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Encyclopedia > Romani people
Roma
Flag of the Romani people
Total population

15 million or more Image File history File links Roma_flag. ... Roma flag The Romani flag (O styago le romengo in Romani) is the international flag of the Romani people. ...

Regions with significant populations
 Albania Disputed: 1,300 to 120,000 [61]
 Argentina 300,000 [62]
 Brazil 678,000 [63]
 Bulgaria Disputed: 370,908 (official census) to 750,000 [64]
 Canada 80,000 [65]
 Czech Republic Disputed: 12,000
or 220,000
[66]

[67] Image File history File links Flag_of_Albania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ...

 Colombia 79,000 [68]
 France 280,000-340,000 [69]
 Germany 110,000-130,000 [70]
 Greece Disputed: 200,000
or 300,000–350,000
[71]

[72] Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ...

 Hungary Disputed: 189,984
or 500,000
[73]
 Iran 110,000 [74]
 Italy 90,000-110,000 [75]
 Rep. Macedonia Disputed: 53,879
to 260,000
[76]
 Romania Disputed:
Official census: 535,250
UNDP et al.:
1,800,000–2,500,000
[77]
 Russia Disputed: 183,000
to 400,000
[78]
 Serbia Disputed: 108,193
to 500,000
[79]
 Slovakia Disputed: 92,500 or 550.000[80] [81]
 Spain 600,000 to 800,000 [82]
 Turkey Disputed:
300,000 to 5 million
[54]
 United Kingdom 44,000–94,000+ [83]
 United States 1 million [84]
. more countries
Languages
Romani, languages of native region
Religions
Christianity, Islam
Related ethnic groups
South Asians (Desi)

The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. The Roma are among the best known ethnic groups that appear in literature and folklore, and are often referred to as Gypsies or Gipsies, a term that is nowadays generally considered pejorative and is based on a mistaken belief of an origin in Egypt[1]. The Roma are still thought of as wandering nomads in the popular imagination, despite the fact that today the vast majority live in permanent housing.[2] This widely dispersed ethnic group lives across the world not only near their historic heartland in Southern and Eastern Europe, but also in the American continent and the Middle East. Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the largest multilateral source of grant technical assistance in the world. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 9th century   -  First unified state c. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... ^ http://www. ... Romani (or Romany) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, peoples often referred to in English as Gypsies. The Indo-Aryan Romani language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... This article is about the South Asian people. ... In English, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... Southern Europe is a region of the European continent. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...

Contents

Population

Worldwide there is an estimated population of at least 15 million Roma[3]. The official number of Romani people is disputed in many countries, because many Roma often refuse to register their ethnic identity for fear of discrimination [4], determining parallel unofficial censuses, surveys and estimations in order to reveal the true numbers. The largest population of Roma is found on the Balkan peninsula; however, significant numbers also live in the Americas, the former Soviet Union, Western Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ...


The Roma recognize divisions among themselves based in part on territorial, cultural and dialectal differences. Some authorities[citation needed] recognize five main groups: A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ...

  1. Kalderash are the most numerous, traditionally coppersmiths, from the Balkans, many of whom migrated to central Europe and North America;
  2. Gitanos (also called Calé) mostly in the Iberian Peninsula, North Africa, and southern France; associated with entertainment;
  3. Sinti mostly in Alsace and other regions of France and Germany (Other experts, and Sinti themselves, insist that Sinti are not a subgroup of Roma but rather a separate ethnic group which also had Indian origins and a history of nomadism);
  4. Romnichal (Rom'nies) mainly in Britain and North America; and
  5. Erlides (also known as Yerlii or Arli) settled in southeastern Europe and Turkey.

Some groups, like the Finnish Roma population (Kaalee) and the Norwegian and Swedish Travellers, are hard to categorize. Each of these main divisions may be further divided into two or more subgroups distinguished by occupational specialization or territorial origin, or both. Some of these group names are: Machvaya (Machwaya), Lovari, Churari, Rudari, Boyash, Ludar, Luri, Xoraxai, Ungaritza, Bashaldé, Ursari and Romungro. they are the most conservative and compact copact Roma community. ... A smith, or metalsmith, is a person involved in the shaping of metal objects. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... It has been suggested that Roma in Spain be merged into this article or section. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Sinti or Sinte (Singular masc. ... (New region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² (??? mi) km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... {{ Haute-Normandie ... Romnichal or Romanichal is the name by which groups of Romani people (often known as Gypsies) found in some parts of the United Kingdom, notably England, are called in their own language, Anglo-Romany. ... The Norwegian and Swedish Travellers are a group or branch of the Romani people (also known as Roma people, Romanies or Gypsies) in Norway and Sweden. ... The Machvaya (also Machavaya) are a group of Romany originating specifically from Serbia. ... Lovari is a subgroup of the Romani people, who speak their own dialect, influenced by Hungarian. ... Boyash (or Bayash) (Romanian: BăeÅŸi, Hungarian: Beás, Adjacent Slavic languages: BojaÅ¡i) are a Roma ethnic group living in Romania, in Southern Hungary, Balkans, but also in Americas and Australia. ... Boyash (also known as Bayash; Hungarian: Beás) are a Roma (Gypsy) ethnic group living mainly in Hungary. ... Luri is a dialect of Persian language. ... The Ursari (from the Romanian Urs, meaning bear) are bear trainers, of the Manush nation of Gypsy. ... The Carpathian Romany language is an Indo-European language, spoken in the Czech Republic (220 000 speakers), Hungary (3 000), Poland, Romania, Slovakia (220 000) and Ukraine. ...


Origins

The absence of a written history has meant that the origin and early history of the Romani people was long an enigma. As early as 200 years ago, cultural anthropologists hypothesised an Indian origin of the Roma based on linguistic evidence[5]. Genetic data confirms this.


The Roma are believed to have originated in the Punjab and Rajasthan regions of the Indian subcontinent. They began their migration to Europe and North Africa via the Iranian plateau around 1050.[6] Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... North Africa is the Mediterranean, northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east Iranian plateau is both a geographical area of South or West Asia, home of ancient civilizations[1], and a geological area of Eurasia north of the great folded mountain belts...


Linguistic evidence

Gipsy Encampment - facsimile of a copperplate by Callot.

Until the mid-late eighteenth century, theories of the origin of the Roma amounted to speculation. Then in 1782, Johann Christian Christoph Rüdiger published his research that pointed out the relationship between the Romani language and Hindustani[7]. Subsequent work supported the hypothesis that Romani shared a common origin with the Indo-Aryan languages of Northern India[8], with Romani grouping most closely with Sinhalese in a recent study[9]. Download high resolution version (2558x1542, 191 KB)Gipsy Encampment. ... Download high resolution version (2558x1542, 191 KB)Gipsy Encampment. ... Romani (or Romany) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, peoples often referred to in English as Gypsies. The Indo-Aryan Romani language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages. ... The word Hindustani is an adjective used to denote a connection to India, or, more precisely, the historical region that encompasses Northern India, Pakistan, and nearby areas. ... Sinhalese or Sinhala (සිංහල, ISO 15919: , IPA: [], earlier referred to as Singhalese) is the mother tongue of the Sinhalese, the largest ethnic group of Sri Lanka. ...


The majority of historians accepted this as evidence of an Indian origin for the Roma, but some maintained that the Roma acquired the language through contact with Indian merchants[10].


Genetic evidence

Further evidence for the Indian origin of the Roma came in the late 1990s when it was discovered that Roma populations carried large frequencies of particular Y chromosomes (inherited paternally) and mitochondrial DNA (inherited maternally) that otherwise only exist in populations from South Asia. The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ... Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...


47.3% of Roma men carry Y chromosomes of haplogroup H-M82 which is otherwise rare outside of the Indian subcontinent[11]. Mitochondrial haplogroup M, most common in Indian subjects and rare outside of Southern Asia, accounts for nearly 30% of Roma people[12]. A more detailed study of Polish Roma shows this to be of the M5 lineage, which is specific to India[13]. Moreover, a form of the inherited disorder congenital myasthenia is carried by around 4% of the Roma population. This form of the disorder, caused by the 1267delG mutation, is otherwise only known in subjects of Indian ancestry[14]. In human genetics, Haplogroup H (M52) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup M is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... Myasthenia gravis (sometimes abbreviated MG; from the Greek myastheneia, lit. ...


This is considered unambiguous proof that all Roma are descended from a single founding population, originating from the Indian subcontinent around 40 generations ago, which subsequently split into the subgroups we see today[15].


History

First arrival of the Roma outside Berne in the 15th century, described by the chronicler as getoufte heiden ("baptized heathens") and drawn with dark skin and wearing Saracen-style clothing and weapons (Spiezer Schilling, p. 749).

Linguistic and genetic evidence indicates the Roma originated from the Indian subcontinent.[13] The cause of the Roma diaspora is unknown. However, the most probable situation is that the Roma were part of the military in Northern India. When there were repeated raids by Mahmud of Ghazni and these soldiers were defeated, they were moved west with their families into the Byzantine Empire. This occurred between 1000 and 1050 AD. This departure date is assumed because, linguistically speaking, the Romani language is a New Indo-Aryan language (NIA), it has only two genders (masculine and feminine). Until around the year 1000, the Indo-Aryan languages, named Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA) had three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter). By the turn of the 2nd millennium they changed into the NIA phase, losing the neuter gender. Most of the neuter nouns became masculine while a few feminine, like the neuter अग्नि (agni) in the Prakrit became the feminine आग (āg) in Hindi and jag in Romani. The parallels in grammatical gender evolution between Romani and other NIA languages is proposed to prove that the change occurred in the Subcontinent. It is therefore not considered possible that the Romas' ancestors left there prior to 1000. They then stayed in the Byzantine Empire for several hundred years. However, the Muslim expansion, mainly made by the Seljuk Turks, into the Byzantine Empire recommenced the movement of the Romani people.[16] The Romani people, also referred to as the Roma or Gypsies, are an ethnic group who live primarily in Europe. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (555x674, 84 KB) Spiezer Schilling p. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (555x674, 84 KB) Spiezer Schilling p. ... For other uses, see Berne (disambiguation). ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... In older Western historical literature, the Saracens were the people of the Saracen Empire, another name for the Arab Caliphate under the rule of the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties. ... Spiezer Schilling (or Amtliche Chronik) is a chronicle of Diebold Schilling the Elder of Berne (1480s). ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ... Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... Middle Indo-Aryan refers to a stage (c. ... The Seljuqs (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuk, sometimes also Seljuq Turks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian: á¹¢aljÅ«qÄ«yān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ...


Many historians believe that the Muslim conquerors of northern India took the Roma as slaves and marched them home over the unforgiving terrain of Central Asia, taking great tolls on the population and thereby giving rise to such designations as the Hindu Kush mountains of present-day Pakistan and Afghanistan. Mahmud of Ghazni reportedly took 500,000 prisoners during a Turkish/Persian invasion of Sindh and Punjab. Others suggest the Roma were originally low-caste Hindus recruited into an army of mercenaries, granted warrior caste status, and sent westward to resist Islamic military expansion. In either case, upon arrival, they became a distinct community. Why the Roma did not return to India, choosing instead to travel west into Europe, is an enigma, but may relate to military service under the Muslims. Slavery as an institution in Mediterranean cultures of the ancient world comprised a mixture of debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime, and the enslavement of prisoners of war. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social restriction and social stratification, enforced by law or common practice, based on endogamy, occupation, economic status, race, ethnicity, etc. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Mercenary (disambiguation). ... A Kshatriya is a member of the military or reigning order, according to the law-code of Manu the second ranking caste of the Indian varna system of four castes, the first being the Brahmin or priestly caste, the third the Vaishya or mercantile caste and the lowest the Shudra. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Look up enigma in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Contemporary scholars have suggested that one of the first written references to the Roma, under the term "Atsinganoi", (Greek), dates from the Byzantine era during a time of famine in the 9th century. In 800 AD, Saint Athanasia gave food to "foreigners called the Atsinganoi" near Thrace. Later, in 803 AD, Theophanes the Confessor wrote that Emperor Nikephoros I had the help of the "Atsinganoi" to put down a riot with their "knowledge of magic". Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Saint Theophanes the Confessor (about 758/760, Constantinople - March 17, 817 or 818, Samothrace) was an aristocratic but ascetic Byzantine monk and chronicler. ... Nicephorus I and his son and successor, Stauracius. ...


"Atsingani" was used to refer to itinerant fortune tellers, ventriloquists and wizards who visited the Emperor Constantine IX in the year 1054.[17] The hagiographical text, The Life of St. George the Anchorite, mentions that the "Atsingani" were called on by Constantine to help rid his forests of the wild animals which were killing off his livestock. They are later described as sorcerers and evildoers and accused of trying to poison the Emperor's favorite hound. Ventriloquist Edgar Bergen and his best-known sidekick, Charlie McCarthy. ... Mosaic of Constantine IX and Empress Zoe Constantine IX Monomachus (c. ... Hagiography is the study of saints. ...


In 1322 a Franciscan monk named Simon Simeonis described people resembling these "atsinganoi" living in Crete and in 1350 Ludolphus of Sudheim mentioned a similar people with a unique language whom he called Mandapolos, a word which some theorize was possibly derived from the Greek word mantes (meaning prophet or fortune teller).[18] The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... St. ... For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... In religion, a prophet (or prophetess) is a person who has directly encountered the numinous or the divine and serves as an intermediary with humanity. ... Categories: Stub ...


Around 1360, an independent Romani fiefdom (called the Feudum Acinganorum) was established in Corfu and became "a settled community and an important and established part of the economy."[19] Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of inheritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a form of allegiance, originally to give him the means to fulfill his military duties when called upon. ... Pontikonisi island in the background with the Vlaheraina Monastery in the foreground. ...


By the 14th century, the Roma had reached the Balkans; by 1424, Germany; and by the 16th century, Scotland and Sweden. Some Roma migrated from Persia through North Africa, reaching Europe via Spain in the 15th century. The two currents met in France. Roma began immigrating to the United States in colonial times, with small groups in Virginia and French Louisiana. Larger-scale immigration began in the 1860s, with groups of Romnichal from Britain. The largest number immigrated in the early 1900s, mainly from the Vlax group of Kalderash. Many Roma also settled in Latin America. This article is about the country. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,774 sq mi (110,785 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... Flag In 1803, the United States concluded the Louisiana Purchase (green area) with France. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...

Romani people in Sliven, Bulgaria

When the Romani people arrived in Europe, curiosity was soon followed by hostility and xenophobia. Roma were enslaved for five centuries in Romania until abolition in 1864. Elsewhere in Europe, they were subject to ethnic cleansing, abduction of their children, and forced labor. During World War II, the Nazis murdered 200,000 to 800,000 Roma in an attempted genocide known as the Porajmos. Like the Jews, they were marked for extermination and sentenced to forced labour and imprisonment in concentration camps. They were often killed on sight, especially by the Einsatzgruppen (essentially mobile killing units) on the Eastern Front. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Sliven (Bulgarian: Сливен) is a town in southeast Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Sliven Province. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically pure society. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... National Socialism redirects here. ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or... Roma arrivals in the Belzec extermination camp await instructions The Porajmos (also Porrajmos) literally Devouring, or Samudaripen (Mass killing) is a term coined by the Roma (Gypsy) people to describe attempts by the Nazi regime to exterminate most of the Roma peoples of Europe during The Holocaust. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ...


In Communist Eastern Europe, Roma experienced assimilation schemes and restrictions of cultural freedom. The Romani language and Romani music were banned from public performance in Bulgaria. In Czechoslovakia, they were labeled a "socially degraded stratum," and Romani women were sterilized as part of a state policy to reduce their population. This policy was implemented with large financial incentives, threats of denying future social welfare payments, misinformation or after administering drugs (Silverman 1995; Helsinki Watch 1991). An official inquiry from the Czech Republic, resulting in a report (December 2005), concluded that the Communist authorities had practised an assimilation policy towards Roma, which "included efforts by social services to control the birth rate in the Romani community" and that "the problem of sexual sterilisation carried out in the Czech Republic, either with improper motivation or illegally, exists" [20], with new revealed cases up until 2004, in both Czech Republic and Slovakia. [21] Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... 19th century print of Romani musicians Romany musicians at a wedding in the Czech Republic in 2005 Typically nomadic, the Roma have long acted as wandering entertainers and tradesmen. ... Helsinki Watch was an independent NGO created in mid-1970s to monitor compliance to the Helsinki Accords (signed 1975). ...


In the early 1990s, Germany deported tens of thousands of illegal immigrants to Eastern Europe. Sixty percent of some 100,000 Romanian nationals deported under a 1992 treaty were Roma. In Norway, Roma were forcibly sterilized by the state until 1977.[14]. For the 1983 Genesis song, see Illegal Alien (song) Illegal immigration refers to immigration across national borders in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country. ...


Society and culture

A Gipsy Family - Facsimile of a woodcut in the "Cosmographie Universelle" of Munster: in folio, Basle, 1552.

The traditional Roma place a high value on the extended family. Virginity is essential in unmarried women. Both men and women often marry young; there has been controversy in several countries over the Roma practice of child marriage. Roma law establishes that the man’s family must pay a dower to the bride's parents. A Gipsy Family - Facsimile of a woodcut in the Cosmographie Universelle of Munster: in folio, Basle, 1552. ... Download high resolution version (1338x833, 35 KB)A Gipsy Family. ... Download high resolution version (1338x833, 35 KB)A Gipsy Family. ... Extended family (or joint family) is a term with several distinct meanings. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Dower (Lat. ...


Roma social behaviour is strictly regulated by purity laws ("marime" or "marhime"), still respected by most Roma and among Sinti groups by the older generations. This regulation affects many aspects of life, and is applied to actions, people and things: parts of the human body are considered impure: the genital organs (because they produce emissions) as well as the rest of the lower body. Fingernails and toenails must be filed with an emery board, as cutting them with a clipper is taboo. Clothes for the lower body, as well as the clothes of menstruating women are washed separately. Items used for eating are also washed in a different place. Childbirth is considered impure, and must occur outside the dwelling place. The mother is considered impure for forty days after giving birth. Death is considered impure, and affects the whole family of the dead, who remain impure for a period of time. However, in contrast to the practice of cremating the dead, Roma dead must be buried.[22] It is possible that this tradition was adapted from Abrahamic religions after the Roma left the Indian subcontinent. In biology, psychology and sociology social behavior is behavior directed towards, or taking place between, members of the same species. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about cultural prohibitions in general, for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ... Menstrual cycle. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... An Abrahamic religion (also referred to as desert monotheism) is any religion derived from an ancient Semitic tradition attributed to Abraham, a great patriarch described in the Torah, the Bible and the Quran. ...


Religion

Roma have usually adopted the dominant religion of the host country while often preserving aspects of their particular belief systems and indigenous religion and worship. Most Eastern European Roma are Catholic, Orthodox Christian or Muslim. Those in western Europe and the United States are mostly Roman Catholic or Protestant. In Turkey, Egypt, and the southern Balkans, the Roma are split into Christian and Muslim populations. Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Eastern Orthodox Church (including Bulgarian... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


Romani religion has a highly developed sense of morality, taboos, and the supernatural, though it is often denigrated by organized religions. It has been suggested that while still in India the Romani people belonged to the Hindu religion, this theory being supported by the Romani word for "cross", trushul, which is the word which describes Shiva's trident (Trishula). Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Shiva (also spelled Siva; Sanskrit ) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A Trishula Trisula redirects here. ...


Since the 1960s, a growing number of Roma have embraced Evangelical movements. Over the past half-century, Roma have become ministers and created their own churches and missionary organizations for the first time.[23] In some countries, the majority of Roma now belong to the Romani churches. This change has contributed to a better image of Roma in society.[citation needed] The work they perform is seen as more legitimate, and they have begun to obtain legal permits for commercial activities. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to...


Evangelical Romani churches exist today in every country where Roma are settled. The movement is particularly strong in France and Spain; there are more than one thousand Romani churches (known as "Filadelfia") in Spain, with almost one hundred in Madrid alone. In Germany, the most numerous group is that of Polish Roma, having their main church in Mannheim. Other important and numerous Romani assemblies exist in Los Angeles, California; Houston, Texas; Buenos Aires, Argentina; and Mexico City. Some groups in Romania and Chile have joined the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Motto: (Spanish for From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: , Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón Jimémez (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ... Mannheim is a city in Germany. ... d Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: , Country United States State Texas Counties Harris County Fort Bend County Montgomery County Incorporated June 5, 1837 Government  - Mayor Bill White Area  - City  601. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Ciudad en movimiento Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated Adventist[1]) Church is a Christian denomination which is distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week, as the Sabbath. ...


In the Balkans, the Roma of Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo (southern province of Serbia) and Albania have been particularly active in Islamic mystical brotherhoods (Sufism). Muslim Roma immigrants to western Europe and America have brought these traditions with them.[citation needed] For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Kosovo (Albanian: Kosova or Kosovë, Serbian: , transliterated ; also , transliterated ) is a region in southern Serbia which has been under United Nations administration since 1999. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 9th century   -  First unified state c. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam and encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ...


Music

Main article: Roma music

Roma music plays an important role in Eastern European cultures such as Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Republic of Macedonia, Albania, Hungary, Russia, and Romania, and the style and performance practices of Roma musicians have influenced European classical composers such as Franz Liszt and Johannes Brahms. The lăutari who perform at traditional Romanian weddings are virtually all Roma. Probably the most internationally prominent contemporary performers in the lăutar tradition are Taraful Haiducilor. Bulgaria's popular "wedding music," too, is almost exclusively performed by Roma musicians such as Ivo Papasov, a virtuoso clarinetist closely associated with this genre. Many famous classical musicians, such as the Hungarian pianist Georges Cziffra, are Roma, as are many prominent performers of manele. Zdob şi Zdub, one of the most prominent rock bands in Moldova, although not Roma themselves, draw heavily on Roma music, as do Spitalul de Urgenţă in Romania, Goran Bregović in Serbia, Darko Rundek in Croatia, and Beirut in the United States. 19th century print of Roma musicians Typically nomadic, the Roma have long acted as wandering entertainers and tradesmen. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... This is an alphabetical list of classical music composers sorted by eras. ... Portrait by Henri Lehmann, 1839 Franz Liszt (Hungarian: Liszt Ferenc; pronounced , in English: list) (October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886) was a Hungarian [1] virtuoso pianist and composer of the Romantic period. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Lăutari are traditional musicians performing traditional Gypsy songs. ... Taraful Haiducilor (a. ... Ivo Papasov is a Bulgarian clarinetist, born in 1952 in Kurdzhali, Bulgaria. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A pianist is a person who plays the piano. ... Georges (originally György) Cziffra (November 5, 1921–January 17, 1994) was a Hungarian virtuoso pianist. ... The tone or style of this article may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Zdob ÅŸi Zdub at the 2005 Eurovision Song Contest Zdob ÅŸi Zdub are a Moldovan musical group, based in ChiÅŸinău, whose work for the last several years combines elements of hip-hop (especially sampling) and hardcore punk with traditional Romanian music and Roma music. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Spitalul de Urgenţă, literally Emergency Hospital, is a Romanian pop band, integrating elements of traditional Romanian music into a sometimes hard-edged rock sound, although also incorporating influences as diverse as Turkish traditional music, European classical music, and cartoon soundtrack music. ... Goran Bregović (Serbian Cyrillic: Горан Бреговић) (born March 22, 1950) is a Bosnian musician and one of the most recognizable modern composers of the Balkans. ... Darko Rundek (born 30. ... Beirut is the name of 21-year-old Santa Fe native Zach Condons band. ...


Another tradition of Roma music is the genre of the gypsy brass band, with such notable practitioners as Boban Marković of Serbia, and the brass lăutari groups Fanfare Ciocărlia and Fanfare din Cozmesti of Romania. A brass band a musical group consisting mostly or entirely of brass instruments, often with a percussion section. ... Boban Marković (Бобан Марковић) is a Serbian trumpet player and brass ensemble leader from Vladicin Han, frequently recognized as the greatest trumpet player to emerge from the Balkans. ... Fanfare Ciocărlia is a popular twelve-piece Roma brass band from the northeastern Romanian village of Zece Prajini. ...


The distinctive sound of Roma music has also strongly influenced bolero, jazz, and flamenco (especially cante jondo) in Europe. European-style Gypsy jazz is still widely practised among the original creators (the Roma People); one who acknowledged this artistic debt was guitarist Django Reinhardt. The bolero is a type of dance and musical form. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Flamenco is a Spanish musical genre. ... An unspoiled form of Andalusian folk music also known as deep song. Cante Jondo is a vocal style in flamenco. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Roma of Turkey have achieved musical acclaim from national and local audiences. Local performers usually perform for special holidays. Their music is usually performed on instruments such as the darbuka and gırnata. A number nation wide best seller performers are said to be of Romani origin. The goblet drum (also chalice drum) is a goblet shaped hand drum used in Arabic music, Persian music, Balkan music, Armenian music, Azeri music and Turkish music. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ...


Language

Main article: Romani language

Most Roma speak one of several dialects of Romani[24], an Indo-Aryan language. They also will often speak the languages of the countries they live in, or incorporate into Romani loanwords from the language of the country, especially words for terms which Romani does not have. The Gitanos of Spain and the Romnichal of the UK, have lost their knowledge of pure Romani, and respectively speak the patois languages Caló[25] and Angloromani[26]. Romani (or Romany) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, peoples often referred to in English as Gypsies. The Indo-Aryan Romani language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages. ... Romani (or Romany) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, peoples often referred to in English as Gypsies. The Indo-Aryan Romani language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... It has been suggested that Roma in Spain be merged into this article or section. ... Romnichal or Romanichal is the name by which groups of Romani people (often known as Gypsies) found in some parts of the United Kingdom, notably England, are called in their own language, Anglo-Romany. ... Patois, although without a formal definition in linguistics, can be used to describe a language considered as nonstandard. ... Caló (originally Zincaló) or Spanish Romani is a jargon spoken by the Gitanos or Zincarli originating from Spain: Caló blends native Romani vocabulary with Spanish grammar,[1] as Spanish Gypsies lost the full use of their ancestral language. ... Angloromani is a language combining aspects of English and Romany. ...


There are independent groups currently working toward standardizing the language, including groups in Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, the USA, and Sweden. Romani is not currently spoken in India. There are independent groups currently working toward standardizing the Romani language, including groups in Romania, Serbia, the USA, Sweden, etc. ...


Etymology

Most Roma refer to themselves as rom or rrom, depending on the dialect. The word means "husband", romni/rromni meaning "wife", while the unmarried are named čhavo ("boy") (IPA pronunciation: /cʰaʋo/) or čhej ("girl"). There are no historical proofs to clarify the etymology of these words. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...


The word Rom (plural Roma) is a noun, Romani is an adjective, while Romanes is an adverb (meaning, roughly, "in the Romani way"). The language is called the Romani language or Romanes. In the Romani language, the adjective is created by attaching suffixes to the root that express gender and number: "Romani" (f. sing.), "Romano (m. sing.) and "Romane" (m. & f. pl.). Usually in English it is used only the feminine singular form, but they may also appear in the other forms. "Romanes" is created by attaching the suffix -es, usually employed for adverbs. [27] The use of the word Romanes in English as a noun is incorrect[28]. In English, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... An adverb is a part of speech. ... Romani (or Romany) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, peoples often referred to in English as Gypsies. The Indo-Aryan Romani language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages. ... It has been suggested that Ending (linguistics) be merged into this article or section. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The English term Gypsy (or Gipsy) originates from the Greek word Αιγύπτοι (Aigyptoi), modern Greek γύφτοι (gyphtoi), in the erroneous belief that the Roma originated in Egypt, and were exiled as punishment for allegedly harboring the infant Jesus.[29] If used, this exonym should also be written with capital letter, to show that it is about an ethnic group. [30] As described in Victor Hugo's novel The Hunchback of Notre Dame, the medieval French referred to the Rom as "egyptiens". This ethnonym is not used by the Roma to describe themselves, and is often considered pejorative (as is the term "gyp", meaning "to cheat", a reference to the suspicion the Roma engendered). However, the use of "Gypsy" in English is now so pervasive that many Roma organizations use the word Gypsy in their own names. In North America, the word "Gypsy" is commonly used as a reference to lifestyle or fashion, and not to the Roma ethnicity. The Spanish term gitano and the French term gitan may have the same origin.[31] Jacopo Bellinis Madonna and Child Blessing depicts the infant Jesus in the act of blessing the viewer The Child Jesus, or Christ Child is a religious symbol based on the activities of Jesus as an infant up to the age of twelve that recurs throughout history, starting from around... An exonym is a name for a place or people that is created by people outside of that place and is different from the name used in the native language. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced in French) (26 February 1802 — 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, playwright, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... The Hunchback of Notre Dame, or Notre-Dame of Paris (in French, Notre-Dame de Paris) is a novel first published on January 14, 1831 by the prolific French author Victor Hugo. ... An ethnonym (Gk. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... The Gitanos are Roma people living in Spain. ...


In most of continental Europe, Roma are known by many names, most of them similar to the Hungarian cigány (pronounced IPA /ˈʦiɡaːɲ/). Early Byzantium literature suggests that the various names now referring to Gypsies, such as tzigane, zincali, cigány, etc., are derived from the Greek ατσίγγανοι (atsinganoi, Latin adsincani), applied to Roma during Byzantine times,[32] or from the Greek term αθίγγανοι (athinganoi)[33] meaning literally 'untouchables', in reference to a 9th-century heretical sect that had been accused of practising magic and fortune-telling.[34] In modern Greek, aside from the term Rom (Ρομ), the terms gyphtoi (Greek:γύφτοι) and tsigganoi (Greek:τσιγγάνοι) are interchangeable and both are used when referring to the Roma. Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Main article: Greek language Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική, lit. ...


Because many Roma living in France had come via Bohemia, they were also referred to as Bohémiens. This would later be adapted to describe the impoverished artistic lifestyle of Bohemianism. Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... The term bohemian was first used in the nineteenth century to describe the non-traditional lifestyles of marginalized and impoverished artists, writers, musicians, and actors in major European cities. ...


Outside Europe, Roma are referred to by more varied names, such as Kowli (کولی) in Iran; Lambani, Labana Lambadi, Rabari or Banjara in India; Ghajar (غجر) or Nawar (نور') in Arabic; and tzo'anim צוענים in Hebrew (after an ancient city in Egypt and the biblical verb צענ ṣā‛an, roaming). Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ...


There is no connection between the name Roma (ethnicity) and the city of Rome, ancient Rome, Romania, the Romanian people or the Romanian language. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Languages Romanian language Religions Predominantly Romanian Orthodox, but also including Romanian Catholic, Roman Catholic, Protestant and Atheist. ... Romanian (limba română, IPA: ) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. ...


Persecutions

Main article: Antiziganism

Antiziganism or Anti-Romanyism is hostility, prejudice or racism directed at the Romani people, commonly called Gypsies. ...

Historical persecution

The first and one of the most enduring persecutions against the Romani people was the enslaving of the Roma who arrived on the territory of historical Romanian states of Wallachia and Moldavia, that lasted from the 14th century until the half of the 19th century. Specific legislation prescribed that all the Roma living in these states and any other that would immigrate were slaves.[35] Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ...


The arrival of some branches of the Romani people in Western Europe, in the 15th century, coincided with and was determined by the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans. Although the Roma themselves were refugees from the conflicts in southeastern Europe, they were mistaken by the local population in the West, because of their foreign appearance, as part of the Ottoman invasion (the German Reichstags at Landau and Freiburg in 1496-1498 declared the Roma as spies of the Turks). This determined in Western Europe a violent history of persecution and attempts of ethnic cleansing until the modern era. As the time passed, other accusations were added against local Roma (accusations specific to this area, against non-assimilated minorities), like that of bringing the plague, usually sharing their burden together with the local Jews.[36] The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Later in the 19th century, the immigration of the Romani people was forbidden on racial basis in areas outside Europe, mostly in Anglosphere (in 1885 USA forbids the entry of the Roma) and also in some Latin American states (in 1880 Argentina adopts a similar policy).[37] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


Holocaust

Main article: Porajmos
Romani arrivals at the Belzec death camp await instructions.

Persecution of Roma reached a peak during World War II in the Porajmos, the genocide perpetrated by the Nazis during the Holocaust. In 1935, the Nuremberg laws stripped the Romani people living in Nazi Germany of their citizenship, then they were subjected to violence and imprisonment in extermination camps. The policy was extended in areas occupied by the Nazis during the war, and it was also applied by their allies, notably the Independent State of Croatia, Romania and Hungary. Roma arrivals in the Belzec extermination camp await instructions The Porajmos (also Porrajmos) literally Devouring, or Samudaripen (Mass killing) is a term coined by the Roma (Gypsy) people to describe attempts by the Nazi regime to exterminate most of the Roma peoples of Europe during The Holocaust. ... Public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Belzec was the first of the Nazi German extermination camps created for implementing Operation Reinhard during the Holocaust. ... A death camp is either a concentration camp, the important (though not necessarily single) function of which is to facilitate mass murder of the people deported into such a camp (such as the Nazis Auschwitz and Majdanek, which acquired their murderous functions only some time after they had been... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Roma arrivals in the Belzec extermination camp await instructions The Porajmos (also Porrajmos) literally Devouring, or Samudaripen (Mass killing) is a term coined by the Roma (Gypsy) people to describe attempts by the Nazi regime to exterminate most of the Roma peoples of Europe during The Holocaust. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Extermination camps were one type of facility that Nazi Germany built during World War II for the systematic killing of millions of people in what has become known as the Holocaust. ... Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy King  - 1941-1943 Tomislav II1 Poglavnik  - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić Legislature Hrvatski državni Sabor NDH (briefly in 1942) Historical era World War II  - Invasion of Yugoslavia April 6, 1941  - Established April 10, 1941  - Roma Contract May 19, 1941  - Italy...


Because no accurate pre-war census figures exist for the Roma, it is impossible to accurately assess the actual number of victims. Ian Hancock, director of the Program of Romani Studies at The University of Texas at Austin, proposes a figure of up to a million and a half, while an estimate of between 220,000 and 500,000 was made by the late Sybil Milton, formerly senior historian of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum.[38]. In Central Europe, the extermination in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was so thorough that the Bohemian Romani language became totally extinct. Ian Hancock is a renowned Romani scholar. ... University of Texas at Austin The University of Texas at Austin (full official name), often UT or Texas for short, is the flagship institution of the University of Texas System, the largest public university system in Texas, established in 1883. ... Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, German Political structure Protectorate Reichsprotektor  - 1939-1941 Konstantin von Neurath  - 1941-1942 Reinhard Heydrich (acting)  - 1942-1943 Kurt Daluege (acting)  - 1943-1945 Wilhelm Frick Staatspräsident  - 1939-1945 Emil Hácha Historical era World War II  - Occupation March 15, 1939  - Fall of Prague May 13... Bohemian Romani is a dialect of Romani (a European Indo-Aryan language) formerly spoken by the Roma (Gypsies) of Bohemia, the western part of todays Czech Republic. ...


Contemporary issues

A young Romani woman from the Czech Republic (2005)

In the UK, "travellers" (referring to Irish Travellers and New Age Travellers as well as Roma) became a 2005 general election issue, with the leader of the Conservative Party promising to review the Human Rights Act 1998. This law, which absorbs the European Convention on Human Rights into UK primary legislation, is seen by some to permit the granting of retrospective planning permission. Severe population pressures and the paucity of greenfield sites have led to travellers purchasing land, and setting up residential settlements almost overnight, thus subverting the planning restrictions imposed on other members of the community. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Irish Travellers are a nomadic or itinerant people of Irish origin living in Ireland, Great Britain and the United States. ... The New age travellers or Peace Convoy were a group of people who often espoused New age and/or hippie beliefs, and who travelled between music festivals and fairs in the United Kingdom in order to live in a community with others who hold similar beliefs. ... A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Human Rights Act 1998 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom which received Royal Assent on November 9, 1998, and mostly came into force on October 2, 2000. ... The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, also known as the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), was adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe[1] in 1950 to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms. ... Primary legislation is legislation made by the legislative branch of government. ... Main article: Town and Country Planning in the United Kingdom Planning permission or planning consent is the permission required in the United Kingdom in order to be allowed to build on land, or change the use of land or buildings. ... Greenfield land is a term used to describe a piece of undeveloped land, either currently used for agriculture or just left to nature. ...


Travellers argued in response that thousands of retrospective planning permissions are granted in Britain in cases involving non-Roma applicants each year and that statistics showed that 90% of planning applications by Roma and travellers were initially refused by local councils, compared with a national average of 20% for other applicants, disproving claims of preferential treatment favouring Roma. [15] A Local Council (LC, formerly Resistance Council -RC) is a form of local elected government within the districts of Uganda. ...


They also argued that the root of the problem was that many traditional stopping-places had been barricaded off and that legislation passed by the previous Conservative government had effectively criminalised their community, for example by removing local authorities’ responsibility to provide sites, thus leaving the travellers with no option but to purchase unregistered new sites themselves. [16]


In Denmark there was much controversy when the city of Helsingør decided to put all Roma students in special classes in its public schools. The classes were later abandoned after it was determined that they were discriminatory, and the Roma were put back in regular classes.[39] Elsinore (Danish Helsingør) is a Danish city at the north-east point of Zealand. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


However, the practice of placing Roma students in segregated schools or classes remains widespread in countries across Central and Eastern Europe. In Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania, many Roma children have been channeled into all-Roma schools that offer inferior quality education and are sometimes in poor physical condition, or into segregated all-Roma or predominantly Roma classes within mixed schools.[40] In Hungary and Bulgaria, many Roma children are sent to classes for pupils with learning disabilities, regardless of whether such classes are appropriate for the children in question or not. In Bulgaria, they are also sent to so-called "delinquent schools", where a variety of human rights abuses take place.[41]


Despite the low birth rate in the country, Bulgaria's Health Ministry was considering a law aimed at lowering the birth rate of certain minority groups, particularly the Roma, due to the high mortality rate among Roma families, which are typically large. This was later abandoned due to conflict with EU law and the Bulgarian constitution.[42] Many governments, both national and more local, have a Department of Health. This article is about the British one. ... A minority or subordinate group is a sociological group that does not constitute a politically dominant plurality of the total population of a given society. ... Crude death rate by country Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in some population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit time. ... European Union law is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ...


Roma in European population centers are often accused of petty crimes such as pickpocketing. This is an important justification for the anti-Romani persecution and such accusations use to preced the anti-Romani violence. In 1899, the Nachrichtendienst in Bezug auf die Zigeuner ("Intelligence Service Regarding the Gypsies") was set up in Munich under the direction of Alfred Dillmann, cataloguing data on all Romani individuals throughout the German lands. It did not officially close down until 1970. The results were published in 1905 in Dillmann’s Zigeuner-Buch [43], that was used in the next years as justification for the Porajmos. It described the Romanies as a "plague" and a "menace", but presented as Gypsy crime almost exclusively trespassing and the theft of food (caused themselves by the discrimination policies). A UN study [44] found that Roma in Eastern European countries such as Bulgaria are arrested for robbery at a much higher rate than other groups. Amnesty International[45] and Roma groups[46] blame widespread police and government racism and persecution. Eighteenth century engraving showing a pickpocket in action. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Roma arrivals in the Belzec extermination camp await instructions The Porajmos (also Porrajmos) literally Devouring, or Samudaripen (Mass killing) is a term coined by the Roma (Gypsy) people to describe attempts by the Nazi regime to exterminate most of the Roma peoples of Europe during The Holocaust. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a pressure group that promotes human rights. ...


Law enforcement agencies in the United States hold regular conferences [47] on the Roma and similar nomadic groups. It is common to refer to the operators of certain types of travelling con artists [17] and fortune-telling [18] businesses as "Gypsies," although many are Irish Travellers or not members of any particular nomadic ethnic group. A confidence trick, confidence game, or con for short, (also known as a scam) is an attempt to intentionally mislead a person or persons (known as the mark) usually with the goal of financial or other gain. ... For prophecy in the context of revealed religions see Prophet. ... Irish Travellers are a nomadic or itinerant people of Irish origin living in Ireland, Great Britain and the United States. ...


Assimilation

In the Habsburg Monarchy under Maria Theresia (1740-1780), a series of decrees tried to force the Roma to sedentarize, removed rights to horse and wagon ownership (1754), renamed them as "New Citizens" and forced Romani boys into military service if they had no trade (1761), forced them to register with the local authorities (1767), and prohibited marriage between Roma (1773). Her successor Josef II prohibited the wearing of traditional Romani clothing and the use of the Romani language, punishable by flogging.[48] In Spain, attempts to assimilate the Gitanos were under way as early as 1619, when Gitanos were forcibly sedentarized, the use of the Romani language was prohibited, Gitano men and women were sent to separate workhouses and their children sent to orphanages. Similar prohibitions took place in later in 1783 under King Charles III, who prohibited the nomadic lifestyle, the use of the Calo language, Romani clothing, their trade in horses and other itinerant trades. Ultimately these measures failed, as the rest of the population rejected the integration of the Gitanos.[49][50] The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... This page is about Maria Theresa of Austria (often only known as Empress Maria Theresa), ruler of the Habsburg Empire from 1740-1780. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Joseph II (full name: Joseph Benedikt August Johannes Anton Michel Adam; March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Other examples of forced assimilation include Norway, where a law was passed in 1896 permitting the state to remove children from their parents and place them in state institutions[51]. This resulted in some 1,500 Roma children being taken from their parents in the 20th century[52].


Romani people by geographic area

Romani woman from the Czech Republic (2005)

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Central and Eastern Europe

A significant proportion of the world's Roma live in Central and Eastern Europe, often in squatter communities with very high unemployment, while only some are fully integrated in the society. However, in some cases—notably the Kalderash clan in Romania, who work as traditional coppersmiths—they have prospered. The current and historical situation of Roma in the region differs from country to country. A Polish Roma woman The Roma people in Central and Eastern Europe often live in depressed squatter communities with very high unemployment, while only some are fully integrated in the society. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... This article is about occupying land without permission. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A coppersmith is a person who works with copper and brass. ...


Finland

Roma in Finland are known as mustalaiset and Romanit. Currently, there are approximately 10,000 Roma living in Finland, mostly in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area.[citation needed] Central Helsinki, the focal point of the Capital Region, from the sky Greater Helsinki (Finnish: Suur-Helsinki, Swedish: Storhelsingfors), Capital Region (Pääkaupunkiseutu, Huvudstadsregionen), Helsinki Metropolitan Area, and Helsinki Region (Helsingin seutu, Helsingforsregionen) all refer to the conurbation surrounding the Finnish capital, Helsinki. ...


Turkey

Roma in Turkey are known as Chingene (mostly), Chingen or Chingan (Mostly), Chingit (West Black Sea region), Dom (East Anatolia), Posha (East Anatolia), Abdal (Kahramanmaraş), Roman (Izmir) [53]. Estimates of the population vary from 300.000 to 5 million, dispersed all across the country.[54] They have integrated fully to the ethnic make up of the country, and in later years have started to recognize, and cherish their Romani background as well.[55]

Spanish Romani woman

Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ...

Spain

Main article: Roma in Spain

Roma in Spain are generally known as Gitanos and tend to speak Caló which is basically Andalusian Spanish with a large number of Romani loan words. Estimates of the Spanish Gitano population range between 600,000 and 800,000 with the Spanish government estimating between 650,000 and 700,000.[19] Languages Spanish languageCatalan language Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Church Related ethnic groups Spanish people The Roma People (also called Romany or Gypsies) are a diverse ethnic group who until recently lived primarily in Southern and Eastern Europe, Western Asia, and the Middle East. ... The Andalusian dialect (also called andaluz) of European Spanish is spoken in Andalusia (including Gibraltar). ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...


The United Kingdom

Main article: Romnichal

Roma in England are generally known as Romnichals or Romany Gypsies, while their Welsh equivalent are known as Kale. They have been known in the UK since at least the early 16th century and may number up to 120,000. There is also a sizable population of East European Roma who immigrated into the UK in the late 1990s/early 2000s, and also after EU expansion in 2004. Romnichal or Romanichal is the name by which groups of Romani people (often known as Gypsies) found in some parts of the United Kingdom, notably England, are called in their own language, Anglo-Romany. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... This article is about the country. ...


There are records of Romani in Scotland in the early 16th century, the first recorded reference to "the Egyptians" would appear to be in 1492, in the reign of James IV, when an entry in the Book of the Lord High Treasurer records a payment "to Peter Ker of four shillings, to go to the king at Hunthall, to get letters subscribed to the 'King of Rowmais'". Two days after, a payment of twenty pounds was made at the king's command to the messenger of the 'King of Rowmais'.[56] This article is about the country. ... James IV (March 17, 1473-September 9, 1513) was King of Scots from 1488 to his death. ...


It is difficult to be clear about the numbers of Roma today in Scotland, according to the Scottish Traveller Education Programme, there are probably about 20,000 Scottish Gypsies/Travellers.[57]. Although it is unknown how many of this number are Romani and it is recognised that Gypsies and Travellers in Scotland are not one homogenous group, but consist of several groups each with different histories and cultures.


North America

The first Romani group arriving in the North America was the Romnichels, at the beginning of the 19th century. In the second half of the century, the immigration of Romani groups from Eastern Europe began, especially from Romania, the ancestors of the majority of the contemporary local Romani population. Among them were Romani-speaking groups like the Kalderash, Machvaya, Lovari, Churari, and Romanian-speaking groups, like the Boyash (Ludari). They arrived after their liberation from slavery in 1840-1850, directly from Romania, or after living some years in neighbouring states (the Russian Empire, Austria-Hungary, and Serbia). The Bashalde arrived from what is now Slovakia around this same time.[58] This immigration decreased drastically during the Communist regime in Eastern Europe, in the second half of the 20th century, but resumed in the 1990s, after the fall of Communism. Presently there are about one million Roma in the USA [59] and 80,000 in Canada [60]. North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Romnichal or Romanichal is the name by which groups of Romani people (often known as Gypsies) found in some parts of the United Kingdom, notably England, are called in their own language, Anglo-Romany. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Romani (or Romany) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, peoples often referred to in English as Gypsies. The Indo-Aryan Romani language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages. ... they are the most conservative and compact copact Roma community. ... The Machvaya (also Machavaya) are a group of Romany originating specifically from Serbia. ... Lovari Recording artist and actor. ... Boyash (also known as Bayash; Hungarian: Beás) are a Roma (Gypsy) ethnic group living mainly in Hungary. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 9th century   -  First unified state c. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ...


Latin America

For other places that have this name, see Espírito Santo (disambiguation) Espírito Santo is one of the states of southeastern Brazil, often referred to by the abbreviation ES. Those who are born in the state are known as Capixabas. ... Location of Rio de Janeiro Coordinates: Country Brazil Region Southeast State Rio de Janeiro Government  - Mayor Cesar Maia (PFL) Area  - City 1,260 km²  (486. ... Flag of Minas Gerais See other Brazilian States Capital Belo Horizonte Largest City Belo Horizonte Area 586,528. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The Middle East

A community related closely to the Roma and living in Israel and the Palestinian territories and in neighboring countries are known as Dom people. Before 1948, there was an Arabic-speaking Dom community in Jaffa, whose members were noted for their involvement in street theatre and circus performances. They are the subject of the play "The Gypsies of Jaffa" (Hebrew: הצוענים של יפו), by the late Nissim Aloni, considered among Israel's foremost playwrights, and the play came to be considered a classic of the Israeli theatre (see [20]). Like most other Jaffa Arabs, much of this community was uprooted in the face of the Israeli advance in April 1948, and its descendants are assumed to be presently living in the Gaza Strip; it is unknown to what degree they still preserve a separate Domari identity. Another Dom community is known to exist in East Jerusalem. In October 1999, the nonprofit organisation "Domari: The Society of Gypsies in Jerusalem" was established by Amoun Sleem to advocate on this community's behalf. [21], [22] This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ... The Dom (or Domi) of the Middle East are part of the larger Roma (or Gypsies) ethnic group. ... Arabic is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Jaffa port Jaffa ( Hebrew: יָפוֹ, Yafo Arabic: يَافَا  ; also Japho, Joppa; also, ~1350 B.C.E. Amarna Letters: Yapu; ), is an ancient port city located in south Tel Aviv, Israel on the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Nisim Aloni (1926 - 1998) was an Israeli playwright and translator. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... A non-profit organization (abbreviated NPO, or non-profit or not-for-profit) is an organization whose primary objective is to support an issue or matter of private interest or public concern for non-commercial purposes, without concern for monetary profit. ...


Some Eastern European Roma are known to have arrived in Israel in the late 1940s and early 1950s, being from Bulgaria or having intermarried with Jews in the post-WWII Displaced Persons camps or, in some cases, having pretended to be Jews when Zionist representatives arrived in those camps. The exact numbers of these Roma living in Israel are unknown, since such individuals tended to assimilate into the Israeli Jewish environment. According to several recent accounts in the Israeli press, some families preserve traditional Romani lullabies and a small number of Romani expressions and curse words, and pass them on to generations born in Israel who, for the most part, are Jews and speak Hebrew.[citation needed] The Romani community in Israel has grown since the 1990s, as some Roma immigrated there from the former Soviet Union. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with forced migration. ... A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ...


In Iraq, the Qawliya people are a small Roma minority group who trace their history back to Spain. The Qawliya are a small Roma minority in Iraq. ...


Fictional representations of Roma

A Roma family travelling (1837 print)

Many fictional depictions of the Roma emphasize their supposed mystical powers. They often appear as nomads. A Roma family travelling (1837 print) Many fictional depictions of the Romani emphasize their supposed mystical powers. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...


Notes

  1. ^ [1] "Patrin Web Journal: A Brief History of the Roma"
  2. ^ Gypsies in Canada: The Promised Land?. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (December 1997).
  3. ^ Estimated population from adding the sourced population numbers from the article Romani people by country. Note that some countries with Romani populations are not included, where reliable sources could not be found, and that many of the sources are outdated or supply only partial information about Romani groups in a certain country.
  4. ^ http://other-news.info/index.php?p=172#more-172
  5. ^ Angus Fraser. Gypsies (Peoples of Europe) 2nd edition.
  6. ^ Donald Kenrick. Historical Dictionary of the Gypsies (Romanies). Scarecrow Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8108-3444-8
  7. ^ Johann Christian Christoph Rüdiger. On the Indic Language and Origin of the Gypsies.
  8. ^ Dieter W. Halwachs. Romani - An Attempting Overview.
  9. ^ Gray, R.D. and Atkinson, Q.D.. Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin..
  10. ^ Christina Wells. Introduction to Gypsies.
  11. ^ Kalaydjieva, L.; Morar, B.; Chaix, R. and Tang, H. (2005). A Newly Discovered Founder Population: The Roma/Gypsies. BioEssays 27: 1084–1094.
  12. ^ Kalaydjieva, L.; Morar, B.; Chaix, R. and Tang, H. (2005). A Newly Discovered Founder Population: The Roma/Gypsies. BioEssays 27: 1084–1094.
  13. ^ Malyarchuk, B.A.; Grzybowski, T.; Derenko, M.V.; Czarny, J. and Miscicka-Slivvka, D. (2006). Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in the Polish Roma. Annals of Human Genetics 70: 195–206.
  14. ^ Kalaydjieva, L.; Morar, B.; Chaix, R. and Tang, H. (2005). A Newly Discovered Founder Population: The Roma/Gypsies. BioEssays 27: 1084–1094.
  15. ^ Kalaydjieva, L.; Morar, B.; Chaix, R. and Tang, H. (2005). A Newly Discovered Founder Population: The Roma/Gypsies. BioEssays 27: 1084–1094.
  16. ^ Vagish Shastri, Migration of Aryans from India, Yogic Voice Consciousness Institute, Varanasi, 2007.
  17. ^ Indian studies
  18. ^ Gypsy Culture
  19. ^ A Chronology of significant dates in Romani history
  20. ^ Sterilised Roma accuse Czechs (BBC)
  21. ^ Coercive Sterilization of Romani Women in Czech Republic and Slovakia
  22. ^ http://www.geocities.com/Paris/5121/death.htm
  23. ^ http://www.eyeonnortherneurope.com/news_20040407.php
  24. ^ Dieter W. Halwachs. Speakers and Numbers (distribution of Romani-speaking Roma population by country) (PDF). Rombase.
  25. ^ Caló: A language of Spain. Ethnologue.
  26. ^ Angloromani: A language of United Kingdom. Ethnologue.
  27. ^ Ian Hancock, A Handbook of Vlax Romani (Slavica Publishers, 1995) p. 104, 154
  28. ^ Ian Hancock, Ame Sam e Rromane Džene/We are the Romani people, p.3
  29. ^ Fraser 1992.
  30. ^ Ian Hancock, A Handbook of Vlax Romani (Slavica Publishers, 1995) p. 17
  31. ^ See for example the Dictionnaire de l'Académie française.
  32. ^ A Brief History of the Rom
  33. ^ [2]
  34. ^ Roma (Gypsies) in the Byzantine empire
  35. ^ Istoria şi tradiţiile minorităţii rromani, p. 36, 2005, Sigma, Bucharest by Delia Grigore, Petre Petcuţ and Mariana Sandu
  36. ^ http://www.geocities.com/Paris/5121/timeline.htm
  37. ^ http://www.geocities.com/Paris/5121/timeline.htm
  38. ^ Most estimates for numbers of Roma victims of the Holocaust fall between 200,000 and 500,000, although figures ranging between 90,000 and 4 million have been proposed. Lower estimates do not include those killed in all Axis-controlled countries. A detailed study by the late Sybil Milton, formerly senior historian at the US Holocaust Memorial Museum gave a figure of at least a minimum of 220,000, probably higher, possibly closer to 500,000 (cited in Re. Holocaust Victim Assets Litigation (Swiss Banks) Special Master's Proposals, September 11, 2000). Ian Hancock, Director of the Program of Romani Studies and the Romani Archives and Documentation Center at the University of Texas at Austin, argues in favour of a higher figure of between 500,000 and 1,500,000 in his 2004 article, Romanies and the Holocaust: A Reevaluation and an Overview as published in Stone, D. (ed.) (2004) The Historiography of the Holocaust. Palgrave, Basingstoke and New York.
  39. ^ Roma-politik igen i søgelyset (Danish). DR Radio P4 (18 January 2006).
  40. ^ Equal access to quality education for Roma, Volume 1 pp. 18-20, 187, 212-213, 358-361. Open Society Institute - EU Monitoring and Advocacy Program (EUMAP) (2007).
  41. ^ Equal access to quality education for Roma, Volume 1, pp. 20, 47-50, 219-220.
  42. ^ Women’s reproductive rights and right to family life interferance by the Health Minister (Bulgaria)
  43. ^ Alfred Dillmann. Zigeuner-Buch. Munich: Wildsche (1905)
  44. ^ Avoiding the Dependence Trap: A Regional Human Development Report, Ch. 7. [3]
  45. ^ "Anti-Roma racism in Europe." by Julie Denesha, Amnesty International. [4]
  46. ^ such as the Union Romani [5]
  47. ^ "Gypsies: the Usual Suspects," Hector Becerra, Los Angeles Times, January 30, 2006. [6] (copy on National Association of Bunco Investigators website, which deletes a description of profane cries when a speaker said not all gypsies are criminal)
  48. ^ Maria Theresia and Joseph II: Policies of Assimilation in the Age of Enlightened Absolutism..
  49. ^ Maria Theresia and Joseph II: Policies of Assimilation in the Age of Enlightened Absolutism..
  50. ^ Gitanos. History and Cultural Relations..
  51. ^ Roma (Gypsies) in Norway.
  52. ^ The Church of Norway and the Roma of Norway.
  53. ^ Özhan Öztürk. Karadeniz Ansiklopedik Sözlük. İstanbul. 2005. ISBN 975-6121-00-9. p.280-281.
  54. ^ a b No official count; estimate from Reaching the Romanlar—A Feasibility Study Report (International Romani Studies Network), Istanbul: 2006, p.13. See also Turkey: A Minority Policy of Systematic Negation (IHF report) and SERİN, Ayten (08.05.2005). AB ülkeleriyle ortak bir noktamız daha ÇİNGENELER. Hürriyet. Retrieved on September 23, 2006.
  55. ^ [www.cingene.org]
  56. ^ http://www.scottishgypsies.co.uk/scotland.html
  57. ^ http://www.scottishtravellered.net/travellers.html
  58. ^ http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/migrations/gyp/gypstart.html
  59. ^ http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/RR/pxrfh.html
  60. ^ Roma in Canada fact sheet
  61. ^ http://www.greekhelsinki.gr/pdf/cedime-se-albania-roma.doc
  62. ^ http://www.errc.org/cikk.php?cikk=1847
  63. ^ http://www.presidencia.gov.br/seppir/informativos/not/001.htm
  64. ^ According to the last official census in 2001 370,908 Bulgarian citizens define their identity as Roma (official results here). 313,000 self-declared in 1992 census (Elena Marushiakova and Vesselin Popov, The Gypsies of Bulgaria: Problems of the Multicultural Museum Exhibition (1995), cited in Patrin Web Journal). According to Marushiakova and Popov, "The Roma in Bulgaria", Sofia, 1993, the people who declared Roma identity in 1956 were about 194,000; in 1959 - 214,167; in 1976 - 373,200; because of the obvious and significant difference between the number of Bulgarian citizens with Roma self-identification and this of the large total population with physical appearance and cultural particularity similar to Roma in 1980 the authorities took special census of all people, defined as Roma through the opinions of the neighbouring population, observations of their way of life, cultural specificity, etc. - 523,519; in the 1989 the authorities counted 576,927 people as Roma, but noted that more than a half of them prefered and declared Turkish identity (pages 92-93). According to the rough personal assumption of Marushiakova and Popov the total number of all people with Roma ethic identity plus all people of Roma origin with different ethnic self-identification around 1993 was about 800,000 (pages 94-95). Similar supposition Marushiakova and Popov made in 1995: estimate 750,000 ±50,000. Some international sources mention the estimates of some unnamed experts, who suggest 700,000 - 800,000 or higher than figures in the official census (here, UNDP's Regional Bureau for Europe). These mass non-Roma ethnic partialities are confirmed in the light of the last census in 2001 - more than 300,000 Bulgarian citizens of Roma origin traditionally declare their ethnic identity as Turkish or Bulgarian. Other statistics: 450,000 estimated in 1990 (U.S. Library of Congress study); at least 553,466 cited in a confidential census by the Ministry of the Interior in 1992 (cf Marushiakova and Popov 1995).
  65. ^ Roma in Canada fact sheet
  66. ^ 12,000 according to 2001 census
  67. ^ 220,000 according to NGOs ([7]).
  68. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rmy
  69. ^ Jean-Pierre Liégeois, Roma, Tsiganes, Voiageurs, p.34, Conseil de l'Europe, 1994
  70. ^ Jean-Pierre Liégeois, Roma, Tsiganes, Voiageurs, p.34, Conseil de l'Europe, 1994
  71. ^ According to the Greek government ([8])
  72. ^ 300,000 to 350,000 according to the IHF monitor for Greece ([9]).
  73. ^ http://www.demos.hu/index.php?name=OE-DocManager&file=download&id=19&keret=N&showheader=N
  74. ^ http://www.domresearchcenter.com/population/popiran.html Dom Research Center - Iran
  75. ^ Jean-Pierre Liégeois, Roma, Tsiganes, Voiageurs, p.34, Conseil de l'Europe, 1994
  76. ^ 53,879 in 2002 census, up to 260,000 at UNDP's Regional Bureau for Europe
  77. ^ 2002 census data, based on Population by ethnicity, gives a total of 535,250 Roma in Romania. This figure is disputed by other sources, because at the local level, many Roma declare a different ethnicity (mostly Romanian, but also Hungarian in the West and Turkish in Dobruja) for fear of discrimination. Many are not recorded at all, since they do not have ID cards [10]. International sources give higher figures than the official census(UNDP's Regional Bureau for Europe, World Bank, International Association for Official Statistics).
  78. ^ 2002 Russian census recorded 182,766 Roma. In Jean-Pierre Liégeois, Roma, Tsiganes, Voiageurs, p.34, Conseil de l'Europe, 1994 there are presented 220,000-400,000. Independent estimates range from 5 to 6 million[citation needed].
  79. ^ 2002 census not including Kosovo. UNDP's Regional Bureau for Europe.
  80. ^ [11]
  81. ^ CIA Factbook on Slovakia.
  82. ^ U.S. Library of Congress Country study.
  83. ^ 40,000–90,000 Anglo-Romani speakers, see http://www.llc.manchester.ac.uk/Research/Projects/romani/downloads/2/Matras_Rmni_UK.pdf and http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=rme. Unspecified number of Roma immigrants from Eastern Europe (among them, in 2004, there were 4,100 Vlax Roma [12].
  84. ^ Handbook of Texas

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the country’s national public radio and television broadcaster. ... ^ http://www. ... The Dictionnaire de lAcadémie française is the official dictionary of the French language. ... Delia Grigore (born February 7, 1972 in GalaÅ£i, Romania) is a Romani writer, academic and Romani rights activist. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a pressure group that promotes human rights. ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ... The International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights is a self-governing group of non-governmental, not-for-profit organizations that act to protect human rights throughout Europe, North America and Central Asia. ... Hürriyet (Liberty) is a secular centrist, nationalist high-circulation broadsheet daily Turkish newspaper. ... The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the largest multilateral source of grant technical assistance in the world. ... NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights is a self-governing group of non-governmental, not-for-profit organizations that act to protect human rights throughout Europe, North America and Central Asia. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ...

References

  • Achim, Viorel (2004). "The Roma in Romanian History." Budapest: Central European University Press. ISBN 963-9241-84-9.
  • Auzias, Claire. Les funambules de l'histoire. Baye: Éditions la Digitale, 2002.
  • De Soto, Hermine. Roma and Egyptians in Albania: From Social Exclusion to Social Inclusion. Washington, DC, USA: World Bank Publications, 2005.
  • Fonseca, Isabel. Bury me standing: the Gypsies and their journey. New York: A.A. Knopf, 1995.
  • Fraser, Angus The Gypsies : Blackwell Publishers, Oxford UK, 1992 ISBN 0-631-15967-3.
  • Genner, Michael. Spartakus, 2 vols. Munich: Trikont, 1979-80.
  • “Germany Reaches Deal to Deport Thousands of Gypsies to Romania,” Migration World Magazine, Nov-December 1992.
  • Gray, RD; Atkinson, QD (2003). "Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin." Nature.
  • Gresham, D; et al. (2001). "Origins and divergence of the Roma (Gypsies)." American Journal of Human Genetics. 69(6), 1314-1331. [23]
  • Hackl, Erich. (1991). Farewell Sidonia, New York: Fromm International Pub. ISBN 0-88064-124-X. (Translated from the German, Abschied von Sidonie 1989)
  • Helsinki Watch. Struggling for Ethnic Identity: Czechoslovakia’s Endangered Gypsies. New York, 1991.
  • Leland, Charles G. The English Gipsies and Their Language. London: Trübner & Co., 1873.
  • Lemon, Alaina (2000). Between Two Fires: Gypsy Performance and Romani Memory from Pushkin to Post-Socialism. Durham: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-2456-3
  • Luba Kalaydjieva; et al. (2001). "Patterns of inter- and intra-group genetic diversity in the Vlax Roma as revealed by Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA lineages." European Journal of Human Genetics. 9, 97-104. [24]
  • Marushiakova, Elena; Popov, Vesselin. (2001) "Gypsies in the Ottoman Empire." Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press.
  • Matras, Yaron (2002). Romani: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-512-02330-0.
  • McDowell, Bart (1970). "Gypsies, Wanderers of the World". National Geographic Society. ISBN 0-87044-088-8.
  • "Gypsies, The World's Outsiders." National Geographic, April 2001, 72-101.
  • Ringold, Dena. Roma & the Transition in Central & Eastern Europe: Trends & Challenges. Washington, DC, USA: World Bank, 2000. pg. 3,5, & 7.
  • Roberts, Samuel. The Gypsies: Their Origin, Continuance, and Destination. London: Longman, 4th edition, 1842.
  • Silverman, Carol. “Persecution and Politicization: Roma (Gypsies) of Eastern Europe.” Cultural Survival Quarterly, Summer 1995.
  • Simson, Walter. History of the Gipsies. London: S. Low, 1865.
  • Tebbutt, Susan (Ed., 1998) Sinti and Roma in German-speaking Society and Literature. Oxford: Berghahn.
  • Turner, Ralph L. (1926) The Position of Romani in Indo-Aryan. In: Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society 3rd Ser. 5/4, pp. 145–188.
  • Danish Broadcasting Corporation A page in Danish about Roma treatment in Denmark

This article provides only a brief outline of each period of the History of Romania; details are presented in separate articles (see the links in the box and below). ... Central European University is a US-licensed and accredited university based in Budapest, Hungary. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... Nature is one of the most prominent scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869. ... Duke University is a private coeducational research university located in Durham, North Carolina, USA. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. ... Genetic diversity is a characteristic of ecosystems and gene pools that describes an attribute which is commonly held to be advantageous for survival -- that there are many different versions of otherwise similar organisms. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... The National Geographic Society, headquartered in Washington, D.C. in the United States, is one of the worlds largest not-for-profit educational and scientific organizations. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Roma people

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Antiziganism or Anti-Romanyism is hostility, prejudice or racism directed at the Romani people, commonly called Gypsies. ... Tirgu-Jiu in Romania Cem Romengo is a name of a symbolic ethnic Roma state. ... Dazdie was the tax paid by Roma state slaves in Bessarabia to the Russian Empire after the region was incorporated in 1812. ... Decade of Roma Inclusion logo The Decade of Roma Inclusion is an initiative of eight Central and Southeastern European countries to improve the socio-economic status and social inclusion of the Roma (gypsy) minority across the region. ... The Dom (or Domi) of the Middle East are part of the larger Roma (or Gypsies) ethnic group. ... European Roma Rights Centre Roma or gypsies are a minority in Europe. ... The Gypsy Lore Society was founded in Great Britain in 1888 to unite persons interested in the history and lore of Gypsies and rovers and to establish closer contacts among scholars studying aspects of such cultures. ... The International Romani Union is an organization active for the rights of the Roma. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... This is list of settlements in which ethnic Roma form the majority of population. ... This list contains Romanian urban localities (municipalities or cities/towns) in which Roma people make up over 5% of the total population. ... This list includes all groups that are thought to be Romani people. ... This is a list of famous ethnic Romani people (sometimes referred to as Gypsies). ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... Roma arrivals in the Belzec extermination camp await instructions The Porajmos (also Porrajmos) literally Devouring, or Samudaripen (Mass killing) is a term coined by the Roma (Gypsy) people to describe attempts by the Nazi regime to exterminate most of the Roma peoples of Europe during The Holocaust. ... Roma flag The Roma flag (O styago le romengo in Romani) refers to the flag of the Roma people. ... Romani (or Romany) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, peoples often referred to in English as Gypsies. The Indo-Aryan Romani language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages. ... 19th century print of Romani musicians Romany musicians at a wedding in the Czech Republic in 2005 Typically nomadic, the Roma have long acted as wandering entertainers and tradesmen. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Šuto Orizari (Шуто Оризари in Macedonian, Shuto Orizari in Romani) or shortly Shutka is one of the ten municipalities that makes up the City of Skopje, the capital of the Republic of Macedonia. ... The Roma have long been a part of the collective mythology of the West, where they were (and very often still are) depicted as outsiders, aliens, and a threat. ... Time of the Gypsies (Serbian: Dom Za Vešanje) is a 1988 film by Serbiann director Emir Kusturica. ...

External links

  • Amala School for Roma Art, History and Language in Valjevo, Serbia
  • Rroma.org Roma organizations, culture and history
  • ABC Radio National -Walking in the paths of Gypsies Pt 1
  • ABC Radio National -Walking in the paths of Gypsies Pt 2
  • Essays on and images of Roma culture in Europe and the United Kingdom
  • The World Bank: Roma Population Map
  • Map of Gypsy Migration
  • European Parliament resolution on the situation of the Roma in the European Union - April 28, 2005
  • Final report on the human rights situation of the Roma, Sinti and travellers in Europe by the European Commissioner for Human Rights (Council of Europe) - February 15, 2006
  • "The Gypsies of Jerusalem: the Forgotten People" By Amoun Sleem

Valjevo postcard Valjevo (Serbian Cyrillic: Ваљево) is a city located in Serbia and Montenegro at 44. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 9th century   -  First unified state c. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 6 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General  Terry Davis  -  Commissioner for Human Rights   Establishment  -  Treaty of London 5... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Non-governmental organisations

  • European Roma Rights Centre - European Roma NGO
  • European Roma and Traveller Forum
  • Voice of Roma - Roma NGO in the San Francisco Bay Area
  • Croatian Roma Union
  • Roma Community Centre in Toronto, [[Canada*gods gypsy christian church los angeles

This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

News media sources

Internet television (or Internet TV) is television distributed via the Internet. ... In journalism, news agencies are bodies established to supply news reports to newspapers, magazines, and radio and television broadcasters. ... A media agency is a company which help companies to communicate with current and potential consumers and/or the general public. ...

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