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Encyclopedia > Ronald Fisher
Ronald Fisher

Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher
Born 17 February 1890(1890-02-17)
East Finchley, London , England
Died 29 July 1962 (aged 72)
Adelaide, Australia
Residence England,
Australia
Nationality UK
Field Statistics, Genetics
Institutions Rothamsted Experimental Station
University College London
Cambridge University
CSIRO
Alma mater Cambridge University
Academic advisor   Sir James Jeans
F.J.M. Stratton
Notable students   C.R. Rao
Known for Maximum likelihood
Fisher information
Analysis of variance
Notable prizes Royal Medal (1938)
Copley Medal (1955)
Religion Church of England

Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, FRS (17 February 189029 July 1962) was an English statistician, evolutionary biologist, and geneticist. He was described by Anders Hald as "a genius who almost single-handedly created the foundations for modern statistical science"[1] and Richard Dawkins described him as "the greatest of Darwin's successors".[2] Image File history File links RonaldFisher. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... , East Finchley is a suburban development in London, England, situated 5. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Adelaide (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Buildings near the manor house The Rothamsted Experimental Station, one of the oldest agricultural research institutions in the world, is located at Harpenden in Hertfordshire, England. ... Affiliations University of London Russell Group LERU EUA ACU Golden Triangle G5 Website http://www. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is the national government body for scientific research in Australia. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... Sir James Hopwood Jeans (born Ormskirk, September 11, 1877, died Dorking, September 16, 1946) was a British physicist, astronomer and mathematician who was the first to propose the theory of continuous creation of matter in the universe. ... Frederick John Marrian Stratton FRS (16 October 1881 – 2 September 1960) was a British astrophysicist and Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Cambridge from 1928 to 1947. ... Calyampudi Radhakrishnan Rao (born September 10, 1920) is a famous Indian statistician and currently professor emeritus at Penn State University. ... Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is a popular statistical method used to make inferences about parameters of the underlying probability distribution from a given data set. ... In statistics and information theory, the Fisher information (denoted ) is the variance of the score. ... In statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a collection of statistical models and their associated procedures which compare means by splitting the overall observed variance into different parts. ... The Royal Medals of the Royal Society of London were established by King George IV. They were further supported with certain changes to their conditions, by King William IV and Queen Victoria. ... The Copley Medal is a scientific award for work in any field of science, the highest award granted by the Royal Society of London. ... The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Fellowship of the Royal Society was founded in 1660. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Statisticians are mathematicians who work with theoretical and applied statistics in the both the private and public sectors. ... Evolutionary biology is a subfield of biology concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their change over time, i. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Anders Hald (born 3 July 1913) is a Danish statistician who in later years has made contributions to the history of statistics. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life

Fisher was born in East Finchley in London, England, to George and Katie Fisher. His father was a successful fine arts dealer. He had a happy childhood, being doted on by three older sisters, an older brother, and his mother, who died when Fisher was 14. His father lost his business in several ill-considered transactions only 18 months later.[3] , East Finchley is a suburban development in London, England, situated 5. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Although Fisher had very poor eyesight, he was a precocious student, winning the Neeld Medal (a competitive essay in Mathematics) at Harrow School at the age of 16. Because of his poor eyesight, he was tutored in mathematics without the aid of paper and pen, which developed his ability to visualize problems in geometrical terms, as opposed to using algebraic manipulations. He was legendary in being able to produce mathematical results without setting down the intermediate steps. He also developed a strong interest in biology, and, especially, evolution. Harrow School, (originally: The Free Grammar School of John Lyon; generally: Harrow), is an independent school for boys (aged 13-18), and is located in Harrow on the Hill in the London Borough of Harrow. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


In 1909 he won a scholarship to Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. There he formed many friendships and became enthralled with the heady intellectual atmosphere. At Cambridge, Fisher learned of the newly rediscovered theory of Mendelian genetics; he saw biometry—and its growing corpus of statistical methods—as potential way to reconcile the discontinuous nature of Mendelian inheritance with continuous variation and gradual evolution. However, his foremost concern was eugenics, which he saw as a pressing social as well as scientific issue that encompassed both genetics and statistics. In 1911 he was involved in forming the Cambridge University Eugenics Society with such luminaries as John Maynard Keynes, R. C. Punnett and Horace Darwin (Charles Darwin's son). The group was active, and held monthly meetings, often featuring addresses by leaders of mainstream eugenics organizations, such as the Eugenics Education Society of London, founded by Charles Darwin's half-cousin, Francis Galton in 1909.[4] Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Full name Gonville and Caius College Motto Named after Edmund Gonville & John Caius Previous names Gonville Hall (1348), Gonville & Caius (1557) Established 1348, refounded 1557 Sister College(s) Brasenose College Master Sir Christopher Hum Location Trinity St Undergraduates 468 Postgraduates 291 Homepage Boatclub Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge is a... This article is about the general scientific term. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Inheritance of quantitative traits refers to the inheritance of a phenotypic characteristic that varies in degree and can be attributed to the interactions between two or more genes and their environment (also called Polygenic inheritance). ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, CB (pronounced cains, IPA ) (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946) was a British economist whose ideas, called Keynesian economics, had a major impact on modern economic and political theory as well as on many governments fiscal policies. ... Reginald Punnett Professor Reginald Crundall Punnett, F.R.S. (June 20, 1875 — January 3, 1967) was a British geneticist. ... Sir Horace Darwin, F.R.S. (13th May 1851 - 29th September 1928), a son of the British naturalist Charles Darwin, was a civil engineer. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... The Eugenics Education Society, later the Eugenics Society (often known as the British Eugenics Society to distinguish it from others) was a society formed in 1907 in the United Kingdom to promote eugenics. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


After graduating in 1913, Fisher was eager to join the army in anticipation of Great Britain's entry into World War I; however, he failed the medical examinations (repeatedly) because of his eyesight. Over the next six years, he worked as a statistician for the City of London. For his war work, he took up teaching physics and mathematics at a series of public schools, including Bradfield College in Berkshire, as well as aboard H.M. Training Ship Worcester. Major Leonard Darwin (another of Charles Darwin's sons) and an unconventional and vivacious friend he called Gudruna were almost his only contacts with his Cambridge circle. They sustained him through this difficult period. A bright spot in his life was that Gudruna matched him to her sister Eileen Guinness; they married in 1917 when she was only 17. With the sisters' help, he set up a subsistence farming operation on the Bradfield estate, where they had a large garden and raised animals, learning to make do on very little. They lived through the war without ever using their food coupons.[5] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bradfield College is a coeducational public school located in the small village of Bradfield in the English county of Berkshire. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A number of ships of the Royal Navy have bourne the name Worcester. ... Leonard Darwin Leonard as a boy with his mother, Emma Darwin Major Leonard Darwin (15 January 1850 — 26 March 1943), a son of the British naturalist Charles Darwin, was variously a soldier, politician, economist, eugenicist and mentor of the statistician and evolutionary biologist Ronald Fisher. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ...


During this period, Fisher started writing book reviews for the Eugenic Review and gradually increased his interest in genetic and statistical work. He volunteered to undertake all such reviews for the journal, and was hired to a part-time position by Major Darwin. He published several articles on biometry during this period, including the ground-breaking "The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance" , written in 1916 and published in 1918. This paper laid the foundation for what came to be known as biometrical genetics, and introduced the very important methodology of the analysis of variance, which was a considerable advance over the correlation methods used previously. The paper showed very convincingly that the inheritance of traits measurable by real values, the values of continuous variables, is consistent with Mendelian principles.[6] This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance is a scientific paper by Ronald Fisher which was published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1918, (volume 52, pages 399—433). ... In statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a collection of statistical models and their associated procedures which compare means by splitting the overall observed variance into different parts. ... Positive linear correlations between 1000 pairs of numbers. ... Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets that underlie much of genetics developed by Gregor Mendel in the latter part of the 19th century. ...


With the end of the war he went looking for a new job, and was offered one at the famed Galton Laboratory by Karl Pearson. Because he saw the developing rivalry with Pearson as a professional obstacle, however, he accepted instead a temporary job as a statistician with a small agricultural station in the country in 1919. The Galton Laboratory, based at University College London, conducts research into human genetics. ... Karl Pearson FRS (March 27, 1857 – April 27, 1936) established the discipline of mathematical statistics. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Stained glass window in the dining hall of Caius College, in Cambridge, commemorating Ronald Fisher and representing a Latin square.
Stained glass window in the dining hall of Caius College, in Cambridge, commemorating Ronald Fisher and representing a Latin square.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (404x848, 68 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ronald Fisher ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (404x848, 68 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ronald Fisher ... Full name Gonville and Caius College Motto Named after Edmund Gonville & John Caius Previous names Gonville Hall (1348), Gonville & Caius (1557) Established 1348, refounded 1557 Sister College(s) Brasenose College Master Sir Christopher Hum Location Trinity St Undergraduates 468 Postgraduates 291 Homepage Boatclub Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge is a... A Latin square is an n × n table filled with n different symbols in such a way that each symbol occurs exactly once in each row and exactly once in each column. ...

Early professional years

In 1919 Fisher started work at Rothamsted Experimental Station located at Harpenden in Hertfordshire, England. Here he started a major study of the extensive collections of data recorded over many years. This resulted in a series of reports under the general title Studies in Crop Variation. This began a period of great productivity. Over the next seven years, he pioneered the principles of the design of experiments and elaborated his studies of "analysis of variance". He furthered his studies of the statistics of small samples. Perhaps even more important, he began his systematic approach of the analysis of real data as the springboard for the development of new statistical methods. He began to pay particular attention to the labor involved in the necessary computations, and developed methods that were as practical as they were founded in rigor. In 1925, this work culminated in the publication of his first book, Statistical Methods for Research Workers.[7] This went into many editions and translations in later years, and became a standard reference work for scientists in many disciplines. In 1935, this was followed by The Design of Experiments, which also became a standard. Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Buildings near the manor house The Rothamsted Experimental Station, one of the oldest agricultural research institutions in the world, is located at Harpenden in Hertfordshire, England. ... This section has been identified as trivia. ... Hertfordshire (pronounced Hartfordshire and abbreviated as Herts) is an inland county in the United Kingdom, officially part of the East of England Government region. ... The first statistician to consider a methodology for the design of experiments was Sir Ronald A. Fisher. ... In statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a collection of statistical models and their associated procedures which compare means by splitting the overall observed variance into different parts. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Statistical Methods for Research Workers (ISBN 0050021702) is a classic 1925 book on statistics by the statistician Ronald Fisher. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ...


In addition to "analysis of variance", Fisher invented the technique of maximum likelihood and originated the concepts of sufficiency, ancillarity, Fisher's linear discriminator and Fisher information. His 1924 article "On a distribution yielding the error functions of several well known statistics" presented Karl Pearson's chi-squared and Student's t in the same framework as the Gaussian distribution, and his own "analysis of variance" distribution z (more commonly used today in the form of the F distribution). These contributions easily made him a major figure in 20th century statistics. In statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a collection of statistical models and their associated procedures which compare means by splitting the overall observed variance into different parts. ... Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is a popular statistical method used to make inferences about parameters of the underlying probability distribution from a given data set. ... In statistics, a statistic is sufficient for the parameter θ, which indexes the distribution family of the data, precisely when the datas conditional probability distribution, given the statistics value, no longer depends on θ. Intuitively, a sufficient statistic for θ captures all the possible information about θ that is in the data. ... In statistics, an ancillary statistic is a statistic whose probability distribution does not depend on which of the probability distributions among those being considered is the distribution of the statistical population from which the data were taken. ... Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and the related Fishers linear discriminant are methods used in statistics and machine learning to find the linear combination of features which best separate two or more classes of object or event. ... In statistics and information theory, the Fisher information (denoted ) is the variance of the score. ... Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Karl Pearson FRS (March 27, 1857 – April 27, 1936) established the discipline of mathematical statistics. ... Pearsons chi-square test (χ2) is one of a variety of chi-square tests – statistical procedures whose results are evaluated by reference to the chi-square distribution. ... William Sealy Gosset (June 13, 1876 – October 16, 1937) was a chemist and statistician, better known by his pen name Student. ... In probability and statistics, the t-distribution or Students t-distribution is a probability distribution that arises in the problem of estimating the mean of a normally distributed population when the sample size is small. ... Fishers z-distribution is the distribution of half the logarithm of a F distribution variate: It was first described by Ronald Fisher in a paper delivered at the International Mathematical Congress of 1924 in Toronto, entitled On a distribution yielding the error functions of several well-known statistics. Nowadays... In probability theory and statistics, the F-distribution is a continuous probability distribution. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


In defending the use of the z distribution when the data were not Gaussian, Fisher introduced the "randomization test". According to biographers Yates and Mather, "Fisher introduced the randomization test, comparing the value of t or z actually obtained with the distribution of the t or z values when all possible random arrangements were imposed on the experimental data."[8] The normal distribution, also called the Gaussian distribution, is an important family of continuous probability distributions, applicable in many fields. ...


However, Fisher wrote that randomization tests were "in no sense put forward to supersede the common and expeditious tests based on the Gaussian theory of errors." Fisher thus effectively began the field of non-parametric statistics, even though he didn't believe it was a necessary move. Non-Parametric statistics are statistics where it is not assumed that the population fits any parametrized distributions. ...


His work on the theory of population genetics also made him one of the three great figures of that field, together with Sewall Wright and J. B. S. Haldane, and as such was one of the founders of the neo-Darwinian modern evolutionary synthesis. In addition to founding modern quantitative genetics with his 1918 paper, he was the first to use diffusion equations to attempt to calculate the distribution of gene frequencies among populations. He pioneered the estimation of genetic linkage and gene frequencies by maximum likelihood methods, and wrote early papers on the wave of advance of advantageous genes and on clines of gene frequency. His 1950 paper on gene frequency clines is notable as the first application of computers to biology. Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... Sewall Green Wright ForMemRS (December 21, 1889 – March 3, 1988) was an American geneticist known for his influential work on evolutionary theory. ... John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (November 5, 1892 – December 1, 1964), who normally used J.B.S. as a first name, was a British geneticist and evolutionary biologist. ... The modern evolutionary synthesis refers to a set of ideas from several biological specialities that were brought together to form a unified theory of evolution accepted by the great majority of working biologists. ... Quantitative genetics is the study of continuous traits (such as height or weight) and its underlying mechanisms. ... Genetic linkage occurs when particular alleles are inherited jointly. ... Allele frequency is a measure of the relative frequency of an allele on a genetic locus in a population. ...


Fisher introduced the concept of Fisher information in 1925, some years before Shannon's notions of information and entropy. Fisher information has been the subject of renewed interest in the last few years, both due to the growth of Bayesian inference in artificial intelligence, and due to B. Roy Frieden's book Physics from Fisher Information, which attempts to derive the laws of physics from a Fisherian starting point. In statistics and information theory, the Fisher information (denoted ) is the variance of the score. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 - February 24, 2001) has been called the father of information theory, and was the founder of practical digital circuit design theory. ... Bayesian inference is statistical inference in which evidence or observations are used to update or to newly infer the probability that a hypothesis may be true. ... Bold text[[Link title]] “AI” redirects here. ... B. Roy Frieden is a mathematical physicist living in Tucson, Arizona, in the United States. ...


Genetical Theory of Natural Selection

Fisher was an ardent promoter of eugenics, which also stimulated and guided much of his work in genetics of man. His book The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection was started in 1928 and published in 1930. It contained a summary of what was already known to the literature. He developed ideas on sexual selection, mimicry and the evolution of dominance. He famously showed that the probability of a mutation increasing the fitness of an organism decreases proportionately with the magnitude of the mutation. He also proved that larger populations carry more variation so that they have a larger chance of survival. He set forth the foundations of what was to become known as population genetics. Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection is a book by Ronald Fisher. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Illustration from The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by Charles Darwin showing the Tufted Coquette Lophornis ornatus, female on left, ornamented male on right. ... Plate from Henry Walter Bates (1862) illustrating Batesian mimicry between Dismorphia species (top row, third row) and various Ithomiini (Nymphalidae) (second row, bottom row). ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ...


About a third of the book concerned the applications of these ideas to humans, and presented what data there was available at the time. He presented a theory that attributed the decline and fall of civilizations to its arrival at a state where the fertility of the upper classes is forced down. Using the census data of 1911 for Britain, he showed that there was an inverse relationship between fertility and social class. This was partly due, he believed, to the rise in social status of families who were not capable of producing many children but who rose because of the financial advantage of having a small number of children. Therefore he proposed the abolishment of the economic advantage of small families by instituting subsidies (he called them allowances) to families with larger numbers of children, with the allowances proportional to the earnings of the father. He himself had two sons and six daughters. According to Yates and Mather, "His large family, in particular, reared in conditions of great financial stringency, was a personal expression of his genetic and evolutionary convictions." Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The book was reviewed, among others, by physicist Charles Galton Darwin, a grandson of Charles Darwin's, and following publication of his review, C. G. Darwin sent Fisher his copy of the book, with notes in the margin. The marginal notes became the food for a correspondence running at least three years.[9] Fisher's book The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, also had a major influence on the evolutionary biologist W. D. Hamilton and the development of his later theories on the genetic basis for the existence of kin selection. Sir Charles Galton Darwin. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Evolutionary biology is a subfield of biology concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their change over time, i. ... W. D. Hamilton William Donald Bill Hamilton, F.R.S. (1 August 1936 — 7 March 2000) was a British evolutionary biologist, considered one of the greatest evolutionary theorists of the 20th century. ... In evolutionary biology, kin selection refers to changes in gene frequency across generations that are driven at least in part by interactions between related individuals, and this forms much of the conceptual basis of the theory of social evolution. ...


Between 1929 and 1934 the Eugenics Society also campaigned hard for a law permitting sterilization on eugenic grounds. They believed that it should be entirely voluntary, and a right, not a punishment. They published a draft of a proposed bill, and it was submitted to Parliament. Although it was defeated by a 2:1 ratio, this was viewed as progress, and the campaign continued. Fisher played a major role in this movement, and served in several official committees to promote it. Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sterilization is a surgical technique leaving a male or female unable to procreate. ... Compulsory sterilization programs are government policies which attempt to force people to undergo surgical sterilization. ...


In 1934, Fisher moved to increase the power of scientists within the Eugenics Society, but was ultimately thwarted by members with an environmentalist point of view, and he, along with many other scientists, resigned. Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Method and personality

The interest in eugenics, and his experiences working on the Canadian farm, made Fisher interested in starting a farm of his own. In these plans he was encouraged by Gudruna, the wife of a college friend, and this led to him meeting Ruth Eileen Gratton Guinness, Gudruna's younger sister. Ruth Eileen and Gudruna's father, Dr Henry Gratton Guinness, had died when they were young and Ruth Eileen, only sixteen years of age, knew that her mother would not approve of her marrying so young. As a result Fisher married Ruth Eileen at a secret wedding ceremony without her mother's knowledge, on 26 April 1917, only days after Ruth Eileen's 17th birthday. They had two sons and seven daughters, one of whom died in infancy. His daughter Joan married George E. P. Box and wrote a well-received biography of her father. is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... George Edward Pelham Box, born 18 October 1919 in Gravesend, Kent, England, was one of the most influential statisticians of the 20th century and a pioneer in the areas of quality control, time series analysis, design of experiments and Bayesian inference. ...


As an adult, Fisher was noted for his loyalty to his friends. Once he had formed a favorable opinion of any man, he was loyal to a fault. A similar sense of loyalty bound him to his culture. He was a patriot, a member of the Church of England, politically conservative, and a scientific rationalist. Much sought after as a brilliant conversationalist and dinner companion, he very early on developed a reputation for carelessness in his dress and, sometimes, his manners. In later years he was the archetype of the absent-minded professor. The Church of England logo since 1998 The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ...


He knew the scriptures well and was deeply devout[10]. But he was not dogmatic in his religious beliefs. In a 1955 broadcast on Science and Christianity[citation needed], he said, "The custom of making abstract dogmatic assertions is not, certainly, derived from the teaching of Jesus, but has been a widespread weakness among religious teachers in subsequent centuries. I do not think that the word for the Christian virtue of faith should be prostituted to mean the credulous acceptance of all such piously intended assertions. Much self-deception in the young believer is needed to convince himself that he knows that of which in reality he knows himself to be ignorant. That surely is hypocrisy, against which we have been most conspicuously warned."


Later years

It was Fisher who referred to the growth rate r (used in equations such as the logistic function) as the Malthusian parameter, as a criticism of the writings of Thomas Robert Malthus. Fisher referred to "...a relic of creationist philosophy..." in observing the fecundity of nature and deducing (as Darwin did) that this therefore drove natural selection. Logistic curve, specifically the sigmoid function A logistic function or logistic curve models the S-curve of growth of some set P. The initial stage of growth is approximately exponential; then, as competition arises, the growth slows, and at maturity, growth stops. ... The Rev. ...


He received the recognition of his peers in 1929 when he was inducted into the Royal Society. His fame grew and he began to travel more and lecture to wider circles. In 1931 he spent six weeks at the Statistical Laboratory at Iowa State College in Ames, Iowa. He gave three lectures a week on his work, and met many of the active American statisticians, including George W. Snedecor. He returned again for another visit in 1936. Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Iowa State University (ISU) is a public land-grant university located in Ames, Iowa. ... Main Street in downtown Ames in 2006 Ames is a city located in the central part of the U.S. state of Iowa, about 30 miles north of Des Moines in Story County. ... George Waddel Snedecor (October 20, 1881 – February 15, 1974) was an American mathematician and statistician. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In 1933 he left Rothamsted to become a Professor of Eugenics at University College London. In 1937 he visited the Indian Statistical Institute (in Calcutta), which at the time consisted of one part-time employee, Professor P. C. Mahalanobis. He revisited there often in later years, encouraging its development. He was the guest of honour at its 25th anniversary in 1957 when it had grown to 2000 employees[11] . In 1939, when World War II broke out, the University tried to dissolve the eugenics department, and ordered all of the animals destroyed. Fisher fought back, but he was then exiled back to Rothamsted with a much reduced staff and resources. He was unable to find any suitable war work, and though he kept very busy with various small projects, he became discouraged of any real progress. His marriage disintegrated. His oldest son, George, an aeroplane pilot[12], was killed in the war. Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Affiliations University of London Russell Group LERU EUA ACU Golden Triangle G5 Website http://www. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Indian Statistical Institute (ISI), is a unique institution devoted to the research, teaching and application of statistics, natural sciences and social sciences. ... Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis (born June 29, 1893, died June 28, 1972) was an Indian scientist and applied statistician. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...


In 1943 he was offered the Balfour Chair of Genetics at Cambridge University, his alma mater. During the war, this department was also pretty much destroyed, but the University promised him that he would be charged with rebuilding it after the war. He accepted the offer, but the promises were largely unfilled, and the department grew very slowly. A notable exception was the recruitment in 1948 of the Italian researcher Cavalli-Sforza, who established a one man unit of bacterial genetics. He continued his work on mouse chromosome mapping and other projects. They culminated in the publication in 1949 of the idiosyncratic (?) The Theory of Inbreeding. In 1947 he co-founded with Cyril Darlington the journal Heredity: An International Journal of Genetics. Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Arthur Balfour Professorship of Genetics is one of the senior professorships in genetics at the University of Cambridge, founded in 1912. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: People stubs | 1922 births | Italian people | Population geneticists ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Professor Cyril Dean Darlington FRS (19 December 1903 - 26 March 1981) was a British biologist, who, with Ronald Fisher established the journal Heredity. ... Heredity is a scientific journal concerned with heredity in a biological sense, i. ...


Ronald Fisher was opposed to the UNESCO Statement of Race. He believed that human groups differ profoundly “in their innate capacity for intellectual and emotional development” and concluded that the “practical international problem is that of learning to share the resources of this planet amicably with persons of materially different nature,” and that “this problem is being obscured by entirely well-intentioned efforts to minimize the real differences that exists.” The revised 1951 statement titled "The Race Concept: Results of an Inquiry" was accompanied by Fisher's dissenting commentary.[13] The Race Question is a UNESCO statement issued on 18 July 1950 following World War II. Signed by some of the leading researchers of the time, in the field of psychology, biology, cultural anthropology and ethnology, it questioned the foundations of scientific racist theories which had became very popular at...


He eventually received many awards for his work and was dubbed a Knight Bachelor by Queen Elizabeth II in 1952. The dignity of Knight Bachelor is a part of the British honours system. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Fisher was opposed to the conclusions of Richard Doll that smoking caused lung cancer. To quote Yates and Mather again, "It has been suggested that the fact that Fisher was employed as consultant by the tobacco firms in this controversy casts doubt on the value of his arguments. This is to misjudge the man. He was not above accepting financial reward for his labours, but the reason for his interest was undoubtedly his dislike and mistrust of puritanical tendencies of all kinds; and perhaps also the personal solace he had always found in tobacco." Sir William Richard Shaboe Doll CH OBE FRS (28 October 1912–24 July 2005) was a British physiologist who became the foremost epidemiologist of the 20th century, turning the subject into a rigorous science. ... The health effects of tobacco smoking refer to direct tobacco smoking as well as the inhalation of environmental or secondhand tobacco smoke. ...


After retiring from Cambridge University in 1957 he spent some time as a senior research fellow at the CSIRO in Adelaide, Australia. He died of colon cancer there in 1962. Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is the national government body for scientific research in Australia. ... For other uses, see Adelaide (disambiguation). ... Diagram of the stomach, colon, and rectum Colorectal cancer includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ...


Fisher's important contributions to both genetics and statistics are emphasized by the remark of L.J. Savage, "I occasionally meet geneticists who ask me whether it is true that the great geneticist R.A. Fisher was also an important statistician" (Annals of Statistics, 1976). Leonard Jimmie Savage (20 November 1917 - 1 November 1971) was a US mathematician and statistician. ...


References

  1. ^ Hald, Anders (1998). A History of Mathematical Statistics. New York: Wiley. 
  2. ^ Dawkins, Richard (1995). River out of Eden. 
  3. ^ Box, R. A. Fisher, pp 8-16
  4. ^ Box, R. A. Fisher, pp 17-34
  5. ^ Box, R. A. Fisher, pp 35-50
  6. ^ Box, R. A. Fisher, pp 50-61
  7. ^ Box, R. A. Fisher, pp 93-166
  8. ^ Frank Yates & Kenneth Mather (1963) "Ronald Aylmer Fisher." Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society of London 9:91-120 Available on University of Adelaide website
  9. ^ Fisher, R. A. 1999. The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. Complete Variorum Edition. Oxford University Press. Appendix 2.
  10. ^ H. Allen Orr describes him as "deeply devout Anglican who, between founding modern statistics and population genetics, penned articles for church magazines" in the Boston Review Gould on God Can religion and science be happily reconciled?
  11. ^ Box, R. A. Fisher, p 337
  12. ^ Box, R. A. Fisher, p 396
  13. ^ http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0007/000733/073351eo.pdf “The Race Concept: Results of an Inquiry”, p. 27. UNESCO 1952
  • Aldrich, John (1997). "R.A. Fisher and the making of maximum likelihood 1912-1922". Statistical Science 12 (3): 162-176. DOI:10.1214/ss/1030037906. 
  • Box, Joan Fisher (1978) R. A. Fisher: The Life of a Scientist, New York: Wiley, ISBN 0-471-09300-9.
  • David Howie, "Interpreting Probability: Controversies and Developments in the Early Twentieth Century" (Cambridge University Press, 2002)
  • Salsburg, David (2002) The Lady Tasting Tea: How Statistics Revolutionized Science in the Twentieth Century, ISBN 0-8050-7134-2

Anders Hald (born 3 July 1913) is a Danish statistician who in later years has made contributions to the history of statistics. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at the University of Oxford. ... Frank Yates Frank Yates (1902 - 1994) was one of the pioneers of 20th century statistics. ... Sir Kenneth Mather FRS (22 June 1911 -- 20 March 1990) was a British geneticist. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... H. Allen Orr is an Professor of Biology at the University of Rochester He is an evolutionary geneticist with several broad interests. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

See also

In statistics, the Behrens-Fisher problem is the problem of interval estimation and hypothesis testing concerning the difference between the means of two normally distributed populations when the variances of the two populations are not assumed to be equal, based on two independent samples. ... NOTE: this is not the Fisher equation in financial mathematics. ... Fishers exact test is a statistical significance test used in the analysis of categorical data where sample sizes are small. ... Fisherian runaway refers to a model of the evolution of sexual selection first proposed by Ronald Fisher in 1915 Categories: Stub ... In statistics, Fishers method is a data fusion or meta-analysis (analysis after analysis) technique for combining the results from a variety of independent tests bearing upon the same overall hypothesis (H0) as if in a single large test. ... Look up test in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In statistics, a result is significant if it is unlikely to have occurred by chance, given that a presumed null hypothesis is true. ... Sex ratio by country for total population. ... Scatterplot of the data set The Iris flower data set or Fishers Iris data set is a multivariate data set introduced by Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (1936) as an example of discriminant analysis. ...

Bibliography

A selection from Fisher's 395 articles

These are available on the University of Adelaide website:

  • "Frequency distribution of the values of the correlation coefficient in samples from an indefinitely large population." Biometrika, 10: 507-521. (1915)
  • "The correlation between relatives on the supposition of Mendelian inheritance" Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinb., 52: 399-433. (1918). It was in this paper that the word variance was first introduced into probability theory and statistics.
  • "On the mathematical foundations of theoretical statistics" Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, A, 222: 309-368. (1922)
  • "On the dominance ratio. Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinb., 42: 321-341. (1922)
  • "On a distribution yielding the error functions of several well known statistics" Proc. Int. Cong. Math., Toronto, 2: 805-813. (1924)
  • "Theory of statistical estimation" Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 22: 700-725 (1925)
  • "Applications of Student's distribution" Metron, 5: 90-104 (1925)
  • "The arrangement of field experiments" J. Min. Agric. G. Br., 33: 503-513. (1926)
  • "The general sampling distribution of the multiple correlation coefficient" Proceedings of Royal Society, A, 121: 654-673 (1928)
  • "Two new properties of mathematical likelihood" Proceedings of Royal Society, A, 144: 285-307 (1934)

Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance is a scientific paper by Ronald Fisher which was published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1918, (volume 52, pages 399—433). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... In probability theory and statistics, the variance of a random variable (or somewhat more precisely, of a probability distribution) is a measure of its statistical dispersion, indicating how its possible values are spread around the expected value. ... Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with analysis of random phenomena. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Books by Fisher

Full publication details are available on the University of Adelaide website:

  • Statistical Methods for Research Workers (1925) ISBN 0-05-002170-2.
  • The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection (1930) ISBN 0-19-850440-3.
  • The design of experiments (1935) ISBN 0-02-844690-9
  • The use of multiple measurements in taxonomic problems (in Annals of Eugenics 7/1936)
  • Statistical tables for biological, agricultural and medical research (1938, coauthor:Frank Yates)
  • The theory of inbreeding (1949) ISBN 0-12-257550-4, ISBN 0-05-000873-0
  • Contributions to mathematical statistics, John Wiley, (1950)
  • Statistical methods and scientific inference (1956) ISBN 0-02-844740-9
  • Collected Papers of R.A. Fisher (1971-1974). Five Volumes. University of Adelaide.

Statistical Methods for Research Workers (ISBN 0050021702) is a classic 1925 book on statistics by the statistician Ronald Fisher. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection is a book by Ronald Fisher. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Frank Yates Frank Yates (1902 - 1994) was one of the pioneers of 20th century statistics. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Biographies of Fisher

Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Frank Yates Frank Yates (1902 - 1994) was one of the pioneers of 20th century statistics. ... Sir Kenneth Mather FRS (22 June 1911 -- 20 March 1990) was a British geneticist. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Preceded by
Austin Bradford Hill
Presidents of the Royal Statistical Society
1952—1954
Succeeded by
Lord Piercy of Burford
Persondata
NAME Fisher, Ronald
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION English Statistician, geneticist
DATE OF BIRTH 17 February 1890
PLACE OF BIRTH East Finchley, London, England
DATE OF DEATH 29 July 1962
PLACE OF DEATH Adelaide, Australia

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ronald Fisher - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2275 words)
Ronald Aylmer Fisher was born in East Finchley in London, to George and Katie Fisher.
Fisher information has been the subject of renewed interest in the last few years, both due to the growth of Bayesian inference in artificial intelligence, and due to B.
Fisher was an ardent promoter of eugenics, which also stimulated and guided much of his work in genetics of man. His book The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection was started in 1928 and published in 1930.
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