FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet in the famous balcony scene by Ford Madox Brown
Romeo and Juliet in the famous balcony scene by Ford Madox Brown

Romeo and Juliet is an early tragedy by William Shakespeare about two teenage "star-cross'd lovers" whose "untimely deaths" ultimately unite their feuding households. The play has been highly praised by literary critics for its language and dramatic effect. It was among Shakespeare's most popular plays during his lifetime and, along with Hamlet, is one of his most frequently performed plays. Its influence is still seen today, with the two main characters being widely represented as archetypal young lovers. Romeo and Juliet may refer to: Romeo and Juliet, a tragedy by William Shakespeare. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Last of England, 1855 Ford Madox Brown (April 16, 1821 – October 6, 1893) was an English painter of moral and historical subjects, notable for his distinctively graphic and often Hogarthian version of the Pre-Raphaelite style. ... For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Star-crossed or star-crossed lovers is a phrase describing a pair of lovers whose relationship is said to be doomed from the start. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Archetype (disambiguation). ...


Romeo and Juliet belongs to a tradition of tragic romances stretching back to Ancient Greece. Its plot is based on an Italian tale, translated into verse as Romeus and Juliet by Arthur Brooke in 1562, and retold in prose in Palace of Pleasure by William Painter in 1582. Brooke and Painter were Shakespeare's chief sources of inspiration for Romeo and Juliet. He borrowed heavily from both, but developed minor characters, particularly Mercutio and Paris, in order to expand the plot. Believed written between 1591–1595, the play was first published in a quarto version in 1597. This text was of poor quality, and later editions corrected it, bringing it more in line with Shakespeare's original text. The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet is a narrative poem, first published in 1562 by Arthur Brooke, who is reported to have translated it from an Italian poem by Bandello. ... Arthur Broke, or Brooke (d. ... William Painter (1540? - February, 1594, London [1]), English author, was a native of Kent. ... William Painter (1540?-1594), English author, was a native of Kent. ... Mercutio (here portrayed by actor Jonathan Huelman, at right) gives his famous Queen Mab speech to Romeo (Jacob Blumenfeld) in Act I, scene IV of Romeo and Juliet. ... In William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet, Count Paris is a suitor of Juliets. ... First quarto is a bibliographic term, usually encountered in the study of English literature in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, especially in regard to the early printings of the plays of English Renaissance theatre. ...


Shakespeare's use of dramatic structure, especially his expansion of minor characters, and the use of subplots to embellish the story, has been praised as an early sign of his dramatic skill. The play ascribes different poetic forms to different characters, sometimes changing the form as the character develops. Romeo, for example, grows more adept at the sonnet form (14 lines of Iambic Pentameter) over time. Characters frequently compare love and death and allude to the role of fate. The term dramatic structure refers to the parts into which a short story, a novel, a play, a screenplay, or a narrative poem can be divided. ...


Since its publication, Romeo and Juliet has been adapted numerous times in stage, film, musical and operatic forms. During the Restoration, it was revived and heavily revised by William Davenant. Garrick's 18th century version, which continued to be performed into the Victorian era, also changed several scenes, removing material then considered indecent. Performances in the 19th century, including Charlotte Cushman's, restored the original text, and focused on greater realism. Gielgud's 1935 version kept very close to Shakespeare's text, and used Elizabethan costumes and staging to enhance the drama. For other uses, see Restoration. ... William Davenant Sir William Davenant (February 28, 1606 - April 7, 1668), also spelled DAvenant, was an English poet and playwright. ... David Garrick by Thomas Gainsborough. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her Accession to the Throne, June 20, 1837) gave her name to the historic era. ... Charlotte Saunders Cushman (July 23, 1816 _ February 18, 1876), was an American stage actress. ... Sir Arthur John Gielgud, OM, CH (14 April 1904 – 21 May 2000), known as Sir John Gielgud, was an English theatre and film actor. ...

Contents

Synopsis

"Two Households, both alike in dignity ..."

Chorus
Romeo and Juliet by Francesco Hayez
Romeo and Juliet by Francesco Hayez

The play begins with a street brawl between two families: the Montagues and the Capulets. The Prince of Verona, Escalus, intervenes with his men and declares that the heads of the two families will be held personally accountable for any further breach of the peace. Later, Count Paris, a young nobleman, talks to Lord Capulet about marrying his thirteen-year-old daughter Juliet. Capulet is wary of this offer, citing the girl's young age, but still invites him to try to attract Juliet's attention during a ball that the family is to hold that night. Juliet's mother tries to persuade her daughter to accept Paris' courtship during this ball, leading Juliet to say that although she will make an effort to love him, she will not express love if it is not there. In this scene Juliet's nurse is introduced as a talkative and humorous character, who raised Juliet from infancy. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 418 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 2905 pixel, file size: 397 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Romeo and Juliet ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 418 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 2905 pixel, file size: 397 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Romeo and Juliet ... The Kiss by Francesco Hayez Francesco Hayez (1791-1882) was the leading homosexual artist of Romanticism in mid-19th-century Milan, renowned for his great historical paintings, political allegories and exceptionally fine portraits External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Francesco Hayez More information Categories: ‪Artist stubs‬ | ‪1791 births... Prince and mediator of the feuding families in The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet. ... In William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet, Count Paris is a suitor of Juliets. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Nurse (Joanna Brookes, right) takes a seat, insisting she is too exhausted to relay her conversation with Romeo to Juliet (Eva Bartley, left) in act two, scene five. ...


In the meantime, a young man named Benvolio talks with his cousin Romeo, Lord Montague's son, over Romeo's recent depression. Benvolio discovers that it stems from unrequited love for a girl named Rosaline, one of Lord Capulet's nieces who has sworn herself to chastity. Upon the insistence of Benvolio and another friend, Mercutio, Romeo decides to attend the masquerade ball at the Capulet house in hopes of meeting Rosaline. Alongside his masked friends Romeo attends the ball as planned, but falls in love with Juliet (forgetting about Rosaline) and she with him. Despite the danger brought on by their feuding families, Romeo sneaks into the Capulet courtyard and overhears Juliet on her balcony vowing her love to him in spite of her family's hatred of the Montagues. Romeo soon makes himself known to her, and the two declare their love for each other and agree to be married. With the help of the Franciscan Friar Lawrence, who hopes to reconcile the two families through their children's union, they are married secretly the next day. Benvolio is a character in William Shakespeares fiction Romeo and Juliet, one of the legendary Montagues. ... Romeo Montague is the male protagonist featured in William Shakespeares tragic play Romeo and Juliet. ... Rosaline is an unseen character in the tragedy of Romeo and Juliet. ... Mercutio (here portrayed by actor Jonathan Huelman, at right) gives his famous Queen Mab speech to Romeo (Jacob Blumenfeld) in Act I, scene IV of Romeo and Juliet. ... Romeo and Juliet with Friar Laurence by Henry William Bunbury Friar Laurence (or Friar Lawrence) is a character in Shakespeares play Romeo and Juliet who also features heavily in the year 10 Brigo English oral. ...


All seems well until Tybalt, Juliet's hot-blooded cousin, challenges Romeo to a duel for appearing at the Capulets' ball in disguise. Though no one is aware of the marriage yet, Romeo refuses to fight Tybalt since they are now part of the same family. Mercutio is incensed by Tybalt's insolence, and accepts the duel on Romeo's behalf. In the ensuing scuffle, Mercutio is fatally wounded when Romeo tries to separate them. Romeo, angered by his friend's death, pursues and slays Tybalt, then flees. Tybalt in the 1968 film as portrayed by Michael York. ...


Despite his promise to call for the head of the wrongdoers, the Prince merely exiles Romeo from Verona, reasoning that Tybalt first killed Mercutio, and that Romeo merely carried out a just punishment of death to Tybalt, although without legal authority. Juliet grieves at the news, and Lord Capulet, misinterpreting her grief, agrees to engage her to marry Paris with the wedding to be held in just three days. He threatens to disown her if she refuses. The nurse, once Juliet's confidante, now tells her she should discard the exiled Romeo and comply. Juliet desperately visits Friar Lawrence for help. He offers her a drug, which will put her into a death-like coma for forty-two hours. She is to take it and, when discovered apparently dead, she will be laid in the family crypt. While she is sleeping the Friar will send a messenger to inform Romeo, so that he can rejoin her when she awakens. The confidant (feminine: confidante, same pronunciation) character is usually someone the lead character confides in and trusts. ...


The messenger, however, does not reach Romeo. Romeo then learns of Juliet's "death" from his servant Balthasar. Grief-stricken, he buys poison from an apothecary, returns to Verona in secret, and visits the Capulet crypt. He encounters Paris who has come to mourn Juliet privately. Paris confronts Romeo believing him to be a vandal, and in the ensuing battle Romeo kills Paris. He then says his final words to the comatose Juliet and drinks the poison to commit suicide. Juliet then awakens. Friar Lawrence arrives and, realizing the cause of the tragedy, begs Juliet to leave. She refuses, and at the side of Romeo's dead body, she stabs herself with her lover's dagger.


The feuding families and the Prince meet at the tomb to find all three dead. In explanation Friar Lawrence recounts the story of the two lovers. Montague reveals that his wife has died of grief after hearing of her son's exile. The families are reconciled by their children's deaths and agree to end their violent feud. The play ends with the Prince's brief elegy for the lovers: "For never was a story of more woe / Than this of Juliet and her Romeo."


Sources

Frontispiece of Brooke's poem, Romeus and Juliet.
Frontispiece of Brooke's poem, Romeus and Juliet.

Romeo and Juliet is a dramatisation of Arthur Brooke's narrative poem The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet (1562). Shakespeare follows the poem closely[1] but adds extra detail to both major and minor characters, in particular the Nurse and Mercutio. "The goodly History of the true and constant love of Rhomeo and Julietta" retells in prose a story by William Painter, with which Shakespeare may have been familiar. It was published in a collection of Italian tales entitled Palace of Pleasure in 1582.[2] Painter's version was part of a trend among writers and playwrights of the time to publish works based on Italian novelles. At the time of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, Italian tales were very popular among theatre patrons. Critics of the day even complained of how often Italian tales were borrowed to please crowds. Shakespeare took advantage of their popularity, as seen in his writing of both All's Well That Ends Well and Measure for Measure (from Italian tales) and Romeo and Juliet. Arthur Brooke's poem belonged to this trend, being a translation and adaptation of the Italian Giuletta e Romeo, by Matteo Bandello, included in his Novelle of 1554.[3] Bandello's story was translated into French and was adapted by Italian theatrical troupes, some of whom performed in London at the time Shakespeare was writing his plays. Although nothing is known of the repertory of these troupes, it is possible that they performed some version of the story.[4] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Arthur Broke, or Brooke (d. ... Narrative poetry is poetry that tells a story. ... The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet is a narrative poem, first published in 1562 by Arthur Brooke, who is reported to have translated it from an Italian poem by Bandello. ... The Nurse (Joanna Brookes, right) takes a seat, insisting she is too exhausted to relay her conversation with Romeo to Juliet (Eva Bartley, left) in act two, scene five. ... Mercutio (here portrayed by actor Jonathan Huelman, at right) gives his famous Queen Mab speech to Romeo (Jacob Blumenfeld) in Act I, scene IV of Romeo and Juliet. ... William Painter (1540?-1594), English author, was a native of Kent. ... For the Chiodos album, see Alls Well That Ends Well (album). ... Claudio and Isabella (1850) by William Holman Hunt Measure for Measure is a play by William Shakespeare, written in 1603. ... Matteo Bandello (c. ...

Pyramus and Thisbe: Their tragic story seems to have connections with Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet.

Bandello's version was an adaptation of Luigi da Porto's Giulietta e Romeo, included in his Istoria novellamente ritrovata di due Nobili Amanti (c. 1530).[3] The latter gave the story much of its modern form, including the names of the lovers, the rival families of Montecchi and Capuleti, and the location in Verona, in the Veneto.[5] Da Porto is probably also the source of the tradition that Romeo and Juliet is based on a true story.[6] The names of the families (in Italian, the Montecchi and Capelletti) were actual 13th-century political factions.[7] The tomb and balcony of Giulietta are still popular tourist spots in Verona, although scholars have disputed the assumption that the story actually took place.[6] Before Da Porto, the earliest known version of the tale is the 1476 story of Mariotto and Gianozza of Siena by Masuccio Salernitano, in Il Novellino (Novella XXXIII).[5] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For the river of Asia Minor, see Pyramus (river). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Veneto or Venetia, is one of the 20 regions of Italy. ... Piazza del Campo Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. ... Masuccio Salernitano (1410-1475) was an Italian poet. ...


Romeo and Juliet borrows from a tradition of tragic love stories dating back to antiquity. One of these, Pyramus and Thisbe, is thought by many scholars to have influenced da Porto's version. The former contains parallels to Shakespeare's story: the lovers' parents despise each other, and Pyramus' falsely believes his lover Thisbe is dead.[8] Brooke adjusted the Italian translation to reflect parts of Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde. The Ephisiaca of Xenophon of Ephesus, written in the third century, also contains several similarities to the play, including the separation of the lovers, and a potion which induces a deathlike sleep. Marlowe's Hero and Leander and Dido, Queen of Carthage, both similar stories written in Shakespeare's day, are thought to be less of a direct influence, although they may have created an atmosphere in which tragic love stories could thrive.[9] For the river of Asia Minor, see Pyramus (river). ... Troilus and Criseyde is Geoffrey Chaucers poem in rhyme royal re-telling the tragic love story of Troilus, a Trojan prince, and Criseyde. ... The Ephesian Tale of Anthia and Habrocomes by Xenophon of Ephesus is a novel belonging to the mid second century of the Common Era. ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... (2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century - other centuries) Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. ... This article is about the English dramatist. ... The Last Watch of Hero by Frederic Leighton, depicting Hero anxiously waiting for Leander during the storm. ... Dido, Queen of Carthage is a short play written by the English playwright Christopher Marlowe and possibly by Thomas Nashe, first shown about 1583. ...


Date and text

Title page of the Second Quarto of Romeo and Juliet (published 1599)

It is unknown when exactly Shakespeare wrote Romeo and Juliet. Juliet's nurse refers to an earthquake which she says occurred eleven years ago.[10] An earthquake did occur in England in 1580, possibly dating that particular line to 1591, although other earthquakes - both in England and in Verona - have been proposed in support of different dates.[11] But the play's stylistic similarities with A Midsummer Night's Dream and other plays conventionally dated around 1594-5, place the writing between 1591 and 1595.[12] One conjecture is that Shakespeare may have begun a draft in 1591, which he completed in 1595.[13] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (761x1187, 337 KB) Summary Title page of the Second Quarto of Romeo and Juliet (published 1599) Licensing The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (761x1187, 337 KB) Summary Title page of the Second Quarto of Romeo and Juliet (published 1599) Licensing The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with...


Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet was published in two distinct quarto editions prior to the publication of the First Folio of 1623. These are referred to as Q1 and Q2. Q1, the first printed edition, appeared in early 1597, printed by John Danter. Because its text contains numerous differences from the later editions, it is labelled a 'bad quarto'; the 20th century editor T. J .B. Spencer described it as "a detestable text, probably a reconstruction of the play from the imperfect memories of one or two of the actors.", suggesting that it had been pirated for publication.[14] An alternative explanation for Q1's shortcomings is that the play (like many others of the time) may have been heavily edited before performance by the playing company.[15] In any event, its appearance in early 1597 makes 1596 the latest possible date for the play's composition.[16] The size of a specific book is measured from the head to tail of the spine, and from edge to edge across the covers. ... The title page of the First Folio with the famous engraved portrait of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout The First Folio is the name given by modern scholars to the first published collection of William Shakespeares plays; its actual title is Mr. ... First quarto is a bibliographic term, usually encountered in the study of English literature in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, especially in regard to the early printings of the plays of English Renaissance theatre. ... Second quarto is a bibliographic term, most often encountered in the study of English literature in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, especially in regard to the early printings of the plays of English Renaissance theatre. ... Bad quarto is a term and concept developed by twentieth-century Shakespeare scholars to explain some problems in the early transmission of the texts of Shakespearan works. ...


The superior Q2 called the play The Most Excellent and Lamentable Tragedie of Romeo and Juliet. It was printed in 1599 by Thomas Creede and published by Cuthbert Burby. Q2 is about 800 lines longer than Q1.[15] Its title page describes it as "Newly corrected, augmented and amended". Scholars believe that Q2 was based on Shakespeare's pre-performance draft, (called his foul papers), since there are textual oddities such as variable tags for characters and "false starts" for speeches that were presumably struck through by the author but erroneously preserved by the typesetter. It is a much more complete and reliable text, and was reprinted in 1609 (Q3), 1622 (Q4) and 1637 (Q5).[14] In effect, all later Quartos and Folios of Romeo and Juliet are based on Q2, as are all modern editions since editors believe that any deviations from Q2 in the later editions (whether good or bad) are likely to arise from editors or compositors, not from Shakespeare.[17] Second quarto is a bibliographic term, most often encountered in the study of English literature in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, especially in regard to the early printings of the plays of English Renaissance theatre. ... Thomas Creede (fl. ... Cuthbert Burby (died 1607) was a London bookseller and publisher of the Elizabethan and early Jacobean eras. ... Foul papers is a term that refers to a authors working drafts, most often applied in the study of the plays of Shakespeare and other dramatists of English Renaissance drama. ...


The First Folio text of 1623 was based primarily on Q3, with clarifications and corrections possibly coming from a theatrical promptbook or Q1.[14][18] Other Folio editions of the play were printed in 1632 (F2), 1664 (F3), and 1685 (F4).[19] Modern versions considering several of the Folios and Quartos began printing with Nicholas Rowe's 1709 edition, followed by Alexander Pope's 1723 version. Pope began a tradition of editing the play to add information such as stage directions missing in Q2 by locating them in Q1. This tradition continued late into the Romantic period. Fully annotated editions first appeared in the Victorian period and continue to be produced today, printing the text of the play with footnotes describing the sources and culture behind the play.[20] The title page of the First Folio with the famous engraved portrait of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout The First Folio is the name given by modern scholars to the first published collection of William Shakespeares plays; its actual title is Mr. ... Folio: In bookbinding, a sheet of paper, parchment, or other material folded in half to make two leaves in a codex. ... There have been two people named Nicholas Rowe: Nicholas Rowe (actor) Nicholas Rowe (dramatist) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Alexander Pope (disambiguation). ...


Analysis and criticism

Romeo at Juliet's Deathbed, by Johann Heinrich Füssli
Romeo at Juliet's Deathbed, by Johann Heinrich Füssli

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2584, 144 KB) Description: Title: de: Romeo am Totenbett der Julia Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 143 × 112 cm Country of origin: de: Schweiz und Großbritanien Current location (city): de: Basel Current location (gallery): de: Privatsammlung Other notes... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2584, 144 KB) Description: Title: de: Romeo am Totenbett der Julia Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 143 × 112 cm Country of origin: de: Schweiz und Großbritanien Current location (city): de: Basel Current location (gallery): de: Privatsammlung Other notes... Fuseli talking to Johann Jakob Bodmer, 1778-1781. ...

Dramatic structure

Shakespeare shows his dramatic skill freely in Romeo and Juliet, providing intense moments of shift between comedy and tragedy. Before Mercutio's death in Act three, the play is largely a comedy.[21] After his accidental demise, the play suddenly becomes very serious and takes on more of a tragic tone. Still, the fact that Romeo is banished, rather than executed, offers a hope that things will work out. When Friar Lawrence offers Juliet a plan to reunite her with Romeo the audience still has a reason to believe that all will end well. They are in a "breathless state of suspense" by the opening of the last scene in the tomb: If Romeo is delayed long enough for the Friar to arrive, he and Juliet may yet be saved.[22] This only makes it all the more tragic when everything falls apart in the end.[23]


Shakespeare also uses subplots to offer a clearer view of the actions of the main characters, and provide an axis around which the main plot turns. For example, when the play begins, Romeo is in love with Rosaline, who has refused all of his advances. Romeo's infatuation with her stands in obvious contrast to his later love for Juliet. This provides a comparison through which the audience can see the seriousness of Romeo and Juliet's love and marriage. Paris' love for Juliet also sets up a contrast between Juliet's feelings for him and her feelings for Romeo. The formal language she uses around Paris, as well as the way she talks about him to her Nurse, show that her feelings clearly lie with Romeo. Beyond this, the sub-plot of the Montague-Capulet feud overarches the whole play, providing an atmosphere of hate that is the main contributor to the play's tragic end.[23] A subplot is a series of connected actions within a work of narrative that function separately from the main plot. ...


Language

Shakespeare uses a large variety of poetic forms throughout the play. He begins with a 14-line prologue in the form of a Shakespearean sonnet, spoken by a Chorus. Most of Romeo and Juliet is, however, written in blank verse, and much of it in strict iambic pentameter, with less rhythmic variation than in most of Shakespeare's later plays.[24] In choosing forms, Shakespeare matches the poetry to the character who uses it. Friar Lawrence, for example, uses sermon and sententiae forms, and the Nurse uses a unique blank verse form that closely matches colloquial speech.[25] Each of these forms is also moulded and matched to the emotion of the scene the character occupies. For example, when Romeo talks about Rosaline earlier in the play, he uses the Petrarchan sonnet form. Petrarchan sonnets were often used by men at the time to exaggerate the beauty of women who were impossible for them to attain, as in Romeo's situation with Rosaline. This sonnet form is also used by Lady Capulet to describe Count Paris to Juliet as a handsome man.[26] When Romeo and Juliet meet, the poetic form changes from the Petrarchan (which was becoming archaic in Shakespeare's day) to a then more contemporary sonnet form, using "pilgrims" and "saints" as metaphors.[27] Finally, when the two meet on the balcony, Romeo attempts to use the sonnet form to pledge his love, but Juliet breaks it by saying "Dost thou love me?"[28] By doing this, she searches for true expression, rather than a poetic exaggeration of their love.[29] Juliet uses monosyllabic words with Romeo, but uses formal language with Paris.[30] Other forms in the play include an epithalamium by Juliet, a rhapsody in Mercutio's Queen Mab speech, and an elegy by Paris.[31] Shakespeare saves his prose style most often for the common people in the play, though at times for other characters, such as Mercutio.[32] A prologue (Greek πρόλογος, from προ~, pro~ - fore~, and lógos, word), or rarely prolog, is a prefatory piece of writing, usually composed to introduce a drama. ... The Shakespearean sonnet, also called the Elizabethan or English sonnet, is a sonnet comprising three quatrains and a final couplet in iambic pentameter with the rhyme scheme abab cdcd efef gg. ... Blank verse is a type of poetry, distinguished by having a regular meter, but no rhyme. ... Insert non-formatted text hereIambic pentameter is a meter in poetry. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... Sententiae is a free and open source project, established on April 19, 2003, based on user-edited quotations in all languages. ... Blank verse is a type of poetry, distinguished by having a regular meter, but no rhyme. ... A colloquialism is an informal expression, that is, an expression not used in formal speech or writing. ... A Petrarchan sonnet, also called the Italian sonnet, is a sonnet comprising an octave and a closing sestet. ... Epithalamium (from Greek; epi- upon, and thalamium nuptial chamber) specifically refers to a form of poem that is written for the bride. ... Look up rhapsody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In English folklore, Queen Mab is a fairy. ... For other uses, see Elegy (disambiguation). ...


Themes and motifs

Scholars have found it extremely difficult to assign one specific, over-arching theme to the play. Proposals for a main theme include a discovery by the characters that human beings are neither wholly good nor wholly evil, but instead are more or less alike,[33] awaking out of a dream and into reality, the danger of hasty action, or the power of tragic fate. None of these have widespread support. However, even if an overall theme cannot be found it is clear that the play is full of several small, thematic elements which intertwine in complex ways. Several of those which are most often debated by scholars are discussed below.[34] In literature, a theme is a broad idea in a story, or a message or lesson conveyed by a work. ...


Love

Romeo and Juliet statue in Central Park in New York City.

Romeo and Juliet is sometimes considered to have no unifying theme, save that of young love.[33] In fact, the characters in it have become emblems of all who die young for their lovers. Since it is such an obvious subject of the play, several scholars have explored the language and historical context behind the romance of the play.[35] English-version dvd cover This is a DVD cover. ... English-version dvd cover This is a DVD cover. ... Central Park is a large public, urban park (843 acres, 3. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


On their first meeting, Romeo and Juliet use a form of communication recommended by many etiquette authors in Shakespeare's day: metaphor. By using metaphors of saints and sins, Romeo was able to test Juliet's feelings for him in a non-threatening way. This method was recommended by Baldassare Castiglione (whose works had been translated into English by this time). He pointed out that if a man used a metaphor as an invitation, the woman could pretend she did not understand the man, and the man could take the hint and back away without losing his honour. Juliet, however, makes it clear that she is interested in Romeo by playing along with his metaphor. Later, in the balcony scene, Shakespeare has Romeo overhear Juliet's declaration of love for him. In Brooke's version of the story, her declaration is done in her bedroom, alone. By bringing Romeo into the scene to eavesdrop, Shakespeare breaks from the normal sequence of courtship. Usually, a woman was required to play hard to get, to be sure that her suitor was sincere. Breaking this rule, however, serves to speed along the plot. The lovers are able to skip a lengthy part of wooing, and move on to plain talk about their relationship—developing into an agreement to be married after knowing each other for only one night.[35] In the final suicide scene, there is a contradiction in the message – in the Catholic religion, suicides were often thought to be condemned to hell, whereas people who die to be with their loves under the "Religion of Love" are joined with their loves in paradise. Romeo and Juliet's love seems to be expressing the "Religion of Love" view rather than the Catholic view. Another point is that although their love is passionate, it is only consummated in marriage, which prevents them from losing the audience's sympathy.[36] i love orange pekoe tea!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ... Court of Love in Provence in the 14th Century (after a manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris). ...


The play arguably equates love and sex with death. Throughout the story, both Romeo and Juliet, along with the other characters, fantasize about it as a dark being, often equating it with a lover. Capulet, for example, when he first discovers Juliet's (faked) death, describes it as having deflowered his daughter.[37] Juliet later even compares Romeo to death in an erotic way. One of the strongest examples of this in the play is in Juliet's suicide, when she says, grabbing Romeo's dagger, "O happy dagger! / ...This is thy sheath / there rust, and let me die." The dagger here can be a sort of phallus of Romeo, with Juliet being its sheath in death, a strong sexual symbol.[38] Grim Reaper redirects here. ... Virgin redirects here. ... This article is about the symbol of the erect penis. ...


Fate and chance

""O, I am fortune's fool!"
—Romeo (Romeo and Juliet: III.i.138)

Scholars are divided on the role of fate in the play. No consensus exists on whether the characters are truly fated to die together no matter what, or whether the events take place by a series of unlucky chances. Arguments in favour of fate often refer to the description of the lovers as "star-cross'd".[39] This phrase seems to hint that the stars have predetermined the lovers' future.[40] Another scholar of the fate persuasion, Draper, points out the parallels between the Elizabethan belief in humours and the main characters of the play (for example, Tybalt as a choleric). Interpreting the text in the light of the Elizabethan science of humourism reduces the amount of plot attributed to chance by modern audiences.[41] Still, other scholars see the play as a mere series of unlucky chances—many to such a degree that they do not see it as a tragedy at all, but an emotional melodrama.[41] Nevo believes the high degree to which chance is stressed in the narrative makes Romeo and Juliet a "lesser tragedy" of happenstance, not of character. For example, Romeo's challenging Tybalt is not impulsive, it is, after Mercutio's death, the expected action to take. In this scene, Nevo reads Romeo as being aware of the dangers of flouting social norms, identity and commitments. He makes the choice to kill, not because of a tragic flaw, but because of circumstance.[42] This article is about humors in Greco-Roman medicine. ... It has been suggested that Convention (norm) be merged into this article or section. ... Tragic flaw, derived from the Greek word hamartia, which is also translated in religious works (e. ...


Light and dark

""In Romeo and Juliet...the dominating image is light, every form and manifestation of it; the sun, moon, stars, fire, lightning, the flash of gunpowder, and the reflected light of beauty and of love; while by contrast we have night, darkness, clouds, rain, mist, and smoke.""
—Caroline Spurgeon[43]

Scholars have long noted Shakespeare's widespread use of light and dark imagery throughout the play. The light theme was initially taken to be "symbolic of the natural beauty of young love", an idea beginning in Caroline Spurgeon's work Shakespeare's Imagery and What It Tells Us, although the perceived meaning has since its publication branched in several directions.[42][43] For example, both Romeo and Juliet see the other as light in a surrounding darkness. Romeo describes Juliet as being like the sun,[44] brighter than a torch,[45] a jewel sparkling in the night,[46] and a bright angel among dark clouds.[47] Even when she lies apparently dead in the tomb, he says her "beauty makes / This vault a feasting presence full of light."[48] Juliet describes Romeo as "day in night" and "Whiter than snow upon a raven's back."[49][50] This contrast of light and dark can be expanded as symbols—contrasting love and hate, youth and age in a metaphoric way.[42] Sometimes these intertwining metaphors create dramatic irony. For example, Romeo and Juliet's love is a light in the midst of the darkness of the hate around them, but all of their activity together is done in night and darkness, while all of the feuding is done in broad daylight. This paradox of imagery adds atmosphere to the moral dilemma facing the two lovers: loyalty to family or loyalty to love. At the end of the story, when the morning is gloomy and the sun hiding its face for sorrow, light and dark have returned to their proper places, the outward darkness reflecting the true, inner darkness of the family feud out of sorrow for the lovers. All characters now recognize their folly in light of recent events, and things return to the natural order, thanks to the love of Romeo and Juliet.[43] The "light" theme in the play is also heavily connected to the theme of time, since light was a convenient way for Shakespeare to express the passage of time through descriptions of the sun, moon, and stars.[51] Imagery is any of the five senses (sight, touch, smell, hearing, and taste). ... Ironic redirects here. ... An ethical dilemma is a situation that will often involve an apparent conflict between moral imperatives, in which to obey one would result in transgressing another. ...


Time

""These times of woe afford no time to woo.""
—Paris (Romeo and Juliet: III.iv.8–9)

Time plays an important role in the language and plot of the play. Both Romeo and Juliet struggle to maintain an imaginary world void of time in the face of the harsh realities that surround them. For instance, when Romeo attempts to swear his love to Juliet by the moon, Juliet tells him not to, as it is known to be inconstant over time, and she does not desire this of him. From the very beginning, the lovers are designated as "star-cross'd"[52] referring to an astrologic belief which is heavily connected to time. Stars were thought to control the fates of men, and as time passed, stars would move along their course in the sky, also charting the course of human lives below. Romeo speaks of a foreboding he feels in the stars' movements early in the play, and when he learns of Juliet's death, he defies the stars' course for him.[53][41] Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ...


A "haste theme" can be considered as fundamental to the play.[51] For example, the action of Romeo and Juliet spans a period of four to six days, in contrast to Brooke's poem's spanning nine months. Scholars such as Tanselle believe that time was "especially important to Shakespeare" in this play, as he used references to "short-time" for the young lovers as opposed to references to "long-time" for the "older generation" to highlight "a headlong rush towards doom".[51] Romeo and Juliet fight time to make their love to last forever. In the end, the only way they seem to defeat time is through a noteworthy death which makes them immortal through art.[54]


Time is heavily connected to the theme of light and dark as well. The play is said in the Prologue to be about two hours long, creating a problem for any playwright wishing to express longer amounts of time.[54] In Shakespeare's day, plays were often performed at noon in broad daylight. This forced the playwright to use words to create the illusion of day and night in his plays. Shakespeare uses references to the night and day, the stars, the moon, and the sun to create this illusion. He also has characters frequently refer to days of the week and specific hours to help the audience understand that time has passed in the story. All in all, no fewer than 103 references to time are found in the play, adding to this illusion of its passage.[55]


Context and interpretation

Psychoanalytic

Psychoanalytic critics focus largely on Romeo's relationships with Rosaline and Juliet, as well as the looming image of inevitable death.[56] Romeo and Juliet is not considered to be extremely psychologically complex, and sympathetic psychoanalytic readings of the play make the tragic male experience equivalent with sicknesses.[57] The first line of criticism argues that Romeo is in love with Rosaline and Juliet because she is the all-present, all-powerful mother which fills a void. According to this theory, this void was caused by the negligence of his mother. Another theory argues that the feud between the families provides a source of phallic expression for the male Capulets and Montagues. This sets up a system where patriarchal order is in power. When the sons are married, rather than focusing on the wife, they are still owed an obligation to their father through the feud. This conflict between obligation to the father (the family name) and the wife (the feminine), determines the course of the play. Some critics argue this hatred is the sole cause of Romeo and Juliet's passion for each other. The fear of death and the knowledge of the danger of their relationship is in this view channelled into a romantic passion.[56] Psychoanalytic literary criticism is literary criticism which, in method, concept, theory or form, is influenced by the tradition of psychoanalysis begun by Sigmund Freud. ...

Feminist literary critics have pointed out Juliet's dependence on male characters, such as Friar Laurence and Romeo.
Feminist literary critics have pointed out Juliet's dependence on male characters, such as Friar Laurence and Romeo.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Feminist

Feminist critics argue that the blame for the family feud lies in Verona's patriarchal society. In this view, the strict, masculine code of violence imposed on Romeo is the main force driving the tragedy to its end. When Tybalt kills Mercutio, for example, Romeo shifts into this violent mode, regretting that Juliet has made him so "effeminate".[58] In this view, the younger males "become men" by engaging in violence on behalf of their fathers, or in the case of the servants, their masters. The feud is also linked to male virility, as the joke about the maid's heads shows.[59] Juliet also submits to a female code of docility by allowing others, such as the Friar, to solve her problems for her. Other critics, such as Dympna Callaghan, look at the play's feminism from a more historicist angle. They take into account the fact that the play is written during a time when the patriarchal order was being challenged by several forces, most notably the rise of Puritanism. When Juliet dodges her father's attempt to force her to marry a man she has no feeling for, she is successfully challenging the patriarchal order in a way that would not have been possible at an earlier time.[60] Feminist literary criticism is literary criticism informed by feminist theory, or by the politics of feminism more broadly. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Feminists redirects here. ... Historicism is a term which applies to a number of theories of culture or historical development which place the greatest weight on two factors: that there is an organic succession of developments, that local conditions and peculiarities influence the results in a decisive way It can be contrasted with reductionist... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ...


Gender studies

Gender studies critics largely question the sexuality of two characters, Mercutio and Romeo. From the perspective of this form of criticism, the difference between the two characters' friendship and sexual love is discussed heavily in the play. Mercutio's friendship with Romeo, for example, leads to several friendly conversations, including ones on the subject of Romeo's phallus. This would seem to suggest traces of homoeroticism.[61] Romeo, as well, admits traces of the same in the manner of his love for Rosaline and Juliet. Rosaline, for example, is distant and unavailable, bringing no hope of offspring. As Benvolio argues, she is best replaced by someone who will reciprocate. Shakespeare's procreation sonnets describe another young man who, like Romeo, is having trouble creating offspring and who is homosexual. Gender critics believe that Shakespeare may have used Rosaline as a way to express homosexual problems of procreation in an acceptable way. In this view, when Juliet says "...that which we call a rose [or Rosaline] / By any other name would smell as sweet",[62] she may be raising the question of whether there is any difference between the beauty of a man and the beauty of a woman.[63] Gender studies is a theoretical work in the social sciences or humanities that focuses on issues of sex and gender in language and society, and often addresses related issues including racial and ethnic oppression, postcolonial societies, and globalization. ... This article is about the symbol of the erect penis. ... An example of lesbian erotica by Édouard-Henri Avril. ... The term procreation sonnets is a name given to Shakespearean sonnets numbers I to XVII. They are refered to as the procreation sonnets as they all argue that the young man to whom they refer should marry and father children, hence, procreate. ...


Influences

Romeo and Juliet has had a strong influence on subsequent literature. For example, until this play romance had not been viewed as a worthy topic for tragedy.[64] The play directly influenced several literary works, both in Shakespeare's own day through the works of Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher,[65] and later works such as those of Charles Dickens.[66] For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... Sketch of Francis Beaumont Francis Beaumont (1584 – March 6, 1616) was a dramatist in the English Renaissance theatre, most famous for his collaborations with John Fletcher. ... John Fletcher (1579-1625) was a Jacobean playwright. ... Dickens redirects here. ...


The play has also influenced world culture, specifically with regard to romance and relationships. For example, the word "Romeo" has become synonymous with "male lover" in English, especially one who goes to great lengths for love.[67] The juliet cap, worn either close to the scalp as a small headpiece or as a wedding headband to hold the bridal veil, was so named because of the actresses who wore it on stage in performances of the play.[68][69] It has inspired the name of a (later discredited[70]) psychological problem between couples, called "the Romeo and Juliet Effect". This title is used to describe relationships which suffer divisions because of hatred between partners' parents.[71] More recently, scholars have described the play as having a unique adaptive and iconic ability, causing its characters to transcend the original texts and project themselves into the modern world. For example, Romeo and Juliet are mentioned in a song by Sublime titled Romeo, which portrays the Montague as a modern character pining for love in a modern way. Both characters have become symbols of love, teenage struggles, resistance to authority, and doers of the forbidden. Songs such as Romeo take advantage of the influence these characters have had by communicating through them to achieve their ends.[72] A Western bride in a white wedding dress at the altar. ... Sublime was a American band that originated in Long Beach, California. ...


Performances and adaptations

Richard Burbage, probably one of the first actors to portray Romeo.
Richard Burbage, probably one of the first actors to portray Romeo.[73]

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Unknown artist: Portrait of Richard Burbage, Dulwich Picture Gallery, London Richard Burbage (July 7, 1568 – March 13, 1619) was an actor and theatre owner. ... Romeo Montague is the male protagonist featured in William Shakespeares tragic play Romeo and Juliet. ...

Shakespeare's day

Romeo and Juliet ranks with Hamlet as one of Shakespeare's most-performed plays.[74] Its many adaptations have made it one of his most enduring and famous stories.[74] Even in Shakespeare's lifetime it was extremely popular. Gary Taylor measures it as the sixth most popular of Shakespeare's plays, in the period after the death of Marlowe and Kyd but before the ascendancy of Jonson during which Shakespeare was London's dominant playwright.[75] The exact date of the first performance of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, however, is unknown. The First Quarto, printed in 1597, says that "it hath been often (and with great applause) plaid publiquely", setting the first performance prior to that date. The Lord Chamberlain's Men were certainly the first to perform it. Besides their strong connections with Shakespeare, the Second Quarto actually names one of its actors, Will Kemp, instead of Peter in a line in Act five. Richard Burbage was probably the first Romeo, being the company's leading actor, and Master Robert Goffe (a male) the first Juliet.[73] For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... This article is about the English dramatist. ... Thomas Kyd (1558 - 1594) was an English dramatist, the author of The Spanish Tragedy, and one of the most important figures in the development of Elizabethan drama. ... For other persons of the same name, see Ben Johnson (disambiguation). ... The Lord Chamberlains Men was the playing company that William Shakespeare worked for as actor and playwright for most of his career. ... William Kempe (also spelled Kemp) (fl. ... Unknown artist: Portrait of Richard Burbage, Dulwich Picture Gallery, London Richard Burbage (July 7, 1568 – March 13, 1619) was an actor and theatre owner. ... A leading actor, leading actress, or simply lead, plays the role of the protagonist in a film or play. ...

Mary Saunderson, probably the first woman to play Juliet professionally.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 474 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (954 × 1207 pixel, file size: 273 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A 17th century image of Mary Saunderson, an English actress. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 474 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (954 × 1207 pixel, file size: 273 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A 17th century image of Mary Saunderson, an English actress. ... Mary Saunderson Mary Saunderson (d. ...

The Restoration and the 18th century

All theatres were closed down by the puritan government during the Commonwealth. Upon the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, two patent companies (the King's Company and the Duke's Company) were established, and the existing theatrical repertoire divided between them.[76] Sir William Davenant of the Duke's Company staged a 1662 production in which Henry Harris played Romeo, Thomas Betterton was Mercutio, and Betterton's wife Mary Saunderson played Juliet: probably the first woman to play the role professionally.[77][78] This play was criticized by Samuel Pepys in 1662 as "the worst that ever I heard in my life."[79] Versions immediately following this were changed to tragicomedies, where the two lovers did not die in the end.[78] For example, Thomas Otway's adaptation The History and Fall of Caius Marius, one of the more extreme of the Restoration versions of Shakespeare, debuted in 1680. The scene is shifted from Renaissance Verona to ancient Rome; Romeo is Marius, Juliet is Lavinia, the feud is between patricians and plebeians; Juliet/Lavinia wakes from her potion before Romeo/Marius dies. Otway's version was a hit, and was acted for the next seventy years. It altered the sexual language of the play as well, toning down the Queen Mab speech, for example.[78] Theophilus Cibber mounted his own adaptation in 1744, followed by David Garrick's in 1748. Both Cibber and Garrick used variations on Otway's innovation in the tomb scene.[80] These versions also eliminated elements deemed inappropriate for the time. For example, Garrick's version transferred all language describing Rosaline to Juliet, in order to heighten the idea of faithfulness and downplay the love-at-first-sight theme.[81] In 1750 a "Battle of the Romeos" began, with Spranger Barry and Susannah Maria Arne (Mrs. Theophilus Cibber) at Covent Garden versus David Garrick and George Anne Bellamy at Drury Lane.[82] For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... The English Interregnum was the period of parliamentary and military rule in the land occupied by modern-day England and Wales after the English Civil War. ... For other uses, see Restoration. ... The Kings Company was one of two enterprises granted the rights to mount theatrical productions in London at the start of the English Restoration. ... The Dukes Company was one of the two theatre companies (the other being the Kings Company) that were chartered by King Charles II at the start of the English Restoration era, when the London theatres re-opened after their eighteen-year closure (1642–60) during the English Civil... William Davenant Sir William Davenant (February 28, 1606 - April 7, 1668), also spelled DAvenant, was an English poet and playwright. ... Sir Henry Harris (detail of portrait by Michael Noakes) Professor Sir Henry Harris, FRS, (28 January 1925 -- ) is an Australian-born professor of medicine at Oxford University, now retired, who led pioneering work on cancer and human genetics in the 1960s. ... Thomas Betterton (c. ... Mary Saunderson Mary Saunderson (d. ... Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. ... Thomas Otway (March 3, 1652 - April, 1685) was an English dramatist of the Restoration period. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... In English folklore, Queen Mab is a fairy. ... Theophilus Cibber in the role of Ancient Pistol. ... David Garrick by Thomas Gainsborough. ... Spranger Barry (November 23, 1719 – January 10, 1777), British actor, was born in Dublin, the son of a silversmith, to whose business he was brought up. ... Susannah Maria Arne (1714-1766) was a celebrated English singer and actress, the sister of the composer, Thomas Arne. ... The Floral Hall of the Royal Opera House The Royal Opera House is a performing arts venue in London. ... David Garrick by Thomas Gainsborough. ... George Anne Bellamy (c. ... Currently home to Lord Of The Rings, the musical. ...


19th century theatre

The American Cushman sisters, Charlotte and Susan, as Romeo and Juliet in 1846
The American Cushman sisters, Charlotte and Susan, as Romeo and Juliet in 1846

Garrick's altered version of the play was very popular, and ran for nearly a century.[78] Not until 1845 did Shakespeare's original return to the stage in the United States (with the sisters Charlotte and Susan Cushman as Romeo and Juliet),[83][84] and in 1847 in Britain (Samuel Phelps at Sadler's Wells).[85] Cushman actively reverted Garrick's additions and changes to the original, and adhered to Shakespeare's version, beginning a string of eighty-four performances. Her portrayal of Romeo was considered genius by many, as she called more attention to Romeo's character than other's, making the play largely his tragedy. Cushman's success broke the Garrick tradition and paved the way for later plays.[78] Henry Irving's 1882 production at the Lyceum Theatre is considered an archetype of his "pictorial" style, placing the action on elaborate sets. Irving himself played Romeo, and Ellen Terry played Juliet.[86] In 1895, actor Forbes-Robertson took over for Irving, and laid the groundwork for a more natural portrayal of Shakespeare that remains popular today. Forbes-Robertson avoided the showiness of Irving and instead portrayed a down-to-earth Romeo, expressing the poetic dialogue as realistic prose and avoiding melodramatic flourish. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 497 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1341 × 1616 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 497 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1341 × 1616 pixel, file size: 1. ... Charlotte Saunders Cushman (b. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Charlotte Saunders Cushman (b. ... Samuel Phelps (1804-1878) was an English actor, born in Devonport. ... Sadlers Wells theatre, 2005 Sadlers Wells Theatre is located on Rosebery Avenue, Clerkenwell, London. ... Sir Henry Irving, as Hamlet, in an 1893 illustration from The Idler magazine John Henry Brodribb (February 6, 1838 – October 13, 1905), knighted in 1895, as Sir Henry Irving, was one of the most famous stage actors of the Victorian era. ... The Lyceum Theatre is a theatre located in London, on Wellington Street near Covent Garden in the West End. ... Dame Ellen Terry, GBE (February 27, 1848 – July 21, 1928) was an English stage actress. ... Sir Johnston Forbes-Robertson (born January 16, 1853, London - died November 6, 1937, St. ...


Meanwhile, American actors began performing the play, eventually rivalling their British counterparts with the likes of Edwin Booth (brother to John Wilkes Booth) and Mary McVicker as Romeo and Juliet. Booth's production in 1869 is signficant in several respects. First, Edwin Booth chose the play to open his spectacular new theatre called Booth's Theatre on the southeast corner of Twenty-third Street at Sixth Avenue, with McVicker (soon to be his wife) getting top billing as Juliet (in the list of characters). The sumptuous theatre that Booth built, with European-style stage machinery such as the New York Theatre had never seen, and built of granite with an air conditioning system unique in all of the city, opened on February 3, 1869, with one of the most elaborage productions of Romeo and Juliet ever seen in America, according to some reports.[87] Second, the Booth-McVicker Romeo and Juliet was quite possibly one of the most popular productions of Romeo and Juliet in America up till then, running for over six weeks, and earning upwards of sixty thousand dollars (both figures were extraordinary for such productions in the mid 19th century.)[88] Also noteworthy was a statement, on the program of Booth's production that read: "The program also noted that "The tragedy will be produced in strict accordance with historical propriety, in every respect, following closely the text of Shakespeare.[89] This suggests that other versions of Romeo and Juliet were common, such as the hundred and twenty year-old but still popular adaptation by David Garrick. Edwin Booth as Hamlet. ... John Wilkes Booth (May 10, 1838 – April 26, 1865) assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Fords Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865. ... Edwin Booth as Hamlet. ... David Garrick by Thomas Gainsborough. ...


The play found popularity throughout continental Europe, as well.[90]


20th century theatre

John Gielgud among the more famous 20th-century actors to play Romeo, Friar Laurence and Mercutio on stage
John Gielgud among the more famous 20th-century actors to play Romeo, Friar Laurence and Mercutio on stage

In one of the most notable 20th-century performances, staged by John Gielgud at the New Theatre in 1935, Gielgud and Laurence Olivier played the roles of Romeo and Mercutio, exchanging roles six weeks into the run, with Peggy Ashcroft as Juliet.[91] Gielgud used a scholarly combination of Q1 and Q2 texts, omitting only minor portions of the originals, such as the second Chorus. He also organized the set and costumes to match as closely as possible to the Elizabethan period. His efforts were a huge success at the box office, and set the stage for increased historical realism in later plays.[92] Meanwhile, Peter Brook's 1947 version was the beginning of a different style of Romeo and Juliet performances. Brook was less concerned with realism, and more concerned with translating the play into a form that could communicate with the more modern world. He argued, "A production is only correct at the moment of its correctness, and only good at the moment of its success."[93] Other notable 20th-century productions include Guthrie McClintic's 1934 Broadway staging in which Katharine Cornell had a triumph as Juliet opposite Basil Rathbone as Romeo and Edith Evans (who also played the role in the Gielgud production) as the Nurse. Cornell later revived the production with Maurice Evans as Romeo and Ralph Richardson as Mercutio, both making their Broadway debuts. Franco Zeffirelli mounted a legendary staging for the Old Vic in 1960 with John Stride and Judi Dench that served as the basis for his 1968 film.[94] Zeffirelli borrowed from Brook's ideas, altogether removing nearly a third of the play's text in order to make it more accessible to a contemporary audience. He also paid close attention to detail, making sure that nothing which would add to the realism of the performance was neglected. Zeffirelli's performances were so successful worldwide that he made a film of the play in 1968.[93] Public domain image from library of Congress [1] taken by Carl Van Vechten in 1936 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Public domain image from library of Congress [1] taken by Carl Van Vechten in 1936 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Sir Arthur John Gielgud, OM, CH (14 April 1904 – 21 May 2000), known as Sir John Gielgud, was an English theatre and film actor. ... Sir Arthur John Gielgud, OM, CH (14 April 1904 – 21 May 2000), known as Sir John Gielgud, was an English theatre and film actor. ... Noël Coward Theatre from a postcard, circa 1905. ... Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM, (IPA: ; 22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... Dame Peggy Ashcroft DBE (22 December 1907 – 14 June 1991) was an acclaimed Academy Award-winning English actress. ... Elizabethan redirects here. ... Look up realism, realist, realistic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the British politician, see Peter Brooke. ... Gutherie McClintic and wife Katharine Cornell taken in 1954. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... Katharine Cornell, as Lucrece Katharine Cornell (February 16, 1893-June 9, 1974) was born on February 16, 1893 (although most sources cite the incorrect year of 1898) in Berlin, Germany to American parents, and raised in Buffalo, New York. ... Basil Rathbone (13 June 1892 – 21 July 1967), Military Cross, was a British actor most famous for his portrayal of Sherlock Holmes and of suave villains in such swashbuckler films as The Mark of Zorro, Captain Blood, and The Adventures of Robin Hood. ... Blue plaque at 109 Ebury Street, London Dame Edith Mary Evans DBE (8 February 1888–14 October 1976) was an Academy Award nominated and Golden Globe award winning actress. ... Sir Arthur John Gielgud, OM, CH (14 April 1904 – 21 May 2000), known as Sir John Gielgud, was an English theatre and film actor. ... Maurice Evans (born June 3, 1901 in Dorset; died March 12, 1989 in East Sussex) was a British-born actor who became a US citizen in 1941. ... Sir Ralph David Richardson (19 December 1902 – 10 October 1983) was an English actor, one of a group of theatrical knights of the mid-20th century who, though more closely associated with the stage, did their best to make the transition to film. ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... Franco Zeffirelli (born Gianfranco Corsi on February 12, 1923), is an Italian film director. ... The exterior of the Old Vic from the corner of Baylis Road and Waterloo Road. ... John Stride (born July 11, 1936) is an English actor best known for his television work during the 1970s. ... Dame Judith Olivia Dench, CH, DBE, FRSA, (born 9 December 1934), usually known as Dame Judi Dench, is an Academy Award, Golden Globe, Tony, three-time BAFTA, and six-time Laurence Olivier Award-winning English actress. ... Romeo and Juliet (1968) is an Oscar-winning movie adaptation of the William Shakespeare play Romeo and Juliet. ...


In New York, Romeo and Juliet became the inaugural production of the Riverside Shakespeare Company of New York City, an Equity theatre company based on Manhattan's Upper West Side, which opened with a tour of Romeo and Juliet throughout the parks of Manhattan in the summer of 1977, leading eventually to the creation of The Shakespeare Center on Manhattan's Upper West Side.[95] Eight years later the company mounted a second outdoor production of this play, sponsored by Joseph Papp and the New York Shakespeare Festival on an expanded tour to the five boroughs of New York City.[96] // The Riverside Shakespeare Company of New York City was founded in 1977 as an Equity theatre company on the Upper West Side of New York City, by W. Stuart McDowell and Gloria Skurski. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Actors Equity Association (AEA), commonly referred to as Actors Equity, is an American labor union. ... The Upper West Side is a neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan in New York City that lies between Central Park and the Hudson River above West 59th Street. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... The Upper West Side is a neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan in New York City that lies between Central Park and the Hudson River above West 59th Street. ... Joseph Papp (1921 - 1991) was an American theatre producer and director. ... New York Shakespeare Festival is the traditional name of a sequence of shows organized by the Public Theater in New York City, most often being held at the Delacorte Theater in Central Park. ...


More recent professional performances have grown ever more adaptive to the contemporary world. For example, the prestigious Royal Shakespeare Company developed a 1986 version of the play set in present-day Verona, Italy. Switchblades replace swords, feasts and balls become drug-laden rock parties, and Romeo commits suicide by hypodermic needle.[97] Later, in 1997, the Folger Shakespeare Theatre produced another modern version, this time set in a typical suburban world. Romeo sneaks into the Capulet barbecue to meet Juliet, and Juliet discovers Tybalt's death while in class at school.[98] Other contemporary performances give the play a well-known historical setting, enabling audiences to understand, and perhaps to reflect upon, the underlying conflicts. For example, adaptations have been set in the midst of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict,[99] in the apartheid era in South Africa,[100] and in the aftermath of the Pueblo Revolt.[101] Among the most famous of such adaptations is Peter Ustinov's 1956 comic adaptation, Romanoff and Juliet, set in a fictional mid-European country in the depths of the Cold War.[102] A mock-Victorian revisionist version of Romeo and Juliet 's final scene (with a happy ending, Romeo, Juliet, Mercutio and Paris restored to life, and Benvolio revealing that he is Paris's love, Benvolia, in disguise) was also included as the conclusion of Part One of the 1980 stage-play The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby. Royal Shakespeare Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon The Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC) is a British theatre company. ... Different bevels on hypodermic needles. ... Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Arab Palestinians. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... 1680-The Pueblo Revolt, by George Chacón, Taos Mural Project The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 or Popés Rebellion was an uprising of many pueblos of the Pueblo people against Spanish colonists in the New Spain province of New Mexico. ... Sir Peter Alexander Ustinov, CBE (IPA: ; April 16, 1921 – March 28, 2004), born Peter Alexander Baron von Ustinov, was an Academy Award-winning English actor, writer, dramatist and raconteur of French, Italian, Swiss, Russian, German and Ethiopian ancestry. ... Romanoff and Juliet is a play by Peter Ustinov. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...

Several ballet versions of the play have developed, including this one starring Tamara Karsavina and Serge Lifar.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Ballet, opera and musicals

At least 24 operas have been based on Romeo and Juliet.[103] The earliest, Romeo und Julie (1776), a Singspiel by Georg Benda, omits much of the action of the play and most its characters, and has a happy ending. It is occasionally revived. The best-known is Gounod's Roméo et Juliette (1867, libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré[104]), a critical triumph when first performed[105] and frequently revived today. Bellini's I Capuleti e i Montecchi is also revived from time to time, but has sometimes been judged unfavourably because of its perceived liberties with Shakespeare; however, Bellini and his librettist, Felice Romani, worked from Italian sources – principally Romani's libretto for an opera by Nicola Vaccai – rather than directly adapting Shakespeare's play.[106] For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Singspiel (song-play) is a form of German-language music drama, similar to modern musical theater, though it is also referred to as a type of operetta or opera. ... Georg Anton [Jiří Antonin] Benda (June 30, 1722–November 6, 1795) was a Bohemian-German kapellmeister and composer. ... Charles Gounod. ... Roméo et Juliette (Romeo and Juliet) is an opera in five acts by Charles Gounod to a French libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré, based on the play by Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare. ... Jules Barbier (8 March 1825 - 16 January 1901) was a French poet, writer and opera librettist who often wrote in collaboration with Michel Carré. His writings include: Bizet - La Guzla de lÉmir (1-act comic opera; never performed and probably destroyed) Gounod - Faust, Romeo et Juliette, Le Médecin... Michel Carré (1822-1872) was a prolific French librettist. ... Vincenzo Bellini Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini (November 3, 1801 – September 23, 1835) was an Italian opera composer. ... Category: Possible copyright violations ... Felice Romani (1788 - 1865) was an Italian poet and scholar of literature and mythology who wrote many librettos for the opera composers Donizetti and Bellini. ... Nicola Vaccai, (born in Tolentino, 15 March, 1790 - died in Pesaro, 5 or 6 August 1848), was an Italian composer, particularly of operas, and a singing teacher. ...


The play has also had a number of musical theatre adaptations, the most famous of which is West Side Story with music by Leonard Bernstein and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim. It débuted on Broadway in 1957 and in London's West End in 1958, and became a popular film in 1961. This version updated the setting to mid-20th century New York City, and the warring families to ethnic gangs.[107] Other musical adaptations include Terrence Mann's 1999 rock musical William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, co-written with Jerome Korman,[108] Gérard Presgurvic's 2001 Roméo et Juliette, de la Haine à l'Amour and Riccardo Cocciante's 2007 Giulietta & Romeo.[109] The Black Crook (1866), considered by some historians to be the first musical[1] Musical theatre is a form of theatre combining music, songs, spoken dialogue and dance. ... This article is about the musical. ... Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... Stephen Joshua Sondheim (b. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Terrence Mann (born Terrance Vaughan Mann on July 1, 1951 in Kentucky) is a prominent singer and actor who has dominated the Broadway stage for the past two decades. ... Roméo et Juliette: de la Haine à lAmour is a French musical based on William Shakespeares play Romeo and Juliet, with music and lyrics by Gérard Presgurvic. ... Riccardo Cocciante (born 1946, Vietnam) is a French-Italian singer. ... Giulietta & Romeo is an Italian musical based on William Shakespeares play Romeo and Juliet, with music by Riccardo Cocciante and lyrics by Pasquale Panella. ...


Several ballet versions have also been composed; the best-known is Prokofiev's Romeo and Juliet, first performed in 1938.[110] This version is perhaps the most well known story ballet still performed to this day.[citation needed] This Stalin-approved version is dramatically different than what Prokofiev originally intended to create.[citation needed] For other uses, see Ballet (disambiguation). ... Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (Russian: , Sergej Sergejevič Prokofijev; April 27 (April 151 O.S.), 1891–March 5, 1953) was a Russian and Soviet composer who mastered numerous musical genres and came to be admired as one of the greatest composers of the 20th century. ... Romeo and Juliet is a ballet by Sergei Prokofiev based on Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet. ...


Roméo et Juliette by Berlioz is a "symphonie dramatique", a large scale work in three parts for mixed voices, chorus and orchestra, premiered in 1839.[111] The Romeo and Juliet Fantasy Overture (1869, revised 1870 and 1880), by Tchaikovsky is a long symphonic poem, containing the famous melody known as the "love theme".[112] Roméo et Juliette is a symphonie dramatique, a large scale work in French for mixed voices and orchestra, by French composer Hector Berlioz. ... Painting of Berlioz by Gustave Courbet, 1850. ... Romeo and Juliet is a musical work by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, subtitled Overture-Fantasy. ... “Tchaikovsky” redirects here. ... A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music, in one movement, in which some extra-musical programme provides a narrative or illustrative element. ...


Screen

Main article: Romeo and Juliet on screen

Shakespeare's play has been filmed numerous times.[113] In putting Romeo and Juliet on screen, the director must set the action in a social context that illuminates the characters, and mediates between the Renaissance play and modern audiences.[114] George Cukor, in 1970, commented on why his "stately" and "stodgy" 1936 film had not stood the test of time, saying that if he had the opportunity to make it again he would "get the garlic and the Mediterranean into it".[114] Yet that performance (featuring Norma Shearer and Leslie Howard, with a combined age over 75, as the teenage lovers) had garnered no fewer than four Oscar nominations.[114] Leonard Whiting as Romeo and Olivia Hussey as Juliet in Franco Zeffirellis 1968 film version. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... The social environment is the direct influence of a group of individuals and their contributions to this environment, as both groups and individuals who are in frequent communication with each other within their cultural or socio-economical strata, which create role identity(-ies) and guide the individuals self (sociology... George Dewey Cukor (July 7, 1899 – January 24, 1983) was an American film director. ... The 1936 movie adaptation of Shakespeares play, Romeo and Juliet was directed by George Cukor, with a screenplay written by Talbot Jennings. ... Edith Norma Shearer (August 10, 1902 (some sources indicate 1900) – June 12, 1983) was an Academy Award-winning Canadian-American actress. ... Leslie Howard (April 3, 1893 - June 1, 1943) was an English stage and Academy Award nominated film actor. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ...


The films' openings highlight each director's care to establish authenticity: Cukor introduces his characters in a shot of a scene played on a proscenium stage; Renato Castellani's 1954 version opens with John Gielgud, famous as a stage Romeo, as the Prologue in Elizabethan doublet and hose; Zeffirelli sets his scene with an overview of Verona, and his Prologue, in voiceover, was another famous stage Romeo: Laurence Olivier. In contrast, Romeo + Juliet in 1996 was targeted at a young audience, and opens with images of television and print journalism.[114] The interior of the Auditorium Building in Chicago built in 1887. ... Renato Castellani (September 4, 1913 - December 28, 1985) is an Italian film director and writer. ... Romeo and Juliet is a 1954 film adaptation of William Shakespeares play. ... Sir Arthur John Gielgud, OM, CH (14 April 1904 – 21 May 2000), known as Sir John Gielgud, was an English theatre and film actor. ... Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM, (IPA: ; 22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... William Shakespeares Romeo + Juliet is a 1996 American film adaptation of William Shakespeares play Romeo and Juliet. ...


A particular difficulty for the screen-writer arises towards the end of the fourth act, where Shakespeare's play requires considerable compression to be effective on the big screen, without giving the impression of "cutting to the chase".[115] In Franco Zeffirelli's 1968 version, Juliet's return home from the Friar's cell, her submission to her father and the preparation for the wedding are drastically abbreviated, and similarly the tomb scene is cut short: Paris does not appear at all, and Benvolio (in the Balthazar role) is sent away but is not threatened.[115] In Baz Luhrmann's Romeo + Juliet, the screenplay allows Juliet to witness Romeo's death, and the role of the watch is cut, permitting Friar Lawrence to remain with Juliet and to be taken by surprise by her sudden suicide.[115] Franco Zeffirelli (born Gianfranco Corsi on February 12, 1923), is an Italian film director. ... Romeo and Juliet (1968) is an Oscar-winning movie adaptation of the William Shakespeare play Romeo and Juliet. ... Baz Luhrmann (born Mark Anthony Luhrmann on September 17, 1962) is an Oscar and Golden Globe-nominated Australian film director, screenwriter, and producer. ... William Shakespeares Romeo + Juliet is a 1996 American film adaptation of William Shakespeares play Romeo and Juliet. ...


In addition, several re-workings of the story have also been filmed. Shakespeare in Love (1998) tells the story of how Shakespeare came up with the play, placing him in the midst of his own tragic romance as he writes it. The movie creates other parallels to the play as well, such as a quarrel between two playhouses, The Curtain and The Rose, and an antagonist with similarities to both Count Paris and Tybalt.[116] Romeo Must Die (2000) uses elements of the plot to introduce Jet Li to an American audience, with Asian Americans as Montagues and African Americans as Capulets.[117] Disney's High School Musical (2006), also loosely adapts the Romeo and Juliet story, placing the two young lovers in rival high school cliques instead of feuding families.[118] Shakespeare in Love is an award-winning 1998 romantic comedy film. ... , The Rose was an Elizabethan theatre. ... Romeo Must Die (2000) is an American film, an adaptation loosely based on Romeo and Juliet, directed by Andrzej Bartkowiak. ... Jet Li (in Mandarin: 李连杰 (simplified) or 李連傑 (traditional), Lǐ Liánjié) (born April 26, 1963) is a Chinese martial artist, actor, Wushu champion, and international film star. ... For other uses, see High School Musical (disambiguation). ...


References

Notes

All references to Romeo and Juliet, unless otherwise specified, are taken from the Arden Shakespeare second edition (Gibbons, 1980) based on the Q1 test of 1599, with elements from Q2 of 1597. Under their referencing system, which uses Roman numerals, II.ii.33 means act II (two), scene ii (two), line 33. Where text refers to other play sources, the source is indicated.
  1. ^ Roberts (1902: 41–44).
  2. ^ Keeble (1980: 18).
  3. ^ a b Moore (1937: 38–44).
  4. ^ Doran (1954: 132); Gibbons (1980: 32–33).
  5. ^ a b Hosley (1965: 168).
  6. ^ a b Gibbons (1980: 34).
  7. ^ Moore (1930: 264–277).
  8. ^ Furness (1963).
  9. ^ Gibbons, 36–37.
  10. ^ Romeo and Juliet: I.iii.23.
  11. ^ Gibbons (1980: 26-27).
  12. ^ Gibbons (1980: 29-31). As well as A Midsummer Night's Dream, this source draws parallels with Love's Labour's Lost and Richard II.
  13. ^ Gibbons (1980: 29).
  14. ^ a b c Spencer (1967: 284).
  15. ^ a b Halio (1998: 1).
  16. ^ Gibbons (1980: 26).
  17. ^ Halio (1998: 2).
  18. ^ Gibbons (1980: 21).
  19. ^ Gibbons (1980: ix).
  20. ^ Halio (1998: 8–9).
  21. ^ Shapiro (1964: 498–501)
  22. ^ Bonnard (1951: 319–327).
  23. ^ a b Halio (1998: 20–30).
  24. ^ Halio (1998: 51).
  25. ^ Halio (1998: 51).
  26. ^ Halio (1998: 47-48).
  27. ^ Halio (1998: 48–49).
  28. ^ Romeo and Juliet: II.ii.90
  29. ^ Halio (1998: 49–50).
  30. ^ Levin (1960: 3–11).
  31. ^ Halio (1998: 51-52).
  32. ^ Halio (1998: 52–55).
  33. ^ a b Bowling (1949: 208–220).
  34. ^ Halio (1998: 65).
  35. ^ a b Honegger (2006: 73–88).
  36. ^ Siegel (1961: 371–392).
  37. ^ Romeo and Juliet: II.v.38–42
  38. ^ MacKenzie (2007: 22–42).
  39. ^ Romeo and Juliet, Prologue
  40. ^ Evans (1950: 841–865).
  41. ^ a b c Draper (1939: 16–34).
  42. ^ a b c Nevo (1969: 241–258).
  43. ^ a b c Parker (1968: 663–674).
  44. ^ Romeo and Juliet: II.ii
  45. ^ Romeo and Juliet: I.v.42
  46. ^ Romeo and Juliet: I.v.44–45
  47. ^ Romeo and Juliet: II.ii.26–32
  48. ^ Romeo and Juliet: I.v.85–86
  49. ^ Romeo and Juliet: III.ii.17–19
  50. ^ Halio (1998: 55–56).
  51. ^ a b c Tanselle (1964: 349–361).
  52. ^ Prologue
  53. ^ Muir (2005: 34–41).
  54. ^ a b Lucking (2001: 115–126).
  55. ^ Halio (1998: 55–58); Driver (1964: 363–370).
  56. ^ a b Halio (1998: 81–87).
  57. ^ Appelbaum (1997: 251–272).
  58. ^ Romeo and Juliet: III.i.112
  59. ^ Kahn (1977: 5–22).
  60. ^ Halio (1998: 87–92).
  61. ^ Halio (1998: 85–87).
  62. ^ Romeo and Juliet: II.ii.43–44. The First Folio replaces "name" with "word".
  63. ^ Goldberg (1994: 221–227).
  64. ^ Levenson (2000: 49–50).
  65. ^ McKeithan (1970).
  66. ^ Muir (2005: 352–362).
  67. ^ "Romeo", Merriam-Webster Online
  68. ^ Hollander (1993: 305).
  69. ^ "Juliet cap", Oxford English Dictionary.
  70. ^ The Influence of Parents and Friends on the Quality and Stability of Romantic Relationships: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Investigation
  71. ^ Hinde (1997: 441–442).
  72. ^ Reynolds & Segal (2005: 37–70).
  73. ^ a b Halio (1998: 97).
  74. ^ a b Halio (1998: ix).
  75. ^ Taylor (2002: 18). The five more popular plays, in descending order, are Henry VI, Part 1, Richard III, Pericles, Hamlet and Richard II
  76. ^ Marsden (2002, 21)
  77. ^ Van Lennep (1965).
  78. ^ a b c d e Halio (1998: 100–102).
  79. ^ Samuel Pepys, quoted in Brian Vickers, ed. Shakespeare: The Critical Heritage Volume 1, London, Routledge and Keegan Paul, 1974, p. 30.
  80. ^ Marsden (2002: 26–27).
  81. ^ Branam (1984: 170–179); Stone (1964: 191–206).
  82. ^ Pedicord (1954: 14).
  83. ^ Charlotte Saunders Cushman played Romeo 54 years before Sarah Bernhardt played Hamlet.
  84. ^ Gay (2002: 162).
  85. ^ Halliday (1964: 125, 365, 420).
  86. ^ Scooch (2002: 62–63).
  87. ^ William Winter. The Life and Art of Edwin Booth (MacMillan and Co., 1893) p, 46-47.
  88. ^ Booth's Romeo and Juliet was rivalled in popularity only by his own "hundred night Hamlet at The Winter Garden of four years before, according to William Winter, op cit., p. 57.
  89. ^ First page of the program for the opening night performance of Romeo and Juliet at Booth's Theatre, February 3, 1869.
  90. ^ Halio (1998: 104–105).
  91. ^ Smallwood (2002: 102).
  92. ^ Halio (1998: 105-107).
  93. ^ a b Halio (1998: 107–109).
  94. ^ Levenson (2000: 87).
  95. ^ "Shakespeare on the Drive," The New York Times, August 19, 1977.
  96. ^ "On the Road again, with free Shakespeare," Paul D. Colford, Newsday, June 11, 1984.
  97. ^ Halio (1998: 110).
  98. ^ Halio (1998: 110–112).
  99. ^ Pape (1997: 69).
  100. ^ Quince (2000: 121–125).
  101. ^ Klugman (2007).
  102. ^ Taylor (1962: 18).
  103. ^ Meyer (1968: 36–38).
  104. ^ Sadie (1992: 31).
  105. ^ Holden (1993: 393).
  106. ^ Collins (1982: 532–538).
  107. ^ Rodriguez (1997: 74).
  108. ^ Ehren (1999)
  109. ^ Arafay (2005: 186).
  110. ^ Nestyev (1960: 261).
  111. ^ Bloom (2000: 178).
  112. ^ Stites (1995: 5).
  113. ^ Internet Movie Database
  114. ^ a b c d Tatspaugh (2000: 135–136).
  115. ^ a b c Jackson (2000: 30–31).
  116. ^ Palmer (2003: 61–76).
  117. ^ Kim (2004: 150–179).
  118. ^ Daily Mail Disney's teenage musical 'phenomenon' premieres in London. Daily Mail (11). Retrieved on 2007-08-19.

The title page of the First Folio with the famous engraved portrait of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout The First Folio is the name given by modern scholars to the first published collection of William Shakespeares plays; its actual title is Mr. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... The First Part of King Henry the Sixth is one of Shakespeares history plays. ... Frontispage of the First Quarto Richard The Third. ... Title page of the 1611 quarto edition of the play Pericles, Prince of Tyre is a play written (at least in part) by William Shakespeare and included in modern editions of his collected plays despite some questions over its authorship. ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... Title page of Richard II, from the fifth quarto, published in 1615. ... Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. ... Charlotte Saunders Cushman (b. ... Sarah Bernhardt (October 23, 1844 – March 26, 1923) was a French stage actress. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Texts of Romeo and Juliet

  • Gibbons, Brian. 1980. Romeo and Juliet. Arden Shakespeare ser. London: Methuen. ISBN 0-416-17850-2.

Secondary Sources

  • Appelbaum, Robert. 1997. "'Standing to the Wall': The Pressures of Masculinity in Romeo and Juliet". Shakespeare Quarterly 48 (3).
  • Arafay, Mireia: Books in Motion: Adaptation, Adaptability, Authorship. Amsterdam: Editions Rodolpi.
  • Bonnard, Georges A. October 1951. "Romeo and Juliet: A Possible Significance?". The Review of English Studies: New Series 2 (8).
  • Bowling, Lawrence Edward. 1949. "The Thematic Framework of Romeo and Juliet". PMLA 64 (1). doi:10.2307/459678.
  • Branam, George C. 1984. "The Genesis of David Garrick's Romeo and Juliet". Shakespeare Quarterly 35 (2).
  • Collins, Michael. 1982. "The Literary Background of Bellini's I Capuleti e i Montecchi". Journal of the American Musicological Society. 35.
  • Daily Mail. 11 September 2006. Disney's teenage musical 'phenomenon' premieres in London Retrieved: 19 August 2007.
  • Doran, Madeleine. 1954. Endeavors of Art: A Study of form in Elizabethan Drama. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
  • Draper, John. W. 1939. "Shakespeare's 'Star-Crossed Lovers' ". The Review of English Studies 15 (57).
  • _____________. 1949. "The Date of Romeo and Juliet". The Review of English Studies 25 (97).
  • Driver, Tom F. 1964. "The Shakespearian Clock: Time and the Vision of Reality in Romeo and Juliet and the Tempest". Shakespeare Quarterly 15 (4).
  • Ehren, Christine. (1999). "Sweet Sorrow: Mann-Korman's Romeo and Juliet Closes Sept. 5 at MN's Ordway". Playbill.com. 3 September 1999. Retrieved on 23 September 2007.
  • Evans, Bertrand. 1950. "The Brevity of Friar Laurence". PMLA 65 (5).
  • Furness, Henry Howard. ???? A New Variorum Edition of Shakespeare: Romeo and Juliet. New York: Dover Publications, Inc.
  • Gay, Penny. 2002. "Women and Shakespearean Performance", in Wells & Stanton (2002: 162).
  • Gibbons, Brian. 1980. Romeo and Juliet. Arden Shakespeare series. London: Methuen. ISBN 0-416-17850-2.
  • Gold, Matea. "Disney scores kid points with 'High School Musical' " Los Angeles Times. Retrieved on 19 August 2007.
  • Goldberg, Jonathan. 1994. Queering the Renaissance. Durham: Duke University Press, 221–227. ISBN 0-8223-1385-5.
  • Halio, Jay. 1998. Romeo and Juliet: A Guide to the Play. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1. ISBN 0-313-30089-5.
  • Halliday, F.E. 1964. A Shakespeare Companion 1564–1964. Baltimore, Penguin.
  • Hinde, Robert. 1997. Relationships: A Dialectical Perspective. East Sussex: Psychology Press. ISBN 0863777066.
  • Holden, Amanda (ed.) with Kenyon, Nicholas and Walsh, Stephen. 1993. The Viking Opera Guide. London: Viking, 393. ISBN 0-670-81292-7.
  • Hollander, Anne. 1993. Seeing through Clothes. Berkeley: University of California Press, 305. ISBN 0-520-08231-1.
  • Honegger, T. 2006. " 'Wouldst thou withdraw love's faithful vow?' The negotiation of love in the orchard scene. Romeo and Juliet Act II)". Journal of Historical Pragmatics 7 (1).
  • Hosley, Richard. 1965. Romeo and Juliet. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Internet Movie Database. imdb.com. Title search. Retrieved on 10 August 2007.
  • Jackson, Russell. 2000. "From play-script to screenplay", The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare on Film. Cambridge University Press, 30. ISBN 0-521-63975-1.
  • Kahn, Coppelia. 1977. "Coming of Age in Verona". Modern Language Studies 8 (1).
  • Keeble, N. H. 1980. York Notes on Romeo and Juliet. Longman, 18.
  • Kermode, Frank. 2000. Shakespeare's Language. London: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-028592-X.
  • Kim, James. 2004. "The Legend of the White-and-Yellow Black Man: Global Containment and Triangulated Racial Desire in Romeo Must Die". Camera Obscura 19 (1).
  • Klugman, Deborah. 2007. Kino and Teresa review. LA Weekly. Retrieved on 17 February 2007.
  • Levenson, Jill L. 2000. Romeo and Juliet. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192814966.
  • Levin, Harry. 1960. "Form and Formality in Romeo and Juliet". Shakespeare Quarterly 11 (1).
  • Lucking, D. 2001. "Uncomfortable time in Romeo and Juliet". English Studies 82 (2). ISSN 0013-838X.
  • MacKenzie, Clayton G. February 2007. "Love, sex and death in 'Romeo and Juliet'". English Studies 88 (1).
  • Marsden, Jean I. 2002. "Shakespeare from the Restoration to Garrick", in Wells & Stanton (2002: 26–27).
  • McKeithan, David. 1970. The Debt to Shakespeare in the Beaumont and Fletcher Plays. City: Ams Pr Inc. ISBN 0404041345.
  • Meyer, Eve R. 1968. "Measure for Measure: Shakespeare and Music". Music Educators Journal 54 (7).
  • Moore, Olin H. 1930. "The Origins of the Legend of Romeo and Juliet in Italy". Speculum 5 (3).
  • ___________. 1937. "Bandello and 'Clizia'". Modern Language Notes 52.
  • Muir, Kenneth. 2005. Shakespeare's Tragic Sequence. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415353250.
  • Nestyev, Israel. 1960. Prokofiev. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Nevo, Ruth. 1969. "O Tragic Form in Romeo and Juliet". Studies in English Literature, 1500–1900: Elizabethan and Jacobean Drama. Spring 1969. 9 (2): 241–258. doi:10.2307/449778.
  • Oxford English Dictionary (Second Edition) on CD-ROM version 3.1. 2004. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-861016-8.
  • Palmer, Chris. 2003.  'What-tongue-shall-smooth-thy-name?' – Recent films of 'Romeo and Juliet'. Shakespeare)". Cambridge Quarterly 32 (1).
  • Pape, Ilan. 1997. "Post-Zionist Critique on Israel and the Palestinians Part III: Popular Culture". Journal of Palestine Studies 26.
  • Parker, D. H. 1968. "Light and Dark Imagery in Romeo and Juliet". Queen's Quarterly 75 (4).
  • Pedicord, Harry William. 1954. The Theatrical Public in the Time of David Garrick. New York: King's Crown Press.
  • Quince, Rohan. 2000. Shakespeare in South Africa: Stage Productions During the Apartheid Era. New York: Peter Lang.
  • Reynolds, Bryan & Segal, Janna. 2005. "Fugitive Explorations in Romeo and Juliet : Transversal Travels through R&Jspace". Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies 5 (2).
  • Roberts, Arthur J. 1902. "The Sources of Romeo and Juliet". Modern Language Notes 17 (2).
  • Rodriguez, Clara: Latin Looks: Images of Latinas and Latinos in the U.S. Media. Boulder: Westview Press.
  • Romeo. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved on 11 August 2007.
  • Sadie, Stanley. 1992. The New Grove Dictionary of Opera. London: Macmillan.
  • Scooch, Richard W. 2002. "Pictorial Shakespeare", in Wells & Stanton (2002: 62–63).
  • Shapiro, Stephen A. 1964. "O Romeo and Juliet: Reversals, Contraries, Transformations, and Ambivalence". College English 25 (7): 498–501. doi:10.2307/373235.
  • Siegel, Paul N. 1961. "Christianity and the Religion of Love in Romeo and Juliet". Shakespeare Quarterly 12 (4). doi:10.2307/2867455.
  • Smallwood, Robert. 2002. "Twentieth-century Performance", in Wells & Stanton (2002: 102).
  • Spencer, T. J. B. 1970. The New Penguin Shakespeare: Romeo and Juliet". Penguin, London. ISBN 978-0140707014
  • Stites, Richard. 1995. Culture and Entertainment in Wartime Russia. Bloomington: Indiana University, 5. ISBN 978-0253209498.
  • Stone, George Winchester, Jr. 191–206. "Romeo and Juliet: The Source of its Modern Stage Career". Shakespeare Quarterly 15 (2).
  • Tanselle, G. Thomas. Autumn 1964. "Time in Romeo and Juliet". Shakespeare Quarterly 15 (4). doi:10.2307/2868092.
  • Tatspaugh, Patricia. 2000. "The Tragedy of Love on Film", in Jackson (2000: 135).
  • Taylor, Gary. 2002. "Shakespeare Plays on Renaissance Stages", in Wells & Stanton (2002: 18). The five more popular plays, in descending order, are Henry VI, Part 1, Richard III, Pericles, Hamlet and Richard II.
  • Taylor, John Russell. 1962. The Angry Theatre: New British Drama. New York: Hill & Wang.
  • Van Lennep, William: The London Stage, 1660–1800. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
  • Wells, Stanley & Stanton, Sarah. 2002. The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare on Stage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521797115
  • Winter, William. 1893. The Life and Art of Edwin Booth London: MacMillan and Co.

The Daily Mail is a British newspaper and the oldest tabloid, first published in 1896. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The First Part of King Henry the Sixth is one of Shakespeares history plays. ... Richard III may refer to: King Richard III of England Richard III, a play by William Shakespeare about the king Richard III may also refer to motion pictures based on the Shakespeare play: Richard III, 1995 (UK/USA), starring Ian McKellen Richard III, 1986 (Soviet Union) Richard III, 1980 (France... For the Shakespeare play, see Pericles, Prince of Tyre. ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... Richard II may refer to: King Richard II of England Richard II, a play by William Shakespeare about the king Richard II of Normandy This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

External links

Find more about Romeo and Juliet on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources
Shakespeare Portal 
William Shakespeare and his works
General information Biography | Style | Influence | Reputation | Religion | Sexuality | Shakespeare authorship question
Tragedies Antony and Cleopatra | Coriolanus | Cymbeline | Hamlet | Julius Caesar | King Lear | Macbeth | Othello | Romeo and Juliet | Timon of Athens | Titus Andronicus | Troilus and Cressida
Comedies All's Well That Ends Well | As You Like It | The Comedy of Errors | Love's Labour's Lost | Measure for Measure | The Merchant of Venice | The Merry Wives of Windsor | A Midsummer Night's Dream | Much Ado About Nothing | Pericles, Prince of Tyre | The Taming of the Shrew | The Tempest | Twelfth Night | The Two Gentlemen of Verona | The Two Noble Kinsmen | The Winter's Tale
Histories King John | Richard II | Henry IV, Part 1 | Henry IV, Part 2 | Henry V | Henry VI, part 1 | Henry VI, part 2 | Henry VI, part 3 | Richard III | Henry VIII
Poems Sonnets | Venus and Adonis | The Rape of Lucrece | The Passionate Pilgrim | The Phoenix and the Turtle | A Lover's Complaint
Apocrypha and Lost Plays Edward III | Sir Thomas More | Cardenio (lost) | Love's Labour's Won (lost) | The Birth of Merlin | Locrine | The London Prodigal | The Puritan | The Second Maiden's Tragedy | Richard II, Part I: Thomas of Woodstock | Sir John Oldcastle | Thomas Lord Cromwell | A Yorkshire Tragedy | Fair Em | Mucedorus | The Merry Devil of Edmonton | Arden of Faversham | Edmund Ironside | Vortigern and Rowena
Other play information Shakespeare's plays | Shakespeare in performance | Chronology of Shakespeare plays | Oxfordian chronology | Shakespeare on screen | BBC Television Shakespeare | Titles based on Shakespeare | Lists of characters A-K · L-Z | Problem plays | List of historical characters | Ghost characters


  Results from FactBites:
 
Romeo & Juliet (5237 words)
Romeo and Juliet are often considered the archetypal lovers, and at one time "a romeo"--meaning a lover--was a common noun.
Juliet's reaction to the death of Tybalt is one of the pivotal points of the play, and one of the most difficult to stage convincingly.
Juliet's willingness to dwell in a tomb ("charnel house") is of course prophetic of her actual fate, and encourages the friar to unfold his plot to her.
Romeo and Juliet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4582 words)
After approaching her, Juliet is instantly taken by Romeo, and the two youth proclaim their love for one another with their "love sonnet" in which Romeo compares himself to a pilgrim and Juliet to the saint which is the object of his pilgrimage.
Juliet is unwilling to enter this arranged marriage, telling her parents that she will not marry, and when she does, "it shall be Romeo, whom you know I hate." Capulet flies into a rage and threatens to disown her if she refuses the marriage.
Romeo and Juliet is one of the earlier works in the Shakespearean canon, and while it is often classified as a tragedy, it does not bear the hallmarks of the 'great tragedies' like Hamlet and Macbeth.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m