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Encyclopedia > Romanization
Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese

In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language uses a different writing system (or none). Methods of romanization include transliteration, for representing written text, and transcription, for representing the spoken word. The latter can be subdivided into phonemic transcription, which records the phonemes or units of semantic meaning in speech, and more strict phonetic transcription, which records speech sounds with precision. Each romanization has its own set of rules for pronunciation of the romanized words. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Standard Mandarin – also known as Standard Chinese or Standard spoken Chinese – is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... A word is a unit of language that carries meaning and consists of one or more morphemes which are linked more or less tightly together, and has a phonetical value. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... Transcription is the conversion into written, typewritten or printed form, of a spoken language source, such as the proceedings of a court hearing. ... A phonemic orthography is a writing system where the written graphemes correspond to phonemes, the spoken sounds of the language. ... In spoken language, a phoneme is a basic, theoretical unit of sound that can distinguish words (i. ... In general, semantics (from the Greek semantikos, or significant meaning, derived from sema, sign) is the study of meaning, in some sense of that term. ... A pronunciation spelling of a word is a spelling intentionally different from the standard spelling, used to emphasis a particular pronunciation of the word. ...


Examples of languages to which this process is often applied are Chinese, Japanese and Korean (CJK). CJK is a collective term for Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, which comprise the main East Asian languages. ...


Cyrillization is the similar process of representing a language using the Cyrillic alphabet. A Cyrillization is a system for representing a language with the Cyrillic alphabet, where the source language use a writing system other than the Cyrillic alphabet (compare this to Romanization). ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by a wide variety of Slavic languages—Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the...

Contents

Methods of romanization

Transliteration

Main article: Transliteration

If the romanization attempts to transliterate the original script, the guiding principle is a one-to-one mapping of characters in the source language into the target script, with less emphasis on how the result sounds when pronounced according to the reader's language. For example, the Nihon-shiki romanization of Japanese allows the informed reader to reconstruct the original Japanese kana syllables with 100% accuracy, but requires additional knowledge for correct pronunciation. Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... Nihon-shiki or Nippon-shiki (日本式 Japan-style; romanized as Nihon-siki or Nippon-siki in Nippon-shiki itself) is a romanization system for transcribing the Japanese language into the Roman alphabet. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Manyogana 万葉仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Rōmaji ローマ字 For other meanings of Kana, see Kana (disambiguation). ...


Transcription

Transcription is the conversion into written, typewritten or printed form, of a spoken language source, such as the proceedings of a court hearing. ...

Phonemic

See also: Phonemic orthography

Most romanizations are intended to enable the casual reader who is unfamiliar with the original script to pronounce the source language reasonably accurately. Such romanizations follow the principle of phonemic transcription and attempt to render the significant sounds (phonemes) of the original as faithfully as possible in the target language. The popular Hepburn romanization of Japanese is an example of a transcriptive romanization designed for English speakers. A phonemic orthography is a writing system where the written graphemes correspond to phonemes, the spoken sounds of the language. ... A phonemic orthography is a writing system where the written graphemes correspond to phonemes, the spoken sounds of the language. ... In spoken language, a phoneme is a basic, theoretical unit of sound that can distinguish words (i. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji The Hepburn romanization system ) is named after James Curtis Hepburn, who used it to transcribe the sounds of the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet in the third edition of his Japanese–English dictionary, published...


Phonetic

See also: Phonetic transcription

A phonetic conversion goes one step further and attempts to depict all phones in the source language, sacrificing legibility if necessary by using characters or conventions not found in the target script. The International Phonetic Alphabet is the most common system of phonetic transcription. Phonetic transcription (or phonetic notation) is the visual system of symbolization of the sounds occurring in spoken human language. ... Phonetic (pho-NET-ic) is a nationwide voicemail-to-text messaging service available for most digital mobile phones in which a subscriber is provided a custom voice mailbox for the purpose of receiving all incoming voice messages as actual transcribed text for reading via short messaging (also known as SMS... Look up phone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...


Tradeoffs

For most language pairs, building a usable romanization involves tradeoffs between the two extremes. Pure transcriptions are generally not possible, as the source language usually contains sounds and distinctions not found in the target language, but which must be shown to for the romanized form to be comprehensible. Furthermore due to diachronic and synchronic variance no written language represents any spoken language with perfect accuracy and the vocal interpretation of a script may vary by a great degree among languages. In modern times the chain of transcription is usually spoken foreign language, written foreign language, written native language, spoken (read) native language. Reducing the number of those processes, i.e. removing one or both steps of writing, usually leads to more accurate oral articulations. The adjective diachronic (from Greek elements dia through and chronos time) means historically, over time. It is generally opposed to synchronic. ... Synchronic linguistics deals with a language at a specific point in time; it is opposed to diachronic linguistics (also called historical linguistics), which deals with how languages change over time. ... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Spoken language is a language that people utter words of the language. ... Look up script in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In general, outside a limited audience of scholars romanizations tend to lean more towards transcription. As an example, consider the Japanese martial art 柔術: the Nihon-shiki romanization zyûzyutu may allow someone who knows Japanese to reconstruct the kana syllables じゅうじゅつ, but most native English speakers or rather readers would find it easier to guess the pronunciation from the Hepburn version, jūjutsu. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Romanization of specific writing systems

Arabic

For more detail, see Arabic transliteration Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals: A desire to stay consistent with traditional usage...


The Arabic alphabet is used to write Arabic, Persian, and Urdu. Romanization standards include: The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ...

This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic by Hans Wehr is widely regarded as the foremost Arabic-English bilingual or translation dictionary and has particular usefulness for students of Modern Standard Arabic. ... British Standards is the new name of the British Standards Institute and is part of BSI Group which also includes a testing organisation. ... SATTS is the Standard Arabic Technical Transliteration System, a US military standard for the mapping of Arabic letters to the Latin alphabet. ... United Nations Statistical Commission or United Nations Statistical Office or UNSCO (also known as the Statistics Division) is a Functional Commission of the UN Economic and Social Council. ... DIN 31635 is a DIN standard for the transliteration of the Arabic language. ... DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e. ... The international standard ISO 233 establishes a system for Arabic transliteration (Romanization). ... This is about the tool known as a qalam. ... The Buckwalter Arabic transliteration was developed at Xerox by Tim Buckwalter in the 1990s. ... Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) is an American document management company, which manufactures and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. ... A diacritical mark or diacritic, also called an accent mark, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... Library of Congress, Jefferson building The Library of Congress is the unofficial national library of the United States. ... The Arabic Chat Alphabet is used to communicate in the Arabic language over the Internet or for sending messages via cellular phones when the actual Arabic alphabet is unavailable for technical reasons. ...

Hebrew

For more details, see Hebrew alphabet and Romanization of Hebrew. Note: This article contains special characters. ... Hebrew uses the Hebrew alphabet with optional vowel points. ...

  • ANSI Z39.25 (1975):
  • UNGEGN (1977): [8]
  • ISO 259 (1984): Transliteration.
  • ISO 259-2 (1994): Simplified transliteration.
  • ISO/DIS 259-3: Phonemic transcription.
  • ALA-LC: [9]

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private, non-profit standards organization that produces industrial standards in the United States. ... United Nations Statistical Commission or United Nations Statistical Office or UNSCO (also known as the Statistics Division) is a Functional Commission of the UN Economic and Social Council. ... ISO 259 is an international standard for the romanization of Hebrew, dating to 1984, with updated ISO 259-2 (a simplification, disregarding several vowel signs, 1994) and ISO 259-3 (pointed script, 1996). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Library of Congress, Jefferson building The Library of Congress is the unofficial national library of the United States. ...

Brahmic scripts

The Brahmic family of abugidas is used for languages of the Indian subcontinent and south-east Asia. There is a long tradition in the west to study Sanskrit and other Indic texts in Latin transliteration. Various transliteration conventions have been used for Indic scripts since the time of Sir William Jones. A comparison of some of them is provided here: [10] The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria. ... An inscription of Swampy Cree using Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics, an abugida developed by Christian missionaries for Aboriginal Canadian languages An abugida, alphasyllabary, or syllabics is a writing system in which consonant signs (graphemes) are inherently associated with a following vowel. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...

  • ISO 15919 (2001): A standard transliteration convention was codified in the ISO 15919 standard. It uses diacritics to map the much larger set of Brahmic consonants and vowels to the Latin script. See also Transliteration of Indic scripts: how to use ISO 15919. The Devanagari-specific portion is identical to the academic standard, IAST: "International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration", and to the United States Library of Congress standard, ALA-LC: [11]
  • The National Library at Kolkata romanization, intended for the romanization of all Indic scripts, is an extension of IAST
  • Harvard-Kyoto: Uses upper and lower case and doubling of letters, to avoid the use of diacritics, and to restrict the range to 7-bit ASCII.
  • ITRANS: a transliteration scheme into 7-bit ASCII created by Avinash Chopde that used to be prevalent on Usenet.
  • MEFI: A fantasy name of a transliteration alphabet created by Gabriel Pradiipaka, also into 7-bit ASCII [12]
  • ISCII (1988)
See also: Devanagari transliteration and Romanization of Malayalam

A romanization or latinization is a system for representing a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, where the original word or language used a different writing system. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... A diacritical mark or diacritic, also called an accent mark, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... IAST, or International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is the academic standard for writing the Sanskrit language with the Latin alphabet and very similar to National Library at Calcutta romanization standard being used with many Indic scripts. ... Library of Congress, Jefferson building The Library of Congress is the unofficial national library of the United States. ... The National Library at Kolkata romanization is the most widely used transliteration scheme in dictionaries and grammars of Indic languages. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria. ... IAST, or International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is the academic standard for writing the Sanskrit language with the Latin alphabet and very similar to National Library at Calcutta romanization standard being used with many Indic scripts. ... The Harvard-Kyoto Convention is a system for transliterating the Sanskrit language in ASCII. It is predominantly used informally in e-mail, and for electronic texts. ... The Indian languages TRANSliteration (ITRANS) is an ASCII transliteration scheme for Indic scripts, particularly, but not exclusively, for Devanāgarī (used for the Hindi, Marathi, Sanskrit, Nepali, Sindhi and other languages). ... Usenet (USEr NETwork) is a global, decentralized, distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name. ... ISCII (Indian Script Code for Information Interchange) is a coding scheme for representing various Indic scripts as well as a Latin-based script with diacritic marks used to depict Romanised Indic languages. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Devanagari. ... Malayalam has a number of Romanization schemes, the most widely used today being the Mozhi. ...

Chinese

Romanization of the Chinese language, in particular, has proved a very difficult problem, although the issue is further complicated by political considerations. Another complication is the fact that Mandarin is perceived to be written non-phonetically, and this myth has retarded acceptance of romanisation efforts. Because of this, many romanization tables contain Chinese characters plus one or more romanizations or Zhuyin. The romanization of Chinese language is the use of Latin alphabet to write the Chinese language. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the...


Standard Mandarin

Library of Congress, Jefferson building The Library of Congress is the unofficial national library of the United States. ... Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ecole française dExtrême-Orient (EFEO) is a French institute dedicated to the study of Asian societies. ... The École française dExtrême-Orient (EFEO) is a French institute dedicated to the study of Asian societies. ... Latinxua Sinwenz (拉丁化新文字; also known as Sin Wenz, Latinxua Sinwenz, Zhongguo Latinxua Sin Wenz, Beifangxua Latinxua Sin Wenz or Latinxua) is a little-used romanization system for Mandarin Chinese. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of... Chinese Postal Map Romanization (Traditional Chinese: 郵政式拼音; Pinyin: Yóuzhèngshì PÄ«nyÄ«n) refers to the system of romanization for Chinese place names which came into use in the late Qing dynasty and was officially sanctioned by the Imperial Postal Joint-Session Conference (帝國郵電聯席會議), which was held in Shanghai in the... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... The Yale romanizations are four systems created during World War II for use by United States military personnel. ... Legge romanization is a transliteration system for Mandarin Chinese, used by the prolific 19th Century sinologist James Legge. ... Ezra Pounds annotations on his copy of James Legges translation of the Book of Poetry (Shih Ching), in the Sacred Books of the East. ...

Mainland China
  • Hanyu Pinyin (1958): In Mainland China, Hanyu Pinyin has been used officially to romanize Mandarin for decades, primarily as a linguistic tool for teaching Standard Mandarin (the standardized Chinese spoken language) to students whose mother tongue is not Standard Mandarin. The system is also used in some other Chinese-speaking areas such as Singapore and parts of Taiwan, and has been adopted by much of the international community as a standard for writing Chinese words and names in the Roman alphabet. The value of Hanyu Pinyin in education in China lies in the fact that China, like any other populated area with comparable area and population, has literally thousands of distinct dialects, though there is just one common written language and one common standardized spoken form. (These comments apply to Romanization in general)
  • ISO 7098 (1991): Based on Hanyu Pinyin.

Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of... ... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ... Standard Mandarin – also known as Standard Chinese or Standard spoken Chinese – is the official Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore. ... First language (native language, mother tongue, or vernacular) is the language a person learns first. ... Spoken Chinese The Chinese spoken language(s) comprise(s) many regional variants. ... Pinyin (拼音, pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of...

Taiwan
Main article: Romanization of Chinese in Taiwan

Romanization systems used in Taiwan have been Gwoyeu Romatzyh (1945-1984), Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II (MPS II) (1984-2000), and Tongyong Pinyin (since 2000). ... Gwoyeu Romatzyh (Simplified Chinese: 国语罗马字; Traditional Chinese: 國語羅馬字; Pinyin: GuóyÇ” LuómÇŽzì), abbreviated GR, is a romanization (formerly used officially in the Republic of China) with complex spelling rules which allow for tonal distinctions (unlike most other Romanizations, which require additional diacritics or numerals). ... Combatants Kuomintang of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War (Traditional... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II (國語注音符號第二式), abbreviated MPS II, is a romanization system formerly used in the Republic of China (Taiwan). ... Zhuyin fuhao (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Tongyong Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chu-yin fu-hao), or Symbols for Annotating Sounds, often abbreviated as Zhuyin, or known as Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) after the first four letters of this Chinese phonemic alphabet (bo po mo fo), is the national phonetic system of the... Tongyong Pinyin (Chinese: ; pinyin: Tōngyòng pÄ«nyÄ«n; literally Universal/General Usage Sound-combining) is the current official romanization of the Chinese language adopted by the national government (although not all local governments) of the Republic of China (Taiwan) since 2002. ...

Singapore

The romanisation of the Chinese language in Singapore is not dictated by a single policy, nor is policy implimentation consistent, as the local Chinese community is composed of a myriad of dialect groups. ...

Standard Cantonese

Guangdong Romanization refers to the four romanization schemes published by the Guangdong Provincial Education Department in 1960 for transliterating the Standard Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka, and Hainanese spoken varieties of Chinese. ... The Hong Kong Government Cantonese Romanisation (not an official name) is the more or less consistent way for romanising Cantonese proper nouns employed by the Hong Kong Government departments and many non-governmental organisations in Hong Kong. ... Jyutping (sometimes spelled Jyutpin) is a romanization system for Standard Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993. ... The Meyer-Wempe romanisation system was developed by two Catholic missionaries in Hong Kong, Bernhard F. Meyer and Theodore F. Wempe, during the 1920s and 1930s. ... Sidney Lau (Traditional Chinese: 劉錫祥) wrote a series of textbooks in the 1970s, for teaching western people to speak Cantonese. ... The Yale romanizations are four systems created during World War II for use by United States military personnel. ...

Standard Shanghainese

  • The latin phonetic method of Shanghainese

The latin phonetic method of Shanghainese, in French [La Méthode phonétique latine de Shanghaïen] in chinese [吳語拉丁式注音法] // This system is open for everyone. ...

Min Nan

  • Pe̍h-oē-jī (POJ), once the de facto official script of the Presbyterian Church in Taiwan (since the late 19th century). Technically this represented a largely phonemic transcription system, as Min Nan was not commonly written in Chinese.
  • Guangdong (1960), for the distinct Teochow variety.

Pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ« (POJ) (Chinese: 白話字; pinyin: ) is an orthography in the Latin alphabet created and introduced to Taiwan by Presbyterian missionaries in the 19th century. ... Taiwanese (pe̍h-oÄ“-jÄ«: Tâi-oân-oÄ“ or Tâi-gí; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a variant of Amoy Min Nan Chinese spoken by about 70% of Taiwans population. ... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... Guangdong Romanization refers to the four romanization schemes published by the Guangdong Provincial Education Department in 1960 for transliterating the Standard Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka, and Hainanese spoken varieties of Chinese. ...

Min Dong

Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...

Japanese

Main article: Romanization of Japanese

Romanization (or, more generally, Roman letters) is called "rōmaji" in Japanese. The most common systems are: Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji The romanization of Japanese is the use of the Latin alphabet (called rōmaji )   in Japanese) to write the Japanese language, which is normally written in logographic characters borrowed from Chinese (kanji) and syllabic scripts... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Rōmaji ローマ字 Category Rōmaji (ローマ字 Roman characters, sometimes misunderstood as romanji in English), is a Japanese term for the Latin alphabet. ...

  • Hepburn (1867): transcription
  • Nihon-shiki (1885): transliteration. Also adopted as (ISO 3602 Strict) in 1989.
  • Kunrei-shiki (1937): transliteration. Also adopted as (ISO 3602).
  • JSL (1987)
  • ALA-LC: Similar to Hepburn [15]
  • Wāpuro: transliteration. Not strictly a system, but a collection of common practices.

Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji The Hepburn romanization system ) is named after James Curtis Hepburn, who used it to transcribe the sounds of the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet in the third edition of his Japanese–English dictionary, published... Nihon-shiki or Nippon-shiki (日本式 Japan-style; romanized as Nihon-siki or Nippon-siki in Nippon-shiki itself) is a romanization system for transcribing the Japanese language into the Roman alphabet. ... Nihon-shiki or Nippon-shiki (日本式 Japan-style; romanized as Nihon-siki or Nippon-siki in Nippon-shiki itself) is a romanization system for transcribing the Japanese language into the Roman alphabet. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Romaji ローマ字 Kunrei-shiki (訓令式, Cabinet-ordered system) is a romanization system, that is, a system for transcribing the Japanese language into the Roman alphabet. ... Kunrei-shiki (訓令式, Cabinet-ordered system) is a romanization system, that is, a system for transcribing the Japanese language into the Roman alphabet. ... JSL can also stand for Japanese Sign Language, Japanese as a Second Language or Japan Soccer League. ... Library of Congress, Jefferson building The Library of Congress is the unofficial national library of the United States. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji Wāpuro rōmaji ), or kana spelling, is a style of romanization of Japanese originally devised for entering Japanese into word processors (wādo purosessā, often abbreviated wāpuro) while using a Western QWERTY keyboard. ...

Korean

Main article: Korean romanization Korean romanization means using letters of the Latin alphabet to write Korean language, which in Korea is written using Hangul, and sometimes Hanja. ...


While romanization is often been carried out irrespective of any system, there are some rulesets available to choose from:

  • McCune-Reischauer (MR; 1937?), the first transcription to gain some acceptance. A slightly changed version of MR was the official system for Korean in South Korea from 1984 to 2000, and yet a different modification is still the official system in North Korea. Uses breves, apostrophes and diereses, the latter two indicating orthographic syllable boundaries in cases that would otherwise be ambiguous.
    What is called MR may in many cases be any of a number of systems that differ from each other and from the original MR mostly in whether word endings are separated from the stem by a space, a hyphen or – according to McCune's and Reischauer's system – not at all; and if a hyphen or space is used, whether sound change is reflected in a stem's last and an ending's first consonant letter (e.g. pur-i vs. pul-i). Although mostly irrelevant when transcribing uninflected words, these aberrations are so widespread that any mention of "McCune-Reischauer romanization" may not necessarily refer to the original system as published in the 1930s.
    • The ALA-LC / U.S. Library of Congress system is an example of these systems that are based on MR, from which it deviates it in some aspects. Word division is addressed in detail, with generous use of spaces to separate word endings from stems that is not seen in MR. Syllables of given names are always separated with a hyphen, which is expressly never done by MR. Sound changes are ignored more often than in MR. Distinguishes between and . [16]

Several problems with MR led to the development of the newer systems: McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ... A breve (Latin brevis short, brief) is a diacritical mark Ë˜, shaped like a little round cup, designed to indicate a short vowel, as opposed to the macron Â¯ which indicates long vowels. ... For the prime symbol (′) used for feet and inches, see Prime (symbol). ... In linguistics, a, diaeresis, or dieresis (AE) (from Greek (diaerein), to divide) is the modification of a syllable by distinctly pronouncing one of its vowels. ... Library of Congress, Jefferson building The Library of Congress is the unofficial national library of the United States. ...

  • Yale (1942): This system has become the established standard romanization for Korean among linguists. Vowel length in old or dialectal pronunciation is indicated by a macron. In cases that would otherwise be ambiguous, orthographic syllable boundaries are indicated with a period. Indicates disappearance of consonants.
  • Revised Romanization of Korean (RR; 2000): Includes rules both for transcription and for transliteration. South Korea now officially uses this system which was approved in 2000. Road signs and textbooks were required to follow these rules as soon as possible, at a cost estimated by the government to be at least US$20 million. All road signs, names of railway and subway stations on line maps and signs etc. have been changed. Romanization of surnames and existing companies' names has been left untouched; the government encourages using the new system for given names and new companies. Basically similar to MR, but uses no diacritics or apostrophes. In cases of ambiguity, orthographic syllable boundaries may be indicated with a hyphen, although state institutions never seem to make use of this option e.g. on street signs or linemaps.
  • ISO/TR 11941 (1996): This actually is two different standards under one name: one for North Korea (DPRK) and the other for South Korea (ROK). The initial submission to the ISO was based heavily on Yale and was a joint effort between both states, but they could not agree on the final draft. A superficial comparison between the two is available here: [17]
  • Lukoff romanization, developed 1945-47 for his Spoken Korean coursebooks [18]
  • Joseon Gwahagwon (조선민주주의인민공화국 과학원) romanization

The Yale romanizations are four systems created during World War II for use by United States military personnel. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... A macron, from Greek (makros) meaning large, is a diacritic ¯ placed over a vowel originally to indicate that the vowel is long. ... The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... A hyphen ( -, or ‐ ) is a punctuation mark. ... Fred Lukoff (1920 - August 13, 2000) was an American linguist, who specialized in the study of the Korean language. ...

Thai

Thai, spoken in Thailand, is written with its own script, probably descended from Old Khmer, in the Brahmic family. Also see Thai alphabet. The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria. ... The Thai alphabet (Thai: ) (àk-sŏn tai) is used to write the Thai language and other minority languages in Thailand. ...

Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Library of Congress, Jefferson building The Library of Congress is the unofficial national library of the United States. ... ISO 11940 is an ISO standard for the romanization of the Thai alphabet, published in 1998 (updated September 2003). ...

Cyrillic

In linguistics, scientific transliteration is used for both Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets. This applies to Old Church Slavonic, as well as modern Slavic languages which use these alphabets. This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by a wide variety of Slavic languages—Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the... The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. ... Old Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian or Old Slavic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessaloniki (Solun) by the 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup...


Belarusian

See also: Belarusian Latin alphabet Romanisation or Latinisation of Belarusian is any system for transliterating written Belarusian from the Cyrillic alphabet to the Latin. ... The BGN/PCGN romanization system for Belarusian is a method for romanization of Cyrillic Belarusian texts, that is, their transliteration into the Latin alphabet. ... The United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) is an American federal body whose purpose is to establish and maintain uniform usage of geographic names throughout the U.S. government. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... ALA-LC is a set of standards for romanization, or the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin alphabet. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Scientific transliteration. ... Instruction on transliteration of Belarusian geographical names with letters of Latin script is an officially adopted method of Romanisation of the Belarusian Cyrillic text in geographical names. ... The Belarusian Latin alphabet (also known as Latsinka (in BGN/PCGN) or Łacinka (in itself), from Belarusian: , informal for the Latin alphabet in general) — the common name of the several historically existing systems of rendering the Belarusian (Cyrillic) text in Latin script. ...


Bulgarian

The official Bulgarian scheme for the Roman transliteration of Bulgarian Cyrillic is the English-oriented Streamlined System proposed by L.L. Ivanov and introduced by the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria on 2 March 1995. The Streamlined System was subsequently adopted by the Bulgarian Government (Ordinances #61 of 2 April 1999 and #10 of 11 February 2000) for the purposes of introducing new identity documents. Presently the system is being promulgated by the Ministry of Public Administration and Administrative Reform for further usage in road signs, street names, official information systems, databases, local authorities’ websites etc. Romanization of Bulgarian is the transliteration of text in the Bulgarian language from the Cyrillic alphabet into the Latin alphabet. ... The Streamlined System for the Romanization of Bulgarian Cyrillic alphabet The system as used in a 1989 document: Note Burgas (Бургас), Ahtopol (Ахтопол), Vratsa (Враца), and Tarnovo (Търново) The Streamlined System is the official Bulgarian system for the Romanization of Bulgarian. ... Lyubomir Ivanov Lyubomir Ivanov (born October 7, 1952) is a scientist, non-governmental activist, and Antarctic explorer. ... Topographic marker approved by the Commission Field work for the Commission A map published by the Commission The Antarctic Place-names Commission was established by the Bulgarian Antarctic Institute in 1994, and since 2001 has been a body affiliated to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria. ...


In the USA and Britain, the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN) and the UK Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use (PCGN) still retain their 1952 BGN/PCGN System for the Romanization of Bulgarian, used primarily in the English spelling of Bulgarian geographical names. That system differs from the Streamlined System in the case of three Cyrillic letters. See also Romanization of Bulgarian. Romanization of Bulgarian is the transliteration of text in the Bulgarian language from the Cyrillic alphabet into the Latin alphabet. ...

Russian

There is no single universally accepted system of writing Russian using the Latin script — in fact there are a huge number of such systems: some are adjusted for a particular target language (e.g. German or French), some are designed as a librarian's transliteration, some are prescribed for Russian traveller's passports; the transcription of some names is purely traditional.   All this has resulted in great reduplication of names.   E.g. the name of the great Russian composer Tchaikovsky may also be written as Tchaykovsky, Tchajkovskij, Tchaikowski, Tschaikowski, Czajkowski, Čajkovskij, Čajkovski, Chajkovskij, Çaykovski, Chaykovsky, Chaykovskiy, Chaikovski, Tshaikovski, Tšaikovski etc. Systems include: There exist many possible systems for transliterating the Cyrillic alphabet of the Russian language to English or the Latin alphabet. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world, the standard script of the English language and most of the languages of western and central Europe, and of those areas settled by Europeans. ... Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr (Peter) Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian: Пётр Ильич Чайкoвский, Pëtr Il’ič ÄŒajkovskij;  )[1] (7 May [O.S. 25 April] 1840 – 6 November [O.S. 25 October] 1893), was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. ...

  • BGN/PCGN (1947): Transliteration system (United States Board on Geographic Names & Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use). [21]
  • GOST 16876-71 (1971): A now defunct Soviet transliteration standard. Replaced by GOST 7.79, which is an ISO 9 equivalent.
  • United Nations romanization system for geographical names (1987): Based on GOST 16876-71.
  • ISO 9 (1995): Transliteration. From the International Organization for Standardization.
  • ALA-LC (1997): [22]
  • "Volapuk" encoding (1990s): Slang term (it's not really Volapük) for a writing method that's not truly a transliteration, but used for similar goals (see article).
  • Conventional English transliteration is based to BGN/PCGN, but doesn't follow a particular standard. Described in detail at transliteration of Russian into English.
  • Streamlined system for the transliteration of Russian

BGN/PCGN romanization refers to the systems for romanization (transliteration into the Latin alphabet) and Roman-script spelling conventions adopted by the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) and the Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use (PCGN). ... GOST 16876-71 (Russian: ) is a romanization system (for transliteration of Cyrillic texts into the Latin alphabet) devised by the National Administration for Geodesy and Cartography of the former Soviet Union. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Scientific transliteration. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... GOST 16876-71 (Russian: ) is a romanization system (for transliteration of Cyrillic texts into the Latin alphabet) devised by the National Administration for Geodesy and Cartography of the former Soviet Union. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Scientific transliteration. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Library of Congress, Jefferson building The Library of Congress is the unofficial national library of the United States. ... Volapuk encoding (Russian: кодировка волапюк, kodirovka volapyuk) or Pseudotranslit is a slang term for rendering the letters of the Cyrillic alphabet with Latin ones. ... Volapük edition of Wikipedia This article is about the international auxiliary language. ... There exist many possible systems for transliterating the Cyrillic alphabet of the Russian language to English or the Latin alphabet. ...

Ukrainian

Ukrainian personal names are usually transcribed phonetically; see the main article section Conventional romanization of proper names. The Ukrainian National system is used for geographic names in Ukraine. Romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian denotes a system for representing the Ukrainian language in Latin letters. ... Romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian denotes a system for representing the Ukrainian language in Latin letters. ...

  • ALA-LC: (PDF).
  • ISO 9
  • Ukrainian National transliteration: (JPEG, in Ukrainian).
  • Ukrainian National and BGN/PCGN systems, at the UN Working Group on Romanization Systems: (PDF).
  • Thomas T. Pederson's comparison of five systems: (PDF).

See also: Ukrainian Latin alphabet Library of Congress, Jefferson building The Library of Congress is the unofficial national library of the United States. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Scientific transliteration. ... A Latin alphabet for the Ukrainian language has been proposed or imposed several times in history, but has never challenged the conventional Cyrillic Ukrainian alphabet. ...


Greek

Greek language includes the modern language spoken in Greece, as well as ancient Polytonic orthography. See also Greeklish. Greek ( IPA: or IPA: — Hellenic) is an Indo-European language with a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single language in that language family. ... It has been suggested that Diacritics (Greek alphabet) be merged into this article or section. ... Greeklish, a portmanteau of the words Greek and English, also known as Grenglish or Latinoellinika/Λατινοελληνικά or Frankolevantinika/Φραγκολεβάντικα or ASCII Greek, is Greek language written with the Latin alphabet. ...

The international standard ISO 843 establishes a system for the transliteration into Latin characters of Greek characters. ... Library of Congress, Jefferson building The Library of Congress is the unofficial national library of the United States. ... Beta Code is a method of representing, using only ASCII characters, characters and formatting found in ancient Greek texts (and other archaic languages). ...

Overview and summary

The chart below shows the most common phonemic transcription romanization used for several different alphabets. While it is sufficient for many casual users, there are multiple alternatives used for each alphabet, and many exceptions. For details, consult each of the language sections below. (Because the number of Hangul characters are prohibitively large, only the first characters are provided in the following table.)

ROMANIZED Greek Russian (Cyrillic) Hebrew Arabic Katakana Hangul
A A А ַ, ֲ, ָ دَ, دَ, ﺍ — ﺎ, دَىا
AI י ַ
B ΜΠ, Β Б בּ ﺏ ﺑ ﺒ ﺐ
C Ξ
CH TΣ̈ Ч צ׳
CHI
D ΝΤ, Δ Д ד ﺩ — ﺪ, ﺽ ﺿ ﻀ ﺾ
DH Δ דֿ ﺫ — ﺬ
DZ ΤΖ Ѕ
E Ε, ΑΙ Э , ֱ, י ֵֶ, ֵ, י ֶ
F Φ Ф פ (final ף ) ﻑ ﻓ ﻔ ﻒ
FU
G ΓΓ, ΓΚ, Γ Г ג
GH Γ Ғ גֿ, עֿ ﻍ ﻏ ﻐ ﻎ
H Η Һ ח, ה ﻩ ﻫ ﻬ ﻪ, ﺡ ﺣ ﺤ ﺢ
HA
HE
HI
HO
I Η, Ι, Υ, ΕΙ, ΟΙ И ִ, י ִ دِ
IY دِي
J TZ̈ ДЖ, Џ ג׳ ﺝ ﺟ ﺠ ﺞ
JJ
K Κ К כּ (final ךּ ) ﻙ ﻛ ﻜ ﻚ
KA
KE
KH X Х כ ,חֿ (final ך ) ﺥ ﺧ ﺨ ﺦ
KI
KK
KO
KU
L Λ Л ל ﻝ ﻟ ﻠ ﻞ
M Μ М מ (final ם ) ﻡ ﻣ ﻤ ﻢ
MA
ME
MI
MO
MU
N Ν Н נ (final ן ) ﻥ ﻧ ﻨ ﻦ
NA
NE
NI
NO
NU
O Ο, Ω О , ֳ, וֹֹ
P Π П פּ (final ףּ )
PP
PS Ψ
Q Θ ק ﻕ ﻗ ﻘ ﻖ
R Ρ Р ר ﺭ — ﺮ
RA
RE
RI
RO
RU
S Σ С ס, שׂ ﺱ ﺳ ﺴ ﺲ, ﺹ ﺻ ﺼ ﺺ
SA
SE
SH Σ̈ Ш שׁ ﺵ ﺷ ﺸ ﺶ
SHCH Щ
SHI
SO
SS
SU
T Τ Т ט, תּ, ת ﺕ ﺗ ﺘ ﺖ, ﻁ ﻃ ﻄ ﻂ
TA
TE
TH Θ תֿ ﺙ ﺛ ﺜ ﺚ
TO
TS ΤΣ Ц צ (final ץ )
TSU
TT
U ΟΥ, Υ У , וֻּ دُ
UW دُو
V B В ב
W Ω ו, וו ﻭ — ﻮ
WA
WE
WI
WO
X Ξ, Χ
Y Ψ Й, Ы, Ј י ﻱ ﻳ ﻴ ﻲ
YA Я
YE Е
YI Ї
YO Ё
YU Ю
Z Ζ З ז ﺯ — ﺰ, ﻅ ﻇ ﻈ ﻆ
ZH Ζ̈ Ж ז׳

The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Katakana ) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji, and in some cases the Latin alphabet. ... Jamo redirects here. ...

See also

This does not cite any references or sources. ... Francization is the process of giving a French character to something (a word, an organization) or someone. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ...

External links


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