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Encyclopedia > Romanians
Romanians
Români
From left to right:
Top: Stephen the Great · Victor Babeş · Mihai Eminescu · Constantin Brâncuşi
Bottom: George Enescu · Henri Coandă · Mircea Eliade · Nadia Comăneci
Total population

c. 21.5[1] to 24.8 million (including Moldovans)[2][3] Image File history File links Information. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Victor Babeş Victor Babeş (July 4, 1854, Vienna–October 19, 1926) was a Romanian biologist and one of the earliest bacteriologists. ... Mihai Eminescu (pronunciation in Romanian: ) (January 15, 1850 – June 15, 1889), born Mihail Eminovici, was a late Romantic poet, the best-known and most influential Romanian poet celebrated in both Romania and Moldova. ... Constantin Brancusi (February 19, 1876 – March 16, 1957), originally Constantin Brâncuşi, was a Romanian sculptor, born in Hobiţa, Gorj, near Târgu Jiu, where he placed his sculptural ensemble with The Table of Silence, The Gate of the Kiss and The Endless Column. ... George Enescu George Enescu (pronunciation in Romanian: ; known in France as Georges Enesco) (August 19, 1881, Liveni – May 4, 1955, Paris) was a Romanian composer, violinist, pianist, conductor and teacher, preeminent Romanian musician of the 20th century, and one of the greatest performers of his time. ... Henri Marie Coandă (June 7, 1886 – November 25, 1972) was a Romanian inventor, aerodynamics pioneer and the parent of the modern jet aircraft. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Nadia Elena Comaneci (originally Comăneci ) (born November 12, 1961) is a Romanian gymnast, winner of five Olympic gold medals, and the first to be awarded a perfect score of 10 in an Olympic gymnastic event. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of Romania Romania 19,409,400 (2002 census) [4]
Flag of Moldova Moldova 75,000 (2004 census)
2,815,175 (incl. Moldovans)
[5][6]
Flag of Ukraine Ukraine 150,989 (Romanians)
409,608 (incl. Moldovans)
[7]
Flag of Spain Spain 524.995 [8]
Flag of the United States United States 367,310 (2000) [9][10]
Flag of Italy Italy 297,570 [11][12]
Flag of Russia Russia 5,308 (Romanians)
177,638 (incl. Moldovans)
[13]
Flag of Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 20,000 [14]
Flag of France France 100,000
Flag of Canada Canada 131,320 [15][16]
Flag of Germany Germany 73,365 [17]
Flag of Israel Israel 50,000 [18]
Flag of Brazil Brazil 33,280 (estimated)
Flag of Serbia Serbia 34,576 (Romanians)
74,630 (incl. Timok Vlachs)
[19]
Flag of Turkey Turkey 30,000 [20]
Flag of Greece Greece 29,000
Flag of Austria Austria 23,000 [20]
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom 20,000
Flag of Hungary Hungary 14,781 [21]
Flag of Sweden Sweden 12,748 [22]
Flag of Australia Australia 10,000 to 20,000 [23]
Flag of Venezuela Venezuela 10,000 to 12,000 [20]
Flag of Portugal Portugal 10,926
Flag of Argentina Argentina 10,000 [20]
Flag of Slovakia Slovakia 9,000 [20]
Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria 1,088 (Romanians)
11,654 (incl. Timok Vlachs)
[24]
Languages
Romanian language
Religions
Predominantly Romanian Orthodox, but also including Romanian Catholic, Roman Catholic, Protestant and Atheist.
Related ethnic groups

  • Vlachs
  • Moldovans
  • Aromanians
  • Megleno-Romanians
  • Istro-Romanians   • Italians
Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Moldova. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 9th century   -  First unified state c. ... Vlachs (Vlach/Romanian: Rumâni, Serbian: Власи or Vlasi) are an ethnic group of Serbia, culturally and linguistically cognate to Romanians. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Venezuela. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Vlachs (Vlach/Romanian: Rumâni, Serbian: Власи or Vlasi) are an ethnic group of Serbia, culturally and linguistically cognate to Romanians. ... Romanian (limba română, IPA: ) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. ... The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă Română in Romanian) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. ... ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... Vlachs (Vlach/Romanian: Rumâni, Serbian: Власи or Vlasi) are an ethnic group of Serbia, culturally and linguistically cognate to Romanians. ... Aromanians (also called: Arumanians or Macedo-Romanians; in Aromanian they call themselves Armãnji, Rrãmãnji) are a people living throughout the southern Balkans, especially in northern Greece, Albania, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria, and as an emigrant community in Romania (Dobruja). ... Map of Balkans with regions inhabited by Megleno-Romanians in dark yellow Megleno-Romanians (In Megleno-Romanian: Vlashi, in Greek: Βλαχομογλενίτες Vlachomoglenítes) is an exonym for a people inhabiting six villages in the Moglená (Μογλενά) region of Macedonia spanning the Pella and Kilkis prefectures of Macedonia, Greece, as well as the... Map of Istro-Romanian-speaking villages, made by PuÅŸcariu in 1926. ...

The Romanians (români in present-day Romanian and rumâni in historical contexts) are an ethnic group; they are the majority inhabitants of Romania. Both countries also have other significant ethnic minorities, and the Romanians constitute an ethnic minority in several nearby countries. This article is about the concept of a minority. ...


The Romanian people are a nation in the meaning an ethnos (in Romanian: popor), defined more by a sense of sharing a common Romanian culture and having a Romanian mother tongue, than by citizenship or by being subjects to any particular country. The Romanian citizenship Law[25] legislated in March 1991 even establishes the rights of second and third generation descendants of Romanian citizens to obtain a Romanian citizenship, if they speak fluent Romanian and are able to demonstrate sufficient knowledge in Romanian history and culture. In the world today, 24 million have Romanian as their mother tongue.[26] If a distinction is made between Romanians and Ethnic Romanians, the latter are distinguished by living outside of the Romania and not holding Romanian citizenship. One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... An ethnic group or ethnicity is a population of human beings whose members identify with each other, either on the basis of a presumed common genealogy or ancestry[1], or recognition by others as a distinct group[2], or by common cultural, linguistic, religious, or territorial traits. ... Romanias culture is very similar to other European culture, including that of Western Europe and Central Europe. ... “Native Language” redirects here. ... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city or town but now usually a country) and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city or town but now usually a country) and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ...


The concept of who is a Romanian has varied in time. In historical contexts, the Romanians are generally referred with the exonym Vlachs, a term shared by other Romance populations of the Balkan Peninsula. These populations also shared, and share, a common autonym, with dialectical variants rumân, armân, rumâr, etc. These populations, regarded separately today, had generally been regarded as a single people with a cohesive self-identity, possessing a common language divided into the main dialects: Daco-Romanian, the dominant language of modern Romania and Moldova; Aromanian (also known as Macedo-Romanian), spoken today by about 300,000 people in the several countries south of the Danube; Megleno-Romanian, spoken today by about 10,000 people in Greece and the Republic of Macedonia; and Istro-Romanian spoken today by fewer than 1,000 people in a few villages on the peninsula of Istria in Croatia. However, a modern separation and interpretation, although would group the modern Romanians along with the Macedo-Romanians, Megleno-Romanians and Istro-Romanians, would nevertheless conclude and have as final result the perception of these populations as separate, distinguished ethnic groups. An exonym is a name for a place or people that is created by people outside of that place and is different from the name used in the native language. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... An ethnonym (Gk. ... Daco-Romanian (Romanian: limba dacoromânÇŽ, Latin: lingua Daco-Romana) is the term used to identify the Romanian language in contexts where distinction needs to be made between the various Eastern Romance languages or dialects (Daco-Romanian, Aromanian, Istro-Romanian, and Megleno-Romanian). ... Aromanian (also known as Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian or Vlach in most other countries; in Aromanian: limba armãneascã, armãneshce or armãneashti) is an Eastern Romance language spoken in Southeastern Europe. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... Megleno-Romanian (known as VlăheÅŸte by speakers and Moglenitic, Meglenitic or Megleno-Romanian by linguists) is a Romance language, similar to Aromanian, and Romanian spoken in the Moglená region of Greece, in a few villages in the Republic of Macedonia and also in a few villages in Romania. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Istro-Romanian is a Romance language used in a few villages in the peninsula of Istria, on the northern part of the Adriatic Sea, in Croatia. ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... Aromanians (also called: Arumanians or Macedo-Romanians; in Aromanian they call themselves Arumâni, Armâni, Ramani, Rumâni or Aromâni) are a people living throughout the southern Balkans, especially in northern Greece, Albania, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria, and as an emigrant community in Romania (Dobrogea). ... Map of Balkans with regions inhabited by Megleno-Romanians in dark yellow Megleno-Romanians (In Megleno-Romanian: Vlashi, in Greek: Βλαχομογλενίτες Vlachomoglenítes) is an exonym for a people inhabiting six villages in the Moglená (Μογλενά) region of Macedonia spanning the Pella and Kilkis prefectures of Macedonia, Greece, as well as the... Map of Istro-Romanian-speaking villages, made by PuÅŸcariu in 1926. ...


Ascribing the concept to the territory which nowadays encompasses Romania, than it can be inferred that until the 19th century, the term Romanian denoted the speakers of the Daco-Romanian dialect of the Romanian language, thus being a much more distinct concept than that of Romania, the country of the Romanians. Prior to 1867, the (Daco-)Romanians were part of different statal entities: with the Moldavians and the Wallachians being split off and having shaped separate political identities, possessing states of their own, and with the rest of Romanians being part of other states. However, like the rest of the Vlachs, they all retained their Romanian cultural and ethnic identity. Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ...

Contents

Population

Most Romanians live in Romania, where they constitute a majority; Romanians also constitute a minority in the countries that neighbour them. Romanians can also be found in many countries as immigrants, notably in the United States, Spain, Italy, Canada, France and Germany. It is also a matter of the ongoing dispute whether the population of the Republic of Moldova (i.e., Moldovans) are Romanians.


The contemporary total population of ethnic Romanians cannot be stated with any degree of certainty. A disparity can be observed between official sources (such as census counts) where they exist, and estimates which come from non-official sources and interested groups. Several inhibiting factors (not unique to this particular case) contribute towards this uncertainty, which may include: 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ...

  • A degree of overlap may exist or be shared between Romanian and other ethnic identities in certain situations, and census or survey respondents may elect to identify with one particular ancestry but not another, or instead identify with multiple ancestries;
  • Counts and estimates may inconsistently distinguish between Romanian nationality and Romanian ethnicity (i.e. not all Romanian nationals identify with Romanian ethnicity, and vice versa);
  • The measurements and methodologies employed by governments to enumerate and describe the ethnicity and ancestry of their citizens vary from country to country. Thus the census definition of "Romanian" might variously mean Romanian-born, of Romanian parentage, or also include other ethnic identities as Romanian which otherwise are identified separately in other contexts;
  • The number of ethnic Romanians who live and work abroad is not precisely known, particularly so where their presence in the host country may be considered "illegal". In addition, where estimates for these populations have been made there is some risk of likely "double counting"— that is, Romanian persons abroad who have retained (or have not formally relinquished) their original citizenship may possibly figure in the counts or estimates of both the "home" and "host" countries.

For example, the decennial U.S. Census of 2000 calculated (based on a statistical sampling of household data) that there were 367,310 respondents indicating Romanian ancestry (roughly 0.1% of the total population).[9] The actual total recorded number of foreign-born Romanians was only 136,000 Migration Information Source However, some non-specialist organisations have produced estimates which are considerably higher: a 2002 study by the Romanian-American Network Inc. mentions an estimated figure of 1,200,000[27] for the number of Romanian-Americans. This estimate notes however that "...other immigrants of Romanian national minority groups have been included such as: Armenians, Germans, Gypsies, Hungarians, Jews, and Ukrainians". It also includes an unspecified allowance for second- and third-generation Romanians, and an indeterminate number living in Canada. An error range for the estimate is not provided. For the United States 2000 Census figures, almost 20% of the total population did not classify or report an ancestry, and the census is also subject to undercounting, an incomplete (67%) response rate, and sampling error in general. The U.S. Census is mandated by the United States Constitution. ... Sampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of individual observations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern, especially for the purposes of statistical inference. ... A Romanian-American is a citizen of the United States who has significant Romanian heritage. ... The United States Census of year 2000, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ...


History

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Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the talk page for details.
White = RomaniansGreen = Istro-Romanians Yellow = Aromanians Orange = Megleno-Romanians
White = Romanians
Green = Istro-Romanians
Yellow = Aromanians
Orange = Megleno-Romanians
Main article: History of Romania

Image File history File links Circle-question. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x954, 362 KB) Summary Made by Bogdan Giuşcă, 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Vlachs Romanians ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x954, 362 KB) Summary Made by Bogdan Giuşcă, 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Vlachs Romanians ... This article provides only a brief outline of each period of the History of Romania; details are presented in separate articles (see the links in the box and below). ...

Ancient times

Main article: Origin of Romanians

Inhabited by the ancient Dacians, today's territory of Romania was conquered by the Roman Empire in 106, when Trajan's army defeated the army of Decebalus (see Dacian Wars). The Roman administration withdrew two centuries later, under the pressure of the Goths and Carpi. The Romanians (also sometimes referred to along with other Balkan Latin peoples as Vlachs) are a nation speaking Romanian, a Romance language, and living in Central and Eastern Europe. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... For other uses, see number 106. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Decebalus, from Trajans Column Decebalus (ruled 87 – 106) (Decebal in Romanian) was a Dacian king. ... Combatants Dacians Roman Empire Commanders Decebal Trajan Strength around 100,000 (based on population estimate) 70,000-80,000 Casualties Unknown Unknown The Dacian Wars (101-102, 105-106) were two short wars between the Roman Empire and Dacia during Emperor Trajans rule. ... The provinces of the Roman Empire in 120, with Dacia highlighted. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... Carpi may refer to: Carpi, a large town of Modena province in Italy the Carpi, an ancient Dacian tribe Jacopo Berengario da Carpi, an Italian anatomist Aldo Carpi, an Italian painter Carpi F.C. 1909, an Italian football (soccer) club Giovan Battista Carpi, an Italian comic artist. ...


Middle ages

The tribal migrations that followed - such as the ones of Slavs, Bulgars (later Bulgarians), Hungarians, and Tatars - did not allow Romanians to develop any large centralized state, which was only achieved in the 13th century and especially in the 14th century, when the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia emerged to fight the Ottoman Empire. The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Bulgar warriors slaughter Byzantines, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326...


The entire Balkan peninsula was annexed by the Ottoman Empire, but Moldavia, Wallachia, and Transylvania remained autonomous under Ottoman suzerainty. The three principalities were united in 1600 under the authority of Wallachian Prince Michael the Brave. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Bulgarian: ; Serbian: / or / ) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... Suzerainty refers to a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy but controls its foreign affairs. ... Below is the list of Wallachian rulers, since the first mentioned until the unification with Moldavia in 1859. ... Engraving of Michael the Brave Mihai Viteazu redirects here. ...


Up until 1541, Transylvania was part of the Kingdom of Hungary, later (due to the conquest of Hungary by the Ottoman Empire) was a self-governed Principality governed by the Hungarian nobility. In 1699 it became a part of the Habsburg lands. By the 19th century, the Austrian Empire was awarded the by the Ottomans the region of Bukovina and, in 1812, the Russians occupied the eastern half of Moldavia, known as Bessarabia. The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ...


Modern age

In 1821 and 1848, two rebellions occurred, and both failed; but they had an important role in the spreading of the liberal ideology. In 1859, Moldavia and Wallachia elected the same ruler - Alexander John Cuza (who reigned as Domnitor) and were thus unified de facto. This article gives an overview of Liberalism and Radicalism in Romania. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Alexander John Cuza Alexandru Ioan Cuza (March 20, 1820, Galaţi – May 15, 1873, Heidelberg), more commonly known in English as Alexander John Cuza, was the domnitor (ruler) of the United Principalites of Romania between 1859 and 1866. ... Domnitor (pl. ...


Newly-founded Kingdom of Romania, led by the Hohenzollern prince Carol I fought the War of Independence against the Ottomans, which was recognized in 1878. At the beginning of World War I, although allied with Austria-Hungary, Romania refused to go to war on the side of the Central Powers, because Romania was obliged to go to war only if Austria-Hungary was attacked. In 1916, Romania joined World War I on the side of the Triple Entente. As a result, at the end of the war, Transylvania, Bessarabia and Bukovina were awarded to Romania, resulting in Greater Romania. From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) under a single prince to a full-fledged independent kingdom with a Hohenzollern monarchy. ... Hohenzollern redirects here. ... Carol I, original name Karl Eitel Friedrich Zephyrinus Ludwig von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (April 20, 1839 - October 10, 1914) was elected Domnitor (prince) of Romania in April 1866 following the overthrow of Alexander John Cuza, and proclaimed king on March 26, 1881. ... Plevna Monument near the walls of Kitai-gorod. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... European military alliances in 1914. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Anthem Trăiască Regele Capital Bucharest Language(s) Romanian Government Constitutional monarchy Head of State  - 1918 - 1927 Ferdinand I of Romania  - 1927 - 1930 - 1930 - 1940 - 1940 - 1947 Michael I of Romania Carol II of Romania Michael I of Romania Legislature Adunarea DeputaÅ£ilor and Senatul Historical era Interbellum Years  - Kingdom...


During World War II, Romania lost territory in both east and west, as Northern Transylvania became part of Hungary through the Second Vienna Award, while Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina were taken by the Soviets and included in the Moldavian SSR and Ukrainian SSR respectively. The eastern territory losses were facilitated by the Molotov-Ribbentrop German-Soviet non-aggression pact. In June of 1941, after a brief period of nominal neutrality under King Carol, Romania joined the Axis Powers. ... Read carefully- a chauvinist bias included! Romania with Northern Transylvania highlighted in yellow Northern Transylvania is a part of Transylvania which, after separation from Hungary in 1920 by the Trianon (Versailles) Treaty, was awarded by Germany and Italy to Hungary in line with the Vienna Awards of 1940. ... The Second Vienna Award was the second of two Vienna Awards. ... State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ...


The Soviet Union imposed a Communist government and King Michael was forced to abdicate and leave for exile. Ceauşescu became the head of the Romanian Communist Party in 1965 and his draconian rule of the 1980s was stopped by a Revolution in 1989. The King of Romania was the title of the ruler of the Kingdom of Romania from 1881 until 1947 when Romania was proclaimed a republic. ... King Michael and Queen Anne King Michael (Romanian Mihai) of Romania (born October 25, 1921) was the son of King Carol II and reigned from July 20, 1927 to June 8, 1930, and again from September 6, 1940 until December 30, 1947. ... Nicolae CeauÅŸescu (IPA , in English, sometimes (and erroneously) ) (January 26, 1918–December 25, 1989) was the leader of Romania from 1965 until December 1989. ... PCR hammer and sickle symbol The Romanian Communist Party (Romanian: Partidul Comunist Român, PCR) was a Communist political party in Romania. ... Combatants Securitate and other loyalist forces Anti-CeauÅŸescu protesters, discontented Communist party members, Romanian Army defectors Commanders Nicolae CeauÅŸescu† Various independent leaders Casualties 1,104 deaths The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of riots and fighting in late December of 1989 that overthrew the...


The Romanian revolution brought to power the dissident and former communist Ion Iliescu. He remained in power until 1996, and then once more between 2000 and 2004. Emil Constantinescu was president from 1996 to 2000, and Traian Băsescu started his mandate in 2004. Ion Iliescu (born March 3, 1930) is a Romanian politician. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The President of Romania is the head of state of Romania. ... Traian Băsescu (born November 4, 1951) is a Romanian politician and former Merchant Navy officer. ...


Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the European Union in 2007. NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Romania

The culture of Romania is rich and varied. ...

Contribution to humanity

Main article: List of Romanians

Romanians have played an important role in the arts, sciences and engineering. This is a list of prominent Romanians. ... The Arts is a broad subdivision of culture, comprised of many expressive disciplines. ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... Engineering is the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ...


In the history of flight, Traian Vuia built the first self-propelling heavier-than-air aircraft, while Henri Coandă built the first aircraft powered by a jet engine. Victor Babeş discovered more than 50 germs and a cure for a disease named after him, babesiosis; biologist Nicolae Paulescu discovered insulin. Another biologist, Emil Palade, received the Nobel Prize for his contributions to cell biology. Mathematician Ştefan Odobleja is considered to be the ideological father behind cybernetics. Traian Vuias flying machine (March 18, 1906) Traian Vuia (August 17, 1872 - September 3, 1950) was a Romanian inventor, designed and built a self-propelling heavier-than-air aircraft. ... Henri Marie Coandă (June 7, 1886 – November 25, 1972) was a Romanian inventor, aerodynamics pioneer and the parent of the modern jet aircraft. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... Victor BabeÅŸ Victor BabeÅŸ (July 4, 1854, Vienna–October 19, 1926) was a Romanian biologist and one of the earliest bacteriologists. ... Babesiosis is a parasitic disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia, which belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa. ... Nicolae Paulescu (October 30, 1869, Bucharest - July 17, 1931, Bucharest) was a Romanian physiologist, professor of medicine and the discoverer of insulin. ... Insulin (from Latin insula, island, as it is produced in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas) is an anabolic polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. ... Dr. Palade won the Nobel Prize in 1974. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Åžtefan Odobleja (1902 - 1978) was a Romanian scientist considered to be one of the precursors of cybernetics. ... Cybernetics is the study of feedback and derived concepts such as communication and control in living organisms, machines and organisations. ...


In the arts and culture, important figures were George Enescu (music composer), Constantin Brâncusi (sculptor), Eugène Ionesco (playwright), Mircea Eliade (historian of religion and novelist), Emil Cioran (essayist) and Angela Gheorghiu (soprano). George Enescu George Enescu (pronunciation in Romanian: ; known in France as Georges Enesco) (August 19, 1881, Liveni – May 4, 1955, Paris) was a Romanian composer, violinist, pianist, conductor and teacher, preeminent Romanian musician of the 20th century, and one of the greatest performers of his time. ... Constantin Brancusi Constantin Brancusi (February 19, 1876 – March 16, 1957, originally Constantin BrâncuÅŸi IPA: ), was a Romanian sculptor, born in HobiÅ£a, Gorj, near Târgu Jiu, where he placed his sculptural ensemble with The Table of Silence, The Gate of the Kiss and The Endless Column. ... Eugène Ionesco Eugène Ionesco, born Eugen Ionescu, (November 26, 1909 – March 29, 1994) was a French-Romanian playwright and dramatist, one of the foremost playwrights of the Theatre of the Absurd. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Emil Cioran Emil Cioran (April 8, 1911 – June 20, 1995) was a Romanian philosopher and essayist. ... Opera singer Angela Gheorghiu (born September 7, 1965) is one of the most famous contemporary sopranos. ...


Count Dracula is a worldwide icon of Romania. However, the idea of Dracula as a vampire is not genuinely Romanian. It was created by the Irishman Bram Stoker from Balkan folklore and the historic Romanian figure of Vlad Ţepeş. Count Dracula is a fictional character, the titular character of Bram Stokers classic Gothic horror story Dracula created in 1897. ... Abraham Bram Stoker (November 8, 1847 – April 20, 1912) was an Irish writer, best remembered as the author of the influential horror novel Dracula. ... Portrait of Vlad III in the Innsbruck Ambras Castle Vlad III Basarab (other names: Vlad Å¢epeÅŸ IPA: in Romanian, meaning Vlad the Impaler; Vlad Draculea in Romanian, transliterated as Vlad Dracula in some documents; Kazıklı Bey in Turkish, meaning Impaler Prince), (November or December, 1431 – December 1476). ...


Andrei Codrescu is a Romanian-born author and social critic, whose acerbic commentaries have been heard on National Public Radio. He is a professor of English literature at the Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge, and has written extensively on life in Romania under the Communist Ceausescu regime. Andrei Codrescu (born December 20, 1946), born in Sibiu, Romania. ... “NPR” redirects here. ... Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College at Baton Rouge, generally known as Louisiana State University or LSU, is a public, coeducational university located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana and the main campus of the Louisiana State University System. ...


Language

Main article: Romanian language

The origins of Romanian language, a Romance language, can be traced back to the Roman colonization of Dacia. The basic vocabulary is of Latin origin, although there are some substratum Dacian words. Of all the Romance languages, it could be said that Romanian is the most archaic one, having retained, for example, the inflected structure of Latin grammar. Romanian (limba română, IPA: ) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. ... Romanian (limba română, IPA: ) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Dacian language was an Indo-European language spoken by the ancient people of Dacia. ...


During the Middle Ages, Romanian was isolated from the other Romance languages, and borrowed words from the nearby Slavic languages. The Turkish occupation enriched the language with a picturesque Turkic vocabulary by now thoroughly integrated into everyday speech. During the modern era, most neologisms were borrowed from French and Italian, though increasingly the language is falling under the sway of English borrowings.  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326...


The Moldovan language, in its official form, is practically identical to Romanian, although there are some differences in colloquial speech. In the de-facto independent (but internationally unrecognised) region of Transnistria, the official script used to write Moldovan is Cyrillic. Moldovan is the official name for the Romanian language in the Republic of Moldova and in the territory of Transnistria. ... For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria (World War II). ...


A 2005 Ethnologue estimation puts the (world-wide) number of Romanian speakers at approximately 23.5 million.[28] The 23.5 million , however, represent only speakers of Romanian, not all of whom are necessarily ethnic Romanians. Also, this number does not include ethnic-Romanians who no longer speak the Romanian language. Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ...


Surnames

Many Romanian names have the surname suffix -escu, which used to be a patronymic. (for example, "Petrescu" used to be the son of "Petre") Many Romanians in France changed the ending of their surnames to -esco, because the way it is pronounced "-cu" in French. Other suffixes are "-eanu" (or "-an"), which indicates the geographical origin and "-aru", which indicates the occupation. A family name, or surname, is that part of a persons name that indicates to what family he or she belongs. ... Look up patronymic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The most common surnames are Ionescu ("son of John") and Popescu ("son of the priest").


Religion

The majority of Romanians are Eastern Orthodox Christians, belonging to the Romanian Orthodox Church. According to the 2002 census, 94.0% of ethnic Romanians in Romania identified themselves as Romanian Orthodox (in comparison to 86.8% of Romania's total population, including other ethnic groups). However, it must be noted that the actual rate of church attendance is significantly lower, and that many Romanians are only nominally believers. For example, according to a 2006 Eurobarometer poll, only 23% of Romanians attend church once a week or more.[29] A 2006 poll conducted by the Open Society Foundation found that only 33% of Romanians attended church once a month or more.[30] Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă Română in Romanian) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. ... Eurobarometer is a survey performed by Public Opinion Analysis sector of the European Commission since 1973. ... The Open Society Institute (OSI), a private operating and grantmaking foundation, aims to shape public policy to promote democratic governance, human rights, and economic, legal, and social reform. ...


Romanian Catholics are present in Transylvania, Bucharest, and parts of Moldavia, belonging to both the Romanian Greek-Catholic Catholic Church and the Roman Catholic Church. A small percentage of Romanians are Protestant, neo-Protestant (2.8%), or agnostic (0,15%). Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Bulgarian: ; Serbian: / or / ) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country Romania County Municipality of Bucharest Founded 1459 (first mentioned) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km²  (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... The Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic (in Romanian: Biserica Română Unită cu Roma, Greco-Catolică) is an Eastern Rite or Greek-Catholic Church ranked as a Major Archiepiscopal Church, which uses the Byzantine liturgical rite in the Romanian language. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms... The term agnosticism and the related agnostic were coined by Thomas Henry Huxley in 1869. ...


There is no official date for the adoption of Christianity by the Romanians. It appears that Christianization occurred gradually, starting with the Saint Andrew's mission during the Roman era and then continuing while the Romanian people and language emerged, as suggested by archeological findings and by Romanian words for church ("biserica" < basilica), God ("Dumnezeu" < Domine Deus), Easter ("Paste" < Paschae), etc. Saint Andrew (Greek: Ανδρέας, Andreas), called in the Orthodox tradition Protocletos, or the First-called, is a Christian Apostle and the younger brother of Saint Peter. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The word Dumnezeu is the Romanian term for God. In other languages, it is often used to refer specifically to the Christian concept of God: see Usage below. ...


After the Great Schism, there existed a Catholic Bishopric of Cumania (later, separate bishoprics in both Wallachia and Moldavia). However, this seems to be the exception, rather than the rule, as in both Wallachia and Moldavia the state religion (the one use for crowning, and other ceremonies) was orthodox. Until the 17th century, the official language of the liturgy was Old Church Slavonic. Then, it gradually changed to Romanian. The term Great Schism may refer to: The East-West Schism, in 1054 between Western Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christianity. ... The Cumans, also known as Polovtsy (Slavic for yellowish) were a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Old Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian or Old Slavic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessaloniki (Solun) by the 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ...


Symbols

Romanian flag
Romanian flag
Moldovan flag
Moldovan flag
Coat of Arms of Romania

The colours of blue, yellow and red, which are now used on the both the flag of Romania and the flag of Moldova were used by the nationalist movement of the 1820s. [citation needed] Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Moldova. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Moldova. ... Image File history File links Romania_Coat_of_Arms. ... Image File history File links Romania_Coat_of_Arms. ... The national flag of Romania is a vertical tricolor of blue, yellow, and red. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The national flag of Moldova (Moldavia) is a tricolor of blue (haist), yellow (centre) and red (fly) (ie. ... Nationalistic independence helped reshape the world during this decade: Greece gains independence from the Ottoman Empire in the Greek War of Independence (1821-1827). ...


In addition to these colours, each historical province of Romania has its own characteristic animal symbol:

The Coat of Arms of Romania combines these together. Map of Romania with Oltenia highlighted Oltenia or Lesser Wallachia is a historical province of Romania. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Distribution of Lions in Africa Synonyms Felis leo (Linnaeus, 1758) The lion (Panthera leo) is a member of the family Felidae and one of four big cats in the genus Panthera. ... Location of Banat in Europe Map of the Banat region with largest cities shown The Banat (Romanian: Banat, Serbian: Банат or Banat, Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság, German: Banat, Slovak: Banát, Bulgarian: Банат) is a geographical and historical region of Central Europe currently divided between three countries: the... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Dobrogea is the Romanian name for Dobruja (&#1044;&#1086;&#1073;&#1088;&#1091;&#1076;&#1078;&#1072;, Dobrudzha in Bulgarian), a territory between the lower Danube river and the Black Sea, divided between Romania and Bulgaria. ... Genera See article below. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Subspecies Bos primigenius primigenius   (Bojanus, 1827) Bos primigenius namadicus   (Falconer, 1859) Bos primigenius mauretanicus   (Thomas, 1881) See Ur (rune) for the rune. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Wisent or European Bison (Bison bonasus) (IPA: ) is a bison species and the heaviest land animal in Europe. ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Bulgarian: ; Serbian: / or / ) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... Binomial name Ictinaetus malayensis (Temminck, 1822) The Black Eagle (Ictinaetus malayensis) is a bird of prey. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Genera Several, see below. ... Coat of Arms of Romania The Coat of Arms of Romania consists of an eagle holding a cross in its beak and a sceptre and a sword in its claws. ...


Customs

Main article: Romanian folklore

This article on Romanian mythology covers both the mythology traditional to the Romanian people and to certain earlier civilizations that occupied the same geographic area, and whom the ethnic Romanians tend to claim either as spiritual or as more literal ancestors. ...

Name

In English, Romanians are usually called Romanians, Rumanians, or Roumanians except in some historical texts, where they are called Roumans or Vlachs. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Romanian

Main article: Etymology of Romania

The name "Romanian" is derived from Latin "Romanus". Under regular phonetical changes that are typical to the Romanian languages, the name was transformed in "rumân" (ru'mɨn). An older form of "român" was still in use in some regions. Socio-linguistic evolutions in the late 18th century led to a gradual preponderance of the "român" spelling form, which was then generalised during the National awakening of Romania of early 19th century. NeacÅŸus letter, the oldest surviving document written in Romanian has the oldest appearence of the word Romanian Romanians are a people living in South-Eastern Europe speaking a Romance language. ... During the period of Austro-Hungarian rule in Transylvania and Ottoman suzerainty over Wallachia and Moldavia, most Romanians were in the situation of being second-class citizens (or even non-citizens) in their own country. ...


Vlach

The name of "Vlachs" is an exonym that was used by Slavs to refer to all Romanized natives of the Balkans. It holds its origin from ancient Germanic - being a cognate to "Welsh" and "Walloon" -, and perhaps even further back in time, from the Roman name Volcae, which was originally a Celtic tribe. From the Slavs, it was passed on to other peoples, such as the Hungarians (Oláh) and Greeks (Vlachoi). (see: Etymology of Vlach) Vlach was also used for all Orthodox Christians. Wallachia, a region in Romania, takes its name from the same source. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An exonym is a name for a place or people that is created by people outside of that place and is different from the name used in the native language. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... This article is about the European people. ... Vlach is a Slavic term used to designate the Latin peoples of South-Eastern Europe: Romanians, Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians and Istro-Romanians. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ...


Nowadays, the term Vlach is more often used to refer to the Romanized populations of the Balkans who speak Daco-Romanian, Aromanian, Istro-Romanian and Megleno-Romanian. Aromanian, Istro-Romanian and Megleno-Romanian are the closest related languages to the Romanian language. Romanian (limba română, IPA: ) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. ... Aromanian (also known as Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian or Vlach in most other countries; in Aromanian: limba armãneascã, armãneshce or armãneashti) is an Eastern Romance language spoken in Southeastern Europe. ... Istro-Romanian is a Romance language used in a few villages in the peninsula of Istria, on the northern part of the Adriatic Sea, in Croatia. ... Megleno-Romanian (known as Vlăheşte by speakers and Moglenitic, Meglenitic or Megleno-Romanian by linguists) is a Romance language, similar to Aromanian, and Romanian spoken in the Moglená region of Greece, in a few villages in the Republic of Macedonia and also in a few villages in Romania. ...


Daco-Romanian

To distinguish Romanians from the other Romanic peoples of the Balkans (Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians and Istro-Romanians), the term Daco-Romanian is sometimes used to refer to those who speak the standard Romanian language and live in the territory of ancient Dacia (today comprising mostly Romania and Moldova), although some Daco-Romanians can be found in Serbia (which was part of ancient Moesia). Daco-Romanian (Romanian: limba dacoromânǎ, Latin: lingua Daco-Romana) is the term used to identify the Romanian language in contexts where distinction needs to be made between the various Eastern Romance languages or dialects (Daco-Romanian, Aromanian, Istro-Romanian, and Megleno-Romanian). ... Romanian (limba română, IPA: ) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... It has been suggested that Official status of Romanian language in Vojvodina be merged into this article or section. ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ...


Toponyms

In the Middle Ages, Romanian shepherds migrated with their flocks in search of better pastures and reached Southern Poland, Croatia, Serbia,Greece, and Eastern Thrace (now in Bulgaria and Greece). Pastureland Pasture is land with lush herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of ungulates as part of a farm or ranch. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 9th century   -  First unified state c. ... Prominent issues in Greek foreign policy include a dispute over the name of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the enduring Cyprus problem, Greek-Turkish differences over the Aegean, and relations with the USA. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Greek refusal to recognize the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia...


Anthroponyms

These are family names that have been derived from either Vlach or Romanian. Most of these names have been given when a Romanian settled in a non-Romanian region.

  • Oláh (37,147 Hungarians have this name)
  • Vlach
  • Vlahuta
  • Vlasa
  • Vlašic
  • Vlasceanu
  • Vlachopoulos

Subgroups and related ethnic groups

The closest ethnic groups to the Romanians are the other Romanic peoples of Southeastern Europe: the Istro-Romanians, the Aromanians (Macedo-Romanians) and the Megleno-Romanians. The Istro-Romanians are the closest ethnic group to the Romanians, and it is believed they left Maramureş, Transylvania about a thousand years ago and settled in Istria, Croatia. Numbering about 500 people, they speak the Istro-Romanian language, the closest living relative of Romanian. Other related ethnic groups include the Italians, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and the other Romance languages speaking people. Map of Istro-Romanian-speaking villages, made by PuÅŸcariu in 1926. ... Aromanians (also called: Arumanians or Macedo-Romanians; in Aromanian they call themselves Armãnji, Rrãmãnji) are a people living throughout the southern Balkans, especially in northern Greece, Albania, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria, and as an emigrant community in Romania (Dobruja). ... Map of Balkans with regions inhabited by Megleno-Romanians in dark yellow Megleno-Romanians (In Megleno-Romanian: Vlashi, in Greek: Βλαχομογλενίτες Vlachomoglenítes) is an exonym for a people inhabiting six villages in the Moglená (Μογλενά) region of Macedonia spanning the Pella and Kilkis prefectures of Macedonia, Greece, as well as the... MaramureÅŸ (Hungarian: Máramaros) is a county (judeÅ£) in the MaramureÅŸ region, northern Romania, in the North of Transylvania with the capital city at Baia Mare (population: 149,735). ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Bulgarian: ; Serbian: / or / ) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... Istro-Romanian is a Romance language used in a few villages in the peninsula of Istria, on the northern part of the Adriatic Sea, in Croatia. ...


The Aromanians and the Megleno-Romanians are Romanic peoples who live south of the Danube, mainly in Greece, Albania and the Republic of Macedonia, although some of them migrated to Romania in the 20th century. It is believed that they diverged from the Romanians in the 7th to 9th century, and currently speak the Aromanian language and Megleno-Romanian language, both of which are Eastern Romance languages, like Romanian, and are sometimes considered by traditional Romanian linguists to be dialects of standard (Daco-)Romanian. For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Aromanian (also known as Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian or Vlach in most other countries; in Aromanian: limba armãneascã, armãneshce or armãneashti) is an Eastern Romance language spoken in Southeastern Europe. ... Megleno-Romanian (known as Vlăheşte by speakers and Moglenitic, Meglenitic or Megleno-Romanian by linguists) is a Romance language, similar to Aromanian, and Romanian spoken in the Moglená region of Greece, in a few villages in the Republic of Macedonia and also in a few villages in Romania. ... The Eastern Romance languages, sometimes known as the Vlach languages, are a group of Romance languages that developed in Southeastern Europe from the local eastern variant of Vulgar Latin. ...


See also

The Brodnici (or Brodniks) were a 13th-century Romanian or mixed Romanian-Jassic[1] population, probably vassals of Galicia for a period. ... It has been suggested that Official status of Romanian language in Vojvodina be merged into this article or section. ... Moravian Vlach from Brumov, 1787 Moravian Wallachia (Czech: Valašsko) is a mountainous region located in the easternmost part of Moravia, Czech Republic, near the Slovakian border. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The culture of Romania is rich and varied. ... Romanian cuisine is diverse, blending the dishes of the several traditions which it has come into contact with, as well as maintaining its own character. ... Romania is a European country whose population consists mainly (approx. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ The lower estimate is the sum of the countrywise estimates listed
  2. ^ [1] Investment Climate and Market Structure in the Energy Sector Paper of the Energy Charter Secretariat puts the number of Romanians outside Romania at 8.2 million]
  3. ^ [www.usaid.gov/locations/europe_eurasia/pdfs/romaniaictpub.pdf] Romane IED Assessment puts the number of Romanians outside the country at 8 million
  4. ^ Romanian Census Results 2002
  5. ^ [2] Data according to the CIA World Factbook
  6. ^ According to the 2004 Moldovan Census, 481,593 Moldovans declared Romanian as their mother tongue. The Moldovan language is widely viewed as the dominant official name used in the Republic of Moldova for the Romanian language, thus adding 2,011,403 to the number of Romanian speakers. Source: 2004 Moldovan Census.
  7. ^ As per the 2001 Ukrainian National Census (data-ro data-md).
  8. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística: Avance del Padrón Municipal a 1 de enero de 2007. Datos provisionales. [3].
  9. ^ a b 2000 U.S. Census, ancestry responses
  10. ^ Depending on how one counts who is Romanian, the number in the U.S. may be considerably higher. A study by ro-am.net counts 1.2 million in the U.S. who understand Romanian; their numbers are a bit vague, but (once one discounts Jews, Armenians, etc.) seem to suggest a figure of about 900,000 ethnic Romanians.
  11. ^ [4]
  12. ^ [5] Almost 300.000 Romanians in Italy at the end of 2005, according to the Statistical Institute of Italy
  13. ^ 2002 Russia Census
  14. ^ Ziua "20.000 de romani in Kazahstan"
  15. ^ Statistics Canada, Canada 2001 Census. [6], discussed further at List of Canadians by ethnicity
  16. ^ [7]
  17. ^ Foreign-born population by country of origin, 2004, German Statistical Office. The number for Germany does not count more than one million Swabians and Saxons whose families historically lived in Banat and Transylvania, and who migrated to Germany at various times in the 20th century. This group of people still speaks Romanian.
  18. ^ The number for Israel does not count 450,000 Jews of Romanian origin, who still speak Romanian.
  19. ^ 2002 Serbia Census.
  20. ^ a b c d e "Românii din diaspora" ("Romanians in diaspora") on the site of The Foundation for Romanians from All Over the World, retrieved December 24, 2004.
  21. ^ 2001 Hungarian census
  22. ^ Foreign-born persons in Sweden by country of birth, 2005
  23. ^ ABS 2001 Census figures report 10-20,000 respondents indicating Romanian ancestry; 12,950 reported as Romanian-born (but not necessarily of Romanian ethnicity).
  24. ^ (Bulgarian) Bulgarian Census, 2001.
  25. ^ Romanian Citizenship Law (translated to English)
  26. ^ [8] Data according to the Latin Union
  27. ^ Romanian Communities Allocation in United States: Study of Romanian-American population (2002), Romanian-American Network, Inc. Retrieved 14 October 2005. Their figure of 1.2 million includes "200,000-225,000 Romanian Jews", 50,000-60,000 Germans from Romania, etc.
  28. ^ Romanian language on Ethnologue.
  29. ^ European Commission, Eurobarometer National Report: Romania - Autumn 2006, p. 25
  30. ^ Barometrul de Opinie Publică - Mai 2006, p. 112, Open Society Foundation

The 2004 Republic of Moldova Census was carried October 5–October 12, 2004. ... Moldovan is the official name for the Romanian language in the Republic of Moldova and in the territory of Transnistria. ... Romanian (limba română, IPA: ) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. ... The first Ukrainian Census after the dissolution of the Soviet Union was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine on December 5, 2001, twelve years after the last All-Union census in 1989. ... The old logo Ziua (The Day in Romanian) is a major Romanian daily newspaper published in Bucharest. ... Statistics Canada is the Canadian federal government bureau commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... The Canada 2001 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. ... Map of the dominant self-identified ethnic origins of ancestors per census division. ... The Banat Swabians are a German-speaking population in Southeast Europe, part of the Danube Swabians, who immigrated over 200 years ago from different parts of Southern Germany into Banat, after it had been almost entirely depopulated during wars with Turkey. ... The Transylvanian Saxons (German: ; Hungarian: ; Romanian: ) are a people of German origin who settled in Transylvania (German: ) from the 12th century onwards. ... Location of Banat in Europe Map of the Banat region with largest cities shown The Banat (Romanian: Banat, Serbian: Банат or Banat, Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság, German: Banat, Slovak: Banát, Bulgarian: Банат) is a geographical and historical region of Central Europe currently divided between three countries: the... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Bulgarian: ; Serbian: / or / ) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... Australian Bureau of Statistics logo The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the Australian government agency that collects and publishes statistical information about Australia. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... The Commission seat in Brussels The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ... Eurobarometer is a survey performed by Public Opinion Analysis sector of the European Commission since 1973. ... The Open Society Institute (OSI), a private operating and grantmaking foundation, aims to shape public policy to promote democratic governance, human rights, and economic, legal, and social reform. ...

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