with issues regarding her name appearing on a communist blacklist in Hollywood (Davis was mistaken for another Nancy Davis). Nancy described their meeting by saying, "I don't know if it was exactly love at first sight, but it was pretty close."[25] They were engaged at Chasen's restaurant in Los Angeles and were married on March 4, 1952 at the Little Brown Church in the San Fernando Valley.[26] Ronald and Nancy Reagan had two children: Patti (born 1952) and Ron (born 1958). Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6, 1921) is the widow of the former United States President Ronald Reagan and was First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. ... Chasens entrance from Beverly blvd. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... San Fernando Valley from its southwestern edge. ... Patti Davis (born Patricia Ann Reagan on October 21, 1952 in Los Angeles, California) is the daughter of former President of the United States Ronald Reagan and First Lady Nancy Davis. ... Ron Reagan in 2007 Ronald Prescott Reagan (born May 20, 1958, Los Angeles, California, USA), usually known as Ron Reagan, is the son of the late former President of the United States Ronald Reagan and his wife Nancy. ...


Observers described Ronald and Nancy Reagan's relationship as close, real, and intimate.[27] While president and first lady, the Reagans were reported to display their affection for each other frequently, with one press secretary noting, "They never took each other for granted. They never stopped courting."[25][28] He often called her "Mommy"; she called him "Ronnie".[28] When the president was recuperating in the hospital after the assassination attempt in 1981, Nancy Reagan slept with one of his shirts to be comforted by the scent;[29] in a letter to Mrs. Reagan, President Reagan wrote, "whatever I treasure and enjoy [...] all would be without meaning if I didn’t have you."[30] In a letter to the American people written in 1994, President Reagan wrote "I have recently been told that I am one of the millions of Americans who will be afflicted with Alzheimer's disease [...] I only wish there was some way I could spare Nancy from this painful experience,"[25] and in 1998, while her husband was severely affected by Alzheimer's, Nancy told Vanity Fair, "Our relationship is very special. We were very much in love and still are. When I say my life began with Ronnie, well, it's true. It did. I can't imagine life without him."[25] Ronald Reagan A portion of the two-page, handwritten letter Ronald Reagans Alzheimers letter was a hand-written letter authored by former United States President Ronald Reagan in November 1994, disclosing the fact he had recently been diagnosed with having Alzheimers disease and was departing from public... American actress Demi Moore, on a typical Vanity Fair cover (August, 1991) Vanity Fair is a glossy American glamour magazine monthly that offers a mixture of articles based on sensational exaggerations, jet-set and entertainment-business personalities, politics, and lies. ...


Early political career

A registered Democrat and admirer of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Reagan supported the New Deal, as well as the presidential candidacies of Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1952 and 1956 as well as Richard Nixon in 1960. His political loyalties soon shifted to the Republican Party, however, for he thought that the Democrats had created a larger government.[31] Following the election of John F. Kennedy, Reagan formally switched parties in 1962, saying "I didn't leave the Democratic Party. The party left me."[32] During his work for General Electric, Reagan wrote his own speeches, laboring diligently and daily upon his prose. Although he had speechwriters later in the White House, he continued editing, and even occasionally writing, many of them.[33] Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... FDR redirects here. ... The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs he initiated between 1933 and 1938 with the goal of providing relief, recovery, and reform (3 Rs) to the people and economy of the United States during the Great Depression. ... Dwight David Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American General and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Nixon redirects here. ... GOP redirects here. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ...


Two years after switching parties, Reagan joined the campaign of conservative presidential contender Barry Goldwater. Speaking on Goldwater's behalf, Reagan revealed his ideological motivation in a famed speech given on October 27, 1964: "The Founding Fathers knew a government can't control the economy without controlling people. And they knew when a government set out to do that, it must use force and coercion to achieve its purpose. So we have come to a time for choosing."[34] The address soon became known as the "Time for Choosing" speech, and is considered the speech that launched Reagan's political career.[35] Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... A Time for Choosing, also known as The Speech, was presented on a number of speaking occasions during the 1964 U.S. presidential election campaign by (later President) Ronald Reagan on behalf of Republican candidate Barry Goldwater. ...


Governor of California, 1967–1975

Ronald and Nancy Reagan celebrate Reagan's gubernatorial victory at the Biltmore Hotel in Los Angeles, California

California Republicans were impressed with Reagan's political views and charisma after his "Time for Choosing" speech,[36] and nominated him for Governor of California in 1966. In Reagan's campaign, he emphasized two main themes: "to send the welfare bums back to work", and in reference to burgeoning anti-war and anti-establishment student protests at the University of California at Berkeley, "to clean up the mess at Berkeley".[37] He was elected, defeating two-term governor Edmund G. "Pat" Brown, and was sworn in on January 3, 1967. In his first term, he froze government hiring and approved tax hikes to balance the budget.[38] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 476 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (596 × 750 pixel, file size: 75 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I got this photo from the Ronald Reagan Library Online Photo Catalog ( http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 476 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (596 × 750 pixel, file size: 75 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I got this photo from the Ronald Reagan Library Online Photo Catalog ( http://www. ... Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and Governor Gray Davis (right) with President George W. Bush in 2003 The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that... The University of California, Berkeley (also known as Cal, UC Berkeley, UCB, or simply Berkeley) is a prestigious, public, coeducational university situated in the foothills of Berkeley, California to the east of San Francisco Bay, overlooking the Golden Gate and its bridge. ... For other persons named Pat Brown, see Pat Brown (disambiguation). ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ...


Shortly after the beginning of his term, Reagan tested the presidential waters in 1968 as part of a "Stop Nixon" movement, hoping to cut into Nixon's Southern support[39] and be a compromise candidate[40] if neither Nixon nor second-place Nelson Rockefeller received enough delegates to win on the first ballot at the Republican convention. However, by the time of the convention Nixon had 692 delegate votes, 25 more than he needed to secure the nomination, followed by Rockefeller with Reagan in third place.[39] The United States presidential election of 1968 was a wrenching national experience, and included the assassination of Democratic candidate Robert F. Kennedy, the violence at the 1968 Democratic National Convention, and widespread demonstrations against the Vietnam War across American university and college campuses. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979) was an American Vice President, governor of New York State, philanthropist and businessman. ... The 1968 Republican National Convention was held in Miami Beach, Miami-Dade County, Florida, August 5-8, 1968. ...

The Reagans meet with then-President Richard Nixon and First Lady Pat Nixon in July 1970
The Reagans meet with then-President Richard Nixon and First Lady Pat Nixon in July 1970

Reagan was involved in high-profile conflicts with the protest movements of the era. In 1969, during the People's Park protests at UC Berkeley, Reagan sent California Highway Patrol officers onto the campus to quell the protests.[41] On May 15 of that year, the protests increased, and the officers resorted to using firearms, shooting and killing a 25-year-old man from San Jose, California and injuring others, the incident being known as "Bloody Thursday."[41] Reagan then called out 2,200 state National Guard troops to occupy the city of Berkeley in order to crack down on the protesters.[41] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Nixon redirects here. ... Thelma Catherine Pat Ryan Nixon (March 16, 1912 – June 22, 1993) was the wife of former President Richard Nixon and the First Lady of the United States of America from 1969 to 1974. ... Peoples Park, Berkeley Peoples Park in Berkeley, California, USA is a park off Telegraph Avenue, bounded by Haste and Bowditch Streets and Dwight Way, near the University of California, Berkeley. ... // The California Highway Patrol (CHP) is a state agency that acts as the state police force of California. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States National Guard is a reserve forces component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ...


Early in 1967, the national debate on abortion was beginning. Democratic California state senator Anthony Beilenson introduced the "Therapeutic Abortion Act", in an effort to reduce the number of "back-room abortions" performed in California.[41] The State Legislature sent the bill to Reagan's desk where, after many days of indecision, he signed it.[42] About two million abortions would be performed as a result, most because of a provision in the bill allowing abortions for the well-being of the mother.[42] Reagan had been in office for only four months when he signed the bill, and stated that had he been more experienced as governor, it would not have been signed. After he recognized what he called the "consequences" of the bill, he announced that he was pro-life.[42] He maintained that position later in his political career, writing extensively about abortion.[43] Anthony Charles Beilenson (October 26, 1932-) was a Democratic congressman from California. ... This article is about the social movement. ...


Reagan was re-elected in 1970, defeating "Big Daddy" Jesse Unruh, but chose not to seek a third term. One of Reagan's greatest frustrations in office concerned capital punishment, which he strongly supported.[12] His efforts to enforce the state's laws in this area were thwarted when the Supreme Court of California issued its People v. Anderson decision, which invalidated all death sentences issued in California prior to 1972, though the decision was later overturned by a constitutional amendment. The only execution during Reagan's governorship was on April 12, 1967, when Aaron Mitchell's sentence was carried out by the state in San Quentin's gas chamber.[44] Jesse Marvin Unruh (1922 - 1987) -- also known as Big Daddy Unruh -- was a Democratic politician. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Justices of the Supreme Court of California (circa May 2005). ... Holding The use of capital punishment in the state of California was deemed unconstitutional because it was considered cruel and unusual. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: Buildings and structures stubs | US geography stubs | Prisons in California ...


Reagan's terms as governor helped to shape the policies he would pursue in his later political career as president. By campaigning on a platform of sending "the welfare bums back to work," he spoke out against the idea of the welfare state. He also strongly advocated the Republican ideal of less government regulation of the economy, including that of undue federal taxation.[45]


1976 presidential campaign

Ronald Reagan on the podium with Gerald Ford at the 1976 Republican National Convention after narrowly losing the presidential nomination.
Ronald Reagan on the podium with Gerald Ford at the 1976 Republican National Convention after narrowly losing the presidential nomination.

In 1976, Reagan challenged incumbent President Gerald Ford in a bid to become the Republican Party's candidate for president. Reagan soon established himself as the conservative candidate; like-minded organizations such as the American Conservative Union became the key components of his political base, while President Ford was considered a more moderate Republican.[46] He relied on a strategy crafted by campaign manager John Sears of winning a few primaries early to seriously damage the lift-off of Ford's campaign, such as his victories in North Carolina, Texas, and California, but the strategy disintegrated. Reagan ended up losing New Hampshire and later Florida.[47] Image File history File links 1976_Republican_National_Convention. ... Image File history File links 1976_Republican_National_Convention. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... The American Conservative Union (ACU) is a large conservative political lobbying group in the United States. ... John Patrick Sears is a Republican political strategist, best known for three things: Being Richard Nixons campaign manager in 1972, Managing Ronald Reagans presidential bid, prior to being fired by Reagan and replaced by William Casey on the day he won the New Hampshire primary in 1980. ...


As the party's 1976 convention in Kansas City, Missouri neared, Ford appeared close to victory. Acknowledging his party's moderate wing, Reagan chose moderate Republican Senator Richard Schweiker of Pennsylvania as his running mate. Nonetheless, Ford narrowly won, with 1,187 delegates to Reagan's 1,070. The 1976 Republican National Convention was held in Kansas City, Missouri at Kemper Arena from August 16 to August 19. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... Richard S. Schweiker Richard Schultz Schweiker (born June 1, 1926) is a former U.S. Congressman and Senator representing the state of Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Reagan's concession speech emphasized the dangers of nuclear war and the threat posed by the Soviet Union. Although he lost the nomination, he received 307 write-in votes in New Hampshire, 388 votes as an Independent on Wyoming's ballot, and a single electoral vote from a Washington State "faithless elector" in the November election.[48] Ford went on to lose the 1976 presidential election to the Democratic challenger Jimmy Carter. A faithless elector is a member of the United States Electoral College who casts an electoral vote for someone other than the person whom they have pledged to elect. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ...


1980 presidential campaign

Reagan campaigns with Nancy in South Carolina, 1980
Reagan campaigns with Nancy in South Carolina, 1980

The 1980 presidential campaign was conducted during domestic concerns as well as the ongoing Iran hostage crisis. After receiving the Republican nomination, Reagan challenged incumbent President Jimmy Carter. His showing in the televised debates boosted his campaign, and he selected one of his primary opponents, George H.W. Bush, to be his running mate. The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent, Ronald Reagan, along with third party candidates, the independent John B. Anderson and Libertarian Ed Clark. ... ( This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... ( This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media. ... John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon debate in 1960 During presidential elections in the United States, it has become customary for the main candidates (almost always the candidates of the two main parties, the Democratic Party and the Republican Party) to engage in a debate. ...


Reagan won the election, carrying 44 states with 489 electoral votes to 49 electoral votes for Carter (representing six states and Washington, D.C.). Reagan won 50.7% of the popular vote while Carter took 41%, and Independent John B. Anderson (a liberal Republican) received 6.7%.[49] Republicans captured the Senate for the first time since 1952, and gained 34 House seats, but the Democrats retained a majority. John Bayard Anderson (born February 15, 1922) was a U.S. Representative from Illinois and presidential candidate in the 1980 election. ...  Republican holds  Republican pickups  Democratic holds  Democratic pickups The 1980 U.S. Senate elections coincided with Ronald Reagans election to the Presidency. ... The U.S. House election, 1980 was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1980 which coincided with the election of Ronald Reagan as President. ...


Presidency, 1981–1989

During his Presidency, Ronald Reagan pursued policies that reflected his optimism in individual freedom, expanded the American economy, and contributed to the end of the Cold War.[50] The "Reagan Revolution," proponents claimed, would reinvigorate American morale, and reduce the people's reliance upon government.[50] As president, Reagan kept a series of leather bound diaries, in which he talked about daily occurrences of his presidency, commented on current issues around the world (expressing his point of view on most of them), and frequently mentioned his wife, Nancy. The diaries were published in May 2007, into the bestselling book, The Reagan Diaries.[51] The United States Presidency of Ronald Reagan, also known as the Reagan Administration, lasted from 1981 until 1989 and was conservative, steadfastly anti-communist, employed a foreign policy of “peace through strength,” and favored tax cuts and smaller government. ... Categories: NPOV disputes | APEC | OECD | WTO members | U.S. economic history | National economies | Economy of the United States ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6, 1921) is the widow of the former United States President Ronald Reagan and was First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. ... The Reagan Diaries is an edited version of diaries written by President Ronald Reagan while in the White House. ...

The Reagan Cabinet
OFFICE NAME TERM
President Ronald Reagan 1981–1989
Vice President George H. W. Bush 1981–1989
State Alexander M. Haig 1981–1982
  George P. Shultz 1982–1989
Treasury Donald Regan 1981–1985
  James A. Baker III 1985–1988
  Nicholas F. Brady 1988–1989
Defense Caspar Weinberger 1981–1987
  Frank C. Carlucci 1987–1989
Justice William F. Smith 1981–1985
  Edwin A. Meese III 1985–1988
  Richard L. Thornburgh 1988–1989
Interior James G. Watt 1981–1983
  William P. Clark, Jr. 1983–1985
  Donald P. Hodel 1985–1989
Commerce Malcolm Baldrige 1981–1987
  C. William Verity, Jr. 1987–1989
Labor Raymond J. Donovan 1981–1985
  William E. Brock 1985–1987
  Ann Dore McLaughlin 1987–1989
Agriculture John Rusling Block 1981–1986
  Richard E. Lyng 1986–1989
HHS Richard S. Schweiker 1981–1983
  Margaret Heckler 1983–1985
  Otis R. Bowen 1985–1989
Education Terrell H. Bell 1981–1984
  William J. Bennett 1985–1988
  Lauro Cavazos 1988–1989
HUD Samuel R. Pierce, Jr. 1981–1989
Transportation Drew Lewis 1981–1982
  Elizabeth Hanford Dole 1983–1987
  James H. Burnley IV 1987–1989
Energy James B. Edwards 1981–1982
  Donald P. Hodel 1982–1985
  John S. Herrington 1985–1989


Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS[1] or Veep) is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Alexander Meigs Haig, Jr. ... Shultz in his official D.O.L. portrait. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... Donald Thomas Regan (December 21, 1918 – June 10, 2003) was the 66th United States Secretary of the Treasury, from 1981 to 1985, and Chief of Staff from 1985 to 1987 in the Ronald Reagan Administration, where he advocated Reaganomics and tax cuts to create jobs and stimulate production. ... James Addison Baker III (born April 28, 1930), American politician and diplomat, was Chief of Staff in the President Ronald Reagans first administration, and Secretary of State in the administration of President George H. W. Bush and as United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988 in... Nicholas F. Brady Bradys signature, as used on American currency Nicholas Frederick Brady (born April 11, 1930, in New York City) was United States Secretary of the Treasury under Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush, and is also known for articulating the Brady Plan in March 1989. ... The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and military matters. ... Caspar Willard Cap Weinberger, GBE (August 18, 1917 – March 28, 2006), was an American politician and Secretary of Defense under President Ronald Reagan from January 21, 1981, until November 23, 1987, making him the third longest-serving defense secretary to date, after Robert McNamara and Donald Rumsfeld. ... Frank Charles Carlucci III (born October 18, 1930) was a government official in the United States associated with the Republican Party who was United States Secretary of Defense from 1987 until 1989. ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... William French Smith (August 26, 1917–October 29, 1990) was an American lawyer and the 74th Attorney General of the United States. ... Edwin Meese III (born December 2, 1931) served as the seventy-fifth Attorney General of the United States (1985 - 1988). ... Categories: People stubs | 1932 births | U.S. Attorneys General | Governors of Pennsylvania ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... James Gaius Watt (born January 31, 1938 in Lusk, Wyoming) served as U.S. Secretary of the Interior under President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1983. ... William Patrick Clark, Jr (born October 23, 1931), American politician, served under President Ronald Reagan as the United States National Security Advisor from 1982 to 1983, and the Secretary of the Interior from 1983 until 1985. ... Categories: 1935 births | U.S. Secretaries of Energy | U.S. Secretaries of the Interior | People stubs ... The office of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce in the mid-20th century. ... Malcolm Baldrige Howard Malcolm Mac Baldrige (October 4, 1922 – July 25, 1987) was the 26th United States Secretary of Commerce. ... Calvin William Verity Jr. ... Raymond J. Donovan (August 31, 1930-) is an American politician and former federal office-holder. ... Bill Brock William Emerson Bill Brock III (born November 23, 1930) was a Republican United States Senator from Tennessee from 1971 to 1977. ... Categories: People stubs ... John Rusling Block was born in 1935 in Galesburg, Illinois. ... Richard Edmund Lyng (June 29, 1918-February 1, 2003) was a U.S. administrator. ... The United States Secretary of Health and Human Services is the head of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, concerned with The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Richard S. Schweiker Richard Schultz Schweiker (born June 1, 1926) is a former U.S. Congressman and Senator representing the state of Pennsylvania. ... Margaret Mary Heckler (born June 21, 1931) is a Republican politician from Massachusetts who served in the United States House of Representatives from 1967 until 1983 and was later the Secretary of Health and Human Services and Ambassador to Ireland under President Ronald Reagan. ... Otis Ray Bowen (born 26 February 1918) is a retired U.S. politician and physician. ... Terrell H. Bell (born November 11, 1921) was the first United States Secretary of Education in the Cabinet of President Ronald Reagan, initially appointed with the expectation that he would preside over the dismantling of his department. ... This article is about William Bennett the US politician. ... Lauro Fred Cavazos (born January 4, 1927) is a U.S. educator. ... The United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is the head of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, concerned with The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Samuel Riley Silent Sam Pierce, Jr. ... Andrew Lindsay Lewis, Jr. ... Sen. ... James H. Burnley IV is an American politician and lawyer born in 1948 and from DC. He graduated magna cum laude from Yale University in 1970 with a Bachelor of Arts and got his Juris Doctor from Harvard in 1973. ... James Burrows Edwards (born June 24, 1927) is an American politician and administrator. ... Categories: 1935 births | U.S. Secretaries of Energy | U.S. Secretaries of the Interior | People stubs ... John S. Herrington was the Secretary of Engergy of the United States under Ronald Reagan during his second term. ...

First term, 1981–1985

The Reagans wave from the limousine taking them down Pennsylvania Avenue to the White House, right after the president's inauguration
The Reagans wave from the limousine taking them down Pennsylvania Avenue to the White House, right after the president's inauguration

In his first inaugural address on January 20, 1981, which Reagan himself wrote,[52] he addressed the country's economic malaise arguing: "Government is not the solution to our problems; government is the problem." The Reagan Presidency began in a dramatic manner: just 30 minutes into his inaugural address, 52 American hostages, held by Iran for 444 days were set free.[53] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 759 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2953 × 2334 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 759 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2953 × 2334 pixel, file size: 2. ... Pennsylvania Avenue street sign, 2004. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Reagan delivers the address, January 20, 1981 The first inaugural address of Ronald Reagan was the 1981 inaugural address delivered by U.S. President Ronald Reagan. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media. ...


Assassination attempt

On March 30, 1981, only 69 days into the new administration, Reagan, his press secretary James Brady, and two others were struck by gunfire from a deranged would-be assassin, John Hinckley, Jr. Missing Reagan’s heart by less than one inch (2.5 cm), the bullet instead pierced his left lung, which likely saved his life. In the operating room, Reagan joked to the surgeons, "I hope you're all Republicans!"[54] Though they were not, Dr. Joseph Giordano replied, "Today, Mr. President, we're all Republicans," and when Nancy Reagan came to see him, he famously told her, "Honey, I forgot to duck" (using defeated boxer Jack Dempsey's quip).[54] Reagan was released from the hospital on April 11. The Reagan assassination attempt occurred on March 30, 1981, just 69 days into the presidency of Ronald Reagan. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... James Brady James Scott “Jim” Brady (born August 29, 1940) was Assistant to the President and White House Press Secretary under President Ronald Reagan. ... John Warnock Hinckley, Jr. ... Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6, 1921) is the widow of the former United States President Ronald Reagan and was First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. ... William Harrison Jack Dempsey (June 24, 1895 – May 31, 1983) was an American boxer who held the world heavyweight title between 1919 and 1926. ...


Air traffic controllers' strike

Main article: Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (1968)

Only a short time into his administration Federal air traffic controllers went on strike, violating a regulation prohibiting Government unions from striking.[55] Declaring the situation an emergency as described in the 1947 Taft Hartley Act, Reagan held a press conference in the White House Rose Garden, where he stated that if the air traffic controllers "do not report for work within 48 hours, they have forfeited their jobs and will be terminated".[56] On August 3, 1981, Reagan fired 11,345 striking air traffic controllers who had ignored his order to return to work.[57] The Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization or PATCO was a labor union that once represented air traffic controllers in the United States in matters relating to wages, hours, and other terms and conditions of employment. ... The Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization or PATCO was a labor union that once represented air traffic controllers in the United States in matters relating to wages, hours, and other terms and conditions of employment. ... The Taft-Hartley Act severely restricted the activities and power of labor unions in the United States. ... The tulips are in full bloom in the Rose Garden at the White House, April 20, 2005. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


"Reaganomics" and the economy

Main article: Reaganomics
Ronald Reagan's official White House portrait

When Reagan entered office, the American economy's inflation rate stood at 11.83%, and unemployment at 7.1%. Reagan implemented policies based on supply-side economics and advocated a laissez-faire philosophy,[58] seeking to stimulate the economy with large, across-the-board tax cuts.[59][60] He aimed to reduce the growth of domestic government spending, cut back on excess regulation, and institute a sound currency policy which would end inflation.[61] In attempting to cut back on non-defense spending, significantly increase defense spending, while at the same time lowering taxes, Reagan's approach was a departure from his immediate predecessors.[61] The economic policy, dubbed "Reaganomics", was the subject of debate, with supporters pointing to improvements in certain key economic indicators as evidence of success, and critics pointing to large increases in federal budget deficits and the national debt. His policy of "peace through strength" resulted in a record peacetime defense buildup, including a 40% real increase in defense spending between 1981 and 1985.[62] Ronald Reagan, the US president from which Reaganomics derives its name Reaganomics (a blend of Reagan and economics, coined by radio broadcaster Paul Harvey) is a term that has been used to both describe and decry free market advocacy economic policies of U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who served from... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x878, 61 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x878, 61 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a worker wants, but is unable, to work. ... Supply-side economics is a school of macroeconomic thought that argues that economic growth can be most effectively created using incentives for people to produce (supply) goods and services, such as adjusting income tax and capital gains tax rates. ... A tax cut is a reduction in the rate of tax charged by a government, for example on personal or corporate income. ... Ronald Reagan, the US president from which Reaganomics derives its name Reaganomics (a blend of Reagan and economics, coined by radio broadcaster Paul Harvey) is a term that has been used to both describe and decry free market advocacy economic policies of U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who served from... Peace through strength is the doctrine that military strength is a primary or necessary component of peace. ...


During Reagan's tenure, income tax rates were lowered significantly, with the top personal tax bracket dropping from 70% to 28% in seven years,[63] although effective payroll tax rates increased.[64] Reagan has the distinction of signing the largest tax increase in U.S. history.[65] Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth recovered strongly after the 1982 recession and grew during Reagan's eight years in office at an annual rate of 3.4% per year,[66] slightly lower than the post-World War II average of 3.6%.[67] Unemployment peaked at 9.7% percent in 1982 then dropped during the rest of Reagan's presidency,[60] while employment increased by 16 million, and inflation significantly decreased.[68] This article is about GDP in the context of economics. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Reagan gives a televised address from the Oval Office, outlining his plan for Tax Reduction Legislation in July 1981

Reagan's economic policies proposed that economic growth would occur when marginal tax rates were low enough to spur investment[69], which would then lead to increased economic growth, higher employment and wages. Critics called this "trickle-down economics" — the belief that tax policies that benefit the wealthy will create a "trickle-down" effect to the poor.[70] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


The administration's stance toward the Savings and Loan industry and reluctance to take action as problems arose contributed to the Savings and Loan crisis.[71] It is also suggested, by a minority of Reaganomics critics, that the policies partially caused the stock market crash of 1987,[72] but there is no consensus regarding a single source for the crash.[73] In order to cover newly-spawned federal budget deficits, the United States borrowed heavily both domestically and abroad, raising the national debt from $700 billion to $3 trillion,[74] and the United States moved from being the world's largest international creditor to the world's largest debtor nation.[75] Reagan described the new debt as the "greatest disappointment" of his presidency.[74] The Savings and Loan crisis of the 1980s was a wave of savings and loan association failures in the United States in which over 1,000 savings and loan institutions failed in the largest and costliest venture in public misfeasance, malfeasance and larceny of all time. ... DJIA (19 July 1987 through 19 January 1988). ... Government debt (public debt, national debt) is money owed by government, at any level (central government, federal government, national government, municipal government, local government, regional government). ...


He reappointed Paul Volcker as Chairman of the Federal Reserve, and in 1987 appointed monetarist Alan Greenspan to succeed him. Some economists, such as Nobel Prize winners Milton Friedman and Robert A. Mundell, argue that Reagan's tax policies invigorated America's economy and contributed to the economic boom of the 1990s.[76] Other economists, such as Nobel Prize winner Robert Solow, argue that the deficits were a major reason why Reagan's successor, George H.W. Bush, reneged on a campaign promise and raised taxes.[76] Paul Adolph Volcker (born September 5, 1927 in Cape May, New Jersey), is best-known as the Chairman of the Federal Reserve (The Fed) under United States Presidents Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan (from August 1979 to August 1987). ... The Chairman of the Board of Governors of the United States Federal Reserve is the head of the central bank of the United States and one of the more important decision-makers in American economic policies. ... Squalltoonix (born March 6, 1926 in New York City) is an American economist and was Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ), as designated in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, is awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. ... Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American Nobel Laureate economist and public intellectual. ... Robert Alexander Mundell (born October 24, 1932) is a Canadian economist who graduated from the University of British Columbia in Vancouver. ... Robert Merton Bob Solow (born August 23, 1924) is an American economist particularly known for his work on the theory of economic growth. ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born... Bush delivering the famous line at the 1988 convention Read my lips: No new taxes was a famous pledge made by Republican Presidential candidate George H.W. Bush at the 1988 Republican convention in his acceptance speech on August 18. ...


War on Drugs

Midway into his second term, Reagan declared more militant policies in the "War on Drugs". He said that "drugs were menacing our society" and promised to fight for drug-free schools and workplaces, expanded drug treatment, stronger law enforcement and drug interdiction efforts, and greater public awareness.[77][78] On October 27, 1986, President Reagan signed a drug enforcement bill into law that budgeted $1.7 billion dollars to fund the War on Drugs and specified a mandatory minimum penalty for drug offenses.[79] Massive mark-ups for drugs, areas/drugs/index. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...


The bill was criticized for promoting significant racial disparities in the prison population, because of the differences in sentencing for crack versus powder cocaine.[79] Critics also charged that the administration's policies did little to actually reduce the availability of drugs or crime on the street, while resulting in a great financial and human cost for American society.[80] Defenders of the effort point to success in reducing rates of adolescent drug use.[81][82] A pile of crack cocaine ‘rocks’. Crack cocaine is a highly addictive form of cocaine that is popular for its intense high. ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ...


First Lady Nancy Reagan made the War on Drugs one of her main priorities by founding the "Just Say No" drug awareness campaign, which aimed to discourage children and teenagers from engaging in recreational drug use by offering various ways of saying "no." Mrs. Reagan traveled to 65 cities in 33 states, raising awareness about the dangers of drugs and alcohol.[83] First Lady Laura Bush and former first ladies (from left to right) Rosalynn Carter, Sen. ... Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6, 1921) is the widow of the former United States President Ronald Reagan and was First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. ... Mrs. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Judiciary

During his 1980 campaign, Reagan pledged that, if given the opportunity, he would appoint the first female Supreme Court Justice.[84] That opportunity came in his first year in office when he nominated Sandra Day O'Connor to fill the vacancy created by the retirement of Justice Potter Stewart. In his second term, Reagan elevated William Rehnquist to succeed Warren Burger as Chief Justice, and named Antonin Scalia to fill the vacant seat. However, in 1987, Reagan lost a significant political battle when the Senate rejected the nomination of Robert Bork,[85] but Anthony Kennedy was eventually confirmed in his place.[86] Sandra Day OConnor (born March 26, 1930) is an American jurist who served as the first female Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1981 to 2006. ... Potter Stewart (January 23, 1915 – December 7, 1985) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. ... William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer, jurist, and a political figure who served as an Associate Justice on the Supreme Court of the United States and later as the Chief Justice of the United States. ... Warren Burger at a press conference in May 1969 shortly after he was nominated to be Chief Justice of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch... Antonin Gregory Scalia (born March 11, 1936[1]) is an American jurist and the second most senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Robert Heron Bork (born March 1, 1927) is a conservative American legal scholar who advocates the judicial philosophy of originalism. ... This article is about the Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. ...


Lebanon and Grenada, 1983

Reagan meets with Prime Minister Eugenia Charles of Dominica in the Oval Office about ongoing events in Grenada
Reagan meets with Prime Minister Eugenia Charles of Dominica in the Oval Office about ongoing events in Grenada

American peacekeeping forces in Beirut, a part of a multinational force (MNF) during the Lebanese Civil War, were attacked on October 23, 1983. The Beirut barracks bombing, in which 241 American servicemen were killed by suicide bombers, was the deadliest single-day death toll for the United States Marine Corps since the Battle of Iwo Jima, and the deadliest single-day death toll for the United States military since the first day of the Tet offensive. Reagan called the attack "despicable," pledged to keep a military force in Lebanon, and planned to target the Sheik Abdullah barracks in Baalbek, Lebanon, which housed Iranian Revolutionary Guards believed to be training Hezbollah fighters,[87][88] but the mission was later aborted by Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger. Besides a few shellings, there was no serious American retaliation, and the Marines were moved offshore where they could not be targeted. On February 7, 1984, President Reagan ordered the Marines to begin withdrawal from Lebanon. This was completed on February 26: the rest of the MNF was withdrawn by April. The 1983 Beirut barracks bombing was a major incident on October 23, 1983, during the Lebanese Civil War. ... Combatants  United States  Antigua and Barbuda  Barbados  Dominica  Jamaica  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Grenada  Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf H. Norman Schwarzkopf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 667 pixel, file size: 99 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 667 pixel, file size: 99 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://www. ... Dame (Mary) Eugenia Charles, DBE (May 15, 1919–September 6, 2005) was the Prime Minister of Dominica from July 21, 1980 until June 14, 1995. ... The Oval Office from above in 2003, during the administration of George W. Bush. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... The Multinational Force in Lebanon (also MNF) was an international peacekeeping force created in 1982 and sent to Lebanon to oversee the withdrawal of the Palestinian Liberation Organization. ... Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Israel Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat Ariel Sharon The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... The 1983 Beirut barracks bombing was a major incident on October 23, 1983, during the Lebanese Civil War. ... Combatants  United States  Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Tadamichi Kuribayashi â€  Strength 110,000 21,000 Casualties 6,821 dead 19,189 wounded,[1] 494 missing[1] Total: 26,504 20,703 dead,[1] 216 captured[1] Total: 20,919 yeah it was touching. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam, United States, Republic of Korea, New Zealand, Australia National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders William C. Westmoreland Võ Nguyên Giáp Strength 1. ... Temple of Bacchus Details inside Temple of Bacchus Baalbek (Arabic: ) is a town in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon, altitude 3,850 ft (1,170 m), situated east of the Litani River. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... Caspar Willard Cap Weinberger, GBE (August 18, 1917 – March 28, 2006), was an American politician and Secretary of Defense under President Ronald Reagan from January 21, 1981, until November 23, 1987, making him the third longest-serving defense secretary to date, after Robert McNamara and Donald Rumsfeld. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Two days later, U.S. forces invaded Grenada, where a 1979 coup d'état had established a Marxist-Leninist government aligned with the Soviet Union and Cuba. The Grenadan government began military expansion and construction of an international airport with Cuban assistance. On October 13, 1983, a faction led by Deputy Prime Minister Bernard Coard seized power. A formal appeal from the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) led to the intervention of U.S. forces; President Reagan also cited the regional threat posed by a Soviet-Cuban military build-up in the Caribbean and concern for the safety of several hundred American medical students at St. George's University as adequate reasons to invade. On October 25, 1983, in the first major operation conducted by the U.S. military since the Vietnam War, several days of fighting commenced, and led to U.S. victory,[89] with 19 American fatalities and 116 wounded American soldiers.[90] In mid-December, after a new government was appointed by the Governor-General, U.S. forces withdrew.[89] Coup redirects here. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Winston Bernard Coard (born August 10, 1944) was a Grenadian politician who was part of the coup détat that overthrew Maurice Bishops government in 1983. ... Map of the Eastern Caribbean showing OECS member states (dark green) and associate member states (light green) Secretariat Castries, St. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


1984 presidential campaign

1984 presidential electoral votes by state. Reagan (red) won every state, with the exception of Minnesota, and Washington, D.C.
1984 presidential electoral votes by state. Reagan (red) won every state, with the exception of Minnesota, and Washington, D.C.

Reagan accepted the Republican nomination in Dallas, Texas, on a wave of positive feeling bolstered by the recovering economy and the dominating performance by the U.S. athletes at the Los Angeles Olympics that summer. He became the first American president to open a summer Olympic Games held in the United States.[91] Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Download high resolution version (1182x635, 103 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: U.S. presidential election, 1984 Categories: National Atlas images ... Download high resolution version (1182x635, 103 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: U.S. presidential election, 1984 Categories: National Atlas images ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Dallas redirects here. ... Music sample: Olympic Fanfare and Theme ( file info) — composed by John Williams for the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles Problems listening to the file? See media help. ...


Reagan's opponent in the 1984 presidential election was former Vice President Walter Mondale. With questions about Reagan's age, and a weak performance in the first presidential debate, many wondered if he was up to the task of being president for another term.[92] Reagan rebounded in the second debate, and confronted questions about his age, stating, "I will not make age an issue of this campaign. I am not going to exploit, for political purposes, my opponent's youth and inexperience," which generated applause and laughter from members of the audience, and even from Mondale himself.[93] Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (largely established by former Vice President Hubert Humphrey). ...


In the 1984 presidential election, Reagan was re-elected, winning 49 of 50 states. The president's landslide victory saw Mondale carry only his home state of Minnesota (by 3800 votes) and the District of Columbia. Reagan won a record 525 electoral votes total (of 538 possible), and received 58.8% of the popular vote to Mondale's 40.6%.[94] Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


Second term, 1985–1989

Ronald Reagan is sworn in for a second term as president in the Capitol Rotunda
Ronald Reagan is sworn in for a second term as president in the Capitol Rotunda

Reagan was sworn in as president for the second time on January 20, 1985, in a private ceremony at the White House. The public ceremony took place in the Capitol Rotunda the next day, because January 20 fell on a Sunday, and thus no public celebration was held. January 21 was one of the coldest days on record in Washington, D.C., and due to the low temperatures and large snowfall the night before, inaugural celebrations were held inside the Capitol. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... United States Capitol . The United States Capitol is the building which serves as home for the legislative branch of the United States government. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


On July 13, 1985, Reagan underwent surgery to remove polyps from his colon, causing the first-ever invocation of the acting president clause of the 25th Amendment,[95] and on January 5, 1987, Reagan underwent surgery for prostate cancer which caused further worries about his health. At the time, the president was 76 years old. is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Page 1 of Amendment XXV in the National Archives Page 2 of the amendment Amendment XXV (the Twenty-fifth Amendment) of the United States Constitution clarifies an ambiguous provision of the Constitution regarding succession to the Presidency, and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...


In 1985, Reagan visited a German military cemetery in Bitburg, Germany to lay a wreath with West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, but it was found that the cemetery held the graves of 49 members of the Waffen-SS. In advance of the visit, many prominent U.S. government officials, veterans, Jewish leaders, Holocaust survivors, 95 Republican and 215 Democratic members of Congress, even First Lady Nancy Reagan protested and called on Reagan to cancel the visit,[96] but the president argued that it would be wrong to back down on a promise he had made to Chancellor Kohl. Reagan issued a statement that called the Nazi soldiers buried in that cemetery "victims" and some say equated them with victims of the Holocaust, but Pat Buchanan, Director of Communications under Reagan, argues: "President Reagan never equated SS troops and camp victims. He equated the teenage boys Hitler put in uniform and sent to certain death at war's end with concentration camp victims."[97] In the end, Reagan attended the ceremony where two military generals laid the wreath, as was customary.[98] In 1983, he told prominent Jews — notably Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir of Israel, Simon Wiesenthal, and Rabbi Marvin Hier of Los Angeles — of his personal experience vis-à-vis the Holocaust, saying "I was there," and that that he had assisted at the liberation of Nazi death camps. He was in a film unit in Hollywood that processed raw footage it received from Europe for newsreels, but was not in Europe during the war.[99] Bitburg (English - Bit Castle) is a city in Germany, capital of the district Bitburg-Prüm, in the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... Patrick Joseph Buchanan (born November 2, 1938) is an American politician, author, syndicated columnist, and broadcaster. ...   (Hebrew יִצְחָק שָׁמִיר) (born October 15, 1915) was Prime Minister of Israel from 1983 to 1984 and again from 1986 to 1992. ... Simon Wiesenthal, KBE, (Buczacz, December 31, 1908 – Vienna, September 20, 2005) was an Austrian-Jewish architectural engineer who hunted down Nazi war criminals, after surviving the Holocaust. ... Rabbi Marvin Hier (* 1939 in New York) is the dean and founder of the Simon Wiesenthal Center, its Museum of Tolerance and of Moriah, the Centers film division. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ...


Reagan's administration was criticized for its slow response to the HIV-AIDS epidemic, and for Reagan's controversial refusal to say the term "AIDS" in public for several years, until the illness of movie star and national icon Rock Hudson became public news in July 1985. By that time, over 10,000 Americans had been diagnosed with AIDS, and over 6,000 had died.[100] Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...


Immigration

In 1986, Reagan signed the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA). The act made it illegal to knowingly hire or recruit illegal immigrants, required employers to attest to their employees' immigration status, and granted amnesty to approximately 3 million illegal immigrants who entered the United States prior to January 1, 1982 and lived there continuously. Critics of the act claim that its laws subjecting employers to sanctions were without teeth and that it failed to stem illegal immigration.[101] Upon signing the act at a ceremony held beside the newly refurbished Statue of Liberty, Reagan said, "The legalization provisions in this act will go far to improve the lives of a class of individuals who now must hide in the shadows, without access to many of the benefits of a free and open society. Very soon many of these men and women will be able to step into the sunlight and, ultimately, if they choose, they may become Americans."[102] The Immigration Reform and Control Act (Simpson-Mazzoli Act (IRCA), Pub. ... Illegal immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently, in violation of the law or without documents permitting an immigrant to settle in that country. ... Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other monuments to freedom, see Monument of Liberty. ...


Iran-Contra Affair

President Reagan receives the Tower Report in the Cabinet Room of the White House in 1987

In 1986, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) found the Reagan Administration to have illegally sold arms to Iran to fund the Contras in Nicaragua, which had been specifically outlawed by an act of Congress.[103] The Iran-Contra Affair became the largest political scandal in the United States during the 1980s.[104] President Reagan professed ignorance of the plot's existence and quickly called for an Independent Counsel to investigate, but while the arms sales and hostage releases were going on, Reagan allegedly signed a presidential finding authorizing the actions after they had begun.[105] The ICJ, whose jurisdiction to decide the case was disputed,[106] ruled that the U.S. had violated international law in Nicaragua due to its treaty obligations and the customary obligations of international law not to intervene in the affairs of other states.[107] The Iran-Contra Affair was a political scandal occurring in 1987 as a result of earlier events during the Reagan administration in which members of the executive branch sold weapons to Iran, an avowed enemy, and illegally used the profits to continue funding anti-Communist rebels, the Contras, in Nicaragua. ... Lt-Col. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... The Republic of Nicaragua v. ... For other uses, see Contra. ... The Iran-Contra Affair was a political scandal occurring in 1987 as a result of earlier events during the Reagan administration in which members of the executive branch sold weapons to Iran, an avowed enemy, and illegally used the profits to continue funding anti-Communist rebels, the Contras, in Nicaragua. ... This article provides a list of major political scandals of the United States. ...


Reagan appointed two Republicans and one Democrat (John Tower, Brent Scowcroft and Edmund Muskie, known as the "Tower Commission") to investigate the scandal. The commission could not find direct evidence that Reagan had prior knowledge of the program, but criticized him heavily for his disengagement from managing his staff, thus making the diversion of funds to the Contras possible.[108] A separate report by Congress concluded that "If the president did not know what his national security advisers were doing, he should have."[109] John Tower John Goodwin Tower (September 29, 1925 – April 5, 1991) was the first Republican United States senator from Texas since the Reconstruction after the Civil War. ... Lieutenant General Brent Scowcroft KBE (born March 19, 1925 in Ogden, Utah), USAF (Ret. ... Edmund Muskie (March 28, 1914 – March 26, 1996) was an American Democratic politician from Maine. ...


Fourteen individuals who were directly involved in the illegal activity were indicted, resulting in eleven convictions (both plea agreements and trial convictions).[110] Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger was indicted for perjury, but received a pardon from then-President George H.W. Bush during the last month of his presidency. At the same time, President Bush pardoned five others, four of whom had already pleaded guilty or had been convicted.[111] In 2006, a survey of presidential historians ranked the Iran-Contra affair as the ninth worst mistake by a U.S. president.[112] The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Caspar Willard Cap Weinberger, GBE (August 18, 1917 – March 28, 2006), was an American politician and Secretary of Defense under President Ronald Reagan from January 21, 1981, until November 23, 1987, making him the third longest-serving defense secretary to date, after Robert McNamara and Donald Rumsfeld. ...


Many Central Americans criticize Reagan for his support of the Contras, saying he was an anti-communist zealot, blinded to human rights abuses, while many others say he "saved Central America."[113] Daniel Ortega, Sandinistan president of Nicaragua from 1979 to 1990, said that he hoped God would forgive Reagan for his "dirty war against Nicaragua."[113] José Daniel Ortega Saavedra (born 11 November 1945) is the current President of Nicaragua. ... “Sandinista” redirects here. ...


Cold War

Further information: Cold War
Reagan, the first American president ever to address the British Parliament, predicts Marxism-Leninism will be left on the ash-heap of history.
Reagan, the first American president ever to address the British Parliament, predicts Marxism-Leninism will be left on the ash-heap of history.[114]

Reagan escalated the Cold War, accelerating a reversal from the policy of détente which began in 1979 following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.[115] The Reagan Administration implemented new policies towards the Soviet Union: reviving the B-1 bomber program that had been canceled by the Carter administration, and producing the MX "Peacekeeper" missile.[116] In response to Soviet deployment of the SS-20, Reagan oversaw NATO's deployment of the Pershing II missile in West Germany.[117] For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Combatants USSR DRA Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet forces: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45,000 (in 1983) 150... The Boeing IDS (formerly Rockwell) B-1B Lancer is a long-range strategic bomber in service with the USAF. Together with the B-52 Stratofortress, it is the backbone of the United Statess long-range bomber force. ... Order: 39th President Term of Office: January 20, 1977–January 20, 1981 Preceded by: Gerald Ford Succeeded by: Ronald Reagan Date of birth: October 1, 1924 Place of birth: Plains, Georgia Date of death: Place of death: First Lady: Rosalynn Carter Political party: Democratic Vice President: Walter Mondale James... The RSD-10 Pioneer was a medium-range ballistic missile with a nuclear warhead deployed by the Soviet Union from 1976 to 1988. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... The Pershing II Missile during a test flight The MGM-31 Pershing was a solid-fueled two-stage inertially guided medium range ballistic missile used by the U.S. Armys Missile Command. ...


One of Reagan's more controversial proposals was the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), a defense project[118] that would have used ground and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles.[119] Reagan believed that this defense shield could make nuclear war impossible,[118][120] but disbelief that the technology could ever work led opponents to dub SDI "Star Wars," and argue that the technological objective was unattainable.[118] The Soviets became concerned about the possible effects SDI would have,[121] and leader Yuri Andropov said it would put "the entire world in jeopardy."[122] For those reasons, David Gergen, former aide to President Reagan, believes that in retrospect, SDI hastened the end of the Cold War.[123] The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... Andropov, then the LKSM KFSSR First Secretary, speaks at the May 9, 1945, victory celebrations Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Russian: , Jurij Vladimirovič Andropov) (June 15 [O.S. June 2] 1914 – February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death just... David Richmond Gergen (born May 9, 1942) was a political consultant and presidential advisor during the Republican administrations of Nixon, Ford, and Reagan. ...


In a famous address on June 8, 1982 to the British Parliament, Reagan called the Soviet Union an "Evil Empire" that would be consigned to the "ash heap of history." On March 3, 1983, he predicted that communism would collapse, stating, "communism is another sad, bizarre chapter in human history whose last pages even now are being written."[32] After Soviet fighters downed Korean Air Lines Flight 007 on September 1, 1983, Reagan labeled the act a "massacre" and declared that the Soviets had turned "against the world and the moral precepts which guide human relations among people everywhere."[124] The Reagan administration responded to the incident by suspending all Soviet passenger air service to the United States, and dropped several agreements being negotiated with the Soviets, hurting them financially.[124] is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... The term evil empire was applied to the former Soviet Union (USSR) by U.S. President Ronald Reagan, American conservatives, and other Americans, particularly hawks. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Korean Air Lines Flight 007, also known as KAL 007 or KE007, was a Korean Air Lines civilian airliner shot down by Soviet jet interceptors on September 1, 1983 just west of Sakhalin island. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Reagan's foreign policies were criticized variously as aggressive, imperialistic, and known to some as "warmongering".[121] These events occurred before a reformer, Mikhail Gorbachev, rose to power in the Soviet Union in 1985. To confront the USSR's serious economic problems, Gorbachev implemented new policies for openness and reform: glasnost and perestroika. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Reagan displayed humor throughout his presidency, with one notable statement regarding the Cold War. As a sound check prior to his weekly radio address in August 1984, Reagan made the following gaffe as a way to test the microphone: "My fellow Americans, I'm pleased to tell you today that I've signed legislation that will outlaw Russia forever. We begin bombing in five minutes."[125]


End of the Cold War

By the early 1980s, Moscow had built up a military that had surpassed that of the United States.[126] Previously, the United States had relied on the qualitative superiority of its weapons to essentially frighten the Soviets, but with Soviet technological advances in the 1980s, the gap between the two nations was narrowed.[126] With the Soviet military buildup came large budget deficits; as a result, Gorbachev offered major concessions to the United States on the levels of conventional forces, nuclear weapons, and policy in Eastern Europe.[127]

Ronald Reagan speaks at the Berlin Wall, challenging Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!"
Ronald Reagan speaks at the Berlin Wall, challenging Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!"

Ronald Reagan recognized the change in the direction of the Soviet leadership with Gorbachev, and shifted to diplomacy, with a view to encourage the Soviet Leader to go further with his reforms. Gorbachev agreed to meet Reagan in four summit conferences around the world: the first in Geneva, Switzerland, the second in Reykjavík, Iceland, the third held in Washington, D.C., along with the fourth summit in Moscow, Russia.[128] Reagan believed that if he could persuade the Soviets to allow for more democracy and free speech, this would lead to reform and the end of Communism.[129] Speaking in front of the Berlin Wall on June 12, 1987 Ronald Reagan challenged reformist Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to tear down this wall. ... Speaking in front of the Berlin Wall on June 12, 1987 Ronald Reagan challenged reformist Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to tear down this wall. ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... U.S. President Ronald Reagan speaking in front of the Brandenburg Gate at the Berlin Wall. ... Coat of arms of the Canton of Geneva Coat of arms of the City of Geneva Geneva (French: Genève, German: Genf, Italian: Ginevra, Romansh Genevra, Spanish: Ginebra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zurich), located where Lake Geneva (French: Lac de Genève or Lac L... Reykjavík See also: Reykjavík, Manitoba in Canada Reykjavík (pronounced (♫) in Icelandic) is the capital of Iceland, its largest city and the worlds most northern capital city of any country. ... Saint Basils Cathedral Moscow (Russian/Cyrillic: Москва́, pronounciation: Moskva), capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva, and encompassing 878. ...


Speaking at the Berlin Wall, on June 12, 1987, Reagan challenged Gorbachev to go further: East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...

General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization: Come here to this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!

When Gorbachev visited Washington, D.C. for the third summit in 1987, he and Reagan signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty at the White House (they finalized it a year later), which eliminated an entire class of nuclear weapons.[130] U.S. President Ronald Reagan speaking in front of the Brandenburg Gate at the Berlin Wall. ... U.S. President Reagan and Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev signing the INF Treaty, 1987. ...

Reagan and Gorbachev sign the INF Treaty at the White House in 1987
Reagan and Gorbachev sign the INF Treaty at the White House in 1987

When Reagan visited Moscow for the fourth summit in 1988, he was viewed as a celebrity by Russians. A journalist asked the president if he still considered the Soviet Union the evil empire. "No," he replied, "I was talking about another time, another era."[131] At Gorbachev’s request, Reagan gave a speech on free markets at the Moscow State University.[132] Image File history File links Reagan_and_Gorbachev_signing. ... Image File history File links Reagan_and_Gorbachev_signing. ... The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty was an agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union signed in Washington, D.C. on December 8, 1987 by Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev. ... Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian: Московский государственный университет имени Ðœ.Ð’.Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ, MSU, MGU) is the largest and the oldest university in Russia, founded in 1755. ...


In his autobiography An American Life, Reagan expressed his optimism about the new direction that they charted, his warm feelings for Gorbachev, and his concern for Gorbachev's safety because he pushed reforms so hard: "I was concerned for his safety," Reagan wrote. "I've still worried about him. How hard and fast can he push reforms without risking his life?"[133] The Berlin Wall was torn down starting in 1989 and two years later the Soviet Union collapsed.


Close of the Reagan era

In 1988 George H. W. Bush, Reagan's vice president, was elected President of the United States. On January 11, 1989 Reagan addressed the nation for the last time on television from the Oval Office, nine days before handing over the presidency. On the morning of January 20, Ronald and Nancy Reagan escorted the Bushes to the Capitol Building, where Bush took the Oath of Office. The Reagans then boarded a Presidential helicopter, and flew to Andrews Air Force Base in Maryland. There, they boarded the Presidential Jet and flew to California—to their new home in the wealthy suburb of Bel-Air in Los Angeles. Reagan was the oldest president to have served (at 77), surpassing Dwight Eisenhower, who was 70 when he left office in 1961. is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The Oval Office from above in 2003, during the administration of George W. Bush. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with President of the United States oath of office. ... Marine One lifting off of the White House south lawn. ... Emblem of the AFDW Andrews Air Force Base (ICAO code KADW) is a United States Air Force base near Washington, DC and the home base of the U.S. presidential aircraft, Air Force One. ... The Boeing VC-137C is the designation of two United States Air Force passenger transportation aircraft, a military version of the Boeing 707. ... Bel-Air is a neighborhood in the city of Los Angeles, California. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ...


Post-presidential years, 1989–2004

For the next five years, the Reagans traveled from their Bel-Air home to the Reagan Ranch in Santa Barbara every few months. They regularly attended Bel Air Presbyterian Church[134] and occasionally made appearances on behalf of the Republican Party, including a well-received speech at the 1992 Republican National Convention.[135] He publicly spoke in favor of a line-item veto, a constitutional amendment requiring a balanced budget, and the repeal of the 22nd Amendment, which prohibits a president from serving more than two terms.[136] Reagan's final public speech was on February 3, 1994, during a tribute in Washington, D.C., and his last major public appearance was at the funeral of fellow Republican President Richard Nixon on April 27, 1994. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Nancy Reagan presents the 2007 Ronald Reagan Freedom Award to former United States President George Bush. ... The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library is the presidential library of Ronald Wilson Reagan, the 40th President of the United States. ... Bel-Air redirects here. ... Rancho del Cielo, or Ranch of the Sky, is a 688 acre (2. ... Nickname: Location in Santa Barbara County and the state of California Coordinates: , County Government  - Mayor Marty Blum Area  - City 111. ... Bel Air Presbyterian Church is a Presbyterian church in the Bel Air neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. ... The 1992 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States was held in the Astrodome in Houston, Texas, from August 17 to August 20, 1992. ... In government, the line-item veto is the power of an executive to nullify or cancel specific provisions of a bill, usually budget appropriations, without vetoing the entire legislative package. ... Amend redirects here. ... From a Keynesian point of view, a balanced budget in the public sector is achieved when the government has enough fiscal discipline to be able to equate the revenues with expenditure over the business cycles. ... (Redirected from 22nd Amendment) The Twenty-second Amendment of the United States Constitution establishes a two-term limit for the Presidency. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Nixon redirects here. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1992, President Reagan established the Ronald Reagan Freedom Award with the Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. The award, the highest given by the Reagan Foundation, is presented on a regular basis to one person in the world who has "made monumental and lasting contributions to the cause of freedom worldwide," and who "embodies President Reagan's lifelong belief that one man or woman truly can make a difference."[137] The first recipient was former leader of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev, and the most recent (as of February 2007) was former United States President George H. W. Bush.[138] When President Reagan was diagnosed with Alzheimer's Disease, Nancy Reagan took on the role of presenting the award on behalf of her husband.[137] Nancy Reagan presents the 2007 Ronald Reagan Freedom Award to former United States President George Bush. ...


Presidential Library and Museum

On November 4, 1991, the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library was dedicated and opened to the public. At the dedication ceremonies, five presidents, Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Reagan, and George H. W. Bush, were all in attendance, as well as six first ladies, Lady Bird Johnson, Pat Nixon, Betty Ford, Rosalynn Carter, Nancy Reagan, and Barbara Bush. As of 2007, the library is the largest of the presidential libraries. Notable exhibits include ones on the Reagan's Ranch; a full-scale replica of the Oval Office; the limousine that President and Mrs. Reagan used while in the White House; and the actual Boeing 707, Air Force One, that served President Reagan during his eight years in office. On June 11, 2004, after a state funeral in Washington, D.C., President Reagan was interred on the property, and on May 3, 2007, the Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation hosted the first 2008 Republican presidential candidates debate in the Air Force One Pavilion at the Library, with Mrs. Reagan in attendance.[139] The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library is the presidential library of Ronald Wilson Reagan, the 40th President of the United States. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library is the presidential library of Ronald Wilson Reagan, the 40th President of the United States. ... Nixon redirects here. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Claudia Alta Lady Bird Taylor Johnson (December 22, 1912 – July 11, 2007)[1] was a First Lady of the United States, having been the wife of U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... Thelma Catherine Pat Ryan Nixon (March 16, 1912 – June 22, 1993) was the wife of former President Richard Nixon and the First Lady of the United States of America from 1969 to 1974. ... Betty Fords official White House portrait, painted in 1977 by Felix de Cossio Elizabeth Anne Bloomer Warren Ford (born April 8, 1918) is the widow of former United States President Gerald R. Ford and was the First Lady from 1974 to 1977. ... Eleanor Rosalynn Smith Carter (born August 18, 1927) is the wife of former President Jimmy Carter and was First Lady of the United States from 1977 to 1981. ... For the daughter of President George W. Bush, see Barbara Pierce Bush. ... For the current aircraft, see Boeing VC-25. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Former United States First Lady Nancy Reagan kisses the casket of her husband, Former U.S. President Ronald Reagan during the week long state funeral honoring him in June of 2004. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Alzheimer's disease

In July 1989, the Reagans took a trip to Mexico, where Reagan was thrown off of a horse and taken to a hospital for tests. The Reagans returned to the U.S. and visited the Mayo Clinic where they were told President Reagan had a head concussion and a subdural hematoma, and was subsequently operated on.[140] According to Nancy Reagan, doctors believe that is what hastened the onset of Alzheimer's disease, something Reagan was diagnosed with in 1994 and informed the nation via a hand-written letter, writing, "I now begin the journey that will lead me into the sunset of my life. I know that for America there will always be a bright dawn ahead. Thank you, my friends. May God always bless you."[141] Main campus in downtown Rochester, Minnesota. ... Ronald Reagan A portion of the two-page, handwritten letter Ronald Reagans Alzheimers letter was a hand-written letter authored by former United States President Ronald Reagan in November 1994, disclosing the fact he had recently been diagnosed with having Alzheimers disease and was departing from public...


As the years went on, the disease slowly destroyed his mental capacity and his family decided that he would live in quiet isolation. On February 6, 2001, Reagan reached the age of 90, becoming the third former president to do so (the other two being John Adams and Herbert Hoover). Reagan's public appearances became much less frequent with the progression of the disease. Nancy Reagan told CNN's Larry King that very few visitors were allowed to see her husband because she felt that "Ronnie would want people to remember him as he was."[142] Since his diagnosis and death, Mrs. Reagan has become a stem-cell research advocate, urging Congress and President George W. Bush to support federal funding for embryonic stem-cell research, something President Bush opposes. Mrs. Reagan has said that she believes that it could lead to a cure for Alzheimer's.[143] is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... Larry King (born November 19, 1933) is an award-winning American writer, journalist and broadcaster. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Death

Ronald Reagan's casket, on a horse-drawn caisson, being pulled down Constitution Avenue to the Capitol Building
Ronald Reagan's casket, on a horse-drawn caisson, being pulled down Constitution Avenue to the Capitol Building

Reagan died at his home in Bel-Air, California, at 1:00 PM PDT on June 5, 2004. A short time after his death, Nancy Reagan released a statement saying: "My family and I would like the world to know that President Ronald Reagan has passed away after 10 years of Alzheimer's Disease at 93 years of age. We appreciate everyone's prayers." Reagan's body was taken to the Kingsley and Gates Funeral Home in Santa Monica, California later in the day, where well-wishers paid tribute by laying flowers and American flags in the grass.[144] On June 7, his body was removed and taken to the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, where a brief family funeral service was held. His body lay in repose in the Library lobby until June 9; over 100,000 people viewed the coffin.[145] Former United States First Lady Nancy Reagan kisses the casket of her husband, Former U.S. President Ronald Reagan during the week long state funeral honoring him in June of 2004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2464x1632, 745 KB) Description WASHINGTON (AFPN) -- Members of a joint honor guard escort the caisson bearing former President Ronald Reagans flag-draped casket during his funeral procession here June 9. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2464x1632, 745 KB) Description WASHINGTON (AFPN) -- Members of a joint honor guard escort the caisson bearing former President Ronald Reagans flag-draped casket during his funeral procession here June 9. ... In Washington, D.C., Constitution Avenue is a major east-west street running just north of the United States Capitol in the citys Northwest and Northeast quadrants. ... The south facade of the United States Capitol Capitol Hill redirects here. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6, 1921) is the widow of the former United States President Ronald Reagan and was First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ...


On June 9, Reagan's casket was flown to Washington D.C. where he became the tenth United States president to lie in state. In the thirty-four hours that it lay there, 104,684 people filed past the coffin.[146] June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Lying-in-state is the term used during a major funeral procession when the coffin is placed on public view to allow members of the public to pay their respects to the deceased. ...


On June 11, a state funeral was conducted in the Washington National Cathedral, and presided over by President George W. Bush. Eulogies were given by former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, former Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, and both Presidents Bush. Also in attendance were Mikhail Gorbachev, and many world leaders, including British Prime Minister Tony Blair, German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, and interim presidents Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan, and Ghazi al-Yawer of Iraq. is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Former United States First Lady Nancy Reagan kisses the casket of her husband, Former U.S. President Ronald Reagan during the week long state funeral honoring him in June of 2004. ... Washington National Cathedral has been the site of three presidential state funerals: for Dwight D. Eisenhower, Ronald W. Reagan, Gerald R. Ford and a presidential burial for Woodrow Wilson and a memorial service for Harry Truman. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and to date only woman to hold either post. ... Martin Brian Mulroney PC CC GOQ (predominantly known as Brian Mulroney) (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency...   [] (born April 7, 1944), German politician, was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. ...   (born September 29, 1936) is an Italian politician, entrepreneur, and media proprietor. ... Hamid Karzai (Pashto: حامد کرزي) (b. ... Ghazi al-Yawer Ghazi Mashal Ajil al-Yawer (born 1958? in Mosul, Iraq) is a Vice-President of Iraq under the Iraqi Transitional Government of 2005, and was President of Iraq under the Iraqi Interim Government from 2004 to 2005. ...


After the funeral service, the Reagan entourage was flown back to California—to the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library—where another service was held, and President Reagan was interred. He is the second longest-lived president in U.S. history and was the first United States president to die in the 21st century. His was the first state funeral in the United States since that of President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1973. LBJ redirects here. ...


His burial site is inscribed with the words he delivered at the opening of the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library:

I know in my heart that man is good. That what is right will always eventually triumph. And there’s purpose and worth to each and every life.[147]

Legacy

Ronald Reagan at a rally for Senator David Durenberger in Bloomington, Minnesota 1982
Ronald Reagan at a rally for Senator David Durenberger in Bloomington, Minnesota 1982

Reagan's legacy is mixed, with supporters pointing to a more efficient and prosperous economy,[148] a peaceful end to the Cold War, and a world safer from the threat of nuclear war.[149] Critics argue that his economic policies caused huge budget deficits, quadrupling the United States national debt,[74] and that the Iran-Contra affair lowered American credibility.[150] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... David Ferdinand Durenberger (born August 19, 1934) is an American politician. ...


Edwin J. Feulner, Ph.D., President of the Heritage Foundation said that Reagan "helped create a safer, freer world," and said of his economic policies: "He took an America suffering from 'malaise'... and made its citizens believe again in their destiny."[151] Howard Kurtz of The Washington Post, however, stated that Reagan was "a far more controversial figure in his time than the largely gushing obits on television would suggest,"[152] and Mark Weisbrot, co-Director of the Center for Economic and Policy Research, says Reagan's "economic policies were mostly a failure."[153] The Heritage Foundation is one of the most prominent conservative think tanks in the United States. ... Howard Alan Kurtz (born 1953, in Brooklyn, New York) is an American journalist, blogger, author and media critic. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ...

Ronald Reagan's approval ratings (Gallup 1981–89)
Ronald Reagan's approval ratings (Gallup 1981–89)
Ronald Reagan's Approval Ratings
Date Event Approval (%) Disapproval (%)
March 30 1981 Shot by Hinckley 73 19
January 22 1983 High unemployment 42 54
April 26 1986 Libya bombing 70 26
February 26 1987 Iran-Contra affair 44 51
January 20 1989 End of presidency
n/a Career Average 57 39
July 30, 2001 (Retrospective)[154] 64 27

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 439 pixelsFull resolution (1793 × 985 pixel, file size: 32 KB, MIME type: image/png) Approval Rating for Ronald Reagan. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 439 pixelsFull resolution (1793 × 985 pixel, file size: 32 KB, MIME type: image/png) Approval Rating for Ronald Reagan. ... An approval rating is a polling term which reflects the percent of respondents to an opinion poll who approve of a particular person or program. ... An approval rating is a polling term which reflects the percent of respondents to an opinion poll who approve of a particular person or program. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Warnock Hinckley, Jr. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...

Popularity

Reagan did not have the highest approval ratings as president,[155] but his popularity has increased since 1989. A Gallup Organization February 2001 poll asked respondents to name the greatest president in U.S. history; Reagan came in first, capturing 18% of the vote.[156] In February 2007, another Gallup poll ranked him as number two with 16% of the vote after Abraham Lincoln.[157] He ranked third with a 72% approval rating in a Rasmussen Reports July 2007 poll on presidents who served after World War II,[158] fifth in an ABC 2000 poll of the public, and ninth in another Rasmussen 2007 poll of Americans. In a Siena College survey of over 200 historians, however, Reagan ranked sixteenth out of 42.[159] The Gallup Organization provides a variety of management consulting, human resources and statistical research services. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Rasmussen Reports is an American public opinion polling firm. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Siena College is a nationally recognized independent Catholic Liberal Arts College situated on US 9 in the suburban community of Loudonville, New York, two miles (3. ...


Honors

Further information: List of honors named for Ronald Reagan

Reagan received a number of awards in his pre- and post-presidential years. After he was elected president, Reagan received a lifetime gold membership in the Screen Actors Guild, as well as the United States Military Academy's Sylvanus Thayer Award.[160] Ronald Reagan (1911–2004) This is a list of honors named for former President of the United States Ronald Reagan. ... USMA redirects here. ... The Sylvanus Thayer Award is a military award that is given each year by the United States Military Academy at West Point. ...


Reagan received an honorary British knighthood, The Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath in 1989. This entitled him to the use of the post-nominal letters GCB, but did not entitle him to be known as "Sir Ronald Reagan." Only two American presidents have received the honor—Reagan and George H.W. Bush.[161] Reagan was also named an honorary Fellow of Keble College, Oxford. Japan awarded Reagan the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum in 1989, the only American president to receive the award.[162] This is an incomplete list of people who have been created honorary Knights (or Dames) by the British crown, as well as those who have been raised to the two comparable Orders of Chivalry (Order of Merit and Order of the Companions of Honour) and the Royal Victorian Chain, which... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) Ribbon of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on May 18, 1725. ... College name Keble College Collegium Keblense Named after John Keble Established 1870 Sister College Selwyn College Warden Professor Dame Averil Cameron DBE FBA JCR President Paul Dwyer Undergraduates 435 MCR President Tom Robinson Graduates 219 Homepage Boatclub Keble College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford... The Breast Star of the Order of the Chrysanthemum The Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum (大勲位菊花章 daikuni kikkashō, literally Grand Order of the Badge of the Chrysanthemums) is Japans highest order. ...


In 1993, Reagan's former Vice-President and sitting President George H.W. Bush awarded Reagan the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest honor that the United States can give.[163] Reagan was also awarded the Republican Senatorial Medal of Freedom, the highest honor bestowed by the Republican members of the Senate.[164] The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an... The United States Republican Senatorial Medal of Freedom, is the highest and most prestigious award United States Republican Party senators can bestow on an individual. ...

Former President Ronald Reagan returns to the White House to receive the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President George H.W. Bush in 1993
Former President Ronald Reagan returns to the White House to receive the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President George H.W. Bush in 1993

On February 6, 1998, Washington National Airport was renamed Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport by a bill signed into law by President Clinton. Three years later, the USS Ronald Reagan was christened by Nancy Reagan and the United States Navy. It is one of few ships christened in honor of a living person, and the first to be named in honor of a living former president.[165] Also in 1998, the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center was dedicated in Washington, D.C. [166] Reagan was among 18 included in Gallup's List of Widely Admired People of the 20th Century, from a poll conducted of the American people in 1999. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is one of the two highest civilian awards in the United States and is bestowed by the President of the United States (the other award which is considered its equivalent is the Congressional Gold Medal, which is bestowed by an... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (IATA: DCA, ICAO: KDCA, FAA LID: DCA) is a public airport located three miles (5 km) south of the central business district of Washington, D.C., in Arlington County, Virginia, United States. ... USS Ronald Reagan (CVN-76), the ninth and penultimate Nimitz-class supercarrier, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for former President of the United States Ronald Reagan. ... The Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center, named after the 40th president of the United States, is the first federal building in Washington, D.C. designed for both governmental and private sector purposes. ... Gallups List of Widely Admired People, a poll of United States citizens to volunteer the names of the individuals whom they most admire, is a list compiled annually by The Gallup Organization. ...


Congress authorized the creation of Ronald Reagan Boyhood Home National Historic Site in Dixon, Illinois, in 2002, pending federal purchase of the property. On May 16 of that year, Nancy Reagan accepted the Congressional Gold Medal, the highest civilian honor bestowed by Congress, on behalf of the president and herself.[167] The proposed Ronald Reagan Boyhood Home National Historic Site would preserve the 816 South Hennepin Street, Dixon, Illinois house in which President of the United States Ronald Reagan lived beginning in 1920. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Congressional Gold Medal presented to Navajo Code talkers in 2000 The Congressional Gold Medal should not be confused with the Medal of Honor (commonly called the Congressional Medal of Honor), which is also awarded by Congress, but only to military members as the highest military decoration of the United States. ...


The United States Postal Service issued a President Ronald Reagan commemorative postage stamp in 2005.[168] On May 14, CNN, along with the editors of TIME magazine, named him the "most fascinating person" of the network's first 25 years.[169] TIME also named Reagan one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th Century.[170] On June 26, 2005, the Discovery Channel asked its viewers to vote for The Greatest American in an unscientific poll; Reagan received the honorary title.[171] USPS and Usps redirect here. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Discovery Channel is a cable and satellite TV channel founded by John Hendricks which is distributed by Discovery Communications. ... The Greatest American was a four part television series hosted by Matt Lauer in which millions of Americans nominated and elected whom they thought was the greatest person in U.S. history. ...


In 2006, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and First Lady Maria Shriver inducted Reagan into the California Hall of Fame, located at The California Museum for History, Women, and the Arts. In 2007, Polish President Lech Kaczyński posthumously awarded Reagan the highest Polish distinction, the Order of the White Eagle.[172] Reagan backed the nation of Poland throughout his presidency, supporting the anti-communist Solidarity movement, along with Pope John Paul II.[173] Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German pronunciation IPA: ) (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-born American bodybuilder, actor, and politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of the U.S. state of California. ... Maria Owings Shriver (pronounced: ) (born November 6, 1955[1] in Chicago, Illinois) is an American journalist and the wife of California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and as such, the current First Lady of California. ... Conceived by First Lady Maria Shriver, the California Hall of Fame was established with The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts to honor legendary individuals and families who embody California’s innovative spirit and have made their mark on history. ... The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts – home of the California Hall of Fame – is housed in the State Archives Building in Sacramento, one block from the State Capitol. ...  , IPA: [] (born June 18, 1949) is the President of the Republic of Poland and a politician of the conservative party Prawo i Sprawiedliwość (Law and Justice, PiS.) KaczyÅ„ski served as President of Warsaw from 2002 until December 22, 2005, the day before his presidential inauguration. ... Order of the White Eagle (badge) The Order of the White Eagle (Polish Order OrÅ‚a BiaÅ‚ego) is Polands highest decoration awarded to both civilians and the military for their merits. ... Solidarity (Polish: ; full name: Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity — Niezależny SamorzÄ…dny ZwiÄ…zek Zawodowy Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the then Lenin Shipyards, and originally led by Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of...


Footnotes

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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in Leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

The Reagans attend a PBS Special Broadcasting Play in Santa Ynez, California
  • Appleby, Joyce; Alan Brinkley, James M. McPherson (2003). The American Journey. Woodland Hills, California: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. 0078241294. 
  • Bennett, James. (1987) Control of Information in the United States. Westport, Connecticut: Meckler Corporation.
  • Beschloss, Michael (2007). Presidential Courage: Brave Leaders and How they Changed America 1789–1989. Simon & Schuster. 
  • Cannon, Lou (2000). President Reagan: The Role of a Lifetime. New York: Public Affairs. ISBN 1891620916. 
  • Cannon, Lou; Michael Beschloss (2001). Ronald Reagan: The Presidential Portfolio: A History Illustrated from the Collection of the Ronald Reagan Library and Museum. PublicAffairs. ISBN 1891620843. 
  • Conason, Joe (2003). Big Lies. New York: Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 978-0312315610. 
  • Curry, Richard. (1992) Thought Control and Repression in the Reagan-Bush Era. Los Angeles, California: First Amendment Foundation.
  • Diggins, John Patrick (2007). Ronald Reagan: Fate, Freedom, and the Making of History. New York: W. W. Norton. 
  • Fischer, Klaus (2006). America in White, Black, and Gray: The Stormy 1960s. London: Continuum. 
  • Freidel, Frank; Hugh Sidey (1995). The Presidents of the United States of America. Washington, D.C.: White House Historical Association. ISBN 0912308575. 
  • Gaddis, John Lewis (2005). The Cold War: A New History. The Penguin Press. 
  • Karaagac, John (2000). Ronald Reagan and Conservative Reformism. Lexington Books. 
  • LaFeber, Walter (2002). America, Russia, and the Cold War, 1945–1971. New York: Wiley. 
  • Matlock, Jack (2004). Reagan and Gorbachev: How the Cold War Ended. New York: Random House. ISBN 0679463232. 
  • Morris, Edmund (1999). Dutch: A Memoir of Ronald Reagan. Random House.  includes fictional material
  • Murray, Robert K. & Blessing, Tim H. (1993). Greatness in the White House. Penn State Press. 
  • Reagan, Nancy (2002). I Love You, Ronnie: The Letters of Ronald Reagan to Nancy Reagan. United States: Random House. ISBN 0375760512. 
  • Reagan, Nancy (1989). My Turn: The Memoirs of Nancy Reagan. New York: Random House. 
  • Reagan, Ronald (1990). An American Life. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0743400259. 
  • Reeves, Richard (2005). President Reagan: The Triumph of Imagination. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0743230221. 
  • Regan, Donald (1988). For the Record: From Wall Street to Washington. New York: Harcourt. ISBN 0151639663. 
  • Walsh, Kenneth (1997). Ronald Reagan. New York: Random House Value Publishing, Inc.. ISBN 0517200783. 

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 390 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (480 × 737 pixel, file size: 65 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I got this from The Ronald Reagan Library Website. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 390 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (480 × 737 pixel, file size: 65 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I got this from The Ronald Reagan Library Website. ... Lou Cannon is an American non-fiction author and biographer. ... Lou Cannon is an American non-fiction author and biographer. ... Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6, 1921) is the widow of the former United States President Ronald Reagan and was First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. ... Richard Reeves is a writer, syndicated columnist and lecturer at the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles. ... Donald Thomas Regan (December 21, 1918 – June 10, 2003) was the 66th United States Secretary of the Treasury, from 1981 to 1985, and Chief of Staff from 1985 to 1987 in the Ronald Reagan Administration, where he advocated Reaganomics and tax cuts to create jobs and stimulate production. ...

Further reading

Further information: Ronald Reagan Bibliography

The Ronald Reagan: Bibliography includes major books and articles about President Ronald Reagan and his policies. ...

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Political offices
Preceded by
Pat Brown
Governor of California
1967 – 1975
Succeeded by
Jerry Brown
Preceded by
Jimmy Carter
President of the United States
January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989
Succeeded by
George H. W. Bush
Preceded by
François Mitterrand
France
Chair of the G8
1983
Succeeded by
Margaret Thatcher
United Kingdom
Party political offices
Preceded by
Richard Nixon
Republican Party nominee for Governor of California
1966, 1970
Succeeded by
Houston I. Flournoy
Preceded by
Gerald Ford
Republican Party presidential candidate
1980, 1984
Succeeded by
George H. W. Bush
Non-profit organization positions
Preceded by
Robert Montgomery
President of Screen Actors Guild
1947 – 1952
Succeeded by
Walter Pidgeon
Preceded by
Howard Keel
President of Screen Actors Guild
1959 – 1960
Succeeded by
George Chandler
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Ayatollah Khomeini
Time's Man of the Year
1980
Succeeded by
Lech Wałęsa
Preceded by
Richard Nixon
Oldest U.S. President still living
January 20, 1981 – June 5, 2004
Succeeded by
Gerald Ford
Preceded by
The Computer
Time's Men of the Year
1983
with Yuri Andropov
Succeeded by
Peter Ueberroth
Preceded by
John Gibson and Jacob Chestnut
Persons who have lain in state or honor
in the United States Capitol rotunda

June 9, 2004 – June 11, 2004
Succeeded by
Rosa Parks
Persondata
NAME Reagan, Ronald Wilson
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Ronald Reagan
SHORT DESCRIPTION American actor and politician, 33rd Governor of California, 40th President of the United States
DATE OF BIRTH 6 February 1911
PLACE OF BIRTH Tampico, Illinois, United States
DATE OF DEATH 5 June 2004
PLACE OF DEATH Bel-Air, Los Angeles, California, United States

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Bush in 2003 The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that... For the whistleblower, see Gerald W. Brown. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... The Group of Eight (G8) consists of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and to date only woman to hold either post. ... Nixon redirects here. ... This article is about the modern United States Republican Party. ... Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (left) and Governor Gray Davis (right) with President George W. Bush in 2003 The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government, whose responsibilities include making yearly State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that... California gubernatorial election, 1966 November 8, 1966 Reagan won about 52 percent of the Bay Area vote, winning Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano and Sonoma counties. ... California gubernatorial election, 1970 November 3, 1970 References California Elections Page Reagan Heritage Race information Categories: | | | | ... Houston Irving Flournoy (born 1929) was a California Republican politician. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... [1] Died in office. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Robert Montgomery (May 21, 1904 &#8211; September 27, 1981) was an American actor and director. ... The Screen Actors Guild (S.A.G.) is the labor union representing over 120,000 film actors in the United States. ... Walter Pidgeon Walter Pidgeon (September 23, 1897 – September 25, 1984) was a Canadian actor. ... Howard Keel, born Harry Clifford Leek (April 13, 1919 – November 7, 2004) was an American actor who starred in many of the classic film musicals of the 1950s. ... The Screen Actors Guild (S.A.G.) is the labor union representing over 120,000 film actors in the United States. ... George Chandler (June 30, 1898 - June 10, 1985) was an American actor best known for playing the character of Uncle Petrie on the television series Lassie. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (&#1570;&#1740;&#1578;&#8204;&#1575;&#1604;&#1604;&#1607; &#1585;&#1608;&#1581;&#8204;&#1575;&#1604;&#1604;&#1607; &#1582;&#1605;&#1740;&#1606;&#1740; in Persian) (May 17, 1900 &#8211; June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political... Person of the Year is an annual issue of United States (U.S.) newsmagazine Time that features a profile on the man, woman, couple, group, idea, place, or machine that [1] // The tradition of selecting a Man of the Year began in 1927, when Time editors contemplated what they could... “WaÅ‚Ä™sa” redirects here. ... Nixon redirects here. ... This is a chronology of who was the oldest living President of the United States, former or current, at any given time. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... A personal computer (PC) is a computer whose price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals. ... Person of the Year is an annual issue of United States (U.S.) newsmagazine Time that features a profile on the man, woman, couple, group, idea, place, or machine that [1] // The tradition of selecting a Man of the Year began in 1927, when Time editors contemplated what they could... Andropov, then the LKSM KFSSR First Secretary, speaks at the May 9, 1945, victory celebrations Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Russian: , Jurij Vladimirovič Andropov) (June 15 [O.S. June 2] 1914 – February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death just... Ueberroth (front right) watches President Ronald Reagan throw the first pitch prior to a game. ... Russell Eugene Weston Jr. ... Lying-in-state is the term used during a major funeral procession when the coffin is placed on public view to allow members of the public to pay their respects to the deceased. ... Capitol dome The rotunda is the central rotunda and dome of the United States Capitol. ... Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an African American civil rights activist and seamstress whom the U.S. Congress dubbed the Mother of the Modern-Day Civil Rights Movement. Parks is famous for her refusal on December 1, 1955 to obey bus driver James Blake... The Ronald Reagan Birthplace, also known as the Graham Building, is located in an apartment on the second floor of a late 19th century commercial building in Tampico, Illinois, United States. ... Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6, 1921) is the widow of the former United States President Ronald Reagan and was First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. ... The United States Presidency of Ronald Reagan, also known as the Reagan Administration, lasted from 1981 until 1989 and was conservative, steadfastly anti-communist, employed a foreign policy of “peace through strength,” and favored tax cuts and smaller government. ... Reagan delivers the address, January 20, 1981 The first inaugural address of Ronald Reagan was the 1981 inaugural address delivered by U.S. President Ronald Reagan. ... Ronald Reagan, the US president from which Reaganomics derives its name Reaganomics (a blend of Reagan and economics, coined by radio broadcaster Paul Harvey) is a term that has been used to both describe and decry free market advocacy economic policies of U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who served from... His foreign policy labeled President Reagan as the Great Communicator. ... As part of the policies that became known as the Reagan Doctrine, the United States also offered financial and logistics support to the anti-communist opposition in central Europe (most notably the Polish Solidarity movement) and took an increasingly hard line against Communist governments in Afghanistan, Angola, Cambodia, and Nicaragua. ... The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States to oppose the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. ... U.S. President Ronald Reagan speaking in front of the Brandenburg Gate at the Berlin Wall. ... Lt-Col. ... Ronald Reagan A portion of the two-page, handwritten letter Ronald Reagans Alzheimers letter was a hand-written letter authored by former United States President Ronald Reagan in November 1994, disclosing the fact he had recently been diagnosed with having Alzheimers disease and was departing from public... The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library is the presidential library of Ronald Wilson Reagan, the 40th President of the United States. ... Former United States First Lady Nancy Reagan kisses the casket of her husband, Former U.S. President Ronald Reagan during the week long state funeral honoring him in June of 2004. ... This is a list of things named after former President of the United States Ronald Reagan. ... The Ronald Reagan: Bibliography includes major books and articles about President Ronald Reagan and his policies. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (594x750, 49 KB) Official Portrait of President Reagan, 1981. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836), was an American politician and the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817), and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. ... For other persons named James Monroe, see James Monroe (disambiguation). ... John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was a diplomat, politician, and the sixth President of the United States (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829). ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ... John Tyler, Jr. ... This article is about the U.S. President. ... This article is about the twelfth President of the United States. ... Not to be confused with Mallard Fillmore. ... Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857. ... James Buchanan (April 23, 1791 – June 1, 1868) was the 15th president of the United States (1857–1861). ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831–September 19, 1881) was a major general in the United States Army, member of the U.S. House of Representatives, and the twentieth President of the United States. ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the 21st President of the United States. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908), the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States, was the only President to serve non-consecutive terms (1885–1889 and 1893–1897). ... For other persons named Benjamin Harrison, see Benjamin Harrison (disambiguation). ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908), the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States, was the only President to serve non-consecutive terms (1885–1889 and 1893–1897). ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856–February 3, 1924), was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the twenty-ninth President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923, when he became the sixth president to die in office. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... FDR redirects here. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Dwight David Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American General and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... LBJ redirects here. ... Nixon redirects here. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Image File history File links Seal_Of_The_President_Of_The_Unites_States_Of_America. ... [1] Died in office. ... John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813 – July 13, 1890), was an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831–September 19, 1881) was a major general in the United States Army, member of the U.S. House of Representatives, and the twentieth President of the United States. ... James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830 – January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... For other persons named Benjamin Harrison, see Benjamin Harrison (disambiguation). ... This article is about the 25th President of the United States; for other people named William McKinley, see William McKinley (disambiguation). ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... For other persons named William Howard Taft, see William Howard Taft (disambiguation). ... Charles Evans Hughes (April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was Governor of New York, United States Secretary of State, Associate Justice and Chief Justice of the United States. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the twenty-ninth President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923, when he became the sixth president to die in office. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... Alf Landon Alfred Mossman Alf Landon (September 9, 1887 – October 12, 1987) was an American Republican politician from Kansas, who was defeated in a landslide by Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1936 presidential election. ... Wendell L. Willkie Wendell Lewis Willkie (February 18, 1892 – October 8, 1944) was a lawyer in the United States and the Republican nominee for the 1940 presidential election. ... Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1954) and the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in 1944 and 1948. ... Dwight David Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American General and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Nixon redirects here. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... Nixon redirects here. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... § Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) was a United States Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996, serving part of that time as United States Senate Majority Leader. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Seal of the Governor of California (without the Roman numerals designating the governors sequence). ... For the author, see Peter Burnett (author). ... We dont have an article called John Mcdougall Start this article Search for John Mcdougall in. ... John Bigler 3rd Governor of California John Bigler (January 8, 1805–November 29, 1871) was Governor of California from January 8, 1852 until January 9, 1856. ... John Neely Johnson (August 2, 1825&#8211;August 31, 1872) (some sources have his first name as James) was a U.S. political figure. ... John B. Weller (February 22, 1812–August 17, 1875) was Governor of California from January 8, 1858 to January 9, 1860 and a Congressman from Ohio, U.S. Senator from California and Ambassador. ... Milton Latham 6th Governor of California Milton Slocum Latham (May 23, 1827–March 4, 1882) was Governor of California for five days: January 9–January 14, 1860. ... John G. Downey 7th Governor of California John Gately Downey (June 24, 1827 – March 1, 1894) was Governor of California from January 14, 1860 to January 10, 1862. ... Amasa Leland Stanford (March 9, 1824 – June 21, 1893) was an American tycoon, politician and founder of Stanford University. ... Frederick Ferdinand Low (January 30, 1828 – July 21, 1894) was a U.S. political figure and a California governor. ... Henry Huntly Haight (May 20, 1825&#8211;September 2, 1878) was Governor of California from December 5, 1867 to December 8, 1871. ... Senator Newton Booth Newton Booth (December 30, 1825 – July 14, 1892) was an American politician. ... Romualdo Pacheco (October 31, 1831&#8211;January 23, 1899) was a Hispanic-American politician who, so far, has been the only Hispanic governor of California following its admission to the United States. ... William Irwin 13th Governor of California Bill Irwin is also the name of a modern-day American actor and clown William Irwin (1827 - March 15, 1886) was a California politician from the Democratic Party, who served as Governor of California between 1875 and 1880 after having been Acting Lieutenant Governor... George Perkins 14th Governor of California George Clement Perkins (August 23, 1839–February 26, 1923), was the fourteenth Governor of California from January 8, 1880 to January 10, 1883. ... Portrait of George Stoneman during the Civil War George Stoneman (August 22, 1822 – September 5, 1894) was a career U.S. Army officer, a Union cavalry general in the American Civil War, and the Governor of California between 1883 and 1887. ... Washington Montgomery Bartlett (February 29, 1824 – September 12, 1887) was Mayor of San Francisco, California from 1883–1887 and was Californias only Jewish governor. ... Robert W. Waterman 17th Governor of California Robert Whitney Waterman (December 15, 1826 – April 12, 1891) was Governor of California from September 12, 1887 until January 8, 1891. ... Henry Harrison Markham (November 16, 1840–October 9, 1923) was Governor of California from January 8, 1891 until January 11, 1895. ... James Herbert Budd (May 18, 1851 – July 30, 1908) was Governor of California from 1895 until 1899. ... Henry Tifft Gage (December 25, 1852–August 28, 1924) was Governor of California from 5 January 1899 to 7 January 1903. ... George C. Pardee 21st Governor of California George Cooper Pardee (July 25, 1857 – September 1, 1941) was a medical doctor and was known as the Earthquake Governor of California, holding office from January 6, 1903 to January 8, 1907. ... James Norris Gillett (September 20, 1860–April 21, 1937) was a California politician who served as Governor of California from January 9, 1907 to January 3, 1911. ... Hiram Johnson Hiram Warren Johnson (September 2, 1866 – August 6, 1945) was a leading American progressive politician from California; he served as Governor from 1911 to 1917, and as a United States Senator from 1917 to 1945. ... William Dennison Stephens (b. ... Friend William Richardson (December 1, 1865–September 6, 1943) was Governor of California from January 9, 1923 until January 4, 1927. ... Clement Calhoun Young (April 28, 1869 – December 24, 1947) was the Governor of the U.S. state of California between 1927 and 1931. ... James Rolph Jr. ... Frank Finley Merriam (December 22, 1865 – April 25, 1955) was Governor of California from June 2, 1934 until January 2, 1939. ... Culbert Levy Olson (November 7, 1876 – April 13, 1962) was an American politician and governor of California. ... For the swing saxophonist and occasional singer, see Earle Warren Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney of Alameda County, the 20th Attorney General of California, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). ... Goodwin Jess Knight (December 9, 1896 - May 22, 1970) was a U.S. politician who was the 31st Governor of California from 1953 until 1959. ... For other persons named Pat Brown, see Pat Brown (disambiguation). ... For the whistleblower, see Gerald W. Brown. ... Courken George Deukmejian, Jr. ... For others named Pete Wilson, see Peter Wilson. ... Joseph Graham Davis Jr. ... Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German pronunciation IPA: ) (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-born American bodybuilder, actor, and politician, currently serving as the 38th Governor of the U.S. state of California. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Gouzenko wearing his white hood for anonymity Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko (January 13, 1919, Rogachev, Soviet Union – June 28, 1982, Mississauga, Canada) was a cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. ... This concerns the Soviet occupation of Iran, not the Iran hostage crisis. ... Combatants Kuomintang of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War (traditional... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... Restatement of Policy on Germany is a famous speech by James F. Byrnes, then United States Secretary of State, held in Stuttgart on September 6, 1946. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... The Czechoslovak coup détat of 1948 (often simply the Czech coup) (Czech: , meaning February 1948; in Communist historiography known as Victorious February (Czech: )) was an event late that February in which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia, ushering in... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Informbiro. ... Occupation zones after 1945. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Cambodia Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953. ... Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ... Taiwan Strait The First Taiwan Strait Crisis (also called the 1954-1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis) was a short armed conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments. ... Combatants Anti-communist labourers and other civilian protesters Communist LWP KBW and UB Commanders Unknown, probably none Gen. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ... Taiwan Strait The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments in which the PRC was accused by Taiwan of shelling the islands of Matsu and... The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements in the country. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... Combatants Congo ONUC Cuba Belgium Katanga South Kasai CIA Commanders Patrice Lumumba Pierre Mulele Laurent-Désiré Kabila Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi Che Guevara Moise Tshombe Joseph Mobutu Mike Hoare Charles Laurent Albert Kalonji Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... The U–2 Crisis of 1960 occurred when an American U–2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. ... Combatants Cubans trained by Soviet advisors Cuban exiles trained by United States Commanders Fidel Castro José Ramón Fernández Ernesto Che Guevara Francisco Ciutat de Miguel Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 51,000 1,500 Casualties various estimates; over 1,600 dead[1] to 5,000... President Kennedy in a crowded Cabinet Room during the Cuban Missile Crisis. ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Brazilian military coup of 1964 was a bloodless coup détat held against left-wing President Joao Goulart by the Brazilian military on the night of 31 March 1964. ... Combatants  United States (IAPF) Inter-American Peace Force (CEFA) Dominican Armed Forces Training Center (SIM) Dominican Military Intelligence Service Dominican Armed Forces Constitutionalists PRD irregulars Commanders Lyndon B. Johnson Gen. ... Combatants Republic of Angola, Republic of Cuba, SWAPO, USSR, East Germany, Republic of Zambia Republic of South Africa, UNITA Scope of operations Operational Area: The South African Border War The South African Border War refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West Africa (now... The overthrow of Sukarno and the violence that followed it was a conflict in Indonesia from 1965 to 1966 between forces loyal to then-President Sukarno and the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) and forces loyal to a right-wing military faction led by General Abdul Haris Nasution and Maj. ... ASEAN Declaration or Bangkok Declaration is the founding document of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). ... “Secret War” redirects here. ... The Greek military junta of 1967-1974, alternatively The Regime of the Colonels (Greek: ), or in Greece The Junta (Greek: ) and The Seven Years (Greek: ) are terms used to refer to a series of right-wing military governments that ruled Greece from 1967 to 1974. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Combatants People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Mao Tse-Tung Leonid Brezhnev Strength 814,000 658,000 Casualties 800 killed, 620 wounded, 1 lost [1] 58 killed, 94 wounded [2] The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 was a series of armed clashes between the Soviet Union and... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Combatants Khmer Republic, United States, Republic of Vietnam Khmer Rouge, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) Strength ~250,000 FANK troops ~100,000 (60,000) Khmer Rouge Casualties ~600,000 dead, 1,000,000+ wounded[1] The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict that pitted... Three-Time World Mens Singles Champion Zhuang Zedong (left) and U.S. team member Glenn Cowan (right) on the Chinese team bus in Nagoya, Japan, 1971. ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... Richard Nixon (right) meets with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... Combatants MPLA Republic of Cuba AAF Mozambique[1] UNITA FNLA South Africa Republic of Zaire Commanders José Eduardo dos Santos Jonas Savimbi Casualties Over 500,000 militants[2] and hundreds of thousands of civilians The Angolan Civil War began when Angola won its war for independence in 1975 with the... The Mozambican Civil War started in Mozambique during the 1970s following independence in 1975. ... Combatants Ethiopia Cuba South Yemen Somalia WSLF Commanders Mengistu Haile Mariam Vasily Petrov[1][2] Siad Barre Strength 217,000 Ethiopians 1,500 Soviet advisors 15,000 Cubans 2,000 South Yemenis SNA 60,000 WSLF 15,000 Casualties Unknown 20,000 killed or wounded 1/2 of the Air... Combatants Peoples Republic of China Socialist Republic of Vietnam Commanders Yang Dezhi Văn Tiến DÅ©ng Strength 300,000+[1] 100,000+ from regular army divisions and divisions of the Public Security Army Casualties Disputed. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Combatants USSR DRA Mujahideen of Afghanistan Commanders Soviet forces: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80,000-104,000 Afghan forces: 329,000 (in 1989)[1] 45,000 (in 1983) 150... TIME magazine cover depicting Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa and the Solidarity movement shaking up communism shows that Solidarity received wide international recognition. ... Beginning in the late 1970s, major civil wars erupted in the Central American region, and became one of the major foreign policy crises of the 1980s. ... Able Archer 83 was a ten-day NATO exercise starting on November 2, 1983 that spanned the continent of Europe and simulated a coordinated nuclear release. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... Combatants  United States  Antigua and Barbuda  Barbados  Dominica  Jamaica  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Grenada  Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf H. Norman Schwarzkopf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... Senator John W. Bricker, the sponsor of the proposed constitutional amendment to limit the treaty power of the United States government. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South... Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... // Browder, Golos and Peters By the mid to late 1920s, there were three elements of Soviet power operating in the United States, despite the absence of formal diplomatic relations, the Comintern, military intelligence or GRU, and the forerunner of the KGB, the GPU. The Comintern was the dominant arm, though... “CIA” redirects here. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Logotype of the DDRs Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... The term arms race in its original usage describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... For other uses, see Space Race (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it... The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could only occur if both states fully recognised each others sovereignty. ... The Carter Doctrine was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on 23 January 1980. ... This article is about foreign policy. ... The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. ... The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to the United States Congress on January 5, 1957, was the foreign policy of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his term in office between 1961 and 1963. ... The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed during the Cold War among Communist states that they could peacefully coexist with capitalist states. ... The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States to oppose the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. ... Rollback was a term used by American foreign policy thinkers during the Cold War. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... // At its simplest, the Cold War is said to have begun in 1947. ... For other uses, see Actor (disambiguation). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tampico is a village located in Whiteside County, Illinois. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bel-Air redirects here. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


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Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation & Library (108 words)
Even before he made the White House his home, Ronald Reagan spoke for the American people, capturing the hearts of small-town citizens and world leaders alike.
His remarkable career in public life, spanning over fifty years, began in the Midwest as a student leader and sports broadcaster, then in Hollywood as an actor and long-time director of the Screen Actors Guild, later as Governor of California, and finally, as President of the United States.
His legacy, too, is extraordinary: In eight short years as President, Ronald Reagan presided over epochal international changes and ushered in unparalleled peace and prosperity - not only to his country but the world.
Ronald Reagan - MSN Encarta (1284 words)
Ronald Wilson Reagan was born on February 6, 1911, in Tampico, Illinois, the younger of two sons of Nelle and John Reagan.
Reagan was elected to a second term in 1970, defeating Democrat Jesse Unruh, although he won by a much smaller margin than in 1966.
Reagan won an unexpected victory in the North Carolina primary and won many delegates in the Midwest and the West, but Ford was nominated by a narrow margin at the Republican National Convention in August.
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