FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Romanian Revolution of 1989
Romanian Revolution of 1989
Part of the Cold War

People on the streets of Bucharest
Date December 1989
Location Romania
Result Revolution succeeded
Combatants
Securitate and other loyalist forces Anti-Ceauşescu protesters, discontented Communist party members, Romanian Army defectors
Commanders
Nicolae Ceauşescu Various independent leaders
Casualties
1,104 deaths

The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of riots and fighting in late December of 1989 that overthrew the Communist regime of Nicolae Ceauşescu. The increasingly violent clashes culminated in a summary trial and the execution of Ceauşescu and his wife Elena. Romania was the only Eastern Bloc country to violently overthrow its Communist regime or to execute its leaders. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This work is copyrighted. ... Status Capital of Romania Mayor Adriean Videanu, since 2005 Area 238 km² Population (2005) 1,924,959[1] Density 8,088 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Romania_flag_1947-1989. ... The Securitate (Romanian for Security; official full name Departamentul Securităţii Statului, State Security Department), was the secret police force of Communist Romania. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Romanian Army (Armata Română) consists of three branches: Romanian Land Forces Romanian Naval Forces Romanian Air Force The term army is used in Romania when referring to the entire military, while land forces deal only with the actual army itself. ... Nicolae CeauÅŸescu (IPA , in English, sometimes (and erroneously) ) (January 26, 1918–December 25, 1989) was the leader of Romania from 1965 until December 1989. ... A map of countries who declared themselves to be socialist states under the Marxist-Leninist or Maoist definition (in other words, Communist states) at some point in their history. ... Nicolae CeauÅŸescu (IPA , in English, sometimes (and erroneously) ) (January 26, 1918–December 25, 1989) was the leader of Romania from 1965 until December 1989. ... Elena CeauÅŸescu (IPA: ) (January 7, 1916 - December 25, 1989) was the wife of Romanias Communist leader Nicolae CeauÅŸescu and the Vice Prime Minister of Romania. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ...


The total number of deaths in the Romanian Revolution was 1,104, of which 162 were in the protests that led to the overthrow of Nicolae Ceauşescu (16–22 December 1989) and 942 in the fighting that occurred after the seizure of power by the new political structure National Salvation Front (FSN). The number of wounded was 3,352, of which 1107 occurred while Ceauşescu was still in power and 2,245 after the National Salvation Front took power[1][2]. Nicolae CeauÅŸescu (IPA , in English, sometimes (and erroneously) ) (January 26, 1918–December 25, 1989) was the leader of Romania from 1965 until December 1989. ... The National Salvation Front (in Romanian, Frontul Salvării NaÅ£ionale, FSN) was the governing body of Romania in the first weeks after the Romanian Revolution of 1989, subsequently turned into a political party. ... The National Salvation Front (in Romanian, Frontul Salvării NaÅ£ionale, FSN) was the governing body of Romania in the first weeks after the Romanian Revolution of 1989, subsequently turned into a political party. ...

Contents

Background

Main article: Communist Romania

As in neighboring countries, by 1989 the bulk of the Romanian populace were dissatisfied with the Communist regime. However, unlike other Eastern Bloc countries, Romania had never undergone even limited de-Stalinization. Ceauşescu's economic and development policies (including grandiose construction projects and a draconian austerity program designed to enable Romania to liquidate its entire national debt in only a few years) were generally blamed for the country's painful shortages and widespread, increasing poverty; parallel with increasing poverty, the secret police (Securitate) were becoming so ubiquitous as to make Romania essentially a police state. Anthem Zdrobite cătuÅŸe (1947 - 1953) Te slăvim Românie (1953 - 1968) Trei Culori (1968-1989) Capital Bucharest Language(s) Romanian Government Socialist republic Head of State  - 1947–1965 Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej  - 1965-1989 Nicolae CeauÅŸescu Legislature Marea Adunare NaÅ£ionalÇŽ Historical era Cold War  - Monarchy abolished... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... De-Stalinization and the Khrushchev era For further details, see Nikita Khrushchev After Stalin had died in March 1953, he was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev as First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and Georgi Malenkov as Premier of the Soviet Union. ... This article is about secret police as organizations. ... The Securitate (Romanian for Security; official full name Departamentul Securităţii Statului, State Security Department), was the secret police force of Communist Romania. ... A police state is a political condition where the government maintains strict control over society, particularly through suspension of civil rights and often with the use of a force of secret police. ...


Unlike the other Warsaw Pact leaders, Ceauşescu had not been slavishly pro-Soviet but had pursued an "independent" foreign policy. While Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev spoke of reform, Ceauşescu imitated the political hard-line, megalomania and personality cults of East Asian communist leaders like North Korea's Kim Il Sung. Even after the Berlin Wall fell and Ceauşescu's southern comrade, Bulgarian leader Todor Zhivkov, was replaced in November 1989, Ceauşescu ignored the threat to his position as the last old-style communist leader in Eastern Europe. Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; born March 2, 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Kim Il-sung (April 15, 1912–July 8, 1994) was a Korean Communist politician and the ruler of the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (North Korea) from 1948 until his death. ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ... Todor Hristov Zhivkov (Bulgarian: ; IPA: ) (September 7, 1911–August 5, 1998) was the Communist leader of Bulgaria from March 4, 1954 until November 10, 1989. ... Map of Eastern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ...


Timişoara protest

Part of a series on the
History of Romania
Prehistory
Dacia
Roman Dacia
The Dark Ages
The Middle Ages
Early Modern Times
National awakening and
   Regulamentul Organic
Kingdom of Romania
Greater Romania
World War II
Communist Romania
Romanian Revolution
Romania since 1989
This box: view  talk  edit

On December 16 a protest broke out in Timişoara in response to an attempt by the government to evict a dissident Hungarian Reformed pastor, László Tőkés. Tőkés had recently made critical comments toward the regime in the international media and the government alleged that he was inciting ethnic hatred. At the behest of the government, his bishop removed him from his post, thereby depriving him of the right to use the apartment he was entitled to as a pastor. For some time, his parishioners gathered around his home to protect him from harassment and eviction. Many passers-by, including religious Romanian students, unaware of the details and having been told by the pastor's supporters that this was yet another attempt of the communist regime to restrict religious freedom, spontaneously joined in. Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... This article provides only a brief outline of each period of the History of Romania; details are presented in separate articles (see the links in the box and below). ... Prehistoric Romania is the period in the human occupation (including early hominins) of the geographical area encompassing present-day Romania, which extended through prehistory, and ended when the first written records appeared. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... The provinces of the Roman Empire in 120, with Dacia highlighted. ... This article (also known as Romania in the Dark Ages) treats the history of Romania and of the Romanian people, and refers to the time period roughly from the 5th century to the 10th century, that is between the Hunnic invasion, to the last phase of the Age of Migrations. ... // Main article: Romania in the Dark Ages The Dark Ages in what is now Romania ended around the 11th century, following the period in which the Romanian lands had been part of the First Bulgarian Empire (802-1018). ... It has been suggested that Byzantium after Byzantium be merged into this article or section. ... During the period of Austro-Hungarian rule in Transylvania and Ottoman suzerainty over Wallachia and Moldavia, most Romanians were in the situation of being second-class citizens (or even non-citizens) in their own country. ... The National Assembly of Wallachia in 1837 Regulamentul Organic (Romanian name, translated as Organic Statute or Organic Regulation; French: Règlement Organique, Russian: Oрганический регламент, Organichesky reglament)[1] was a quasi-constitutional organic law enforced in 1831–1832 by the Imperial Russian authorities in Moldavia and Wallachia (the two Danubian Principalities... From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) under a single prince to a full-fledged independent kingdom with a Hohenzollern monarchy. ... Anthem Trăiască Regele Capital Bucharest Language(s) Romanian Government Constitutional monarchy Head of State  - 1918 - 1927 Ferdinand I of Romania  - 1927 - 1930 - 1930 - 1940 - 1940 - 1947 Michael I of Romania Carol II of Romania Michael I of Romania Legislature Adunarea DeputaÅ£ilor and Senatul Historical era Interbellum Years  - Kingdom... In June of 1941, after a brief period of nominal neutrality under King Carol, Romania joined the Axis Powers. ... Anthem Zdrobite cătuÅŸe (1947 - 1953) Te slăvim Românie (1953 - 1968) Trei Culori (1968-1989) Capital Bucharest Language(s) Romanian Government Socialist republic Head of State  - 1947–1965 Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej  - 1965-1989 Nicolae CeauÅŸescu Legislature Marea Adunare NaÅ£ionalÇŽ Historical era Cold War  - Monarchy abolished... // 1989 marked the fall of Communism in Eastern Europe. ... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... County TimiÅŸ County Status County Capital Mayor Gheorghe Ciuhandu, Christian-Democratic Peoples Party, since 1996 Area 130,5 km² Population (2002) 325,997 Density 2,345 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... László TÅ‘kés, (born April 1, 1952), is an ethnic Hungarian citizen of Romania, now bishop of the Reformed Church District of Királyhágómellék, Transylvania, Romania and President of the Hungarian National Council of Transylvania (Hungarian: Erdélyi Magyar Nemzeti Tanács). An effort to... Incitement to racial or ethnic hatred is a crime under the laws of a number of countries. ...


As it became clear that the crowd would not disperse, the mayor, Petre Moţ, made remarks suggesting that he had overturned the decision to evict Tőkés. Meanwhile, the crowd had grown impatient — and since Petre Moţ declined to confirm his statement against the planned eviction in writing, the crowd started to chant anticommunist slogans. Consequently, police and Securitate forces showed up at the scene. By 7:30 pm, the protest had spread out, and the original cause became largely irrelevant. Some of the protesters attempted to burn down the building that housed the District Committee of the Romanian Communist Party (PCR). The Securitate responded with tear gas and water jets, while the police beat up rioters and arrested many of them. Around 9:00 p.m. the rioters withdrew. They regrouped eventually around the Romanian Orthodox Cathedral and started a protest march around the city, but again they were confronted by the security forces. PCR hammer and sickle symbol The Romanian Communist Party (Romanian: Partidul Comunist Român, PCR) was a Communist political party in Romania. ... A riot control agent is a type of lachrymatory agent (or lacrimatory agent). ... Orthodox Cathedral of TimiÅŸoara The TimiÅŸoara Orthodox Cathedral located in TimiÅŸoara, Romania was built between 1937 and 1940. ...


Riots and protests resumed the following day, December 17. The rioters broke into the District Committee building and threw Party documents, propaganda brochures, Ceauşescu's writings, and other symbols of communist power out the windows. Again, the protesters attempted to set the building on fire, but this time they were stopped by military units. The significance of the army presence in the streets was an ominous one: this meant that they had received their orders from the highest level of the command chain, presumably from Ceauşescu himself. Although the army failed to establish order, it succeeded in turning Timişoara into a living hell: gunfire, casualties, fights and burning cars, Transport Auto Blindat (TAB) armored personnel carriers, tanks and stores. After 8:00 p.m., from Piaţa Libertăţii (Liberty Square) to the Opera there was wild shooting, including the area of Decebal bridge, Calea Lipovei (Lipovei Avenue) and Calea Girocului (Girocului Avenue). Tanks, trucks and TABs blocked the accesses into the city while helicopters hovered overhead. After midnight the protests calmed down. Ion Coman, Ilie Matei and Ştefan Guşă inspected the city, in which some areas looked like the aftermath of a war: destruction, ash and blood. December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... East German BRDMs on parade during celebrations of the 40th anniversary of East Germany in 1989 Armoured personnel carriers (APCs) are light armoured fighting vehicles for the transport of infantry. ... East German BRDMs on parade during celebrations of the 40th anniversary of East Germany in 1989 Armoured personnel carriers (APCs) are light armoured fighting vehicles for the transport of infantry. ...

Flag of Communist Romania
"Empty" Romanian flags, from an exhibit at the Military Museum, Bucharest
"Empty" Romanian flags, from an exhibit at the Military Museum, Bucharest

The morning of December 18, the centre was being guarded by soldiers and Securitate-agents in plain clothes. Mayor Moţ ordered a Party gathering to take place at the University, with the purpose of condemning the "vandalism" of the previous days. He also declared martial law, prohibiting people from going about in groups larger than two people. Defying the curfew, a group of 30 young men headed for the Orthodox Cathedral, where they stopped and waved a Romanian flag from which they had removed the Romanian Communist coat of arms. Expecting that they would be fired upon, they started to sing "Deşteaptă-te, române!" (Wake up, Romanians), an earlier national song that had been banned since 1947. They were, indeed, fired upon and some died, some were seriously injured, while the lucky ones were able to escape. Image File history File links Romania_flag_1947-1989. ... Image File history File links Romania_flag_1947-1989. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 817 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Flag of Romania Romanian Revolution of 1989 Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 817 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Flag of Romania Romanian Revolution of 1989 Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The national flag of Romania is a vertical tricolor of blue, yellow, and red. ... DeÅŸteaptă-te, române (variously translated as Awaken thee, Romanian!, Awaken, Romanian!, or Wake Up, Romanian!) is Romanias national anthem. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ...


On December 19, Radu Bălan and Ştefan Guşă visited the workers in the city’s factories, but failed to have them resume work. On December 20, massive columns of workers were entering the city. 100,000 protesters occupied Piaţa Operei (Opera Square — today Piaţa Victoriei; Victory Square), and started to chant anti-government protests: "Noi suntem poporul!" ("We are the people!"), "Armata e cu noi!" ("The army is on our side!"), "Nu vă fie frică, Ceauşescu pică!" ("Have no fear, Ceauşescu will fall"). Meanwhile, Emil Bobu and Constantin Dăscălescu were sent by Elena Ceauşescu (Nicolae Ceauşescu being at that time in Iran), to solve the situation. They met with a delegation of the protesters and accepted to free the majority of the arrested protesters; however, they refused to comply with the protesters’ main demand (resignation of Ceauşescu) and the situation remained essentially unchanged; the next day trains loaded with workers originating from factories in Oltenia arrived in Timişoara. The regime was attempting to use them in the repression of the mass protests, but they finally ended up in joining the protests. One worker explained: "Yesterday, our factory boss and a Party official rounded us up in the yard, handed us wood clubs and told us that Hungarians and ‘hooligans’ were devastating Timişoara and that it is our duty to go there and help crush the riots. But now I realize that this is not true." is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Romania with Oltenia highlighted Oltenia or Lesser Wallachia is a historical province of Romania. ...


On December 18, 1989, Ceauşescu departed for a visit to Iran, leaving the duty of crushing the Timişoara revolt to his subordinates and his wife. Upon his return on the evening of December 20, the situation became even more tense, and he gave a televised speech from the TV studio inside Central Committee Building (CC Building), in which he spoke about the events at Timişoara in terms of an "interference of foreign forces in Romania's internal affairs" and an "external aggression on Romania's sovereignty". The country, which had no information of the Timişoara events from the national media, heard about the Timişoara revolt from western radio stations like Voice of America and Radio Free Europe, and by word of mouth. A mass meeting was staged for the next day, December 21, which, according to the official media, was presented as a "spontaneous movement of support for Ceauşescu", emulating the 1968 meeting in which Ceauşescu had spoken against the invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Warsaw Pact forces. is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Informally, the evening is the period in which the daylight is decreasing, between the late afternoon and night; it extends from the latter portion of the daylight (before sunset) until dark (after sunset). ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... See TV (disambiguation) for other uses and Television (band) for the rock band European networks National In much of Europe television broadcasting has historically been state dominated, rather than commercially organised, although commercial stations have grown in number recently. ... For a one-room apartment, see Apartment. ... There are many kinds of events: In common language, an event is something that happens (changes). ... The Voice of America (VOA) is the official international broadcasting service of the Government of the United States. ... Cover of Radio Liberty booklet The Most Important Job in the World Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a radio and communications organization which is funded by the United States Congress. ... Word of mouth, is a reference to the passing of information by verbal means, especially recommendations, but also general information, in an informal, person-to-person manner. ... Meetings are sometimes held around conference tables. ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ...


Ceauşescu falls

On the morning of December 21, Ceauşescu addressed a mass assembly of a hundred thousand people to condemn the uprising of Timişoara. Speaking from the balcony of the Central Committee building in the usual "wooden language", Ceauşescu delivered a litany of the achievements of the "socialist revolution" and Romanian "multi-laterally developed socialist society". The people, however, remained apathetic, and only the front rows supported Ceauşescu with cheers and applause. His lack of understanding of the events and his incapacity to handle the situation were further demonstrated as he offered, as an act of desperation, to raise the salaries for workers by 100 Lei per month (about 4 US dollars at the time, yet a 5-10% raise for a modest salary) and kept praising the achievements of the Socialist Revolution, still unable to realize that a revolution was unfolding right in front of his eyes. December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In rhetorics, the wooden language (calque of French expression langue de bois) refers to the diverting of attention from the reality by using certain words, such as either banalities too abstract or pompous, either appealing to the sentiments rather than to facts. ... For the Moldovan currency, see Moldovan leu. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...

The moment when Ceauşescu loses the grip on the mass assembly, as broadcasted live by the Romanian Television.

As he was addressing the crowd from the balcony of the Central Committee building, sudden movement coming from the outskirts of the mass assembly and the sound of what various sources have reported as fireworks, bombs, or guns broke the orderly manifestation into chaos. Scared at first, the crowds tried to disperse. Bullhorns were used to spread the news that the Securitate was firing on them and that a "revolution" was unfolding, and finally the people were persuaded to join in. The rally turned into a protest demonstration and in the end a revolution emerged. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 324 × 272 pixelsFull resolution (324 × 272 pixel, file size: 38 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is a screenshot from the live footage of the last public speech of Nicolae Ceausescu, as recorded by the Romanian TV. This image is a... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 324 × 272 pixelsFull resolution (324 × 272 pixel, file size: 38 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is a screenshot from the live footage of the last public speech of Nicolae Ceausescu, as recorded by the Romanian TV. This image is a... When looking for Romanian television, did you mean: Communications in Romania for information on the number of television sets and television usage Televiziunea Română for information on TVR, the national television network A list of Romanian television networks: ProTV and Antena1 This is a disambiguation page — a...


Ceauşescu, his wife, as well as other officials and CPEx members panicked, and finally Ceauşescu went into hiding inside the building. The live transmission of the meeting was interrupted, but the people who were watching had seen enough to realise that something unusual was going on.


The reaction of the Ceauşescu couple is memorable, as they were staging futile attempts to regain control over the convulsing crowd using phone conversation formulas such as "Alo, Alo" ("Hello, Hello") or Ceauşescu's wife "advising" him how to contain the situation: "Vorbeşte-le, vorbeşte-le" ("Talk to them, talk to them") and to the crowd "Staţi liniştiţi la locurile voastre" ("Sit quiet in your places"); finally Ceauşescu allowed himself to be directed inside the Central Committee building by his underlings.


The jeers and whistles erupted into riot; the people fled the immediate location, but took to the streets, placing the capital, like Timişoara, in turmoil. Spontaneously, members of the crowd began shouting anti-communist and anti-Ceauşescu slogans, which spread and became chants: "Jos dictatorul!" ("Down with the dictator"), "Moarte criminalului!" ("Death to the murderer"), "Noi suntem poporul, jos cu dictatorul!" ("We are the People, down with the dictator"), "Ceauşescu cine eşti/Criminal din Scorniceşti" ("Ceauşescu, who are you? A murderer from Scorniceşti"). Eventually, protesters flooded the downtown, from Piaţa Kogălniceanu to Piaţa Unirii, Piaţa Rosetti and Piaţa Romană. On the statue of Mihai Viteazul on Boulevard Mihail Kogălniceanu in the University Square, a young man was waving a tricolour with the Communist coat of arms torn out of its center. ScorniceÅŸti is a town in Olt county, Romania with a population of 12,802. ... The park in the middle of the square and the Unirea Shopping Center in the background Aerial view of PiaÅ£a Unirii. ... PiaÅ£a Rosetti is a small square in the 2nd District of Bucharest, 5 minutes from PiaÅ£a Romană. It is named after former mayor, politician, and 1848 revolutionary C. A. Rosetti. ... The ASE building, as seen from PiaÅ£a Romană Magheru Boulevard, just south of PiaÅ£a Romană PiaÅ£a Romană (meaning Roman Square in Romanian) is a major traffic intersection in Sector 1, central Bucharest. ... Michael the Brave (Mihai Viteazul) was one of the greatest of Romanias national heroes. ... University Square is located in the downtown Bucharest, near the Bucharest University. ... French tricolour flag A tricolour is a flag or banner having three colours, usually in approximately equal size (horizontally or vertically) and lacking additional symbols. ...


As the hours passed, many more people took to the streets. Soon the protesters — unarmed and unorganized — were confronted by soldiers, tanks, TABs, USLA troops (Unitatea Specială pentru Lupta Antiteroristă, anti-terrorist special squads), and armed plain-clothes Securitate officers. The crowd was being shot at from various buildings, side streets and tanks. There were many deaths, by shooting, clubbing, stabbing, crushing by armored vehicles (one TAB drove into the crowd around the Intercontinental Hotel, crushing people — a French journalist, Jean Louis Calderon, was killed; a street near University Square was later named after him). Firefighters hit the demonstrators with powerful water jets and the police beat and arrested people. Protesters managed to build a defensible barricade in front of Dunărea ("Danube") restaurant, which stood until after midnight, but was finally torn apart by government forces. Intense, continuous shooting continued until after 3:00 a.m., by which time the survivors had fled the streets. TAB is a Romanian amphibious armored personnel carrier. ... Brigada Antiteroristă (the Counter-terrorist Brigade, BAT) is a tactical special operations unit of the Romanian Intelligence Service. ... The Securitate (Romanian for Security; official full name Departamentul Securităţii Statului, State Security Department), was the secret police force of Communist Romania. ...


Records of the fighting that day include footage shot from helicopters — sent to raid the area and to record evidence for eventual reprisals — as well as by tourists in the high tower of the centrally located Intercontinental Hotel, next to the National Theater and across the street from the University. InterContinental The Grand, New Delhi, 2006. ... National Theatre I. L. Caragiale, Bucharest The National Theatre Bucharest (Romanian: ) is the national theatre of Romania, located in the capital Bucharest. ...


It is likely that in the small hours of December 22, Ceauşescu must have thought that his desperate attempts to crush the protests had succeeded, because he apparently called another meeting for the next morning. However, before 7:00 a.m., his wife Elena received the bad news that large columns of workers from many industrial platforms (large communist-era factories or groups of factories concentrated into industrial zones) were heading towards downtown Bucharest. The police barricades that were meant to block access to Piaţa Universităţii (University Square) and Piaţa Palatului (Palace Square, now Piaţa Revoluţiei — Revolution Square) proved useless. By 9:30 a.m., University Square was jammed with people. Security forces (army, police and others) reentered the scene, but only to defect on the protesters' side; their motivation to do so remains a mystery to this day. It remains a matter of dispute whether army and other leaders turned against Ceauşescu out of sincere revulsion at his policies (as many later claimed) or simply out of sheer opportunism. December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... University Square is located in the downtown Bucharest, near the Bucharest University. ... Revolution Square (Romanian: PiaÅ£a RevoluÅ£iei) is a square in central Bucharest, on Calea Victoriei, named after the 1989 Romanian Revolution. ...


By 10 A.M., as the radio broadcast was announcing the introduction of martial law and of a ban on groups larger than 5 persons, hundreds of thousands of people were gathering for the first time from their own initiative in central Bucharest (the previous day's crowd had come together at Ceauşescu's orders). Ceauşescu attempted to address the crowd from the balcony of the Central Committee of the Communist Party building, but his attempt was met with a wave of disapproval and anger. Helicopters were spreading manifestos, which as a matter of fact didn't reach the crowd, due to unfavourable wind — instructing people not to fall victim to the latest "diversion attempts", but to go home instead and enjoy the Christmas feast.


On the morning of December 22, sometime between 9 a.m. and 11 a.m., Vasile Milea, Ceauşescu's minister of defense, died under very suspicious circumstances. A communiqué by Ceauşescu stated that Milea had been found to be a traitor and that he had committed suicide after his treason was revealed. The most widespread opinion at the time was that Milea was assassinated in response to his refusal to follow Ceauşescu's orders. In 2005 an investigation confirmed that the minister killed himself. It seems though that his intention was only to get incapacitated in order to be relieved from office but the bullet hit an artery and he died soon afterwards. December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Milea Vasile (d. ...


Learning that Milea had killed himself, Ceauşescu appointed Victor Stănculescu as Minister of Defense, who accepted after a brief hesitation. But Stănculescu ordered the troops back to their quarters without Ceauşescu's knowledge and moreover persuaded Ceauşescu to leave by helicopter and so to become a fugitive. By refusing to carry out Ceauşescu's repressive orders, Ceauşescu still being the commander-in-chief of the army, Stănculescu played a central role in the overthrow of the tyrant. "I had the prospect of two execution squads: Ceauşescu's and the revolutionary one!" confessed Stănculescu later. In the afternoon Stănculescu "chose" Iliescu's among other political groups which were striving for power in the aftermath.

Ceauşescu on trial

Ceauşescu and his wife Elena fled the capital city by helicopter, accompanied by two loyal collaborators, Emil Bobu and Tudor Postelnicu. They headed for Ceauşescu's Snagov residence, and from there further to Târgovişte. Near Târgovişte, at Boteni, they abandoned the helicopter, whose pilot claimed that he was ordered to land by the army. By that time, the army had closed the entire Romanian airspace. Hitchhiking a car, the Ceauşescus arrived in Târgovişte. After some wandering through the industrial outskirts of the town, the couple decided to enter a building near a local steel plant. An engineer called the police, who showed up in the form of a nearby traffic police unit who took the Ceauşescus and eventually got them to the local police headquarters, and then to the army barracks across the street. It was only here that the Ceauşescus were informed that they had actually been arrested. On December 25, Christmas Day, the two were sentenced to death by an ad hoc military court on a range of charges including genocide, and were executed by firing squad in Târgovişte. Footage of the trial and execution was promptly released in France and other western countries; an edited version (lacking footage of the actual execution) was released on television the same day for the Romanian public. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Ilfov county with Snagov commune highlighted Snagov (population: 6,041) is a commune, located 40 km north of Bucharest in Ilfov county, Romania. ... County DâmboviÅ£a County Status County capital Mayor Iulian Furcoiu, Social Democratic Party, since 2000 Population (2002) 89,429 Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or...


The New Regime

After Ceauşescu left, the crowds in Palace Square entered a celebratory mood, perhaps even more intense than in the other former Eastern Bloc countries because of the recent violence. People cried, shouted, and gave each other gifts. The occupation of the Central Committee building continued. People threw Ceauşescu's writings, official portraits, and propaganda books out the windows, intending to burn them. They also promptly ripped off the giant letters from the roof making up the word "communist" ("communist") in the slogan: "Trăiască Partidul Comunist Român!" ("Long live the Communist Party of Romania!"). A young woman appeared on the rooftop and waved a flag with the coat of arms torn or cut out.


At that time, fierce fights were underway at Bucharest Otopeni International Airport between troops sent one against another under claims that they were going to confront terrorists. According to a book by Ceauşescu's bodyguard, Securitate Lieutenant Colonel Dumitru Burlan, the generals who were part of the conspiracy led by general Victor Stănculescu were trying to create fictional terrorism scenarios in order to induce fear and to push the army onto the side of the plotters. Henri Coandă International Airport (Romanian: Aeroportul InternaÅ£ional Henri Coandă) (IATA: OTP, ICAO: LROP) is the largest airport in Romania, as well as one of two airports serving Bucharest (The other airport is Băneasa Aurel Vlaicu International Airport). ... Dumitru Burlan (b. ...


However, the seizure of power by the new political structure National Salvation Front (FSN), which "emanated" from the second echelon of the Communist Party with help of the plotting generals, was not yet complete. Forces considered to be loyal to the old regime (spontaneously nicknamed "terrorists") opened fire on the crowd and attacked vital points of socio-political life: the television, radio, and telephone buildings, as well as Casa Scânteii (the center of the nation's print media, which serves a similar role today under the name Casa Presei Libere, "House of the Free Press") and the post office in the district of Drumul Taberei; Piaţa Palatului (site of the Central Committee building, but also of the central university library, the national art museum, and the Ateneul Român, Bucharest's leading concert hall); the university and the adjoining Piaţa Universităţii (one of the city's main intersections); Otopeni and Băneasa airports; hospitals, and the Ministry of Defence. The National Salvation Front (in Romanian, Frontul Salvării NaÅ£ionale, FSN) was the governing body of Romania in the first weeks after the Romanian Revolution of 1989, subsequently turned into a political party. ... Casa Presei Libere, as seen from Herăstrău Casa Presei Libere is a building in northern Bucharest, Romania. ... The Romanian Athenaeum (Romanian Ateneu Român, definite article form Ateneul Român) in the center of Bucharest, Romania. ...


During the night of December 2223, Bucharest residents remained on the streets, especially in the attacked zones, fighting (and ultimately winning, even at the cost of many lives) a battle with an elusive and dangerous enemy. With military now on both sides, true battles ensued, with real casualties. At 9:00 p.m. on December 23, tanks and a few paramilitary units arrived to protect the Palace of the Republic. December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Meanwhile, messages of support were flooding in from all over the world: the U. S. (president George H. W. Bush); the USSR (president Mikhail Gorbachev); Hungary (the Hungarian Socialist Party); the new East German government (at that time the two Germanys were not yet formally reunited); Bulgaria (Petar Mladenov, general-secretary of the Communist Party of Bulgaria); Czechoslovakia (Ladislav Adamec, leader of the Czechoslovak Communist Party, and Václav Havel, the dissident writer, revolution leader and future president of the Republic); China (the Minister of Foreign Affairs); France (president François Mitterrand); West Germany (foreign minister Hans Dietrich Genscher); NATO (secretary-general Manfred Wörner); the United Kingdom (Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher); Spain; Austria; the Netherlands; Italy; Portugal; Japan (the Communist Party of Japan); and the Moldavian SSR. George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; born March 2, 1931) is a Russian politician. ... GDR redirects here. ... Petar Toshev Mladenov (Bulgarian: ) (August 22, 1936 - May 31, 2000) was a Bulgarian communist diplomat and politician. ... Ladislav Adamec was a Czechoslovakian Communist political figure. ... Václav Havel, GCB, CC, (IPA: ) (born October 5, 1936 in Prague) is a Czech writer and dramatist. ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) was President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... Hans-Dietrich Genscher (Born March 21, 1927) is a German politician with the FDP and a long-serving Foreign Minister of Germany. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Manfred Wörner (born September 24, 1934 in Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt; died August 13, 1994 in Brussels) was a German politician and diplomat. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC (born October 13, 1925), former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, in office from 1979 to 1990. ... State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ...


In the following days moral support was followed by material support. Large quantities of food, medicine, clothing, medical equipment, etc., were sent to Romania. Around the world, the press dedicated entire pages and sometimes even complete issues to the Romanian revolution and its leaders.


On December 24, Bucharest was a city at war. Tanks, APCs, and trucks continued to go on patrol around the city and to surround trouble spots in order to protect them. At intersections near strategic objectives, roadblocks were built; automatic gunfire continued in and around Piaţa Universităţii, the Gara de Nord (the city's main railroad station), and Piaţa Palatului. "Terrorist activities" continued until December 27, when they abruptly stopped. is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ...


Aftermath

Main article: History of Romania since 1989

The Revolution brought Romania vast attention from the outside world. Initially, much of the world's sympathy inevitably went to the National Salvation Front government under Ion Iliescu, a former member of the Communist Party leadership and a Ceausescu ally prior to falling into the dictator's disgrace in the early 1980s. The National Salvation Front, composed mainly of former members of the second echelon of the Communist Party, immediately assumed control over the state institutions, including the main media outlets, such as the national radio and television networks. They used their control of the media in order to launch virulent propaganda-style attacks against their new political opponents, the traditional democratic parties, which re-emerged after more than 50 years of underground activity. // 1989 marked the fall of Communism in Eastern Europe. ... Ion Iliescu (born March 3, 1930) is a Romanian politician. ...


Much of that sympathy was squandered during the Mineriad of January 1990 when miners and police, responding to Iliescu's appeals, invaded Bucharest and brutalized students and intellectuals who protested what they described as the hijacking of the Romanian revolution by former members of the communist leadership under the auspices of the National Salvation Front, in an attempt to suppress any genuine political opposition. A Mineriad (Mineriada in Romanian) is the parody term used to name any of the successive violent interventions of miners in Bucharest. ...


In May 1990, partly due to the National Salvation Front's use of the media and of the partly preserved Communist-Party infrastructure to silence the democratic opposition, Ion Iliescu became Romania's first elected president after the revolution with a majority of 85%. These elections have been condemned as un-democratic by both Romanian traditional parties and by the western media.[citation needed] Ion Iliescu (born March 3, 1930) is a Romanian politician. ...

The Memorial of Rebirth, erected in 2005 to commemorate the dead of the Romanian Revolution of 1989

Ion Iliescu remained the central figure in Romanian politics for more than a decade, being re-elected for the third time in 2000, after a term out of power between 1996–2000. The survival of Ceauşescu’s former ally demonstrated the ambiguity of the Romanian revolution, at once the most violent in 1989 and yet one that, according to some, did not cause enough change. Iliescu’s protégé and successor at the head of the ruling ex-communist Social Democratic Party, Adrian Năstase, was defeated by Justice and Truth coalition candidate Traian Băsescu in the 2004 presidential elections. In 2005, the Memorial of Rebirth was inaugurated to commemorate the victims of the Revolution. Image File history File links Bucharest_Revolution_Monument. ... Image File history File links Bucharest_Revolution_Monument. ... The Memorial of Rebirth (Memorialul RenaÅŸterii in Romanian) is a memorial in Bucharest, Romania that commemorates the struggles and victims of the Romanian Revolution of 1989, which overthrew Communism. ... Ion Iliescu (born March 3, 1930) is a Romanian politician. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Adrian Năstase (born June 22, 1950) is a Romanian politician who was the Prime Minister of Romania from December 2000 to December 2004. ... Justice and Truth (in Romanian Dreptate ÅŸi Adevăr, or D.A. for short) is a political alliance comprising two political parties in Romania: the centre-right liberal National Liberal Party (PNL) and the centre-left reformist Democratic Party (PD). ... Traian Băsescu (born November 4, 1951) is a Romanian politician and former Merchant Navy officer. ... A presidential election was held in Romania on November 28, 2004. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Memorial of Rebirth (Memorialul RenaÅŸterii in Romanian) is a memorial in Bucharest, Romania that commemorates the struggles and victims of the Romanian Revolution of 1989, which overthrew Communism. ...


Controversy

To this day, there is some controversy about what may have been going on behind the scenes. At what point did which leaders of the army and police abandon Ceauşescu? Had they merely decided that Ceauşescu had become a liability, or did they genuinely want deeper change? How long before taking power on December 22, 1989 did the National Salvation Front (FSN — Frontul Salvării Naţionale), composed entirely of figures from the old regime, begin organizing itself and to what degree? Some conjecture that the formation may date back as far as 1982. December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The National Salvation Front (in Romanian, Frontul Salvării NaÅ£ionale, FSN) was the governing body of Romania in the first weeks after the Romanian Revolution of 1989, subsequently turned into a political party. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ...


The identity of the "terrorists", Forces considered to be loyal to the old regime (spontaneously nicknamed "terrorists") who opened fire on the crowd and attacked vital points of socio-political life, remains a mystery to this day. No person has ever been officially charged with committing acts of "terrorism", and this fact has raised many suspicions concerning the relationship between the "terrorists" and the new government.


There are several conflicting views on the events in Bucharest that led to the fall of Ceauşescu in 1989. One view is that a portion of the Romanian Communist Party CPEx (Political Executive Council) tried and failed to bring about a scenario similar to that in the rest of the Eastern bloc Communist countries, where the Communist leadership would resign en masse, allowing a new government to emerge peacefully. Another view is that a group of military officers successfully staged a conspiracy against Ceauşescu. Several officers have claimed that they had been part of a conspiracy directed against Ceauşescu, but evidence beyond their own claims is scant, at best. The latter view is buttressed by a series of interviews given 2003–2004 by former Securitate Lieutenant Colonel Dumitru Burlan, Ceauşescu’s long-time bodyguard. The two theories are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Dumitru Burlan (b. ...


In November 1989, Ceauşescu had visited Mikhail Gorbachev, who asked him to resign: Ceauşescu flatly refused. The question of a possible resignation arose again on 17 December 1989, when Ceauşescu assembled the CPEx (Political Executive Council) to decide upon the necessary measures to crush the Timişoara uprising. Although meeting minutes were taken, and were presented at the trial of several CPEx members, the surviving stenograma (minutes) at the time of the trial were frustratingly incomplete: pages were missing, including the discussion of a possible resignation. Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; born March 2, 1931) is a Russian politician. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


According to the testimony of CPEx members Paul Niculescu-Mizil and Ion Dincă during their trial, at this meeting, just like in Bulgaria and East Germany, two of the members of CPEx disagreed with the use of force to suppress the uprising. In response, Ceauşescu offered his resignation, and asked the members of CPEx to elect another leader. However, other members of CPEx, including Gheorghe Oprea and Constantin Dăscălescu asked Ceauşescu not to resign, but to sack those two who opposed his decisions instead. Later that day, Ceauşescu left Romania to visit Iran, leaving the task of resolving the uprising of Timişoara to his wife and other acolytes.[3][4] Ion Dincă (1928 - January 9, 2007) was a Romanian communist politician and army general who served as Deputy Prime Minister and Mayor of Bucharest. ... GDR redirects here. ... Constantin Dăscălescu [kon-stant-een dehs-keh-les-koo] (1923 - 16 May 2003) was a Romanian politician that served as a Prime Minister of Romania (21 May 1982 - 22 December 1989) during the communist rule of Nicolae CeauÅŸescu until the 1989 Romanian Revolution. ...


According to one of the recent insider memoirs, following the Timişoara uprising, a group of conspiring Securitate generals took advantage of this opportunity to launch a coup in Bucharest. The coup, allegedly in preparation since 1982, was originally planned for the New Year’s Eve, but it had to be redesigned on-the-move, so as to take advantage of the favourable developments. The lead-conspirator, General Victor Stănculescu, was part of Ceauşescu’s inner circle and he is said to have convinced the dictator to hold the mass rally in front of the Central Committee building, in a plaza that had already been prepared with remote-controlled automatic guns. During Ceauşescu's address, the remote-controlled automatic guns were set to fire randomly over the crowd while agitators would use bullhorns to instigate the crowd with anti-Ceauşescu slogans. The Securitate (Romanian for Security; official full name Departamentul Securităţii Statului, State Security Department), was the secret police force of Communist Romania. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ...


At one point there was a battle over Otopeni Airport near Bucharest where each side apparently thought the other was fighting on behalf of Ceauşescu. This led to the question of who was shooting at whom, and which side did they think they were serving?


For several months after the events of December 1989, it was widely argued that Ion Iliescu and the FSN had merely taken advantage of the chaos to stage a coup. While, ultimately, a great deal did change in Romania, it is still very contentious among Romanians and other observers as to whether this was their intent from the outset, or merely pragmatic playing of the cards they were dealt. What is clear is that by December 1989 Ceauşescu's harsh and counterproductive economic and political policies had cost him the support of many government officials and even the most loyal Communist Party cadres, most of whom joined forces with the popular revolution or simply refused to support him. This loss of support from regime officials ultimately set the stage for Ceauşescu's demise. Ion Iliescu (born March 3, 1930) is a Romanian politician. ...


There are also many conspiracy theories about the roles of organizations such as the CIA and KGB and their involvement in the revolution.


Bibliography

  • Ştefănescu, Domniţa Cinci ani din Istoria României ("Five years in the history of Romania"), 1995. Maşina de Scris, Bucharest.
  • The series of 3 articles in the Romanian newspaper Adevărul, 2003 (see archives) entitled "Eu am fost sosia lui Nicolae Ceauşescu" ("I was Ceauşescu’s double"). These are about Col. Dumitru Burlan, who also wrote a book Dupa 14 ani — Sosia lui Ceauşescu se destăinuie ("After 14 Years — The Double of Ceauşescu confesses"). Editura Ergorom, July 31, 2003. (All in Romanian.)
  • Viorel Patrichi, "Eu am fost sosia lui Nicolae Ceauşescu" ("I was Ceauşescu's double"), Lumea Magazin Nr 12, 2001 (in Romanian)
  • Marian Oprea, "Au trecut 15 ani — Conspiraţia Securităţii" ("After 15 years — the conspiracy of Securitate"), Lumea Magazin Nr 10, 2004: (in Romanian; link leads to table of contents, verifying that the article exists, but the article itself is not online).
  • Victor Stanculescu, "Nu vă fie milă, au 2 miliarde de lei în cont" "Show no mercy, they have two billion lei [33 million U.S. dollars] in their bank account") in Jurnalul Naţional) Nov 22, 2004 (in Romanian)
  • —, "Sinucidere - un termen acoperitor pentru crimă" ("Suicide - a term to cover up a crime") in Jurnalul Naţional (retrieved from web site December 30, 2004; no date indicated for original publication); on the death of Vasile Milea. (in Romanian)
  • Nicolae Ceauşescu’s speech, condemning the protests of Timişoara, broadcast on December 20, 1989 (in Romanian)
  • Mark Almond, Uprising: Political Upheavals that have Shaped the World, 2002. Mitchell Beazley, London.
  • Marius Mioc, Revoluţia din Timişoara, aşa cum a fost, 1997, Brumar Publishing House, Timişoara (in Romanian)
  • Marius Mioc, The anticommunist Romanian Revolution of 1989, Marineasa Publishing House, Timişoara 2002
  • Siani-Davies, Peter (2005 (2007)). The Romanian Revolution of December 1989. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-4245-1, hardcover (ISBN 978-0-8014-7389-0, paperback). 

Adevărul (The Truth) is a Romanian broadsheet newspaper, based in Bucharest. ... Dumitru Burlan (b. ... For the Moldovan currency, see Moldovan leu. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Jurnalul Naţional. ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  1. ^ Revolution, Timisoara.
  2. ^ Marius Mioc, Revoluţia din Timişoara aşa cum fost, 1997.
  3. ^ Jurnalul.
  4. ^ Cafe Neaua.

See also

The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... The 1987 Rebellion of BraÅŸov was a revolt against Nicolae CeauÅŸescus economic policies. ... Books about the Romanian Revolution of 1989. ... Films about the Romanian Revolution of 1989. ...

External links

For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Gouzenko wearing his white hood for anonymity Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko (January 13, 1919, Rogachev, Soviet Union – June 28, 1982, Mississauga, Canada) was a cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. ... The Iran crisis an international crisis concerning Iran in 1946. ... Combatants Kuomintang of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War (Traditional... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans, British troops Communist guerillas (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Greek: ) was fought between 1946 and... Restatement of Policy on Germany is a famous speech by James F. Byrnes, then United States Secretary of State, held in Stuttgart on September 6, 1946. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... During World War II, Czechoslovakia disappeared from the map of Europe. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Informbiro. ... Occupation zones after 1945. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Viet Minh Commanders Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4) Ho Chi Minh Vo Nguyen... Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953. ... Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ... Taiwan Strait The First Taiwan Strait Crisis (also called the 1954-1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis) was a short armed conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments. ... PoznaÅ„ crosses commemorating the PoznaÅ„ 1956 protests and subsequent Polish protests against the communist political system. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian Revolution... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA 2... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ... Taiwan Strait The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments in which the PRC was accused by Taiwan of shelling the islands of Matsu and... The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements in the country. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... Combatants Congo ONUC Cuba Belgium Katanga South Kasai Commanders Patrice Lumumba Pierre Mulele Laurent-Désiré Kabila Che Guevara Moise Tshombe Joseph Mobutu Mike Hoare Albert Kalonji Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo (1908–1960) Congo Crisis First Republic... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... The U–2 Crisis of 1960 occurred when an American U–2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. ... Combatants Cubans trained by Soviet advisers Cuban exiles trained by the United States Commanders Fidel Castro José Ramón Fernández Ernesto Che Guevara Francisco Ciutat de Miguel Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 51,000 1,500 Casualties various estimates; over 1,600 dead (Triay p. ... President Kennedy in a crowded Cabinet Room during the Cuban Missile Crisis. ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Combatants Republic of Angola, Republic of Cuba, SWAPO, USSR, GDR, Republic of Zambia Republic of South Africa, UNITA Scope of operations Operational Area: The South African Border War The South African Border War refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West Africa (now Namibia... The overthrow of Sukarno and the violence that followed it was a conflict in Indonesia from 1965 to 1966 between forces loyal to then-President Sukarno and the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) and forces loyal to a right-wing military faction led by General Abdul Haris Nasution and Maj. ... ASEAN Declaration or Bangkok Declaration is the founding document of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). ... Combatants Kingdom of Laos, United States, Thailand, and various guerilla armies. ... The Phoenix rising from its flames and the silhouette of the soldier bearing a rifle with fixed bayonet was the emblem of the Junta. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Combatants People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Mao Tse-Tung Leonid Brezhnev Strength 814,000 658,000 Casualties 800 killed, 620 wounded, 1 lost [1] 58 killed, 94 wounded [2] The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 was a series of armed clashes between the Soviet Union and... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Combatants Khmer Republic, United States, Republic of Vietnam Khmer Rouge, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) Strength ~250,000 FANK troops ~100,000 (60,000) Khmer Rouge Casualties ~600,000 dead, 1,000,000+ wounded[1] The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict that pitted... Three-Time World Mens Singles Champion Zhuang Zedong (left) and U.S. team member Glenn Cowan (right) on the Chinese team bus in Nagoya, Japan, 1971. ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... Richard Nixon (right) meets with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Jordan  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... Combatants MPLA SWAPO Republic of Cuba U.S.S.R. AAF Mozambique[1] UNITA FNLA COMIRA Portugal Republic of South Africa Republic of Zaire U.S.A. France Commanders José Eduardo dos Santos Jonas Savimbi Casualties Civilians killed = hundreds of thousands The Angolan Civil War was a conflict that devastated... The Mozambican Civil War started in Mozambique during the 1970s following independence in 1975. ... Combatants Ethiopia Cuba South Yemen Somalia WSLF Commanders Mengistu Haile Mariam Vasily Petrov[1][2] Siad Barre Strength 217,000 Ethiopians 1,500 Soviet advisors 15,000 Cubans 2,000 South Yemenis SNA 60,000 WSLF 15,000 Casualties Unknown 20,000 killed or wounded 1/2 of the Air... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Soviet Union, Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (Parcham) Afghan and foreign Mujahideen rebels supported by nations such as: United States, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Iran, Egypt, China United Kingdom Commanders Soviet forces only Pavel Grachev, Boris Gromov, Valentin Varennikov Abdul Haq, Jalaluddin Haqqani, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, Mohammed Khalis, Ismail Khan, Ahmad Shah... TIME magazine cover depicting Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa and the Solidarity movement shaking up communism shows that Solidarity received wide international recognition. ... Beginning in the late 1970s, major civil wars erupted in the Central American region, and became one of the major foreign policy crises of the 1980s. ... Able Archer 83 was a ten-day NATO exercise starting on November 2, 1983 that spanned the continent of Europe and simulated a coordinated nuclear release. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... Combatants United States Antigua and Barbuda Barbados Dominica Jamaica Saint Lucia Saint Vincent & the Grenadines Grenada Cuba Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: 600 (mostly engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2] Grenada: 45 military and at least 24 civilian deaths; 358 wounded. ... East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, November 20, 1961. ... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... Senator John W. Bricker, the sponsor of the proposed constitutional amendment to limit the treaty power of the United States government. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Participating countries of the Operation Condor; in pink those with partial participation (i. ... Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... // Browder, Golos and Peters By the mid to late 1920s, there were three elements of Soviet power operating in the United States, despite the absence of formal diplomatic relations, the Comintern, military intelligence or GRU, and the forerunner of the KGB, the GPU. The Comintern was the dominant arm, though... The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an intelligence agency of the United States government. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The KGB emblem and motto: The sword and the shield KGB (transliteration of КГБ) is the Russian-language abbreviation for Committee for State Security, (Russian: ; Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti). ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... The term arms race in its original usage describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... For a list of key events, see Timeline of space exploration. ... Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are all or mostly privately[1][2] owned and operated for profit, and in which investments, distribution, income, production and pricing of goods and services are determined through the operation of a free market. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Joseph Stalin Stalinism is the political and economic system named after Joseph Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it... The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could only occur if both states fully recognised each others sovereignty. ... The Carter Doctrine was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on 23 January 1980. ... Containment refers to the foreign policy strategy of the United States in the early years of the Cold War in which it was to stop what it called the domino effect of nations moving politically towards Soviet Union-based communism, rather than European-American-based capitalism. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to Congress on January 5, 1957, was the foreign policy of US President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his term in office between 1961 and 1963. ... The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed during the Cold War among Communist states that they could peacefully coexist with capitalist states. ... The Reagan Doctrine was an important Cold War strategy by the United States to oppose the influence of the Soviet Union by backing anti-communist guerrillas against the communist governments of Soviet-backed client states. ... Rollback was a term used by American foreign policy thinkers during the Cold War. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... Although the Cold War can be considered to have begun in 1947, the timeline also lists important dates in the origins of the Cold War. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Romanian Revolution of 1989 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3840 words)
The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was a week-long series of riots and protests in late December of 1989 that overthrew the Communist regime of Nicolae Ceauşescu.
While the Romanian Revolution was unfolding, other Central and Eastern European nations were peacefully making the transition to non-communist, multiparty democracy; Romania was the only Eastern Bloc country to violently overthrow its Communist regime or to execute its leaders.
In 2005, the Memorial of Rebirth was inaugurated to commemorate the victims of the Revolution.
Revolution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1093 words)
A political revolution is the forcible replacement of one set of rulers with another (as happened in France and Russia), while a social revolution is the fundamental change in the social structure of a society, such as the Protestant Reformation or the Renaissance.
Social and political revolutions are often "institutionalised" when the ideas, slogans, and personalities of the revolution continue to play a prominent role in a country's political culture, long after the revolution's end.
The Belgian Revolution was a conflict in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands that began with a riot in Brussels in August 1830 and eventually led to the establishment of an independent, Catholic and neutral Belgium
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m