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Encyclopedia > Romanos IV
Diptych of Romanus and Eudocia Macrembolitissa, crowned by Christ (Bibliothèque nationale de France)
Diptych of Romanus and Eudocia Macrembolitissa, crowned by Christ (Bibliothèque nationale de France)

Romanos IV Diogenes or Romanus IV Diogenes (Greek: Ρωμανός Δ΄ Διογένης, Rōmanos IV Diogenēs) was Byzantine emperor from 1068 to 1071. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1324x2003, 921 KB) Le Christ couronnant Romanos et Eudoxie Constantinople Ivoire vers 945-949 H.: 24,6 cm Département des Monnaies, Médailles et Antiques, Bibliothèque Nationale de France. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1324x2003, 921 KB) Le Christ couronnant Romanos et Eudoxie Constantinople Ivoire vers 945-949 H.: 24,6 cm Département des Monnaies, Médailles et Antiques, Bibliothèque Nationale de France. ... The new buildings of the library. ... This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, called Byzantine by modern historians. ... Events Emperor Go-Sanjo ascends the throne of Japan William the Conqueror takes Exeter after a brief siege Births Henry I of England (d. ... Events Byzantine Empire loses Battle of Manzikert to Turkish army under Alp Arslan. ...

Contents

Ascension to the throne

Romanos Diogenes was the son of Constantine Diogenes and a member of a prominent and powerful Cappadocian family. He had risen to distinction in the army, until he was convicted of conspiracy to seize the throne from the sons of Constantine X Doukas in 1067. While waiting for his execution he was summoned into the presence of the empress regent, Eudokia Makrembolitissa, whom he so fascinated that she granted him a free pardon and married him on January 1, 1068. In ancient geography, Cappadocia or Capadocia, Turkish Kapadokya (from Persian: Katpatuka meaning the land of beautiful horses, Greek: Καππαδοκία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was the name of the extensive inland district of Asia Minor (modern Turkey). ... Constantine X Ducas (1006 - May, 1067) was the emperor of the Byzantine Empire (1059 - 1067). ... Diptych showing Romanus IV and Eudocia. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Emperor Go-Sanjo ascends the throne of Japan William the Conqueror takes Exeter after a brief siege Births Henry I of England (d. ...


Campaigns against the Turks

With this Romanos IV Diogenes became the senior emperor alongside Michael VII, Konstantios Doukas, and Andronikos Doukas. After his coronation he carried out three successful campaigns against the Seljuk Turks, whom he drove beyond the Euphrates in 1068–1069. In 1071 Romanos IV prepared a large-scale expedition against the Seljuk stronghold of Manzikert. Although his forces were numerous, they were not equally well-trained and contained various mercenary units. Michael VII Ducas or Parapinakes, was the eldest son of Constantine X Ducas and Eudocia Macrembolitissa. ... Andronikos Doukas or Andronicus Ducas (Greek: Ανδρόνικος Δούκας), (d. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... Malazgirt (formerly also called Manzikert) is a town in MuÅŸ in eastern Turkey, with a population of 23 697 (year 2000) (??of 68 990). ...


Battle of Manzikert and capture by Alp Arslan

Romanos IV.
Romanos IV.
Main article: Battle of Manzikert

After initial successes in his campaign, Romanos IV fought in the Battle of Manzikert on August 26, 1071. He became isolated from the bulk of his army, which turned to flight, believing that the emperor had been killed. The disorderly withdrawal of the Byzantine army allowed the Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan to capture Romanos IV and inflict a disastrous defeat on his forces. Romanos IV was treated with respect by his captor, who at first had difficulty believing the dusty and tattered warrior brought before him was the Roman Emperor. But then he treated him with extreme kindness, never saying a cruel word to him in the Emperor's eight-day stay in his camp, and who then released him in exchange for a treaty and the promise of a hefty ransom. Image File history File links Romanus IV Coin from CNG coins, through Wildwinds. ... Image File history File links Romanus IV Coin from CNG coins, through Wildwinds. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Seljuk Turks Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 20,000 [1] (40,000 initial) ~ 20,000 [2] - 70,000[1] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkic forces... Combatants Byzantine Empire Seljuk Turks Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 20,000 [1] (40,000 initial) ~ 20,000 [2] - 70,000[1] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkic forces... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Byzantine Empire loses Battle of Manzikert to Turkish army under Alp Arslan. ... Muhammed ben Daud (1029 – December 15, 1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk Turks, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty. ...


Gibbon in Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire recorded that Alp Arslan and Romanos IV Diogenes had a most interesting conversation at their meeting: when the Sultan asked the Emperor what he should do with him, the Emperor replied "if you are cruel, you will take my life; if you listen to pride, you will drag me at your chariot wheels; if you consult your interest, you will accept a ransom and restore me to my country." When the Sultan asked the Emperor what treatment he could have expected had he been the one vanquished, the Emperor's fierce nature made him reply ""Had I vanquished, I would have inflicted on thy body many a stripe." Gibbon records the Sultan then lecturing the Emperor on Christian forgiveness, and then nobly declared he would not follow an example, the Emperor's, which he abhorred. He then forgave the Emperor, gave him generous terms, put him in a robe reserved for Seljuk royalty, loaded him with presents, and set him free. [1] Norwich states in "Byzantium: The Apogee" that some form of this famous conversation has been recorded by every chronicler of the period and the battle. A full account of this conversation is also preserved in John Skylitzes (842, p. 700). The Sultan asked Romanus what he would have done if the Romans had won and the Turkish ruler had been captured. The emperor, without any dissimulation, replied, "I would have flogged you to death!" "But I," said Arslan, "will not imitate you. I have been told that your Christ teaches gentleness and forgiveness of wrong. He resists the proud and gives grace to the humble." [2] Matthew of Edessa, an Armenian historian, also recorded this conversation between Emperor and Sultan. At first Alp Arslan suggested a ransom of 10,000,000 gold pieces to Romanos IV, but later reduced it to 1,500,000 gold pieces with a further 360,000 gold pieces annually.[1] John/Ioannes Skylitzes/Scylitzes (Ιωάννης Σκυλίτζης, 1081) was a Byzantine historian of the late 11th century. ... Matthew of Edessa was an Armenian historian of the 12th century born in the city of Edessa. ...


Betrayal

In the meantime the opposition faction scheming against Romanos IV decided to exploit the situation. The Caesar John Doukas and Michael Psellos relegated Eudokia to a monastery and easily prevailed upon Michael VII to declare Romanos IV deposed. Before Romanos could gather support, he was attacked and defeated by Constantine and Andronikos Doukas, the sons of the Caesar John Doukas. Besieged by Andronikos Doukas in a fortress in Cilicia, Romanos surrendered after promising to resign his claims to the throne and enter a monastery. While being brought back to Constantinople, Romanos was nevertheless blinded (June 29, 1072) and was sent into exile to the island of Proti. His blinding was carried out so brutally that he soon died of the injury and subsequent infection. It was during his reign that the forces of Robert Guiscard captured Bari in 1071, and the Byzantine Empire lost its last holdings in Italy. Unable to stem this process, Romanos IV had turned his attention to affairs in the east. Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... John Doukas or Ducas (Greek: Ιωάννης Δούκας, Iōannēs Doukas), (died c. ... Michael Psellos or Psellus (Greek: Μιχαήλ Ψελλός, Mikhaēl Psellos) was a Byzantine writer, philosopher, politician, and historian. ... Andronikos Doukas or Andronicus Ducas (Greek: Ανδρόνικος Δούκας), (d. ... Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events William I of England invades Scotland, and also receives the submission of Hereward the Wake. ... Proti is a Greek island in the Ionian Islands. ... Robert Guiscard (i. ... For other uses, see Bari (disambiguation). ... Events Byzantine Empire loses Battle of Manzikert to Turkish army under Alp Arslan. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ...


Family

By his first wife Anna, a daughter of Alusian of Bulgaria, Romanos IV Diogenes had at least one son: Alusian ruled as emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria for a short time in 1041. ...

  • Constantine Diogenes, who died before 1068

By his second wife, the Empress Eudokia Makrembolitissa, he had: Diptych showing Romanus IV and Eudocia. ...

  • Nikephoros Diogenes
  • Leo Diogenes

Bibliography

Michael Psellus is the name of two writers of the Byzantine Empire: Michael Psellus the Elder, a theologian Michael Psellus the Younger, a historian. ... Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (often abbreviated to ODB) is a three volume book by the Oxford University Press. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... John Julius Cooper, 2nd Viscount Norwich CVO (born 15 September 1929) is an English historian, travel writer and television personality known as John Julius Norwich. ...

External links

Romanos IV
Doukid dynasty
Born: unknown Died: 1072
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Michael VII
Byzantine Emperor
1068–1071
Succeeded by
Michael VII

 
 

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