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Encyclopedia > Romanov

The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced [rʌˈmanəf]) was the second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled the country for five generations from 1613 to 1761. From 1761 to 1917, Russia was ruled by a line of the House of Oldenburg descended from the marriage of a Romanov grand duchess to the Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. This line was officially also called Romanov, although genealogists sometimes style it, more accurately, Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov. Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... A royal family is the extended family of a monarch. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Events January - Galileo observes Neptune, but mistakes it for a star and so is not credited with its discovery. ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... The House of Oldenburg is a North German noble family and one of Europes most influential Royal Houses. ... Holstein-Gottorp or Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp was a duchy consisting of areas within Schleswig and Holstein, in present-day Denmark and Germany. ...

Flag of the Romanov dynasty.
Flag of the Romanov dynasty.

Contents

Image File history File links Romanov_Flag. ... Image File history File links Romanov_Flag. ...

Origins

Coat of Arms of Russian Empire
Coat of Arms of Russian Empire

The Romanovs share their origin with two dozen other Russian noble families. Their earliest common ancestor is one Andrei Kobyla, attested as a boyar in the service of Semyon I of Moscow. Later generations assigned to Kobyla the most illustrious pedigrees. At first it was claimed that he came to Moscow from Prussia in 1341, where his father had been a famous rebel. In the late 17th century, a fictional line of his descent from Julius Caesar was published. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Andrei Ivanovich Kobyla (Russian: ) was a progenitor of the Romanov dynasty of Russian tsars and many Russian noble families. ... A boyar (also spelled bojar) or bolyarin was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Russian, Romanian and Bulgarian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the tenth through the seventeenth century. ... Simeon Ivanovich Gordyi (the Proud) (Семён Иванович Гордый in Russian;) (1316 - 1353), Grand Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of Vladimir, oldest son of Ivan Kalita. ... A pedigree is a list of ancestors (usually implying distinguished), a list of ancestors of the same breed (usually in the case of animals), the purity of a breed, individual, or strain, or a document proving any of these things. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... Events The Queens College, a constituent college of the University of Oxford, is founded. ... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC), often simply referred to as Julius Caesar, was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ...


It's likely that Kobyla's origins were less spectacular. Not only is Kobyla Russian for mare, but his relatives were also nicknamed after horses and other house animals, thus suggesting descent from one of the royal equerries. One of Kobyla's sons, Fyodor, a boyar in the boyar duma of Dmitri Donskoi, was nicknamed Koshka (cat). His descendants took the surname Koshkin, then changed it to Zakharin, which family later split into two branches: Zakharin-Yakovlev and Zakharin-Yuriev. During the reign of Ivan the Terrible, the former family became known as Yakovlev (Alexander Herzen being the most illustrious of them), whereas grandchildren of Roman Zakharin-Yuriev changed their name to Romanov. Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Konyushy (Belarusian: Канюшы, Polish: Koniuszy, Russian: Конюший) is literally translated as Master of the Horse, Equerry. ... Fedor Andreevich Kobylin, byname Koshka (the Cat) (Russian: ) (? - 1407) was the youngest son of Andrei Ivanovich Kobyla and progenitor of the Romanov dynasty and Sheremetev family. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with State Duma. ... Statue of Dmitri Donskoi (1862). ... Ivan IV (August 25, 1530–March 18, 1584) was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. ... Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен) (April 6 [O.S. 25 March] 1812 in Moscow - January 21 [O.S. 9 January] 1870 in Paris) was a major Russian pro-Western writer and thinker known as the father of Russian socialism. He is held responsible for creating a political climate leading to the emancipation...


Rise to power

A crowd at the Hypatian Monastery imploring Mikhail Romanov's mother to let him go to Moscow and become their tsar.
A crowd at the Hypatian Monastery imploring Mikhail Romanov's mother to let him go to Moscow and become their tsar.

The family fortunes soared when Roman's daughter, Anastasia Zakharyina, married the young Ivan IV of Muscovy in February 1547. When her husband assumed the title of tsar, she was crowned the very first tsaritsa. Their marriage was an exceedingly happy one, but her untimely and mysterious death in 1560 changed Ivan's character for the worse, giving rise to his later nick-name, "Ivan the Terrible". Suspecting the boyars of having poisoned his beloved, the tsar started a reign of terror against them. Among his children by Anastasia, the elder (Ivan) was murdered by the tsar in a quarrel; the younger Fyodor, a pious and lethargic prince, inherited the throne upon his father's death. Image File history File links Kostromatsar. ... Image File history File links Kostromatsar. ... Anastacia of Russia (??? - 1560) was the wife of the first Russian Tsar, Ivan IV of Russia, also known as Ivan the Terrible. In the summer of 1560, Anastacia fell ill to a lingering illness. ... Tsar Ivan the Terrible, by Viktor Vasnetsov Ivan IV Vasilyevich (Russian: ) (August 25, 1530, Moscow â€“ March 18, 1584, Moscow) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547 and Czar of Russia from 1547 until his death. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , Croatian car, in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... A Tsaritsa (Цари́ца), also called tsarina, czarina, or czaritsa, was the title of Tsars wife or a female autocratic ruler(monarch) of Russia or Bulgaria. ... The Oprichnina (Russian: Опричнина) formed a section of Russia ruled directly by the Tsar under Ivan the Terrible. ... Feodor presents a golden chain to Boris Godunov. ...


Throughout Fyodor's reign, the Russian government was contested between his brother-in-law, Boris Godunov, and his Romanov cousins. Upon the death of childless Fyodor, the 700-year-old line of Moscow Rurikids came to an end. After a long struggle, the party of Boris Godunov prevailed over the Romanovs, and the former was elected new tsar. Godunov's revenge to the Romanovs was terrible: all the family and its relatives were deported to remote corners of the Russian North and Ural, where most of them died of hunger or in chains. The family's leader, Feodor Nikitich Romanov, was exiled to the Antoniev Siysky Monastery and forced to take monastic vows with the name Filaret. Tsar Boris I Boris Feodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в) (c. ... The Rurik Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of what is now Belarus, Russia and Ukraine from 862 to 1598. ... Ural (Russian: ) is a geographical region in Russia, around Ural Mountains. ... Fyodor Nikitich Romanov (Russian: Фёдор Никитич Романов) (1553 — October 1, 1633) was a Russian boyar who after temporary disgrace rose to become patriarch of Moscow as Filaret (Russian: Филарет), and became de-facto ruler of Russia during the reign of his son, Mikhail Feodorovich. ... Antoniev Siysky Monastery is located on a cape of the Great Mikhailovo Lake. ... Feodor Nikitich Romanov (1553-1633) was a Russian boyar who after temporary disgrace raised to become patriarch of Moscow and de-facto ruler of Russia during the reign of his son, Mikhail Feodorovich. ...


The Romanovs' fortunes again changed dramatically with the fall of the Godunov dynasty in 1606. As a former leader of the anti-Godunov party and cousin of the last legitimate tsar, Filaret Romanov was valued by several impostors who attempted to claim the Rurikid legacy and throne during the Time of Troubles. False Dmitriy I made him a metropolitan, and False Dmitriy II raised him to the dignity of patriarch. Upon expulsion of Poles from Moscow in 1612, the Assembly of the Land offered the Russian crown to several Rurikid and Gediminid princes, but all of them declined the honour of it. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Time of Troubles (Russian: Смутное время, Smutnoye Vremya) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last of the Moscow Rurikids, Tsar Feodor Ivanovich in 1598 and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613. ... A Polish likeness of False Dmitry. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop (then more precisely called Metropolitan archbishop) of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of an old Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. ... False Dmitry II (Russian: Лжедимитрий II), also called the thief of Tushino, was the second of three pretenders to the Russian throne who claimed to be the youngest son of Ivan the Terrible, tsarevich Dmitry. ... For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... The zemsky sobor (Russian: зе́мский собо́р) was the first Russian parliament of the feudal Estates type, in the 16th and 17th centuries. ... Rurik Dynasty ... ...

A 16th-century residence of the Yuryev-Zakharyin boyars in Zaryadye, near the Kremlin.
A 16th-century residence of the Yuryev-Zakharyin boyars in Zaryadye, near the Kremlin.

On being offered the Russian crown, Filaret's 16-year-old son Mikhail Romanov, then living at the Ipatiev Monastery of Kostroma, burst into tears of fear and despair. He was finally persuaded to accept the throne by his mother Kseniya Ivanovna Shestova, who blessed him with the holy image of Our Lady of St. Theodore. Feeling how insecure his throne was, Mikhail attempted to stress his ties with the last Rurikid tsars and sought advice from the Assembly of the Land on every important issue. This strategy proved successful. The early Romanovs were generally loved by the population as in-laws of Ivan the Terrible and innocent martyrs of Godunov's wrath. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1458 KB) Romanov boyar residence in Zaryadye I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1458 KB) Romanov boyar residence in Zaryadye I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Zaryadye (Russian: ) is a historical district in Moscow established in 12-13th centuries within Kitai-gorod. ... The Moscow Kremlin The Moscow Kremlin ( Russian: Московский Кремль) is the best known kremlin ( Russian citadel). ... Mikhail at the Ipatiev Monastery. ... The Ipatiev Monastery (Ипатьевский монастырь in Russian) is a male monastery in Kostroma. ... Fire-observation watchtower in Kostroma (1825-28). ... Boyarynia Kseniya Ioannovna (Ivanovna) (Russian: ) was a spouse of Fyodor Romanov and a mother of Mikhail Romanov. ... A 1703 copy of the original icon. ... Ivan IV (August 25, 1530–March 18, 1584) was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. ...


The era of dynastic crises

Mikhail was succeeded by his only son Alexei, who steered the country quietly through numerous troubles. Upon his death, there was a period of dynastic struggles between his children by his first wife (Feodor III, Sofia Alexeevna, Ivan V) and his son by his second wife, Nataliya Kyrillovna Naryshkina, the future Peter the Great. New dynastic struggles followed the death of Peter, who had his only son Alexei executed and never named another heir. The Romanov male line actually expired in 1730, with the death of Peter II on the very day of his projected wedding. The last female Romanovs were his aunts, Empresses Anna Ioannovna (1693-1740) and Elizabeth Petrovna (1709-1762), who reigned successively for most of the period from 1730 to 1762. Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov (In Russian Алексей Михаилович Романов) (March 9, 1629 (O.S.) - January 29, 1676 (O.S.)) was a Tsar of Russia during some of the most eventful... Feodor (Theodore) III of Russia (In Russian: Фёдор III Алексеевич) (June 9, 1661 - May 7, 1682) was the Tsar of all Russia, during whose short reign (1676-82) the Polish cultural influence in the Kremlin was paramount. ... Sophia Alekseyevna (Софья Алексеевна in Russian) (September 17(27), 1657 — July 3(14), 1704), regent of Russia in 1682-1689, daughter of tsar Aleksey I of Russia and Maria Miloslavskaya. ... Ivan V Ivan V Alekseyevich (Russian: Иван V Алексеевич, September 6 [O.S. August 27] 1666 — February 8 [O.S. January 29] 1696) was a joint tsar of Russia (with his younger half-brother Peter I) who co-reigned between 1682 and 1696. ... Natalia Kirillovna Naryshkina (September 1, 1651 - February 4, 1694) was a Russian tsarina. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov(Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekséyevich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.] [1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his weak and sickly... Alexei Petrovich interrogated by his father Alexius Petrovich (Алексей Петрович in Russian) (1690-1718), a Russian tsarevich, was the son of Tsar Peter I and his first wife Eudoxia Lopukhina. ... Peter II (Russian: Пётр II Алексеевич or Pyotr II Alekseyevich) (October 23, 1715 – January 29, 1730) was Emperor of Russia from 1727 until his death. ... The crown of Anna Ioannovna Anna Ivanovna (In Russian: Анна Ивановна) (February 7, 1693 - October 28, 1740) reigned as Duchess of Courland from 1711 to 1730 and as Empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740. ... Charles van Loo. ...


As neither Anna nor Elizabeth produced a male heir, the succession could devolve either on a Brunswick grand-nephew of Anna (Ivan VI of Russia) or on a Holstein nephew of Elizabeth (Duke Karl Peter Ulrich of Holstein-Gottorp), who was also an heir presumptive to the throne of Sweden. Elizabeth naturally favoured her own nephew, although he was of petulant character. With the accession of Karl Peter Ulrich as Emperor Peter III in 1762 the new reigning dynasty of Holstein-Gottorp, or Oldenburg-Romanov, began. Brunswick-Lüneburg was an historical state within the Holy Roman Empire. ... H.I.M. Ivan, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, with his mother Anna Leopoldovna Ivan VI of Russia (Иоанн Антонович), (August 23, 1740 - July 16, 1764), reigned as Emperor of Russia 1740 - 1741, was the son of Prince Antony Ulrich of Brunswick-Lüneburg and of the princess Anna Leopoldovna... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ... Grand Duke Peter, 1753, by Alexei Antropov Peter III (February 21, 1728 - July 17, 1762) (Russian: Пётр III Федорович or Pyotr III Fyodorovitch) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


The Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov Dynasty

The Holstein-Gottorps of Russia, however, kept the surname Romanov and sought to emphasise their female-line descent from Peter the Great. Paul I was particularly proud to be great-grandson of the illustrious Russian monarch, although his German-born mother, Catherine II (of the House of Anhalt-Zerbst), insinuated in her memoirs that Paul's real father had been her lover Serge Saltykov. Painfully aware of the hazards resulting from battles of succession, Paul established the house law of the Romanovs, one of the strictest in Europe, basing the succession to agnatic primogeniture, as well as requiring Orthodox faith from the monarch and dynasts, as well as from the consort of emperor and from those of first heirs in line. Later, Alexander I, facing prospect of a morganatic alliance of his brother and heir, added the requirement that consorts of Russian dynasts had to be of equal birth (i.e., born to a royal or sovereign house). Otherwise their children forfeited all rights to the throne. Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov(Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekséyevich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.] [1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his weak and sickly... Paul I of Russia by Vladimir Borovikovsky Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... For the 1934 film biography see Catherine The Great. ... Anhalt-Zerbst was a principality located in Germany. ... Sergei Vasilievich Saltykov (c. ... House law or House laws are rules that govern a dynastic family in matters of the order of succession and regency. ... Primogeniture is inheritance by the first-born of the entirety of a parents wealth, estate or office, or in the absence of children, by collateral relatives in order of seniority of the collateral line. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself: as the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles. ... A morganatic marriage is a type of marriage which can be contracted in certain countries, usually between persons of unequal social rank (unebenbürtig in German), which prevents the passage of the husbands titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ...


Paul I was murdered in his palace in Saint Petersburg. Alexander I succeeded him on the throne, and later died without having left a male heir. Nicholas I, a brother of the latter monarch, was surprised to find himself on the throne. His era, like the one of Paul I, was marked by enormous attention to the army. Nonetheless, Russia lost the Crimean War, although it had some brilliant admirals on its side, including Pavel Nakhimov. Nicholas I fathered four sons, all of whom, he thought, could one day face the challenge of ruling Russia. Trying to prepare all the boys for the future, he provided an excellent education, especially a military one, for all of them. Combatants Allies: Second French Empire United Kingdom Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease 256,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1854–1856) was fought... Admiral Pavel Stepanovich Nakhimov (June 23, 1802 - June 28, 1855) was one of the most famous admirals in Russian naval history, best remembered as the commander of naval and land forces during the Siege of Sevastopol (Sevastopol) in the Crimean War. ...


Alexander II became the next Russian emperor. Alexander was an educated, intelligent man, who held that his task was to keep peace in Europe and Russia. However, he believed only a country with a strong army could keep the peace. By paying attention to the army, giving much freedom to Finland, and freeing the serfs in 1861, he gained much support (Finns still dearly remember him). His family life was not so happy- his beloved wife Maria Alexandrovna had serious problems with her lungs, which led to her death and to the dissolution of the close-knit family. On March 13, 1881, Alexander was killed after returning from a military parade. Slavic patriotism, cultural revival, and Panslavist ideas grew in importance in the latter half of this century, drawing the dynasty to look more 'Russian'. Yet tighter commitment to orthodox faith was required of Romanovs. Several marriages were contracted with princesses from other Slavic monarchies and other orthodox kingdoms, and even a couple of cadet-line princesses were allowed to marry Russian high noblemen - when until 1850s, practically all marriages had been with German princelings. Marie of Hesse Princess Maximilienne Wilhelmine Marie of Hesse and the Rhine (8 August 1824-8 June 1880) was a princess of Grand Ducal Hesse and, as Marie Alexandrovna, Empress consort of Alexander II of Russia. ... March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... ...

Wedding of Nicholas II and Alexandra Feodorovna.
Wedding of Nicholas II and Alexandra Feodorovna.

Alexander II was succeeded by his son Alexander III of Russia. A gigantic and imposing, if somewhat dull man, with great stamina, great lethargy, and poor manners. Alexander, fearful of the fate which had befallen his father, strengthened autocratic rule in Russia. Many of the reforms the more liberal Alexander II had pushed through were reversed. Alexander, at his brother's death, not only inherited the throne, but also a betrothed - Scandinavian princess Dagmar (Maria Fyodorovna of Denmark). Despite contrasting natures and size, the pair got on famously, and produced six children. Image File history File links Laurits Tuxen (1853-1927). ... Image File history File links Laurits Tuxen (1853-1927). ... Alexander III (10 March 1845-1 November 1894) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Nicholas (Nikolai) (September 20 1843 - April 24, 1865) was Tsarevich of Russia from March 2, 1855 till his death in 1865. ... Princess Marie Sophie Frederikke Dagmar (November 26, 1847 – October 13, 1928) was born as the second daughter of Louise of Hesse and Christian IX of Denmark. ...


The eldest, Nicholas, became Tsar upon his father's sudden death (due to kidney disease) at age 49. Unready to inherit the throne, Nicholas reputedly complained, "I am not ready, I do not want it. I am not a Tsar." Though an intelligent and kind-hearted man, lacking any preparation to rule, he continued his father's harsh polices. His Tsarina, the emotionally fragile German princess Alexandra Fyodorovna of Hesse, was also a liability. While the Tsar bustled about on the front lines during World War I, the stubborn, traditionalist Tsarina held sway in court and in government. Alexandra and her daughters, Olga, Tatiana, Anastasia, and Maria, 1913 Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine (German: ) or Saint Alexandra, 6 June 1872 – 17 July 1918, under the title Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna (Russian: ), was Empress consort of the Russian Empire and the wife of Nicholas II of Russia, the... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna...


Constantine Pavlovich and Michael Alexandrovich, although sometimes counted among Russian monarchs, were not crowned and never reigned. They both married morganatically, as did Alexander II with his second wife. Six crowned representatives of the Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov line include: Paul (1796-1801), Alexander I (1801-1826), Nicholas I (1826-56), Alexander II (1856-81), Alexander III (1881-94), and Nicholas II (1894-1917). Constantine was known for his repugnant physical features which resembled those of his father, Emperor Paul. ... Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovitch of Russia (1878-1918) Grand Duke Michael of Russia, Mikhail Aleksandrovich Romanov (Russian: Михаи́л Александрович Рома́нов) (St. ... Paul I of Russia Paul I of Russia (Russian: Pavel Petrovich, Павел I Петрович) (October 1, 1754 - March 23, 1801) was an Emperor (Tsar) of Russia (1796 - 1801). ... Aleksandr I Pavlovich (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825), was Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801-1 December 1825 and King of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... Nicholas I (Russian: Николай I Павлович, Nikolai I Pavlovich), July 6 (June 25, Old Style), 1796–March 2 (18 February Old Style), 1855), was the Emperor of Russia from 1825 until 1855. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (born 17 April 1818 in Moscow; died 13 March 1881 in St. ... Alexander III (10 March 1845-1 November 1894) reigned as Emperor of Russia from 14 March 1881 until his death in 1894. ... Nicholas II of Russia (18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868 – 17 July [O.S. 4 July] 1918) (Russian: , Nikolay II) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland,[1] and Grand Duke of Finland. ...


Downfall

Yekaterinburg's "Church on the Blood," built on the spot where the last Tsar and his family were executed.
Yekaterinburg's "Church on the Blood," built on the spot where the last Tsar and his family were executed.

All these emperors (except Alexander III) had German-born consorts, a circumstance that cost the Romanovs their popularity during World War I. Nicholas's wife Alexandra Fyodorovna, although devoutly Orthodox, was particularly hated by the populace. Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 429 KB)Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood File links The following pages link to this file: Yekaterinburg Categories: Images with unknown source ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 429 KB)Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood File links The following pages link to this file: Yekaterinburg Categories: Images with unknown source ... Snow-covered statue of Sverdlov in Yekaterinburg Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood built on the spot where the Tsar and his family were executed. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... Princess Alix of Hesse, as Empress Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia (1872-1918) Her Grand Ducal Highness Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine (Alix Victoria Helena Louise Beatrice, 6 June 1872 - 17 July 1918), was the consort of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, the last Tsar of Russia. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ...


Alexandra Fyodorovna had inherited a mutated gene from her grandmother, Queen Victoria, which caused her son, the long-awaited heir to the throne, Alexei's hemophilia. Nicholas and Alexandra also had four daughters (Olga, Tatiana, Maria, and Anastasia). For other meanings of this term, see gene (disambiguation). ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ... Tsarevich Alexei (1904-1918) Tsesarevich (Tsarevich) Alexei Nikolaevich of Russia (In Russian Царевич Алексей Николаевич) (August 12, 1904 - July 17, 1918), of the House of Romanov, was a Tsarevich of Russia and was the youngest child of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and Alexandra of Hesse. ... Haemophilia or hemophilia is the name of any of several hereditary genetic illnesses that impair the bodys ability to control bleeding. ... Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna of Russia (Olga Nikolaevna Romanova) (In Russian Великая Княжна Ольга Николаевна), (November 3 (O.S.)/November 15 (N.S.) 1895 – July 17, 1918), was the oldest daughter of Nicholas II of Russia and Empress Alexandra of Russia. ... Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaievna of Russia (Tatiana Nikolaievna Romanova) (In Russian Великая Княжна Татьяна Николаевна), (May 29 (O.S.)/June 10 (N.S.), 1897 - July 17, 1918), was the second daughter of Tsar Nicholas II, the last autocratic ruler of Russia, and of Tsarina Alexandra. ... Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia (Maria Nikolaevna Romanova) (In Russian Великая Княжна Мария Николаевна),(June 14 (O.S.)/June 26 (N.S.), 1899 – July 17, 1918) was the third daughter of Nicholas II of Russia and Tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna. ... Her Imperial Highness Grand Duchess Anastasia of Russia (Anastasia Nikolayevna Romanova, (Russian: , Velikaya Knyazhna Anastasiya Nikolayevna Romanova), (June 18 [O.S. June 5] 1901 — July 17, 1918), was the youngest daughter of Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, the last autocratic ruler of Imperial Russia, and his wife Alexandra Fyodorovna. ...


When the Romanov family celebrated the tercentenary of its rule, in 1913, the solemnities were clouded by numerous bad omens. The face of Our Lady of St. Theodore, the patron icon of the family, became badly blackened. Grigori Rasputin proclaimed that the Romanov's power would not last for a year after his death. He was murdered by a group of nobles on 16 December 1916, two months before the February Revolution of 1917 dethroned Nicholas II. Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Omens or portents are signs encountered fortuitously that are believed to foretell the future. ... A 1703 copy of the original icon. ... Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin (or Grigori Yefimovich Novyh) (Russian: ) (January 22 [O.S. January 10] 1869–December 29 [O.S. December 16] 1916) was a Russian mystic who is perceived as having influenced the later days of the Russian Tsar Nicholas II, his wife the Tsaritsa Alexandra, and their only son... -1... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The February Revolution (N.S.: March Revolution) of 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ...


On July 17, 1918, Bolshevik authorities, led by Yakov Yurovsky, executed Nicholas II and his immediate family in the cellar of the Ipatiev House in Yekaterinburg, Russia. Ironically, the Ipatiev House has the same name as the Ipatiev Monastery in Kostroma, where Mikhail Romanov had been offered the Russian crown in 1613. The spot where the Ipatiev House once stood has recently been commemorated by a magnificent cathedral "on the blood". After years of controversy, Nikolai II and his family were proclaimed saints by the Russian Orthodox church in 2000. hellotyle=float:right; |- | |- | |} July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 167 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Yakov Mikhailovich Yurovsky (June 19 [O.S. June 7] 1878 in Tomsk, Siberia, Russia – before 2 August 1938 in Moscow) is best known as the chief executioner of Russias last emperor Tsar Nicholas and his family after the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... Nicholas II of Russia (18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868 – 17 July [O.S. 4 July] 1918) (Russian: , Nikolay II) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland,[1] and Grand Duke of Finland. ... It was in the Ipatiev House that former tsar Nicholas II, his wife Aleksandra, their four daughters, Olga, Tatiana, Maria and Anastasia, Tsarevich Alexei, and their faithful Doctor, lady-in-waiting, cook and footman were executed. ... Snow-covered statue of Sverdlov in Yekaterinburg Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood built on the spot where the Tsar and his family were executed. ... The Ipatiev Monastery (Ипатьевский монастырь in Russian) is a male monastery in Kostroma. ... Fire-observation watchtower in Kostroma (1825-28). ... Events January - Galileo observes Neptune, but mistakes it for a star and so is not credited with its discovery. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

One of the imperial Fabergé eggs presented by Nicholas II to his wife.
One of the imperial Fabergé eggs presented by Nicholas II to his wife.

In 1991, the bodies of Nicholas II and his wife, along with three of their five children and four of their servants, were exhumed (although some question the authenticity of these bones, despite DNA testing). Because two bodies were not present, many people believe that two Romanov children escaped the killings. Ever since, there has been much debate as to which two children's bodies are missing. A Russian scientist made photographic superimpositions and determined that Maria and Alexei were not accounted for. Later, an American scientist concluded from dental, vertebral, and other remnants that it was Anastasia and Alexei that were missing. Much mystery surrounds Anastasia's fate. Several films have been produced, including the full length animated feature Anastasia by Twentieth Century Fox, suggesting that she lived on. Download high resolution version (699x933, 140 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (699x933, 140 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Moscow Kremlin egg, 1906 A Fabergé egg is any one of fifty (fifty two, including the unfinished Karelian Birch and Tsarevich Constellation examples) Easter eggs made by Peter Carl Fabergé for the Russian Czars between 1885 and 1917. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long. ... Related articles FOX Television Network Fox Searchlight Pictures Fox Entertainment Group List of Hollywood movie studios List of movies Variant of current 20th Century Fox logo External links 20th Century Fox Movies official site Twentieth Century Fox is also the punning title of a song by The Doors on their...


After the bodies were exhumed in June, 1991, they sat in laboratories until 1998, while there was a debate as to whether they should be reburied in Yekaterinburg or St. Petersburg. A commission eventually chose St. Petersburg, so they (along with several loyal servants who died with them) were interred in a special chapel in the Peter and Paul Cathedral near the tombs of their ancestors. 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... The Peter and Paul Cathedral is located inside the Peter and Paul Fortress in St. ...


In September 2006, Empress Marie Fedorovna, the consort of Alexander III, was buried in the Peter and Paul Cathedral beside her husband. Having fled Russia at the time of the Revolution, she had spent her remaining years in exile in her native Denmark, where she was initially buried in Roskilde Cathedral. The transfer of her remains was accompanied by elaborate ceremonies, including at St. Isaac's officiated by the Patriarch. For monarchists, the reburial of the Empress in the former imperial capital, so many years after her death, further underscored the downfall of the dynasty. Roskilde Cathedral Roskilde Cathedral (Danish: Roskilde Domkirke), in the city of Roskilde on the Island of Zealand (Sjælland) in eastern Denmark was the first Gothic cathedral to be built of brick and its construction encouraged the spread of this Brick Gothic style throughout Northern Europe. ... The cathedral dominates the city skyline St. ...


Contemporary Romanovs

The Romanov family continues to exist today. The proper line of succession to the Russian throne is contested, but despite the collapse of the Soviet Union, it seems unlikely that the Romanovs will regain the throne in the near future. The Russian people have so far evidenced little popular support for the resurrection of a Russian monarchy, even on a constitutional basis. The Monarchy of Russia was abolished in 1917 following the February Revolution, which forced Tsar Nicholas II to abdicate. ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ...


Further reading

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
  • Bergamini, John D. The Tragic Dynasty: A History of the Romanovs. Putnam, 1969.
  • Crankshaw, Edward. "The Shadow of the Winter Palace: Russia's Drift to Revolution, 1825-1917"
  • Lincoln, Bruce. "The Romanovs".
  • Lincoln, Bruce. "Nicholas I: Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias".
  • Massie, Robert K. "Peter The Great".
  • Massie, Robert K. "Nicholas and Alexandra".
  • Troyat, Henri "Catherine the Great".
  • Troyat, Henri "Alexander I".
  • Radzinsky, Edvard "Alexander II: The Last Great Tsar".
  • Radzinsky, Edvard "The life and death of Nicholas II".
  • Van der Kiste, John. The Romanovs, 1818-1959: Alexander II of Russia and His Family. Sutton Publishing, 1998.

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

See also

This is a list of those members of the Russian Imperial Family who bore the title Velikiy Knjaz (usually translated into English as Grand Duke, but more accurately Grand Prince). ... This is a list of those members of the Russian Imperial House who bore the title Velikaia Kniaginia (usually translated into French and English as Grand Duchess, but more accurately Grand Princess). ... // Here are listed the ancestors of the ruling members of the House of Romanov. ... The Monarchy of Russia was abolished in 1917 following the February Revolution, which forced Tsar Nicholas II to abdicate. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Romanov: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (3212 words)
Peter II was the last of the direct male Romanov line, and on his death Anna, duchess of Courland, a daughter of Ivan V, ascended the throne.
Godunov's revenge to the Romanovs was terrible: all the family and its relatives were deported to remote corners of the Russian North and Ural, where most of them died of hunger or in chains.
Alexandra Fyodorovna brought to the Romanov family a mutated gene of her grandmother, Queen Victoria, which was responsible for her son's (the long-awaited heir to the throne, Alexei) hemophilia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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