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Encyclopedia > Romanian language

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Romanian
Română 
Pronunciation: [ro'mɨ.nə]
Spoken in: Romania, Republic of Moldova, Bulgaria, Canada, USA, Russia, Spain, Ukraine, Israel, Serbia, Hungary; various communities around the wider Balkan peninsula and beyond. 
Region: Southeastern Europe, some communities in the Middle East
Total speakers: First language: 24 million
Second language: 4 million [1] 
Ranking: 34 (native)
Language family: Indo-European
 Italic
  Romance
   East Romance
    Romanian 
Official status
Official language of: Flag of Moldova Moldova [2]
Flag of Romania Romania
Flag of Vojvodina Vojvodina (Serbia)

Flag of Europe European Union
Regulated by: Academia Română
Language codes
ISO 639-1: ro
ISO 639-2: rum (B)  ron (T)
ISO 639-3: ron 

Map of the Roumanophone world

Eastern Romance languages Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Map of Balkans with regions inhabited by Romanians/Vlachs highlighted The Eastern Romance languages are a group of Romance languages that developed in Southeastern Europe from the local eastern variant of Vulgar Latin. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Moldova. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vojvodina. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Romanian Academy (Romanian: Academia Română) is a cultural forum founded in Romania in 1866. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 44 KB) Descriere Map of the Roumanophone World. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the worlds writing systems. ... Map of Balkans with regions inhabited by Romanians/Vlachs highlighted The Eastern Romance languages are a group of Romance languages that developed in Southeastern Europe from the local eastern variant of Vulgar Latin. ...

Vulgar Latin language
Substratum

Daco-Romanian (Romanian, Moldovan, Vlach)
Grammar | Nouns | Verbs
Numerals | Phonology | Lexis
Regulating bodies

Aromanian

Megleno-Romanian

Istro-Romanian

Romanian (limba română, IPA: ['lim.ba ro'mɨ.nə]) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. It has official status in Romania, Moldova and the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Serbia). The official form of the Moldovan language [2] in the Republic of Moldova is identical to the official form of Romanian except for a minor rule in spelling. Romanian is also an official or administrative language in various communities and organisations (such as the Latin Union and the European Union). Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii, was the speech of ordinary people of the Roman Empire — different from the classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ... The Eastern Romance languages contain around 300 words considered by many linguists to be of substratum origin [1]. Including place-names and river-names, and most of the forms labelled as being of unknown etymology, the number of the substratum elements in Eastern Romance may surpass 500 basic roots. ... Daco-Romanian (Romanian: limba dacoromânÇŽ, Latin: lingua Daco-Romana) is the term used to identify the Romanian language in contexts where distinction needs to be made between the various Eastern Romance languages or dialects (Daco-Romanian, Aromanian, Istro-Romanian, and Megleno-Romanian). ... Romanian (limba română, IPA: ) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. ... Romanian (technically called Daco-Romanian) shares practically the same grammar and most of the vocabulary and phonological processes with the other three surviving Eastern Romance languages: Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian, and Istro-Romanian. ... This article is actively undergoing a major edit. ... This article is actively undergoing a major edit for a short while. ... The Romanian numbers are the system of number names used in Romanian to express counts, quantities, ranks in ordered sets, fractions, multiplication, and other information related to numbers. ... The Romanian language has seven vowels and twenty-two consonants, including two semivowels, and . ... The lexis of the Romanian language (or Daco-Romanian), a Romance language, has changed over the centuries as the language evolved from Vulgar Latin, to Proto-Romanian, to medieval, modern and contemporary Romanian. ... The Romanian Academy (Romanian: Academia Română) is a cultural forum founded in Romania in 1866. ... Academy of Sciences of Moldova (romanian Academia de ÅžtiinÅ£e a Moldovei) is the main scientific centre of the Republic of Moldova, which coordinates research in all areas of science and technology. ... Aromanian (also known as Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian or Vlach in most other countries; in Aromanian: limba armãneascã, armãneshce or armãneashti) is an Eastern Romance language spoken in Southeastern Europe. ... Megleno-Romanian (known as VlăheÅŸte by speakers and Moglenitic, Meglenitic or Megleno-Romanian by linguists) is a Romance language, similar to Aromanian, and Romanian spoken in the Moglená region of Greece, in a few villages in the Republic of Macedonia and also in a few villages in Romania. ... Istro-Romanian is a Romance language used in a few villages in the peninsula of Istria, on the northern part of the Adriatic Sea, in Croatia. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Moldovan is the official name for the Romanian language in the Republic of Moldova and in the territory of Transnistria. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of writing in that language. ... The Latin Union is an international organization of nations that use a Romance language. ...


Romanian speakers are also found abroad in many other countries, notably in Italy, Spain, Israel, Portugal, United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, France and Germany (cf. Romanians). Owing to a general lack of consistently-derived data, precise estimates for the total numbers of Romanian-speaking emigrants are not available. Some secondary sources claim for example that more than 3 million Romanian speakers live abroad as immigrants in Europe and North America[3]; however, such census data as is available indicates that these numbers may be widely inaccurate. World map showing the location of Europe. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...

Contents

History

The Romanian territory was inhabited in ancient times by the Dacians, an Indo-European people. They were defeated by the Roman Empire in 106 and part of Dacia (Oltenia, Banat and Transylvania) became a Roman province. For the next 165 years, there is evidence of considerable Roman colonization in the area, the region being in close communication with the rest of the Roman empire. Vulgar Latin became the language of the administration and commerce. Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... For other uses, see number 106. ... Map of Romania with Oltenia highlighted Oltenia or Lesser Wallachia is a historical province of Romania. ... Location of Banat in Europe Map of the Banat region with largest cities shown The Banat (Romanian: Banat, Serbian: Банат or Banat, Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság, German: Banat, Slovak: Banát, Bulgarian: Банат) is a geographical and historical region of Central Europe currently divided between three countries: the... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Bulgarian: ; Serbian: / or / ) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii, was the speech of ordinary people of the Roman Empire — different from the classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ...


Under the pressure of the Free Dacians and of the Goths, the Roman administration and legions were withdrawn from Dacia between 271-275. Whether the Romanians are the descendants of these people that abandoned the area and settled south of the Danube or of the people that remained in Dacia is a matter of debate. For further discussion, see Origin of Romanians. The Free Dacians were the Dacians whose territory was not conquered by the Roman Empire, in the regions of Eastern Wallachia, Moldavia, Crisana and Northern Transylvania. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... Events Goths forced to withdraw across the Danube Roman Emperor Aurelian withdraws troops to the Danube frontier, abandoning Dacia. ... Events Eutychian elected pope (probable date) September 25 - Marcus Claudius Tacitus appointed emperor by the senate Births Eusebius of Caesarea (approximate date) Saint George, soldier of the Roman Empire and later Christian martyr (or 280, approximate date). ... The Romanians (also sometimes referred to along with other Balkan Latin peoples as Vlachs) are a nation speaking Romanian, a Romance language, and living in Central and Eastern Europe. ...

The place of Romanian within the Romance language family

Due to its geographical isolation, Romanian was probably the first language that split from Latin and until the modern age was not influenced by other Romance languages, which can explain why it is one of the most uniform languages in Europe. It is more conservative than other Romance languages in nominal morphology. Romanian has preserved declension, but whereas Latin had seven cases, Romanian has three, the nominative/accusative, the genitive/dative, and the vocative, and holds the neuter gender as well. However, the verbal morphology of Romanian has shown the same move towards a compound perfect and future tense as the other Romance languages. Download high resolution version (951x504, 46 KB) Made by Bogdan Giuşcă in Xara X References Ethnologue, February 2005 Encyclopedia Britannica, February 2005 [1] You know what would be a FANTASTIC edition to this flow-chart? Dates of the split. ... Download high resolution version (951x504, 46 KB) Made by Bogdan Giuşcă in Xara X References Ethnologue, February 2005 Encyclopedia Britannica, February 2005 [1] You know what would be a FANTASTIC edition to this flow-chart? Dates of the split. ... This article is actively undergoing a major edit. ... In linguistics, declension is the inflection of nouns, pronouns and adjectives to indicate such features as number (typically singular vs. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun. ... The term accusative may be used in the following contexts: A form of morphosyntactic alignment, as found in nominative-accusative languages. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ... Dative has several meanings. ... The vocative case is the case used for a noun identifying the person being addressed, found in Latin among other languages. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... The perfect tenses are verb tenses showing actions completed at or before a specific time. ... It has been suggested that Future perfect tense be merged into this article or section. ...

Map of Balkans with regions inhabited by Romanians/Vlachs highlighted
Map of Balkans with regions inhabited by Romanians/Vlachs highlighted

All the dialects of Romanian are believed to have been unified in a Common Romanian language until sometime between the 7th and the 10th century when the area was influenced by the Byzantine Empire and Romanian became influenced by the Slavonic languages and to some degree the Greek language as well. Aromanian language has very few Slavonic words. Also, the variations in the Daco-Romanian dialect (spoken throughout Romania and Moldova) are very small. The use of this uniform Daco-Romanian dialect extends well beyond the borders of the Romanian state: a Romanian-speaker from Moldova speaks the same language as a Romanian-speaker from the Serbian Banat. Romanian developed in isolation with regard to the other Romance languages. Therefore, it was influenced by Slavonic (due to migration/assimilation, and feudal/ecclesiastical relations), Greek (Byzantine, then Phanariote), Turkish, and Hungarian, while the other Romance languages adopted words and features of Germanic. Image File history File links Map-balkans-vlachs. ... Common Romanian is a hypothetical language considered to have been spoken by the Romanians after the breakdown of the Roman Empire and before it was broken into modern Balkan Romance languages and dialects: Romanian Aromanian Megleno-Romanian Istro-Romanian The place where this language was formed is still under debate... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) comprise the languages of the Slavic peoples. ... Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single language in the Indo-European language family. ... Aromanian (also known as Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian or Vlach in most other countries; in Aromanian: limba armãneascã, armãneshce or armãneashti) is an Eastern Romance language spoken in Southeastern Europe. ... Daco-Romanian (Romanian: limba dacoromânǎ, Latin: lingua Daco-Romana) is the term used to identify the Romanian language in contexts where distinction needs to be made between the various Eastern Romance languages or dialects (Daco-Romanian, Aromanian, Istro-Romanian, and Megleno-Romanian). ... Location of Banat in Europe Map of the Banat region with largest cities shown The Banat (Romanian: Banat, Serbian: Банат or Banat, Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság, German: Banat, Slovak: Banát, Bulgarian: Банат) is a geographical and historical region of Central Europe currently divided between three countries: the... An image of the extravagance attributed to Phanariotes in Wallachia: Nicholas Mavrogenes riding through Bucharest in a deer-drawn carriage (late 1780s) Phanariotes, Phanariots, or Phanariote Greeks (Greek: Φαναριώτες, Romanian: Fanarioţi) were members of those prominent Greek families residing in Phanar[1] (Φανάρι, modern Fener),[2] the chief Greek quarter of...


Classification

Romanian is a Romance language, belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European language family, having much in common with languages such as French, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish. The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ...


However, the languages closest to Romanian are the other Eastern Romance languages, spoken south of Danube: Aromanian/Macedo-Romanian, Megleno-Romanian and Istro-Romanian, which are sometimes classified as dialects of Romanian. An alternative name for Romanian used by linguists to disambiguate with the other Eastern Romance languages is "Daco-Romanian", referring to the area where it is spoken (which corresponds roughly to the onetime Roman province of Dacia). Map of Balkans with regions inhabited by Romanians/Vlachs highlighted The Eastern Romance languages are a group of Romance languages that developed in Southeastern Europe from the local eastern variant of Vulgar Latin. ... Aromanian (also known as Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian or Vlach in most other countries; in Aromanian: limba armãneascã, armãneshce or armãneashti) is an Eastern Romance language spoken in Southeastern Europe. ... Megleno-Romanian (known as Vlăheşte by speakers and Moglenitic, Meglenitic or Megleno-Romanian by linguists) is a Romance language, similar to Aromanian, and Romanian spoken in the Moglená region of Greece, in a few villages in the Republic of Macedonia and also in a few villages in Romania. ... Istro-Romanian is a Romance language used in a few villages in the peninsula of Istria, on the northern part of the Adriatic Sea, in Croatia. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now...


The Romanian variety spoken in Moldova has been named the Moldovan language by the Soviet and later Moldovan authorities, but linguists do not recognize it as a different language. Moldovan is the official name for the Romanian language in the Republic of Moldova and in the territory of Transnistria. ...


Out of the main Romance languages, Romanian is closest to Italian, the two show limited degree of asymmetrical mutual intelligibility, especially in their cultivated forms: speakers of Romanian seem to understand Italian more easily than the other way around. Even though Romanian has obvious lexical and grammatical similarities with French, Catalan, Spanish or Portuguese, it is not mutually intelligible with them to a practical extent; Romanian speakers will usually need some formal study of basic grammar and vocabulary before being able to understand even the simplest sentences in those languages (and vice-versa). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia (in the latter with the name of Valencian), and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of...


In the following sample sentence (meaning "She always closes the window before having dinner.") cognates are written in bold: Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Ea semper fenestram claudit antequam cenet. (Latin)
Ea închide întotdeauna fereastra înainte de a cina. (Romanian)
Ella chiude sempre la finestra prima di cenare. (Italian)
Elle ferme toujours la fenêtre avant de dîner. (French)
Ella siempre cierra la ventana antes de cenar. (Spanish)
Ela fecha sempre a janela antes de jantar. (Portuguese)
Ella tanca sempre la finestra abans de sopar. (Catalan)

On the other hand, Romanian vocabulary has been strongly influenced by French and Italian in the Modern Age (see French, Italian and other international words). At present, the lexical similarity with Italian is estimated at 77%, whereas French follows at 75%, Sardinian 74%, Catalan 73%, Spanish at 71%, Portuguese and Rhaeto-Romance at 72%. In linguistics, lexical similarity is a measure of the degree to which the word sets of two given languages are similar. ... Romansh (also spelled Rumantsch, Romansch or Romanche) is any of the various Rhaetian languages spoken in Switzerland. ...


Geographic distribution

Romanian language countries and territories

 national  |  official  |  national minority  |  minority 
Country Speakers
(%)
Speakers
(native)
Population
(2005)
Europe
Romania 91% 19,736,517 21,698,181
Moldova ² 76.4% 2,588,355 3,388,071
Transnistria ³ 31.9% 177,050 555,500
Vojvodina (Serbia) 1.5% 29,512 2,031,992
not official:
Timočka Krajina (Serbia) 4 8.2% 58,221 712,050
Ukraine 5 0.8% 327,703 48,457,000
Spain 0.83% 312,000[4] 44,708,964
Italy 0.51% 297,570 58,462,375
Hungary 0.08% 8,482 10,198,315
Asia
not official:
Israel 3.7% 250,000 6,800,000
Kazakhstan 1 0.1% 20,054 14,953,126
Russia 1 0.12% 169,698 [5] 145,537,200
The Americas
not official:
Canada 0.2% 60,520 32,207,113
United States 6 0.11% 340,000 281,421,906

1 Many are Moldovans who were deported
² Data only for the districts on the right bank of Dniester (without Transnistria and the city of Tighina)
In Moldova, it is called "Moldovan language"
³ Transnistria's independence is not internationally recognized
Here it is called "Moldovan language" and it is written in Cyrillic
4 Officially divided into Vlachs and Romanians
5 Most in Northern Bukovina and Southern Bessarabia; according to a Moldova Noastră study (based on the latest Ukrainian census); the study also says that there are 409,000 ethnic Romanians in Ukraine. [7]
6 See Romanian-American
Image File history File links Map_Roumanophone_NorthAtlantic. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria (World War II). ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Map of the Timočka Krajina within Central Serbia Timočka Krajina (Serbian: Timočka Krajina or Тимочка Крајина, Vlach/Romanian: Valea Timocului or Timoc, Bulgarian: Тимошко) is a geographical region located in Serbia. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... World map showing the location of Asia. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Moldovan is the official name for the Romanian language in the Republic of Moldova and in the territory of Transnistria. ... Moldovan is the official name for the Romanian language in the Republic of Moldova and in the territory of Transnistria. ... The Moldovan alphabet is a Cyrillic alphabet derived from the Russian alphabet and developed for the Romanian / Moldovan language in the Soviet Union in the 1930s. ... A Romanian-American is a citizen of the United States who has significant Romanian heritage. ...

Romanian is spoken mostly in Southeastern Europe, allthough speakers of the language can be found all over the world, mostly due to emigration of Romanian nationals and the return of immigrants from Romania to their original countries. Romanian speakers acount for 0,5% of the world's population,[6] and 4% of the Romance-speaking population of the world.[7] The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ...


In Europe, Romanian language is the single official and national language in Romania and Moldova, allthough it shares the official status at regional level with other languages in the Moldovan autonomies of Gagauzia and Transnistria. Romanian is also an official language of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina in Serbia together with five other languages. Romanian minorities are encountered in Serbia (Timok Valley), Ukraine (Chernivtsi and Odessa oblasts), Hungary (Gyula) and Bulgaria (Vidin). Large immigrant communities in Europe are found in Italy, Spain, France, and Portugal. World map showing the location of Europe. ... Anthem Gagauziya Milli Marşı Location of Gagauzia (purple) Capital (and largest city) Comrat Official languages Gagauz, Moldovan (Romanian), Russian Government  -  Governor Mihail Formuzal  -  Chairman of the Peoples Assembly Stepan Esir Autonomous region of Moldova  -  Created April 23, 1994  Area  -  Total 1,832 km²  707 sq mi  Population  -  19961 estimate... For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria (World War II). ... Subdivisions of Serbia Vojvodina Central Serbia Kosovo (UN administered) Official languages Serbian, Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn1 Capital Novi Sad Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water  21,500 km²  n/a Population  â€“ Total (2002)  â€“ Density  2,031,992  94. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Timočka Krajina (Serbian: Timočka Krajina or Тимочка Крајина, Vlach/Romanian: Valea Timocului or Timoc) is a geographical region located in Serbia and Montenegro. ... Administrative center Chernivtsi Governor Volodymyr Kalish (?) Oblast council  - Chairperson  - Council seats ? (?) ? Subdivisions  - Raions  - Cities of oblast subordinance  - Cities   -Towns  - Villages 11 2 11 8 398 Area Total  - Land  - Water (% of total)  Ranked 24th 8,097 km² ? km² ? km² (?%) Population  - Total (2006)  - Density  - Annual Growth Ranked ? 904,423 113/km² ?% Average... Administrative center Odessa Governor Ivan Vasylyovych Plachkov (Peoples Union Our Ukraine) Oblast council  - Chairperson  - Council seats Mykola Leonidovych Skoryk (Party of Regions) 120 Subdivisions  - Raions  - Cities of oblast subordinance  - Cities   -Towns  - Villages 26 7 19 33 1,138 Area Total  - Land  - Water (% of total)  Ranked 1st 33,310 km... Disambiguation: for the town in Hungary see Gyula (town) Gyula was originally a Turkic word which entered the Hungarian language at some point before 950 CE. Under the system of dual kingship which the Magyars used in the 9th century, the two kings of the tribal confederation were the kende... Vidin (Bulgarian: Видин; Romanian: Vidin, Diiu) is a town on the southern bank of the Danube in northwestern Bulgaria. ...


The largest Romanian-speaking community in Asia is found in Israel, where as of 1995 Romanian is spoken by 5% of the population.[8][9] Romanian is also spoken as a secondary language by people from Arab-speaking countries that made their studies in Romania. It is estimated that almost half a million Middle Eastern Arabs studied in Romania during the 1980s.[10] Some smaller Romanian-speaking communities are to be found in Kazakhstan and Russia. World map showing the location of Asia. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...


In the Americas and Australia, Romanian is often encountered within the communities of Romanian and Moldovan immigrants in the United States, Canada and Australia, although they don't build up a large homogeneous community state-wide. World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


In Antarctica, Romanian is the working language of the Law-Racoviţă Station, the first Antarctic exploration station of Romania, named after the Romanian explorer Emil Racoviţă. The station is situated in Princess Elizabeth Land, more specifically in the Larsemann Hills. The Law-Racovita Station (Romanian: Law-Racoviţă) is the first antarctic exploration station of Romania, named after the Romanian explorer Emil Racoviţă. Categories: | ... Emil Racovita (1868-1947) was a famous Romanian biologist and speleologist. ... Princess Elizabeth Land is the sector of Antarctica between longitude 73 degrees east and Cape Penck 87 degrees 43 east. ...


Legal status in Romania

According to the Constitution of Romania of 1991, as revised in 2003, Romanian is the official language of the Republic.[11] The Romanian Constitution is the fundamental law that establishes the structure of the government of Romania, the rights and obligations of the countrys citizens, and its mode of passing laws. ...


Romania mandates the use of Romanian in official government publications, public education and legal contracts; advertisements must bear a translation of foreign words. A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... Generally speaking, advertising is the paid promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas by an identified sponsor. ...


Institutul Limbii Române, established by the Ministry of Education of Romania, promotes the knowledge of the Romanian language and supports people willing to learn this language, working together with the MFA's Department for Romanians Abroad.[12] A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a governmental cabinet minister who helps form the foreign policy of a sovereign nation. ...


There exist in addition to Romanian a variety of officially-recognised minority languages spoken in Romania; see Languages of Romania. There are a number of languages spoken in Romania, although Romanian remains the only official language nationwide. ...


Legal status in Moldova

Main article: Moldovan language

About 10% of the world's Roumanophones are Moldovan, and Romanian is the single official language of Moldova. In the Constitution, the language is officially named Moldovan, although most linguists consider it the same as the Romanian language (challenging the existence of a distinct Moldovan language). Also, the language used in schools, media, scientific environment and in the colloquial speech and writing is called Romanian. Moldovan is the official name for the Romanian language in the Republic of Moldova and in the territory of Transnistria. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ...


Romanian has been the only official language of Moldova since the endorsement of the law on language of the Moldavian SSR. This law, still in force today, mandates the use of Moldovan in all the political, economical, cultural and social spheres, as it also does assert the real existence of "linguistic Moldo-Romanian identity". [13] State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ... Moldovan is the official name for the Romanian language in the Republic of Moldova and in the territory of Transnistria. ...


Title I, Article 13 of the Moldovan Constitution, names it the "national language" (limba de stat) of the country. In the unrecognized state of Transnistria, it is co-official with Ukrainian and Russian. Several geo-political entitites in the world have no general international recognition, but they are de facto sovereign states. ... For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria (World War II). ...


In the 2004 census, out of the 3,383,332 people living in Moldova, 16.5% (558,508) chose Romanian as their mother tongue, whereas 60% chose Moldovan. While 40% of all urban Romanian/Moldovan speakers chose Romanian as their mother tongue, in the countryside hardly each 7th Romanian/Moldovan speaker indicated Romanian as his mother tongue.[14] However, the group of experts from the international census observation Mission to the Republic of Moldova concluded that the items in the questionnaire dealing with nationality and language proved to be the most sensitive ones, particularly with reference to the recording of responses to these questions as being "Moldovan" or "Romanian", and therefore it concluded that special care would need to be taken in using them.[15] The 2004 Republic of Moldova Census was carried October 5–October 12, 2004. ... Crowded Shibuya, Tokyo shopping district An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ...


Legal status in Vojvodina

Romanian language in Vojvodina     official in the entire municipality      official in parts of the municipality
Romanian language in Vojvodina
     official in the entire municipality      official in parts of the municipality

Article 8 of the Constitution of the Republic of Serbia (published in the "Official Gazette of RS", No. 1/90) stipulates that in the Republic of Serbia the Serbo-Croat language and the Cyrillic script shall be officially used, while the Latin script shall be officially used in the manner established by the law. In addition to that, the provision in Article 8/2 precisely determines that in the regions of the Republic of Serbia inhabited by national minorities, their own languages and scripts shall be officially used as well, in the manner established by law. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Romanians of Serbia. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The current Constitution of Serbia was approved by a referendum held in 2006 during October 28 and October 29. ... Serbia and Montenegro  -Serbia    -Kosovo and Metohia    -Vojvodina  -Montenegro Official language Serbian1 Capital Belgrade Area  - Total  - % water 88,361 km² n/a Population  - Total (1998)  - Density 11,206,847 126. ... Serbo-Croatian (srpskohrvatski or hrvatskosrpski) is a name for a language of the Western group of the South Slavic languages. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...

Distribution of first-language native Romanian speakers by country
Distribution of first-language native Romanian speakers by country

Article 6 of the Statute of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (published in the "Official Gazette of APV") determines that, together with the Serbo-Croat language and the Cyrillic script, and the Latin script as stipulated by the law, the Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian and Rusyn languages and their scripts, as well as languages and scripts of other nationalities, shall simultaneously be officially used in the work of the bodies of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, in the manner established by the law. The bodies of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina are: the Assembly, the Executive Council and the Provincial administrative bodies.[16] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... Rusyn is an East Slavic language (along with Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian to which it shares a common linguistic ancestry) that is spoken by the Rusyns. ...


The Romanian language and script are officially used in 8 municipalities: Alibunar, Biserica Albă, Zitişte, Zrenianin, Kovăciţa, Cuvin, Plandişte and Secanj. In the municipality of Vârşeţ, Romanian is official only in the villages of Voivodinţ, Marcovăţ, Straja, Jamu Mic, Srediştea Mică, Mesici, Jablanka, Sălciţa, Râtişor, Oreşaţ and Coştei.[17] Alibunar is a town and municipality in South Banat District of Vojvodina, Serbia. ... Also see: Bela Crkva (disambiguation) Bela Crkva (Serbian: Bela Crkva or Бела Црква, Romanian: Biserica Albă, German: Weißkirchen, Hungarian: Fehértemplom) is a town and municipality in South Banat District of Vojvodina, Serbia and Montenegro. ... ŽitiÅ¡te (Serbian: ŽitiÅ¡te or Житиште, Romanian: JitiÅŸte or ZitiÅŸte, German: Sankt Georgen an der Bega, Hungarian: Bégaszentgyörgy) is a town and municipality in Central Banat District of Vojvodina, Serbia. ... Location in Serbia-Montenegro General Information Mayor Goran Knežević (DS) Land area 230 km² Population (2002 census) 79,545 (131,509 municipality) Population density (2002) 216/km² Coordinates 45° 22 North, 20° 23 East Area code +381 23 Subdivisions 22 settlements in the municipality License plate code ZR Time... Kovačica official town emblem Kovačica (Serbian: Ковачица or Kovačica, Slovak: Kovačica, Hungarian: Antalfalva, Romanian: KovăciÅ£a or CovăciÅ£a, German: Kowatschitza) is a town and municipality located in the South Banat District of Vojvodina, Serbia, Serbia and Montenegro. ... Location in Serbia-Montenegro [[Image:|150px|center|Map of Serbia-Montenegro highlighting the City of {{{common_name}}}]] General Information Mayor Blagoje Bogdanović Land area  ? Population (2002 census) 14,250 (36,802 municipality) Population density (2002)  ? Coordinates 44°75 N 20°98 E Area code +381 13 Subdivisions Town and 9 villages... PlandiÅ¡te (Serbian: PlandiÅ¡te or Пландиште, Romanian: PlandiÅŸte, Hungarian: Zichyfalva, German: Zichydorf) is a village and municipality in South Banat District of Vojvodina, Serbia. ... Sečanj (Serbian: Сечањ or Sečanj, Hungarian: Szécsány, German: Setschan or Petersheim, Croatian: Sečanj) is a village and municipality in Central Banat District of Vojvodina, Serbia. ... ... The Romanian Orthodox church Vojvodinci (Војводинци) is a village in Serbia. ... The Romanian Orthodox church The Greek-catholic church Markovac (Serbian: , Romanian: ) is a village in Serbia. ... The main stret and the Romanian Orthodox church Straža (Serbian: Straža or Стража, Romanian: Strajă, Hungarian: Strázsa (later TemesÅ‘r), German: Lagerdorf) is a village in Serbia. ... The Romanian Orthodox church. ... The word mesic, Mesic or Mesić can refer to: in ecology, a type of habitat (a mesic habitat) with a moderate or well-balanced supply of moisture, i. ... The Romanian Orthodox church Jablanka (Јабланка) is a village in Serbia. ... The Romanian Orthodox church Mediterranean palace in a little Pannonian village. ...


In the 2002 Census, the last carried out in Serbia, 1,5% Vojvodinians chose Romanian as their mother tongue (barely 0,1% of the world's Roumanophones).


Legal status in other countries and organisations

Romanian language in Vojvodina and Timok Valley (both in Serbia), census 2002      1-5%      5-10%      10-15%      15-25%      25-35%      over 35%
Romanian language in Vojvodina and Timok Valley (both in Serbia), census 2002
     1-5%      5-10%      10-15%      15-25%      25-35%      over 35%

In other parts of Serbia the Romanian communities (see Vlach language) have very few rights regarding the use and preservation of their language in schools, press, administration and institutions.[citation needed] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 394 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1337 × 2034 pixel, file size: 172 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 394 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1337 × 2034 pixel, file size: 172 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... Timočka Krajina (Serbian: Timočka Krajina or Тимочка Крајина, Vlach/Romanian: Valea Timocului or Timoc) is a geographical region located in Serbia and Montenegro. ... Romanian (limba română, IPA: ) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. ...


In parts of Ukraine where Romanians constitute a significant share of the local population (districts in Chernivtsi, Odessa and Zakarpattia oblasts) the Romanian language is being taught in schools as a primary language and there are newspapers, TV, and radio broadcasting in Romanian.[18][19] The University of Chernivtsi trains teachers for Romanian schools in the fields of Romanian philology, mathematics and physics.[20] Administrative center Chernivtsi Governor Volodymyr Kalish (?) Oblast council  - Chairperson  - Council seats ? (?) ? Subdivisions  - Raions  - Cities of oblast subordinance  - Cities   -Towns  - Villages 11 2 11 8 398 Area Total  - Land  - Water (% of total)  Ranked 24th 8,097 km² ? km² ? km² (?%) Population  - Total (2006)  - Density  - Annual Growth Ranked ? 904,423 113/km² ?% Average... Administrative center Odessa Governor Ivan Vasylyovych Plachkov (Peoples Union Our Ukraine) Oblast council  - Chairperson  - Council seats Mykola Leonidovych Skoryk (Party of Regions) 120 Subdivisions  - Raions  - Cities of oblast subordinance  - Cities   -Towns  - Villages 26 7 19 33 1,138 Area Total  - Land  - Water (% of total)  Ranked 1st 33,310 km... Transcarpathia may refer to: Carpathian Ruthenia, a historic region Zakarpattia Oblast, an administrative unit of Ukraine This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasÅ¥, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ... The Chernivtsi University (current full name Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University) is the leading Ukrainian institution for higher education in Northern Bukovina, located in Chernivtsi, the city in the south-west of Ukraine. ...


Romanian is also an official or administrative language in various communities and organisations (such as the Latin Union and the European Union). The Latin Union is an international organization of nations that use a Romance language. ...


Romanian is one of the five languages in which religious services are performed in the autonomous monastic state of Mount Athos, spoken in the sketae of Prodromos and Lacu (a sketa being a community of monks; sketae is plural). Capital Karyes Official languages Koine Greek and Church Slavonic (both liturgical); Modern Greek, Russian, Serbian, Georgian, Bulgarian, Romanian (civil use) Government  -  Head of State2 Dora Bakoyannis  -  Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I Area  -  Total 390 km²  150 sq mi  Population  -   estimate 2,250  Demonyms: Athonite, Hagiorite (English); Αθωνίτης, Αγιορίτης (Greek). ...


Romanian as a second and foreign language

Romanian as a second language in Eastern Europe      native      over 3%      1-3%      under 1%      n/a
Romanian as a second language in Eastern Europe
     native      over 3%      1-3%      under 1%      n/a
Places of the world were Romanian is thought as a foreign language. Colour scale varies depending on the amount of centres that teach Romanian language for non-native speakers
Places of the world were Romanian is thought as a foreign language. Colour scale varies depending on the amount of centres that teach Romanian language for non-native speakers

Use of Romanian as a second language is recorded among many of the ethnic minorities in Romania, as well as Moldova. According to a 1979 census in the Moldova SSR (as it was then), approximately 4% of the population indicated Romanian/Moldovan as their second language [21]. Image File history File links Knowledge_Romanian_Eastern_EU.png‎ După Barometrul Special 243 cu privire la limbile vorbite în UE After Special Barometer 243 Sursă/Source: http://ec. ... Image File history File links Knowledge_Romanian_Eastern_EU.png‎ După Barometrul Special 243 cu privire la limbile vorbite în UE After Special Barometer 243 Sursă/Source: http://ec. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 46 KB, MIME type: image/png)  limbă naÅ£ională/national language  peste 10 centre/more than 10 centres  peste 5 centre/more than 5 centres  două sau mai multe centre/two or... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 46 KB, MIME type: image/png)  limbă naÅ£ională/national language  peste 10 centre/more than 10 centres  peste 5 centre/more than 5 centres  două sau mai multe centre/two or... A second language is any language other than the first, or native, language learned; it is typically used because of geographical or social reasons. ...


Romanian is studied and taught in some areas that have Romanian minority communities, such as Serbia (Vojvodina), Bulgaria, Ukraine and Hungary. The Romanian Cultural Institute (ICR) has since 1992 organised summer training courses in Romanian for language teachers in these countries.[22] In some of the schools, there are non-Romanian nationals, that study Romanian as a foreign language (for example the Nicolae Bălcescu High-school in Gyula, Hungary). Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... The Romanian Cultural Institute (Romanian: Institutul Cultural Român, abbrevation: ICR) is an institution that promotes Romanian culture and civilization in Romania and abroad. ... Disambiguation: for the town in Hungary see Gyula (town) Gyula was originally a Turkic word which entered the Hungarian language at some point before 950 CE. Under the system of dual kingship which the Magyars used in the 9th century, the two kings of the tribal confederation were the kende...


Romanian is taught as a foreign language in various Tertiary institutions, most prevalently in neighboring European countries (such as Germany, France and Italy, as well as the Netherlands) but also elsewhere, such as the USA. Overall, it is taught as a foreign language in 38 countries around the world.[23] A foreign language is a language not spoken by the indigenous people of a certain place: for example, English is a foreign language in Japan. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...


Dialects

Main article: Romanian dialects

The term "Romanian" in a general sense envelops four hardly mutually intelligible speech varieties commonly regarded as independent languages. For more on these, please see the article "Eastern Romance languages". This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Map of Balkans with regions inhabited by Romanians/Vlachs highlighted The Eastern Romance languages are a group of Romance languages that developed in Southeastern Europe from the local eastern variant of Vulgar Latin. ...


It is thought that the Romanian language appeared north and south of the Danube. All the four dialects are offsprings of the Romance language spoken both in the North and South Danube, before the settlement of the Slavonian tribes south of the river - Daco-Romanian in the North, and the other three dialects in the south. The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ...


However, this article deals primarily with Daco-Romanian, and thus the regional variations of that will be discussed here instead. The differences between these varieties are usually very small, usually consisting in a few dozen regional words and some phonetic changes. Daco-Romanian (Romanian: limba dacoromânǎ, Latin: lingua Daco-Romana) is the term used to identify the Romanian language in contexts where distinction needs to be made between the various Eastern Romance languages or dialects (Daco-Romanian, Aromanian, Istro-Romanian, and Megleno-Romanian). ...

Romanian varieties (graiuri)Blue: Southern varietiesRed: Northern varieties
Romanian varieties (graiuri)
Blue: Southern varieties
Red: Northern varieties

Like all other languages, Romanian can be regarded as a dialect continuum. However, such a formulation tends to obscure the high homogeneity and uniformity of the language. The Romanian language cannot be neatly divided into separate dialects and Romanians themselves speak of the differences as accents or "speeches" (in Romanian: "accent" or "grai"). This correctly conveys the linguistics notion of accent, as language variants that only feature slight pronunciation differences (Romanian accents are fully mutually intelligible). Several accents are usually distinguished: Image File history File links Romania_Graiuri. ... Image File history File links Romania_Graiuri. ... A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

  • Muntenian accent (Graiul muntenesc), spoken mainly in Wallachia and southern parts of Dobruja.
  • Moldavian accent (Graiul moldovenesc), spoken mainly in Moldavia, northern parts of Dobruja and the Republic of Moldova. Written <p> is realised as /k/; written <c> before front vowels is realised as /ʃ/. Written <ă>, in final position, is palatalized.
  • Maramureşian accent (Graiul maramureşean), spoken mainly in Maramureş.
  • Transylvanian accent (Graiul ardealean), spoken mainly in Ardeal.
  • Banatian accent (Graiul bănăţean), spoken mainly in Banat. Written <t> before front vowels is realised as /ʧ/ and <d> as /dʒ/.
  • Oltenian accent (Graiul oltenesc), spoken mainly in Oltenia and by the Romanian minority in Timok region of Serbia. In Oltenia a notable dialectal feature is the usage of the simple perfect tense rather than the compound perfect which is used elsewhere.

Over the last century, however, regional accents have been weakened due to mass communications and greater mobility. Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Map of Romania with Northern Dobruja highlighted in orange and Bulgaria with Southern Dobruja highlighted in yellow. ... MaramureÅŸ (Hungarian: Máramaros) is a county (judeÅ£) in the MaramureÅŸ region, northern Romania, in the North of Transylvania with the capital city at Baia Mare (population: 149,735). ... Transylvania (Romanian: Transilvania or Ardeal, Hungarian: Erdély, German: Siebenbürgen, Serbian: Transilvanija, Turkish: Erdel, Slovak: Sedmohradsko or Transylvania, Polish: Siedmiogród) is a historic region that forms the western and the central parts of Romania. ... Location of Banat in Europe Map of the Banat region with largest cities shown The Banat (Romanian: Banat, Serbian: Банат or Banat, Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság, German: Banat, Slovak: Banát, Bulgarian: Банат) is a geographical and historical region of Central Europe currently divided between three countries: the... Map of Romania with Oltenia highlighted Oltenia or Lesser Wallachia is a historical province of Romania. ... A map of the region of Timok Timok (Cyrillic: Тимок) is a river in Serbia. ... This article is actively undergoing a major edit for a short while. ...


Contacts with other languages

Dacian language

The Dacian language was an Indo-European language spoken by the ancient Dacians. It may have been the first language to influence the Latin spoken in Dacia, but there is very little knowledge about it. About 300 words found only in Romanian (in all dialects) or with a cognate in the Albanian language may be inherited from Dacian, many of them being related to pastoral life (for example: balaur "dragon", brânză "cheese", mal "shore"; see Eastern Romance substratum). Some linguists have asserted that Albanians are Dacians who were not Romanized, and migrated south.[24] The Dacian language was an Indo-European language spoken by the ancient people of Dacia. ... Albanian ( IPA ) is a language spoken by about 7-8 million people, primarily in Albania and Kosova, but also in other parts of the Balkans with an Albanian population (parts of the Republic of Macedonia, and some parts in Montenegro and Serbia), along the eastern coast of Italy and in... The Eastern Romance languages contain around 300 words considered by many linguists to be of substratum origin [1]. Including place-names and river-names, and most of the forms labelled as being of unknown etymology, the number of the substratum elements in Eastern Romance may surpass 500 basic roots. ...


A different view is that these non-Latin words (many with Albanian cognates) are not necessarily Dacian, but rather were brought into the territory that is modern Romania by Romance-speaking shepherds migrating north from Albania, Serbia, and northern Greece who became the Romanian people. However, the Eastern Romance substratum appears to have been a satem language, while the Paleo-Balkan languages spoken in Northern Greece (Ancient Macedonian language) and Albania (Illyrian language) were most likely centum languages. The Satem division of the Indo-European family includes the following branches: Indo-Iranian, Baltic and Slavic, Armenian, Albanian, perhaps also a number of barely documented extinct languages, such as Phrygian, Thracian, and Dacian (see: Indo-European languages). ... The Ancient Macedonian language was the tongue of the Ancient Macedonians. ... The Illyrian languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans in pre-Roman times. ... Centum is the collective name for the branches of Indo-European in which the so-called Satem shift, the change of palato-velar *k^, *g^, *g^h into fricatives or affricates, did not take place, and the palato-velar consonants merged with plain velars (*k, *g, *gh). ...


The general view is that Dacian was a satem language, as was Thracian.[24] Dacian was either close to the neighbouring Balto-Slavic branches of Indo-European[25], or a member of a distinct branch.[citation needed] The Satem division of the Indo-European family includes the following branches: Indo-Iranian, Baltic and Slavic, Armenian, Albanian, perhaps also a number of barely documented extinct languages, such as Phrygian, Thracian, and Dacian (see: Indo-European languages). ... The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ...


Balkan linguistic union

While most of Romanian grammar and morphology are based on Vulgar Latin, there are some features that are shared only with other languages of the Balkans and not found in other Romance languages. Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii, was the speech of ordinary people of the Roman Empire — different from the classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ...


The languages of the "Balkan linguistic union" belong to distinct branches of the Indo-European language family: Bulgarian and Albanian, and in some cases Greek and Serbian. The Balkan linguistic union or Balkansprachbund is the similarity in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology among languages of the Balkans, which belong to various Indo-European branches, such as Albanian, Greek, Romance and Slavic. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ...


The shared features include a postposed definite article, the syncretism of genitive and dative case, the formation of the future and perfect tenses, as well as the avoidance of infinitive. An article is a word that combines with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. ... In linguistics, syncretism is the agreement in form of distinct morphological forms of a word. ...


Slavic languages

The Slavic influence was first due to the migration of Slavic tribes, which traversed the territory of present-day Romania during the early evolution of the language. It is interesting to note that Slavs were assimilated north of the Danube, whereas they almost completely assimilated the Romanized population (Vlachs) living south of Danube. An important part of this population was still Vlach in the 10th century, only to fade away along with Vlach political power. For more information about this, see Aromanian and Megleno-Romanian. The other surrounding languages (all Slavic, with the exception of Hungarian) also influenced Romanian, through centuries of mutual interactions. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Aromanians (also called: Macedo-Romanians or Vlachs, in Aromanian they call themselves arumâni, armâni or aromâni) are a population living as a minority in Northern Greece, Serbia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria; their number is estimated to about one or two million. ... Megleno&#8211;Romanian is a Romance language, similar to Macedo-Romanian, spoken in the Greek area of Meglen, north of Thessaloniki. ...


Of great importance was the influence of Old Church Slavonic, as it was the liturgical language of the Romanian Orthodox Church (compared to western and central European countries which used Latin) from the Middle Ages, until the 18th century. However, Latin held an important position in Transylvania during the Middle Ages, a part of the western-styled feudal Kingdom of Hungary at that moment. Liturgical Romanian was first officially used there after the union of the Romanian Orthodox Church in Transylvania with Rome,[26] giving birth to the Romanian Greek-Catholic Church in 1698 [27] (the most numerous church in Transylvania until the World War II [28]). This caused Romanian to lose many of its borrowings form Slavonic as the first standardisation of it (among others the switch to the Latin alphabet) was done by Şcoala Ardeleană, founded in Transylvania.[26] Old Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian or Old Slavic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessaloniki (Solun) by the 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... A sacred language is a language, frequently a dead language, that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life. ... The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă Română in Romanian) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Bulgarian: ; Serbian: / or / ) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ... The Romanian Church United with Rome, Greek-Catholic (in Romanian: Biserica Română Unită cu Roma, Greco-Catolică) is an Eastern Rite or Greek-Catholic Church ranked as a Major Archiepiscopal Church, which uses the Byzantine liturgical rite in the Romanian language. ... Events January 4 - Palace of Whitehall in London is destroyed by fire. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The Transylvanian School (Åžcoala Ardeleană) was a cultural movement which was founded after part of the the Romanian Romanian Orthodox Church of Transylvania accepted the leadership of the Pope and became the Romanian Greek-Catholic Uniate Church. ...


Borrowings from Old Church Slavonic include: a izbăvi < izbaviti "to deliver", a blagoslovi < blagosloviti "to bless", blajin < blažĕnŭ "meek, peaceful", cinste < čĩştĩ "honesty", ispravă < isprava "deed, accomplishment", vrednic < vrĕdĩnŭ "dignified, worthy", jertfă < žrŭtyva "sacrifice, immolation", mir < miro "chrism, holy oil", veşnicie < vĕčinŭ "forever, perpetual, undying", 'veac < věkŭ "age", sfânt < svĕntŭ "holy, saint", a sluji < služiti "to serve", amvon < amŭvonŭ "pulpit", strană < strana "pew", milă < milŭ "mercy", nădejde < nadežda "hope", stăpân < stopanŭ "master", trup < trupŭ "body", duh < duhŭ "spirit", slavă < slava "praise", smerenie < sŭmĕrjenije "humility", a spovedi < ispovĕdati "to confess", rai < raj "paradise", mucenic < mučenikŭ "martyr", sobor < sŭborŭ "gathering, meeting", stareţ < starici "abbot", pustnic < pustynĩnikŭ "hermit, recluse", oltar < olŭtari "altar, communion table", potcap < podŭkapŭ "cap (worn by priests and monks)", molitvă < molitva "prayer (used by priests at certain circumstances, such as baptizing or to heal the sick)", cazanie < kazanije "homily", iad < jadŭ "hell", proroc < prorokŭ "prophet", bogdaproste < bogŭ da prosti "God bless you".


Most of these words have traditional or neological Latin-based synonyms that are usually preferred in the use of the modern language.


As was characteristic of the Middle Ages, the Church had a great influence on people's lives. Thus even basic words such as a iubi "to love", glas "voice", nevoie "need", and prieten "friend" are of Church Slavonic origin. Names were also influenced by the use of Slavonic in Church and in administration. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


However, many Slavic words are archaisms and it is estimated that in modern Romanian 90% of the vocabulary is of Latin origin, the remainder representing Slavic, Greek, Hungarian, Turkic and Albanian borrowings as well as the Dacian substratum.[29] Slavonic influences are also encountered in some phonetic particularities as well as in many suffixes.[29] In language, an archaism is the deliberate use of an older form that has fallen out of current use. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Other influences

Even before the 19th century, Romanian came in contact with several other languages. Some notable examples include:

  • Greek: folos < ófelos "use", buzunar < buzunára "pocket", proaspăt < prósfatos "fresh"
  • Hungarian: oraş < város "town", a cheltui < költeni "to spend", a făgădui < fogadni "to promise", a mântui < menteni "to save"
  • Turkish: cafea < kahve "coffee", cutie < kutu "box", papuc < papuç "slipper", ciorbă < çorba "wholemeal soup, sour soup"
  • German: cartof < Kartoffel "potato", bere < Bier "beer", şurub < Schraube "screw"

French, Italian and other international words

Since the 19th century, many modern words were borrowed from the other Romance languages, especially from French and Italian (for example: birou < bureau "desk, office", avion "airplane", exploata "exploit"). It was estimated that about 38% of the number of words in Romanian are of French or Italian origin and adding this to the words that were inherited from Latin, about 75%-85% of Romanian words can be traced to Latin. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century &#8212; 19th century &#8212; 20th century &#8212; more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the process of lexical modernization, many of the words already existing as Latin direct heritage, as a part of its core or popular vocabulary, have been doubled by words borrowed from other Romance languages, thus forming a further and more modern and literary lexical layer. Typically, the popular word is a noun and the borrowed word an adjective. Some examples: The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ...

Latin Romanian
direct Latin heritage
Romanian
neologism
agilis (quick) ager (astute) agil (it.<agile, fr.<agile)
(agile)
aqua (water) apa (water) acvatic (it. <acquatico, fr.<aquatique)
(aquatic)
dens, dentem (tooth) dinte (tooth) dentist (it.<dentista, fr.<dentiste)
(dentist)
directus (straight) drept (straight, right) direct (it.<diretto, fr.<direct)
(direct)
frater (brother) frate (brother) fratern (it.<fraterno, fr<fraternel)
(brotherly)
frigus (cold) frig (cold - noun) frigid (it.<frigido, fr.<frigide)
(frigid)
crassus (fat) gras (fat) cras (it.<crasso, fr.<crasse)
(blatant)
angelus (angel) înger (angel) angelic (it.<angelico, fr.<angelique)
(angelic)
mania (madness) mânie (anger) manie (it.<mania, fr.<manie)
(mania)
monumentum (monument) mormânt (grave) monument (it.<monumento, fr.<monument)
(monument)
oculus (eye) ochi (eye) ocular (it.<oculare, fr.<oculaire)
(ocular)
pulveris (dust) pulbere (dust) pulveriza (it.<polverizzare, fr.<pulveriser)
(pulverise)
virtuosus (strong, worthy) vîrtos (strong) virtuos (it.<virtuoso, fr.<vertueux)
(virtuous)

In the 20th century, an increasing number of English words have been borrowed (such as: gem < jam; interviu < interview; meci < match; manager < manager; fotbal < football; bişniţă < business). These words are assigned grammatical gender in Romanian and handled according to Romanian rules; thus "the manager" is managerul. Some of these English words are in turn Latin lexical constructions - calqued or borrowed/constructed from Latin or other Romance languages, like "management" and "interview" (from the French "entrevue").


Grammar

Main article: Romanian grammar

Romanian nouns are inflected by gender (feminine, masculine and neuter), number (singular and plural) and case (nominative/accusative, dative/genitive and vocative). The articles, as well as most adjectives and pronouns, agree in gender with the noun they reference. Romanian (technically called Daco-Romanian) shares practically the same grammar and most of the vocabulary and phonological processes with the other three surviving Eastern Romance languages: Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian, and Istro-Romanian. ... In languages, agreement is a form of cross-reference between different parts of a sentence or phrase. ...


Romanian is the only Romance language where definite articles are enclitic: that is, attached to the end of the noun (as in North Germanic languages), instead of in front (proclitic). They were formed, as in other Romance languages, from the Latin demonstrative pronouns. An article is a word that combines with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. ... In linguistics, a clitic is a morpheme that functions syntactically like a word, but does not appear as an independent phonological word; instead it is always attached to a following or preceding word. ... The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ... In linguistics, a clitic is a morpheme that functions syntactically like a word, but does not appear as an independent phonological word; instead it is always attached to a following or preceding word. ...


Romanian has four verbal conjugations which further split into ten conjugation patterns. Verbs can be put in five moods that are inflected according to the person (indicative, conditional/optative, imperative, subjunctive, and presumptive) and four impersonal moods (infinitive, gerund, supine, and participle). In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (regular alteration according to rules of grammar). ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... Look up conditional in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The optative mood is a grammatical mood that indicates a wish or hope. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... In grammar, the subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood) is a verb mood that exists in many languages. ... It has been suggested that prohibitive mood be merged into this article or section. ... In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. ... In linguistics, a gerund is a non-finite verb form that exists in many languages. ... Supine as an adjective generally refers to any upward-facing position. ... In linguistics, a participle is a non-finite verb form that can be used in compound tenses or voices, or it can be used as a modifier. ...


Phonology

Main article: Romanian phonology

Romanian has seven vowels: /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/, /ə/, and /ɨ/. Additionally, /ø/ and /y/ may appear in some words. The Romanian language has seven vowels and twenty-two consonants, including two semivowels, and . ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


In final positions after consonants (rarely inside words) a short non-syllabic /i/ can occur, which is IPA: [ʲ] and is produced as a palatalization of the preceding consonant. A similar sound, the voiceless ending u, existed in old Romanian but has disappeared from the standard language. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ...


There are also four semivowels and twenty consonants.


Diphthongs

Descending diphthongs: ai, au, ei, eu, ii, iu, oi, ou, ui, ăi, ău, îi, îu.


Ascending diphthongs: ea, eo, ia, ie, io, iu, oa, ua, uă.


Triphthongs

Pattern S-V-S (main vowel between two semivowels): eai, eau, iai, iau, iei, ieu, ioi, iou, oai.


Pattern S-S-V (two-semivowel glide before the main vowel): eoa, ioa.


Phonetic changes

Due to its isolation from the other Romance languages, the phonetic evolution of Romanian was quite different, but does share a few changes with Italian, such as [kl] > [kj] (Lat. clarus > Rom. chiar, Ital. chiaro) and also a few with Dalmatian, such as /gn/ (probably phonetically [ŋn]) > [mn] (Lat. cognatus > Rom. cumnat, Dalm. comnut). This article presents the sound changes that happened from Latin to Romanian. ... Dalmatian is an extinct Romance language formerly spoken along the eastern Adriatic in Dalmatian coast of Croatia and as far south as Kotor (Cattaro) in Montenegro. ...


Among the notable phonetic changes are:

  • diphthongization of e and o
  •  : Lat. cera > Rom. ceară (wax)
  •  : Lat. sole > Rom. soare (sun)
  • iotacism [e] → [ie] in the beginning of the word
  •  : Lat. herba > Rom. iarbă (grass, herb)
  • velar [k], [g] → labial [p], [b], [m] before alveolar consonants:
  •  : Lat. octo > Rom. opt (eight)
  •  : Lat. quattuor > Rom. patru (four)
  •  : Lat. lingua > Rom. limbă (tongue, language)
  •  : Lat. signum > Rom. semn (sign)
  •  : Lat. coxa > Rom. coapsă (thigh)
  • rotacism [l] → [r] between vowels
  •  : Lat. caelum > Rom. cer (sky)
  • Alveolars [d] and [t] palatalized to [dz]/[z] and [ts] when before short [e] or long [i]
  •  : Lat. deus > Rom. zeu (god)
  •  : Lat. tenem > Rom. ţine (hold)

On the other hand, it (along with French) has lost the /kw/ (qu) sound from original Latin, turning it either into p (patru, "four"; cf. It. quattro) or a hard or soft c (când, "when"; calitate, "quality").


Writing system

Neacşu's letter is the oldest surviving document written in Romanian
Neacşu's letter is the oldest surviving document written in Romanian
A sample of the Romanian, written in the Romanian Cyrillic alphabet, which was still in use in the early 19th century
A sample of the Romanian, written in the Romanian Cyrillic alphabet, which was still in use in the early 19th century

The first written record of a Romanic language spoken in the Middle Ages in the Balkans was written by the Byzantine chronicler Theophanes Confessor in the 6th century about a military expedition against the Avars from 587, when a Vlach muleteer accompanying the Byzantine army noticed that the load was falling from one of the animals and shouted to a companion "Torna, torna fratre" (meaning "Return, return brother!"). This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... NeacÅŸus letter is the oldest surviving document written in Romanian NeacÅŸu was a 16th century Wallachian trader. ... Download high resolution version (958x274, 88 KB) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or more. ... Download high resolution version (958x274, 88 KB) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or more. ... The Romanian Cyrillic alphabet was used to write Romanian language before 1860. ... Theophanes (died 817 or 818) was a Byzantine monk and chronicler. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Events End of the Nan Liang Dynasty in China. ...


The oldest written text in Romanian is a letter from late June 1521, in which Neacşu of Câmpulung wrote to the mayor of Braşov about an imminent attack of the Turks. It was written using the Cyrillic alphabet, like most early Romanian writings. The earliest writing in Latin script was a late 16th century Transylvanian text which was written with the Hungarian alphabet conventions. Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... NeacÅŸus letter is the oldest surviving document written in Romanian NeacÅŸu was a 16th century Wallachian trader. ... Câmpulung (Câmpulung Muscel) is a city in the Arges county, Romania. ... County BraÅŸov County Status County capital Mayor George Scripcaru, Democratic Party, since 2004 Area 267. ... The Romanian Cyrillic alphabet was used to write Romanian language before 1860. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Bulgarian: ; Serbian: / or / ) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... The Hungarian alphabet is an extension of the Roman alphabet. ...


In the late 1700s, Transylvanian scholars noted the Latin origin of Romanian and adapted the Latin alphabet to the Romanian language, using some rules from Italian, recognized as Romanian's closest relative. The Cyrillic alphabet remained in (gradually decreasing) use until 1860, when Romanian writing was first officially regulated. Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Bulgarian: ; Serbian: / or / ) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ...


In the Soviet Republic of Moldova, a special version of the Cyrillic alphabet derived from the Russian version was used, until 1989, when it returned to the Romanian Latin alphabet. State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


Romanian alphabet

Main article: Romanian alphabet

The Romanian alphabet is as follows: Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


A, a (a); Ă, ă (ă); Â, â (â din a); B, b (be), C, c (ce); D, d (de), E, e (e); F, f (fe / ef); G, g (ghe / ge); H, h (ha / haş); I, i (i); Î, î (î din i); J, j (je), K, k (ka de la kilogram), L, l (le / el); M, m (me / em); N, n (ne / en); O, o (o); P, p (pe); R, r, (re / er); S, s (se / es); Ș ș (șe); T, t (te); Ț ț (țe); U, u (u); V, v (ve); X, x (ics); Z, z (ze / zet).


The Romanian alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet, and has five additional letters (these are not diacriticals, but letters in their own right). Initially, there were as many as 12 additional letters, but some of them disappeared in subsequent reforms. Also, until the early 20th century, a short vowel marker was used. The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ...


Today, the Romanian alphabet is largely phonetic. However, the "â" (used inside the words) and "î" (used at the beginning or the end; it can also be used in the middle of a composite word, see the exception below) both represent the same close central unrounded vowel /ɨ/, which is a slack sound somewhere between "i" in English "bit" and "oo" in English "food". Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ...


Until 1904 there were four letters representing the /ɨ/ sound: â, ê, î and û. By the middle of the century, through successive simplifications, only â and î remained in use. A further simplification was mandated in 1953 whereby î would be used exclusively, including in such words as România (which became Romînia) or limba română (which became romînă). For this reason, the spelling reform was perceived as an attempt of the new pro-Soviet government to delete the Romanians' national identity. In 1965, exceptions were made for România and the other related words; these would continue to be spelled with â. Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ...

A pair of street signs in Bucharest show the before and after of the 1993 spelling reform.
A pair of street signs in Bucharest show the before and after of the 1993 spelling reform.

In 1993 the Romanian Academy decided to fully revert to the pre-1953 spelling rules, on the grounds that the 1953 reform was forcibly imposed by the Communists. According to the current usage accepted by the Romanian Academy, /ɨ/ is transcribed as either î when used as the first or last letter of words, or â when it occurs in the middle of the word (exception: î occurs also in the middle of composite words; examples: bineînţeles cf. bine + înţeles, reînvestire cf. re + învestire). Also the first person singular and third person plural of the verb a fi "to be" have to be spelled and pronounced as sunt instead of the previous form sînt. However this move was met with resistance, especially in the linguistic community. The Academy rules are mandatory in government organisations and in state schools. In practice, either usage is acceptable, and indeed there are publishing houses and printed magazines who use either of the two rules. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (592x681, 37 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Romanian language ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (592x681, 37 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Romanian language ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official mentioned) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km²  (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The Romanian Academy (Romanian: Academia Român&#259;) is a cultural forum founded in Romania in 1866. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... The Romanian Academy (Romanian: Academia Român&#259;) is a cultural forum founded in Romania in 1866. ...


Another exception from a completely phonetic writing system is the fact that vowels and their respective semivowels are not distinguished in writing. In dictionaries the distinction is marked by separating the entry word into syllables for the words containing a hiatus that might be mispronounced as a diphthong or a triphthong. Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Semivowels (also glides, more rarely: semiconsonants) are non-syllabic vowels that form diphthongs with syllabic vowels. ... A syllable (Ancient Greek: ) is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. ... Hiatus in linguistics is the separate pronunciation of two adjacent vowels, sometimes with an intervening glottal stop. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... In phonetics, a triphthong (Greek τρίφθογγος, triphthongos, literally with three sounds, or with three tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination usually involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another that passes over a third one. ...


Stressed vowels also are not marked in writing, except very rarely in cases where by misplacing the stress a word might change its meaning and if the meaning is not obvious from the context. For example trei copíi means "three children" while trei cópii means "three copies".


Letters K, Q, W, and Y are not part of the native Romanian alphabet; they are used mainly to write loanwords, such as kilogram, quasar, watt, and yoga.


Because early computer encoding systems did not provide the letters ș and ț (representing (/ʃ/) and /ʦ/, respectively) writing them with a cedilla (i.e., ş, ţ) instead of a comma below is now rather widespread. However, the Romanian Academy has declared the use of cedilla incorrect, and the use of comma below is preferable where the quality of typography is important. The comma below, like the cedilla, in fact derived from an earlier z, with ș and ț thus originally representing sz and tz.[citation needed] The Romanian Academy (Romanian: Academia Român&#259;) is a cultural forum founded in Romania in 1866. ...


Reading rules

Reading Romanian involves learning a few rules, quite similar to reading Italian.

  • h always represents /h/. It is never aspirated, nor mute.
  • j represents /ʒ/
  • There are two letters with a comma below, Ș and Ț, which represent the sounds /ʃ/ and /ʦ/. However, the allographs with a cedilla instead of a comma, Ş and Ţ, became widespread when pre-Unicode and early Unicode character sets did not include the standard form.
  • A final orthographical i after a consonant often represents the palatalization of the consonant (e. g. lup /lup/ "wolf" vs. lupi /lupʲ/ "wolves").
  • ă represents the schwa, /ə/.
  • î and â represent /ɨ/.
  • The letter e is generally pronounced as the diphthong ie /je/ when it is in the beginning of a form of the verb a fi "to be", e. g. este /jeste/ "is". This rule also applies to personal pronouns beginning with e, e. g. el /jel/ "he".
  • x represents either the phoneme /ks/ as in expresie = expression, or /gz/ as in exemplu = example.
  • Similarly to the reading rules in Italian, the letters c and g represent the affricates /ʧ/ and /ʤ/ before i and e, and /k/ and /g/ elsewhere. When /k/ and /g/ are followed by vowels /e/ and /i/ (or their corresponding semivowels or the final /ʲ/) the digraphs ch and gh are used instead of c and g, as shown in the table below.
Group Phoneme Pronunciation Examples
ce, ci /tʃ/ ch in chest, cheek cerc (circle), cine (who)
che, chi /k/ k in kettle, kiss chem (I call), chimie (chemistry)
ge, gi /dʒ/ j in jelly, jigsaw ger (frost), gimnast (gymnast)
ghe, ghi /g/ g in get, give gheţar (glacier), ghid (guide)

Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the worlds writing systems. ... A character encoding is a code that pairs a set of characters (such as an alphabet or syllabary) with a set of something else, such as numbers or electrical pulses. ... The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... Semivowels (also glides, more rarely: semiconsonants) are non-syllabic vowels that form diphthongs with syllabic vowels. ...

Punctuation and capitalization

The main particularities Romanian has relative to other languages using the Latin alphabet are:

  • The quotation marks use the Polish format in the format „quote «inside» quote”, that is, 99 down and 99 up for normal quotations, with the addition of non-French double angle quotes without space for inside quotation when necessary.
  • Proper quotations which span multiple paragraphs don't start each paragraph with the quotation marks; one single pair of quotation marks is always used, regardless of how many paragraphs are quoted;
  • Dialogues are identified with quotation dashes;
  • The Oxford comma before "and" is considered incorrect ("red, yellow and blue" is the proper format);
  • Punctuation signs which follow a text in parentheses always follow the final bracket;
  • In titles, only the first letter of the first word is capitalized, the rest of the title using sentence capitalization (with all its rules: proper names are capitalized as usual, etc.).
  • Names of months and days are not capitalized (ianuarie "January", joi "Thursday")
  • Adjectives derived from proper names are not capitalized (Germania "Germany", but german "German")

Quotation marks, also called quotes, speech marks or inverted commas, are punctuation marks used in pairs to set off speech, a quotation, or a phrase. ... Quotation marks, also called quotes, speech marks or inverted commas, are punctuation marks used in pairs to set off speech, a quotation, or a phrase. ...

Exceptions and trends

Dialogues are identified with quotation dashes in everyday use, although the specific character is typically replaced with an ordinary dash ("-") in informal electronic communication.


Usage of Polish or German quotation marks has decreased considerably in favor of the much more convenient English-language format, at least in informal messages. Even in writing, because of the awkwardness of properly drawing German dashes (reversing the direction of writing upwards for the final quotation symbol), the proper format is rarely used, typically using the Polish format, if any attempt at proper formatting is done. In practice, only the most formal documents, such as literary works or very formal letters, use what are formally considered the proper form of quotation marks. Quotation marks, also called quotes, speech marks or inverted commas, are punctuation marks used in pairs to set off speech, a quotation, or a phrase. ...


Language sample

English text:

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Contemporary Romanian - highlighted words are French or Italian loanwords: Eleanor Roosevelt with the Spanish version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...

Toate fiinţele umane se nasc libere şi egale în demnitate şi în drepturi. Ele sunt înzestrate cu raţiune şi conştiinţă şi trebuie să se comporte unele faţă de altele în spiritul fraternităţii.

Romanian, excluding French and Italian loanwords - highlighted words are Slavic loanwords:

Toate fiinţele omeneşti se nasc slobode şi deopotrivă în destoinicie şi în drepturi. Ele sunt înzestrate cu înţelegere şi cuget şi trebuie să se poarte unele faţă de altele în duh de frăţietate.

Romanian, excluding loanwords:

Toate fiinţele omeneşti se nasc nesupuse şi asemenea în preţuire şi în drepturi. Ele sunt înzestrate cu înţelegere şi cuget şi se cuvine să se poarte unele faţă de altele după firea frăţiei.
See also: The Lord's Prayer in different languages

This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Common words and phrases

English Romanian Phonetical transcription
Romanian (person) (m.) român, (f.) româncă /ro'mɨn/, /ro'mɨn.kə/
Hello! Salut! /sa'lut/
What's your name? Cum te cheamă? /'kum.te.kěa.mə↘/
How are you? Ce mai faci? /'ʧe.maǐ.faʧʲ↘/
Goodbye! La revedere! /la.re.ve'de.re/
Bye! Pa! /pa/
Please. Vă rog. /və'rog/
Sorry. Îmi pare rău. /ɨmʲ.pa.re'rəǔ↘/
Thank you. Mulţumesc. /mul.ʦu'mesk/
Yes. Da. /da/
No. Nu. /nu/
I don't understand. Nu înţeleg. /'nu.ɨn.ʦe.leg↘/
Where's the bathroom? Unde este toaleta? /'un.de ǐes.te to.a.le.ta↘/
Do you speak English? Vorbiţi engleza? /vor'biʦʲ.eŋ'gle.za↗/
I am a student. Sunt student. /sunt stu'dent↘/

Notes

  1. ^ a b The Latin Union reports 28 million speakers for Romanian, out of whom 24 million are native speakers of the language: Latin Union - The odyssey of languages: ro, es, fr, it, pt; see also Ethnologue report for Romanian
  2. ^ a b The constitution of the Republic of Moldova refers to the country's language as Moldovan rather than Romanian, though in practice it is often called "Romanian". The introduction of the law concerning the functioning of the languages (September 1989), still effective in Moldova according to the Constitution [1], asserts the linguistic identity between the Romanian language and the Moldovan language. [2] For more information, see History of the Moldovan language.
  3. ^ "Milioane de români pe drumul emigrarii" ("Millions of Romanians on the road of emigration"). Evenimentul Zilei, May 10, 2004. Page is on Internet Archive, retrieved Oct 25, 2004.
  4. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estadística: Avance del Padrón Municipal a 1 de enero de 2006. Datos provisionales. [3]. According to FEDROM – Federaţia Asociaţiilor Româneşti din Spania, the total number of Romanians living in Spain could be well over 500,000 people.
  5. ^ [4] Perepis 2002
  6. ^ Latin Union - Languages and cultures online 2005
  7. ^ MSN Encarta - Languages Spoken by More Than 10 Million People
  8. ^ According to the 1993 Statistical Abstract of Israel there were 250,000 Romanian speakers in Israel, at a population of 5,548,523 (census 1995).
  9. ^ Reports of about 300,000 Jews that left the country after WW2
  10. ^ Evenimentul Zilei
  11. ^ Constitution of Romania
  12. ^ Ministry of Education of Romania
  13. ^ Legea cu privire la functionarea limbilor vorbite pe teritoriul RSS Moldovenesti Nr.3465-XI din 01.09.89 Vestile nr.9/217, 1989 (Law regarding the usage of languages spoken on the territory of the Republic of Moldova): "Moldavian RSS supports the desire of the Moldovans that live across the borders of the Republic, and considering the really existing linguistical Moldo-Romanian identity - of the Romanians that live on the territory of the USSR, of doing their studies and satisfying their cultural needs in their maternal language."
  14. ^ National Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Moldova: Census 2004
  15. ^ Experts Offering to Consult the National Statistics Bureau in Evaluation of the Census Data, Moldova Azi, May 19, 2005, story attributed to AP Flux. Retrieved October 11, 2005.
  16. ^ Official use of languages and scripts in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina published by the Provincial Secretariat for Regulations, Administration and National Minorities
  17. ^ Provincial Secretariat for Regulations, Administration and National Minorities: Official use of the Romanian language in the APV
  18. ^ Ukrainian Center for Independent Political Research: [5], [6]
  19. ^ Slovak Academy of Sciences in Kosice
  20. ^ University of Chernivtsi
  21. ^ Language, religion and culture in the Moldavian SSR
  22. ^ Cursuri de perfecţionare, published in Ziua on August 19, 2005
  23. ^ Romanian Language Institute: Data concerning the teaching of the Romanian language abroad
  24. ^ a b Vladimir Georgiev
  25. ^ Ivan Duridanov
  26. ^ a b P.S. Florentin Crihălmeanu in "Formula AS": După unirea cu Roma, “boscorodirea”, specifică epocii de dominaţie slavonă, va fi înlocuită cu slujba în limba română (curăţată pe cât posibil de impurităţile slavone, prin osârdia extraordinară a latiniştilor Şcolii Ardelene).
  27. ^ http://www.bru.ro/istorie/madrid.asp?id=cap22c History of the Romanian Church United with Rome]
  28. ^ The census in 1930 recorded a Greek-Catholic relative majority (31,1% of the population), whereas Orthodox Church came only second (27,8% of the population).
  29. ^ a b Approcio Lingua Italiana Allievi Stranieri - 7. Le lingue balcaniche

The history of the Moldovan language refers to the history of the Romanian language in the historical and political regions of Moldova and Transnistria, where due to political reasons its officially called Moldovan. ... Logo of Evenimentul Zilei Evenimentul Zilei is one of the leading newspapers in Romania. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The logo of Internet Archive The Internet Archive (IA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to maintaining an on-line library and archive of Web and multimedia resources. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The old logo Ziua (The Day in Romanian) is a major Romanian daily newspaper published in Bucharest. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Rosetti, Alexandru, Istoria limbii române, 2 vols., Bucharest, 1965-1969.
  • Uwe, Hinrichs (ed.), Handbuch der Südosteuropa-Linguistik, Wiesbaden, 1999.

See also

The lexis of the Romanian language (or Daco-Romanian), a Romance language, has changed over the centuries as the language evolved from Vulgar Latin, to Proto-Romanian, to medieval, modern and contemporary Romanian. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Romanian language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has more about this subject:
Romanian

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ...

Learning Romanian

Phrasebooks

Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...

Dictionaries

Wiktionary
Romanian language edition of Wiktionary, the free dictionary/thesaurus
  • Online Romanian-English dictionary
  • DEX Online - Romanian explicative dictionary
  • JaDEX - A Java front-end to DEX by Federico Mestrone, runs on all Java-enabled platforms, incl. Mac OS X, Linux and Windows
  • Free downloadable dictionary
  • Romanian bilingual dictionaries

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ...

Miscellaneous

  • SAMPA for Romanian
  • The Letter of Neacşu from Câmpulung - The oldest written document in Romanian (English translation)
  • Ethnologue report for Romanian


  Results from FactBites:
 
Romanian language - Free Encyclopedia (1177 words)
Also, the differences between the language spoken in various parts of Daco-Romania are very small, something pretty unusual, because until the Modern Era there were almost no connections between the Romanians in various regions (a Romanian from a Moldova speaks the same language as a Romanian from Serbian Banat).
Romanian is spoken mostly in Romania, Moldova, Ukraine, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Macedonia and Greece, but there are also Romanian language speakers in countries like Canada, United States, Germany, Israel, Australia and New Zealand.
Romanian is official in Romania and Moldova, where it is named "Moldovan language".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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