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Encyclopedia > Romanian alphabet

The Romanian alphabet is a modification of the Latin alphabet and consists of 28 letters: The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ...


A, a (a); Ă, ă (ă); Â, â (â din a); B, b (be), C, c (ce); D, d (de), E, e (e); F, f (fe / ef); G, g (ghe / ge); H, h (ha / haş); I, i (i); Î, î (î din i); J, j (je), K, k (ka de la kilogram), L, l (le / el); M, m (me / em); N, n (ne / en); O, o (o); P, p (pe); R, r, (re / er); S, s (se / es); Ș, ș (Șe); T, t (te); Ț, ț (țe); U, u (u); V, v (ve); X, x (ics); Z, z (ze / zet).


The letters Q, W, and Y were officially introduced in the Romanian alphabet in 1982, although they had been used earlier. They occur only in foreign words, such as quasar, watt, and yacht. The letter K is relatively older, but it is still perceived as foreign due to the fact that it appears only in borrowings, many of them still neologisms. Artists impression of quasar GB1508 A quasar (contraction of QUASi-stellAR radio source) is an astronomical source of electromagnetic energy, including light, which shows a very high redshift. ... The watt (symbol: W) is the SI derived unit of power, equal to one joule per second. ... A modern yacht A yacht (From Dutch Jacht meaning hunt) was originally defined as a light, fast sailing vessel used by the Dutch navy to pursue pirates and other transgressors around and into the shallow waters of the Low Countries. ...


In cases were the word is a direct borrowing having diacritical marks not present in the above alphabet, official spelling tends to favor their use (München, Angoulême etc., as opposed to the use of Istanbul over İstanbul). Coordinates: Time zone: CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country: Germany State: Bavaria Administrative region: Upper Bavaria District: Urban district City subdivisions: 25 borroughs Lord Mayor: Christian Ude (SPD) Governing parties: SPD / Greens / Rosa Liste Basic Statistics Area: 310. ... Angoulême is a town and commune in southwestern France, préfecture (capital city) of the Charente département. ... Istanbul (Turkish: Ä°stanbul, Greek: , historically known in English as Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...

Contents

Diacritical marks

Pre- (top) and post-1993 (bottom) street signs in Bucharest, showing the two different spellings of the same name
Pre- (top) and post-1993 (bottom) street signs in Bucharest, showing the two different spellings of the same name

Five letters of the Romanian Alphabet have diacritical marks. They are considered : Image File history File links Download high resolution version (592x681, 37 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Romanian language ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (592x681, 37 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Romanian language ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Status Capital of Romania Mayor Adriean Videanu, since 2005 Area 228 km² Population (2003) 1,929,615[1] Density 9131. ...

The letter â is used exclusively in the middle of words; its majuscule version appears only in all-capitals inscriptions. Ä‚ (upper case) or ÇŽ (lower case) is a letter used in standard Romanian language orthography to represent the schwa sound, a vowel. ... A breve (Latin brevis short, brief) is a diacritical mark Ë˜, shaped like a little round cup, designed to indicate a short vowel, as opposed to the macron Â¯ which indicates long vowels. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, and other languages. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) (often called a caret, a hat or an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Dutch, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans and other languages, and formerly in Turkish [citation needed]. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus (bent... The circumflex ( ˆ ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, and other languages. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) (often called a caret, a hat or an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Dutch, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans and other languages, and formerly in Turkish [citation needed]. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus (bent... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... A comma ( , ) is a punctuation mark. ... Èš È› (T-comma) is a letter which is part of the Romanian alphabet. ... A comma ( , ) is a punctuation mark. ... Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ...


The letters î and â are phonetically and functionally identical. The reason for using both of them is historical, denoting the language's Latin origin. During the communist regime, the Romanian government largely eliminated the letter â, replacing it with î everywhere except for the name of the country, which remained România. For example, the Latin angelus (angel) became the Romanian ânger, but today it is spelled înger. Initially, the country name and its derivatives too were spelled with "î" - Romînia, romîn etc., but this was later reverted; since the first stipulation coincided with the official designation of the country as a People's Republic, the full title of the latter was Republica Populară Romînă, whereas the Socialist Republic proclaimed in 1965 is associated with the spelling Republica Socialistă România. Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Soviets pressed for inclusion of Romanias heretofore negligible Communist Party in the post-war government, while non-communist political leaders were steadily eliminated from political life. ... The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575) An angel is a supernatural being found in many religions. ... Look up peoples republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ...


After the fall of the Ceauşescu regime, the Romanian Academy decided to reintroduce â from 1993 onward, in accordance to the 1904 spelling reform, thus cancelling the effects of the 1949 spelling reform. The choice between î and â is thus based on a simple rule: the letter is always spelled as â, except at the beginning and the end of words, where î is used instead. Exceptions include proper nouns where the usage of the letters is frozen, whichever it may be, and compound words, whose components are each separately subjected to the rule above, not the resulting word itself (e.g. ne+îndemânatic => neîndemânatic, not *neândemânatic). Quite a number of people and institutions (including major newspapers such as Evenimentul Zilei and Cotidianul) continue to write according to the 1949 norms and generally, usage of either the 1949 or 1993 norms is regarded as correct in most situations. Nicolae CeauÅŸescu (IPA , in English, normally (and erroneously) ) (January 26, 1918 - December 25, 1989) was the leader of Communist Romania from 1965 until shortly before his execution. ... The Romanian Academy (Romanian: Academia Română) is a cultural forum founded in Romania in 1866. ... A proper noun is a noun that picks out a unique entity. ... Logo of Evenimentul Zilei Evenimentul Zilei is one of the leading newspapers in Romania. ... Cotidianul is a Romanian newspaper, published Monday to Saturday in Berliner format. ...


Writing letters ș and ț with a cedilla instead of a comma is considered incorrect by the language academy. Actual Romanian writings, including books created to teach children to write, treat the comma and cedilla as a variation in font. See Unicode and HTML below.


Obsolete letters

An old manhole cover in Bucharest, writing "Bucharest - sewerage" using etymological spelling, Bucuresci - Canalisare instead of Bucureşti - Canalizare
An old manhole cover in Bucharest, writing "Bucharest - sewerage" using etymological spelling, Bucuresci - Canalisare instead of Bucureşti - Canalizare

Before the spelling reform of 1904, there were several additional letters with diacritical marks. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1612x1350, 1021 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Romanian alphabet Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1612x1350, 1021 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Romanian alphabet Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Princeton University manhole cover, Princeton, NJ, USA Pick holes in manhole cover, Palo Alto, CA, USA Kraków manhole cover (note integral hinge) Painted manhole cover in Matsumoto, Japan. ...

  • Vowels:
    • ĭ — i with breve served to illustrate the final, "whispered" sound of the palatalized consonant, in words such as Bucureşti (/bu.ku'reʃtʲ/), lupi (/lupʲ/ - "wolves"), and greci (/greʧʲ/ - "Greeks") — Bucureşcǐ (the proper spelling at the time used c insted of t), lupǐ, grecǐ. This distinction is no longer considered necessary.
    • ŭ — u with breve was used only in the ending of a word. Unvoiced, it served to indicate that the previous consonant was not palatalized, or that the vowel i was fully voiced. Once frequent, it survives today only in author Mateiu Caragiale's name - originally spelled Mateiŭ (it is not specified whether the pronunciation should adopt a version that he himself probably never used, while in many editions he is still credited as Matei).
    • ĕ — e with breve. This letter is now replaced with ă. The existence of two letters for one sound, the schwa, had an etymological purpose, showing from which vowel ("a" or "e") it originally derived. For example împĕrat - "emperor" (<Imperator), vĕd - "I see" (<vedo), umĕr - "shoulder" (<humerus), păsĕri - "birds" (<cf. passer).
  • A consonant, / (d with comma) was used to indicate the sound z where it was derived from a Latin d, such as in i - "day" (<dies), Dumneeu - God (<Domine Deus), ână - "fairy" (<Diana).

Their usage was relative even before 1904, with some publications (such as Timpul or Universul) choosing to use a simplified and easier to read version, one more similar to today's writing system. A breve (Latin Brevis short, brief) is a diacritical mark Ë˜, shaped like a little round cup, designed to indicate a short vowel, as opposed to the macron Â¯ which indicates long vowels. ... A breve (Latin brevis short, brief) is a diacritical mark Ë˜, shaped like a little round cup, designed to indicate a short vowel, as opposed to the macron Â¯ which indicates long vowels. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... Status Capital of Romania Mayor Adriean Videanu, since 2005 Area 228 km² Population (2003) 1,929,615[1] Density 9131. ... Ŭ or Å­ is a letter in the Belarusian language, when written in the Łacinka alphabet (based on the Latin alphabet), and is also a letter in the Esperanto alphabet. ... A breve (Latin brevis short, brief) is a diacritical mark Ë˜, shaped like a little round cup, designed to indicate a short vowel, as opposed to the macron Â¯ which indicates long vowels. ... Mateiu Caragiale (25 March 1885-17 January 1936) was a Romanian writer, born in Bucharest as the illegitimate son of playwright Ion Luca Caragiale and Maria Constantinescu. ... A breve (Latin Brevis short, brief) is a diacritical mark Ë˜, shaped like a little round cup, designed to indicate a short vowel, as opposed to the macron Â¯ which indicates long vowels. ... A breve (Latin brevis short, brief) is a diacritical mark Ë˜, shaped like a little round cup, designed to indicate a short vowel, as opposed to the macron Â¯ which indicates long vowels. ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... The humerus is a long bone in the arm or fore-legs (animals) that runs from the shoulder to the elbow. ... Species Many, see text Passer is a genus of Old World sparrows. ... Jupiter et Thétis - by Jean Ingres, 1811. ... Classical Roman statue of Diana. ... The Conservative Party (Partidul Conservator) was between 1880 and 1918 one of Romanias two most important parties, the other one being the Liberal Party. ...


Unicode and HTML

There is confusion about how to properly write the characters that denote the sounds /ʃ/ and /ʦ/. Although the officially preferred forms are, respectively, "s with comma below" and "t with comma below", many printed texts (including books created to teach children to write) use "s with cedilla" and "t with cedilla" and in practice it is used as a font variation. Historically, computers have made no distinction between the cedilla and comma below.


This usage has been aggregated into all character encoding standards for Central and Eastern Europe (such as ISO 8859-2), which include "s" and "t" with cedillas. In addition, several computer fonts, including some of those shipped with Microsoft Windows, have "s-cedilla" with a cedilla (like the Turkish equivalent), but "t-cedilla" with a comma below, resulting in inconsistent use diacritical marks. ISO 8859-16 includes "s" and "t" with comma below on the same places "s" and "t" with cedilla were in ISO 8859-2. ISO 8859-2, more formally cited as ISO/IEC 8859-2 or less formally as Latin-2, is part 2 of ISO/IEC 8859, a standard character encoding defined by ISO. It encodes what it refers to as Latin alphabet no. ... Microsoft Windows is the name of several families of proprietary software operating systems by Microsoft. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A comma ( , ) is a punctuation mark. ... ISO 8859-16, also known as Latin-10 or South-Eastern European, is an 8-bit character encoding, part of the ISO 8859 standard. ...


Ș and ț were added to Unicode in September 1999 and hence still aren't in common use. Unicode defines the "comma-below" characters in the Latin Extended-B section (hex range 0180-024F). Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ... In mathematics and computer science, base-16, hexadecimal, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix or base of 16, usually written using the symbols 0–9 and A–F or a–f. ...

Phoneme With comma With cedilla
Character Unicode position (hex) HTML entity Character Unicode position (hex) HTML entity
/ʃ/ Ș 0218 &#x218; or &#536; Ş 015E &#x15E; or &#350;
ș 0219 &#x219; or &#537; ş 015F &#x15F; or &#351;
/ʦ/ Ț 021A &#x21A; or &#538; Ţ 0162 &#x162; or &#354;
ț 021B &#x21B; or &#539; ţ 0163 &#x163; or &#355;

Vowels with diactitics are coded as follows:

Phoneme Character Unicode position (hex) HTML entity
/ə/ Ă 0102 &#x102; or &#258;
ă 0103 &#x103; or &#259;
/ɨ/ Â 00C2 &Acirc; or &#xC2; or &#194;
â 00E2 &acirc; or &#xE2; or &#226;
Î 00CE &Icirc; or &#xCE; or &#206;
î 00EE &icirc; or &#xEE; or &#238;

Letters and their pronunciation

See also: Romanian phonology

Romanian spelling is mostly phonetic. The table below gives the correspondence between letters and sounds. Some of the letters have several possible readings, even if allophones are not taken into account. When vowels /i/, /u/, /e/, and /o/ are changed into their corresponding semivowels, this is not marked in writing. Letters K, Q, W, and Y appear only in foreign borrowings; the pronunciation of W and Y depends on the origin of the word they appear in. The Romanian language has seven vowels and twenty-two consonants, including two semivowels, and . ... In phonetics, an allophone is one of several similar phones that belong to the same phoneme. ... Semivowels (also called semiconsonants or glides) are vowels that function phonemically as consonants. ...

Letter Phoneme Approximative pronunciation
A a /a/ a in "father"
Ă ă (a with breve) /ə/ a in "above"
 â (a with circumflex) /ɨ/ e in "roses"
B b /b/ b in "ball"
C c /k/ c in "cat"
/ʧ/ ch in "chair"
D d /d/ d in "door"
E e /e/ e in "merry"
/e̯/ (semivocalic /e/)
/je/ ye in "yes"
F f /f/ f in "flag"
G g /ɡ/ g in "goat"
/ʤ/ g in "general"
H h /h/ h in "house"
I i /i/ i in "machine"
/j/ y in "yes"
/ʲ/ (palatalization)
Î î (i with circumflex) /ɨ/ e in "roses"
J j /ʒ/ s in "treasure"
K k /k/ k in "like"
L l /l/ l in "lamp"
M m /m/ m in "mouth"
N n /n/ n in "north"
O o /o/ o in "floor"
/o̯/ (semivocalic /o/)
P p /p/ p in "post"
Q q /k/ k in "kettle"
R r /r/ (trilled r)
S s /s/ s in "song"
Ș ș (s with comma) /ʃ/ s in "sugar"
T t /t/ t in "tip"
Ț ț (t with comma) /ʦ/ zz in "pizza"
U u /u/ u in "group"
/w/ w in "cow"
V v /v/ v in "vision"
W w /v/ v in "vision"
/w/ w in "west"
X x /ks/ x in "six"
/ɡz/ x in "example"
Y y /j/ y in "yes"
/i/ i in "machine"
Z z /z/ z in "zipper"

A breve (Latin brevis short, brief) is a diacritical mark Ë˜, shaped like a little round cup, designed to indicate a short vowel, as opposed to the macron Â¯ which indicates long vowels. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, and other languages. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, and other languages. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) (often called a caret, a hat or an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Dutch, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans and other languages, and formerly in Turkish [citation needed]. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus (bent... The circumflex ( ˆ ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, and other languages. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, and other languages. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) (often called a caret, a hat or an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Dutch, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans and other languages, and formerly in Turkish [citation needed]. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus (bent... A comma ( , ) is a punctuation mark. ... A comma ( , ) is a punctuation mark. ...

Phonetic alphabet

There is a Romanian equivalent to the English-language NATO phonetic alphabet. Most code words are people's first names, with the exception of K, J, Q, W, Y, and Z. Letters with diacritics (Ă, Â, Î, Ș, Ț) are generally transmitted without diacritics (A, A, I, S, T). FAA radiotelephony phonetic alphabet and Morse code chart. ...

      Word IPA (unofficial)         Word IPA (unofficial)
A Ana /'a.na/ N Nicolae /ni.ko'la.e/
B Barbu /'bar.bu/ O Olga /'ol.ɡa/
C Constantin /kon.stan'tin/ P Petre /'pe.tre/
D Dumitru /du'mi.tru/ Q Q /kju/
E Elena /e'le.na/ R Radu /'ra.du/
F Florea /'flo.re̯a/ S Sandu /'san.du/
G Gheorghe /'ɡe̯or.ɡe/ T Tudor /'tu.dor/
H Haralambie /ha.ra'lam.bi.e/ U Udrea /'u.dre̯a/
I Ion /i'on/ V Vasile /va'si.le/
J Jiu /ʒiw/ W dublu V /du.blu've/
K kilogram /ki.lo'ɡram/ X Xenia /'kse.ni.a/
L Lazăr /'la.zər/ Y I grec /'i.ɡrek/
M Maria /ma'ri.a/ Z zahăr /'za.hər/

For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ... For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ...

Keyboard layout

Romanian layout

Romanian letters  and à on the keyboard of an Apple MacBook Pro
Romanian letters  and à on the keyboard of an Apple MacBook Pro

Although most computer keyboards used in Romania use the United States standard model (US QWERTY), there is a official Romanian keyboard, based on the German QWERTZ. This keyboard allows a direct access to the Romanian specific characters — ă, î, â, ș, ţ (the Microsoft keyboard layout uses ş, s with cedilla, and not the ș, s with comma, in use; because of this, a growing number of texts make use of unofficial diacritical marks) Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1844x1028, 634 KB) A close shot of some keys with Romanian characters, on the keyboard of an Apple MacBook Pro laptop. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1844x1028, 634 KB) A close shot of some keys with Romanian characters, on the keyboard of an Apple MacBook Pro laptop. ... The MacBook Pro is a line of Macintosh notebook computers developed by Apple Computer for the professional market. ... A typewriter with the QWERTY layout QWERTY (pronounced ) is the most common modern-day keyboard layout on English-language computer and typewriter keyboards. ... The QWERTZ keyboard layout The QWERTZ keyboard is a computer and typewriter keyboard that is normally used in German-speaking regions. ... Microsoft is one of few companies engaging itself in the console wars Where they are up against sony, nintendo, and of course sharps new console which may cause a threat. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A comma ( , ) is a punctuation mark. ...


JLG Extended Keyboard Layout

This is a free extended keyboard layout for the United States keyboard, allowing all Romanian characters to be typed:

  • ă = CTRL + ) then a
  • Ă = CTRL + ) then A
  • î = CTRL + ^ then i
  • Î = CTRL + ^ then I
  • â = CTRL + ^ then a
  • Â = CTRL + ^ then A
  • ș = CTRL + , then s (different of ş = CTRL + ; then s)
  • Ș = CTRL + , then S (different of Ş = CTRL + ; then S)
  • ț = CTRL + , then t (different of ţ = CTRL + ; then t)
  • Ț = CTRL + , then T (different of Ţ = CTRL + ; then T)

References

  • (Romanian) Mioara Avram, Ortografie pentru toţi, Editura Litera Internaţional, 2002

See also

The Romanian Cyrillic alphabet was used to write Romanian language before 1860. ... The Moldovan alphabet is a Cyrillic alphabet derived from the Russian alphabet and developed for the Romanian / Moldovan language in the Soviet Union in the 1930s. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Wikipedia: Romanian language (1385 words)
All dialects of Romanian are believed to have been unified in a common language until sometime between the 7th and the 10th century, before the Slavonic languages interfered with Romanian.
The Romanian alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet, and has five additional letters (these are not diacriticals, but letters in their own right).
Today, the Romanian alphabet is largely phonetic, with one exception: the "â" (used inside the words) and "î" (used at the beginning or the end), both representing the same sound.
Romanian language, alphabet and pronunciation (540 words)
Neacşu wrote in a version of the old Cyrillic alphabet similar to the one for Old Church Slavonic, and which was used in Walachia and Moldova until 1859.
A version of the Cyrillic alphabet was used in the Soviet Republic of Moldova until 1989, when they switched to the Romanian version of the Latin alphabet.
This version of the Latin alphabet was used during the transition from the Cyrillic to the Latin alphabets.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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