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Encyclopedia > Romanesque architecture
South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century.
South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century.
Angoulême Cathedral, France.
Angoulême Cathedral, France.
See also: Romanesque architecture, regional characteristics and Romanesque art

Romanesque architecture is the term that is used to describe the architecture of Europe which emerged in the late 10th century and evolved into the Gothic style during the 12th century. The Romanesque style in England is more traditionally referred to as Norman architecture. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1704x2272, 1357 KB) Auteur/Author : Jean-Pol Grandmont (Collection personnelle/Private collection). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1704x2272, 1357 KB) Auteur/Author : Jean-Pol Grandmont (Collection personnelle/Private collection). ... Tournai Cathedral Notre-Dame Cathedral of Tournai is one of the most important architectural monuments in Belgium. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 466 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (896 × 1152 pixel, file size: 330 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 466 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (896 × 1152 pixel, file size: 330 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Cathédrale Saint-Pierre dAngoulême is a prominent edifice located in the town of Angoulême, France. ... Romanesque can refer to: Romanesque art Romanesque architecture Romanesque sculpture Other Romanesque (single), FictionJunction YUUKAs single. ... France, Saint-Front, Périgueux. ... Interior of the Saint-Saturnin church St-Sernin, Toulouse, 1080 – 1120: elevation of the east end Romanesque sculpture, cloister of St. ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... The nave of Durham Cathedral demonstrates the characteristic round arched style, though use of shallow pointed arches above the nave is a forerunner of the Gothic style. ...


Romanesque architecture is characterised by its massive quality, its thick walls, round arches, sturdy piers, groin vaults, large towers and decorative arcading. Each building has clearly defined forms and they are frequently of very regular, symmetrical plan so that the overall appearance is one of simplicity when compared with the Gothic buildings that were to follow. The style can be identified right across Europe, despite regional characteristics and different materials.


Although there was much building of castles during this period, they are greatly outnumbered by churches of which the most significant are the great abbey churches, many of which are still standing, more or less complete and frequently in use. [1]

Contents

Definition

Trier Cathedral, left, and the Gothic Church of Our Lady.
Trier Cathedral, left, and the Gothic Church of Our Lady.

"Romanesque" was first applied by the archaeologist Charles de Gerville, in the early 19th century, to describe Western European architecture from the 5th to the 13th centuries, at a time when the actual dates of many of the buildings so described had not been ascertained.[2] The term is now used for the more restricted period from the late 10th to the 12th century. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1440x1278, 431 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Trier Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1440x1278, 431 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Trier Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Cathedral of Trier Cathedral at night The Cathedral of Trier is the main religious building in Trier, [[Germany History Categories: | ... Charles-Alexis-Adrien Duhérissier de Gerville (Gerville-la-Forêt (Manche) 19 September 1769 — Valognes (Manche) 26 July 1853) was a scholarly French antiquarian, historian and naturalist, from an aristocratic family of Normandy[1]. His earliest concerns were with natural history and botany and his numismatic collection, but he...


The word was used to describe the style which was identifiably Medieval and prefigured the Gothic, yet maintained the rounded Roman arch and thus appeared to be a continuation of the Roman tradition of building, albeit a much simplified and less technically competent version.


The term "Pre-romanesque " is sometimes applied to architecture in Germany of the Carolingian and Ottonian periods while "First Romanesque" is applied to buildings in Italy, Spain and parts of France that have Romanesque features but pre-date the influence of the monastery of Cluny. The royal palace, later church, of Santa María del Naranco, an example of Asturian architecture of the Ramirense period. ... Lorsch monastery gatehouse The Palatine Chapel in Aachen Carolingian architecture is the style of North European architecture promoted by Charlemagne, King of the Franks, who was crowned Imperator Augustus in Rome on Christmas Day, 800 by Pope Leo III. The period of architecture spans the late 8th and 9th centuries... Ottonian Architecture evolved during the reign of Emperor Otto the Great (936-975). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pre-Romanesque art. ... Cluny nowadays The town of Cluny or Clugny lies in the modern-day département of Saône-et-Loire in the région of France, near Mâcon. ...


History

Bamberg Cathedral presents the distinctive outline of many of the large Romanesque churches of the Germanic tradition. The cathedral was rebuilt as Romanesque in the 1830s by Friedrich Gärtner.
Bamberg Cathedral presents the distinctive outline of many of the large Romanesque churches of the Germanic tradition. The cathedral was rebuilt as Romanesque in the 1830s by Friedrich Gärtner.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (1614 × 1074 pixel, file size: 249 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (1614 × 1074 pixel, file size: 249 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Events and Trends Electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday Dutch-speaking farmers known as Voortrekkers emigrate northwards from the Cape Colony Croquet invented in Ireland Railroad construction begins in earnest in the United States Egba refugees fleeing the Yoruba civil wars found the city of Abeokuta in south-west Nigeria...

Origins

Romanesque architecture was the first distinctive style to spread across Europe since the Roman Empire. Despite the impression of 19th century Art Historians that Romanesque architecture was a continuation of the Roman, in fact,Roman building techniques in brick and stone were largely lost in most parts of Europe, and in the more northern countries had never been adopted except for official buildings, while in Scandinavia they were unknown. There was little continuity, even in Rome where several great Constantinian basilicas continued to stand as an inspiration to later builders. It was not the buildings of ancient Rome, but the 6th century octagonal Byzantine basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna which was to inspire the greatest building of the Dark Ages in Western Europe, the Emperor Charlemagne’s chapel at Aachen, built around the year 800 AD. [3] World map showing the location of Europe. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Constantine. ... St. ... Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ... Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ...

The plan of the Abbey of St Gall, Switzerland.
The plan of the Abbey of St Gall, Switzerland.

Dating shortly after Aachen Cathedral is a remarkable 9th century manuscript which shows the plan for the building of the monastery at St. Gall in Switzerland. It is a very detailed plan, with all the various monastic buildings and their functions labelled. The largest building is the church, the plan of which is distinctly Germanic, having an apse at both ends, an arrangement which is not generally seen elsewhere. Another feature of the church is its regular proportion, the square plan of the crossing tower providing a module for the rest of the plan. These features can both be seen at the Proto-Romanesque St. Michael's Church, Hildesheim, 1001-1030. [3] Download high resolution version (500x720, 38 KB)Ground plan, St. ... Download high resolution version (500x720, 38 KB)Ground plan, St. ... Aachen Cathedral The Aachen Cathedral, frequently referred to as the Imperial Cathedral (in German: Kaiserdom) of Aachen, is the oldest cathedral in northern Europe. ... St. ... Michaeliskirche: View from southeast. ...


Architecture of a Romanesque style also developed simultaneously in the north of Italy, parts of France and in the Iberian Peninsula in the 10th century and prior to the later influence of the Abbey of Cluny. The style, sometimes called "First Romanesque" or "Lombard Romanesque", is characterised by are thick walls, lack of sculpture and the presence of rhythmic ornamental arches known as a Lombard band. The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... The abbey today The Abbey of Cluny (or Cluni, or Clugny) was founded on 2 September 909 by the Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Auvergne, William I, who placed it under the immediate authority of Pope Sergius III. The Abbey and its constellation of dependencies soon came to exemplify... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pre-Romanesque art. ... A decorative blind arcade that is usually exterior during the Romanesque and Gothic Medieval Periods of Architecture. ...


Politics

The Cathedral of Saint-Front, Perigueux, France, has five domes like Byzantine churches, but is Romanesque in construction.
The Cathedral of Saint-Front, Perigueux, France, has five domes like Byzantine churches, but is Romanesque in construction.

The Holy Roman Empire had been established by Charlemagne, who was crowned by the Pope in St Peter's Basilica on Christmas Day in the year 800 AD, with an aim to re-establishing the old Pax Romanum, to the glory of Christ Jesus. Charlemagne’s political successors continued to rule much of Europe, with a gradual emergence of the separate political states which were eventually to become welded into nations, either by allegiance or defeat. The invasion of England by William, Duke of Normandy, in 1066, saw the unification of that country and the building of both castles and churches which reinforced the Norman presence. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 402 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (579 × 864 pixel, file size: 162 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 402 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (579 × 864 pixel, file size: 162 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ... Interior view, with the nave of the Cattedra in the back St. ... For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... William I of England (c. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ...


To the east, at a time when the structures of the Roman Empire were falling into decay and its learning and technology lost, much was being maintained in the Byzantine Empire where the building of masonry domes and the carving of decorative architectural details continued unabated, though greatly evolved in style since the fall of Rome. The domed churches of Constantinople and Eastern Europe were to greatly affect the architecture of certain towns, particularly through trade and through the Crusades. The most notable single building which demonstrates this is St Mark's Basilica, Venice but there are many lesser known examples, particularly in France, such as the church of Saint-Front, Périgueux and Angoulême Cathedral. [4] Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Map of Constantinople. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... For the Basilica di San Marco in Rome, see Basilica di San Marco (Rome). ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia, Latin: Venetia) is a city in northern Italy, the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,251 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... Périgueux ( (help· info)) is a commune of France, préfecture (capital) of the Dordogne département and capital of the Périgord area. ... The Cathédrale Saint-Pierre dAngoulême is a prominent edifice located in the town of Angoulême, France. ...


Much of Europe was affected by feudalism in which peasants held tenure from local rulers over the land that they farmed in exchange for military service. The result of this was that they could be called upon, not only for local and regional spats, but to follow their lord to travel across Europe to the Crusades, if they were required to do so. The Crusades, 1095-1270, brought about a very large movement of people and, with them, ideas and trade skills, particularly those involved in the building of fortifications and the metal working needed for the provision of arms, which was also applied to the fitting and decoration of buildings. The continual movement of people, rulers, nobles, bishops, abbots, craftsmen and peasants, was an important factor in creating a homogeneity in building methods and a recognizable Romanesque style, despite regional differences. Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Military service is service in an army or other military organisation, whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary draft (conscription). ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ...

At St. Andrew's Church, Kraków, the paired towers are octagonal in plan and have domes of the Baroque period.
At St. Andrew's Church, Kraków, the paired towers are octagonal in plan and have domes of the Baroque period.

Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Kościół św. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ...

Religion

Across Europe, the late 11th and 12th centuries saw an unprecedented growth in the number of churches.[5] A great number of these buildings, both large and small, remain. They include many very well-known churches such as Santa Maria in Cosmedin in Rome[6], the Baptistery in Florence[7] and San Zeno Maggiore in Verona[8]. In France, the famous abbeys of Aux Dames and Les Hommes at Caen and Mont Saint-Michel date from this period, as well as the abbeys of the pilgrimage route to Santiago de Compostela. In England, of the 27 cathedrals of ancient foundation, all were begun in this period with the exception of Salisbury, where the monks relocated from Old Sarum, and several, such as Canterbury which were rebuilt on the site of Saxon churches.[9][10] In Spain, the most famous church of the period is Santiago de Compostela. In Germany, the Rhine and its tributaries were the location of many Romanesque abbeys, notably Mainz, Worms, Speyer and Bamberg. In Cologne, then the largest city north of the Alps, a very important group of large city churches survives largely intact. As monasticism spread across Europe, Romanesque churches sprang up in Scotland, Scandinavia, Poland, Hungary, Sicily, Serbia and Tunisia. Several important Romanesque churches were built in the Crusader kingdoms. [11][12] Santa Maria in Cosmedin is a church in Rome founded in the 6th century. ... The Battistero of San Giovanni. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Location Location of Santiago de Compostela Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Santiago de Compostela (Galician) Spanish name Santiago de Compostela Postal code 15700 Website http://www. ... Woodcut of Old Sarum as it was during its height Old Sarum is the site of the earliest settlement of Salisbury, England, with evidence of human habitation as early as 3000 BC. It sits on a hill about two miles (3km) north of modern Salisbury on the west side of... Canterbury is a cathedral city in east Kent in South East England and is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Primate of All England, head of the Church of England and of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... Location Location of Santiago de Compostela Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Santiago de Compostela (Galician) Spanish name Santiago de Compostela Postal code 15700 Website http://www. ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a short-lived country established in the 12th century by the First Crusade. ...


Monasticism

The Romanesque Abbey of Senaque, France, is surrounded by monastic buildings of various dates.
The Romanesque Abbey of Senaque, France, is surrounded by monastic buildings of various dates.

The system of monasticism in which the religious become members of an order, with common ties and a common rule, living in a mutually dependant community, rather than as a group of hermits living in proximity but essentially separate, was established by the monk Benedict in the 6th century. The Benedictine Monasteries spread from Italy throughout Europe, being always by far the most numerous in England. They were followed by the Cluniac order, the Cistercians, Carthusians and Augustinian Canons. In association with the Crusades, the military orders of the Knights Hospitallers and the Knights Templars were founded. Abbey of Senanque, located in France, Provence, Vaucluse, Gordes village. ... Abbey of Senanque, located in France, Provence, Vaucluse, Gordes village. ... This article is about Saint Benedict of Nursia, for other uses of the name Benedict see Benedict (disambiguation) Saint Benedict of Nursia (c. ... The longest lasting of the western Catholic monastic orders, the Benedictine Order traces its origins to the adoption of the monastic life by St. ... Cluniac Reform was the time of the purification and scourging of the Roman Catholic Church during the 11th century. ... Cistercians coat of arms The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin: ), otherwise White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which a black scapular or apron is sometimes worn) is a Roman Catholic order of enclosed monks. ... A Carthusian Monastery in Jerez, Spain The Carthusians are a Christian religious order founded by St Bruno in 1084. ... The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430), are several Roman Catholic monastic orders and congregations of both men and women living according to a guide to religious life known as the Rule of Saint Augustine. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... The Knights Hospitaller (the or Knights of Malta or Knights of Rhodes) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in the 11th century based in the Holy Land, but soon became a militant Christian Chivalric Order under its own charter, and was charged with the care... The Seal of the Knights — the two riders have been interpreted as a sign of poverty or the duality of monk/soldier. ...


The monasteries, which sometimes also functioned as cathedrals, and the cathedrals which had bodies of secular clergy often living in community, were a major source of power in Europe. Bishops and the abbots of important monasteries lived and functioned like princes. The monasteries were the major seats of learning of all sorts. Benedict had ordered that all the arts were to be taught and practiced in the monasteries. Within the monasteries books were transcribed by hand, and few people outside the monasteries could read or write. [1]


In France, Burgundy was the centre of monasticism. The enormous and powerful monastery at Cluny was to have lasting effect on the layout of other monasteries and the design of their churches. Unfortunately, very little of the abbey church at Cluny remains; the "Cluny II" rebuilding of 963 onwards has completely vanished, but we have a good idea of the design of "Cluny III" from 1088-1130, which until the Renaissance remained the largest building in Europe. However, the church of St. Sernin at Toulouse, 1080-1120, has remained intact and demonstrates the regularity of Romanesque design with its modular form, its massive appearance and the repetition of the simple arched window motif. [3] The abbey today The Abbey of Cluny (or Cluni, or Clugny) was founded on 2 September 909 by William I, Count of Auvergne, who installed Abbot Berno and placed the abbey under the immediate authority of Pope Sergius III. The Abbey and its constellation of dependencies soon came to exemplify... East end elevation of Saint-Sernin Basilica Crypt of Saint-Sernin Basilica View of the back side of the building and the tower Saint-Sernin basilica located in Toulouse, France, was built during the Romanesque Period between AD 1080 and 1120. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land...


Pilgrimage and Crusade

One of the effects of the Crusades, which were intended to wrest the Holy Places of Palestine from Islamic control, was to excite a great deal religious fervour which in turn inspired great building programs. The Nobility of Europe, upon safe return, thanked God by the building of a new church or the enhancement of an old one. Likewise, those who did not return from the Crusades could be suitably commemorated by their family in a work of stone and mortar. The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


The Crusades resulted in the transfer of, among other things, a great number of Holy Relics of saints and apostles. Many churches, like Saint-Front, Périgueux, had their own home grown saint while others, most notably Santiago de Compostela, claimed the remains and the patronage of a powerful saint, in this case one of the Twelve Apostles. Santiago de Compostela, located near the western extremity of Galicia (present day Spain) became the most important pilgrimage destination in Europe. Most of the pilgrims travelled the Way of Saint James on foot, many of them barefooted as a sign of penance. They moved along one of the four main routes that passed through France, congregating for the journey at Jumieges, Paris, Vezelay, Cluny, Arles and St. Gall in Switzerland. They crossed two passes in the Pyrenees and converged into a single stream to traverse north-western Spain. Along the route they were urged on by those pilgrims returning from the journey. On each of the routes abbeys such as those at Moissac, Toulouse, Roncesvalles, Conques, Limoges and Burgos catered for the flow of people and grew wealthy from the passing trade. Saint-Benoît-du-Sault, in the Berry province, is typical of the churches that were founded on the pilgrim route.[1][3] A relic is an object, especially a piece of the body or a personal item of someone of religious significance, carefully preserved with an air of veneration as a tangible memorial, Relics are an important aspect of Buddhism, some denominations of Christianity, Hinduism, shamanism, and many other personal belief systems. ... General definition of saint In general, the term Saint refers to someone who is exceptionally virtuous and holy. ... Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the... Périgueux ( (help· info)) is a commune of France, préfecture (capital) of the Dordogne département and capital of the Périgord area. ... Location Location of Santiago de Compostela Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Santiago de Compostela (Galician) Spanish name Santiago de Compostela Postal code 15700 Website http://www. ... For other uses, see Twelve Apostles (disambiguation). ... Location Location of Santiago de Compostela Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Santiago de Compostela (Galician) Spanish name Santiago de Compostela Postal code 15700 Website http://www. ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... External links Official city site Live Cam of Obradoiro Façade Confraternity of St. ... Jumièges is a commune of the Seine-Maritime département, in Normandy, France. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Vézelay is a commune in the Yonne département in the Burgundy region of France. ... Cluny nowadays The town of Cluny or Clugny lies in the modern-day département of Saône-et-Loire in the région of France, near Mâcon. ... Coordinates Administration Country France Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (Subprefecture) Arrondissement Arles Canton Chief town of 2 cantons: Arles-Est and Arles-Ouest Intercommunality Agglomeration community of Arles-Crau-Camargue-Montagnette Mayor Hervé Schiavetti  (PS) (2001-2008) Statistics Altitude 0 m–57 m... St. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... A stop on the way to Santiago of Compostella The town of Moissac holds 3 major points of interest : the National heritage, tourism and economy which reflect Monuments, Streams and Fruit. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... Roncesvalles (French: Roncevaux, Basque: Orreaga) is a small village of northern Spain (Navarre Cities), in the province of Navarre; situated on the small river Urrobi, at an altitude of 2,950 ft. ... Categories: Stub ... This article is about the French commune. ... The cathedral Our Lady of Burgos. ... Saint-Benoît-du-Sault is a little town and commune of the Indre département, in central France. ...


Characteristics

Sant'Ambrogio, Milan is constructed of bricks .
Sant'Ambrogio, Milan is constructed of bricks .

The general impression given by Romanesque architecture, in both ecclesiastical and secular buildings, is one of massive solidity and strength. In contrast with both the preceding Roman and later Gothic architecture in which the load bearing structural members are, or appear to be, columns, pilasters and arches, Romanesque architecture, in common with Byzantine architecture, relies upon its walls, or sections of walls called piers. [1] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 700 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 700 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire. ...


Romanesque architecture is often divided into two periods known as the "First Romanesque" style and the "Romanesque" style. The difference is chiefly a matter of the expertise with which the buildings were constructed. The First Romanesque employed rubble walls, smaller windows and unvaulted roofs. A greater refinement marks the Second Romanesque, along with increased use of the vault and dressed stone. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pre-Romanesque art. ...

San Vittore alle Chiuse, Genga, Italy, of undressed stone, has a typically fortress-like appearance.
San Vittore alle Chiuse, Genga, Italy, of undressed stone, has a typically fortress-like appearance.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Genga is a town and comune of Ancona province in the Italian region of the Marche, at , at 320 m (1050 ft) above sea-level, on the Sentino river about 7 km (4 mi) downstream and E of Sassoferrato; and 12 km N of Fabriano. ...

Walls

The walls of Romanesque buildings are often of massive thickness with few and comparatively small openings. They are often double shells, filled with rubble.


The building material differs greatly across Europe, depending upon the local stone and building traditions. In Italy, Poland, much of Germany and Holland, brick is generally used. Other areas saw extensive use of limestone, granite and flint. The building stone was often used in comparatively small and irregular pieces, bedded in thick mortar. Smooth ashlar masonry was not a distinguishing feature of the style, particularly in the earlier part of the period, but occurred chiefly where easily-worked limestone was available. [13] Ashlar is dressed stone work of any type of stone. ...

Mainz Cathedral, Germany, has possibly the earliest example of an internal elevation of 3 stages.
Mainz Cathedral, Germany, has possibly the earliest example of an internal elevation of 3 stages.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 393 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (585 × 892 pixel, file size: 133 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 393 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (585 × 892 pixel, file size: 133 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Piers

In Romanesque architecture, piers were often employed to support arches. They were built of masonry and square or rectangular in section, generally having a horizontal moulding representing a capital at the springing of the arch. Sometimes piers have vertical shafts attached to them, and may also have horizontal mouldings at the level of base. For the type of foundation, see Deep foundation. ...


Although basically rectangular, piers can often be of highly complex form, with half-segments of large hollow-core columns on the inner surface surporting the arch, or a clustered group of smaller shafts leading into the mouldings of the arch.


Piers that occur at the intersection of two large arches, such as those under the crossing of the nave and transept, are commonly cruciform in shape, each arch having its own supporting rectangular pier at right angles to the other. [1][3]


Columns

Salvaged columns

In Italy, during this period, a great number of antique Roman columns were salvaged and reused in the interiors and on the porticos of churches. The most durable of these columns are of marble and have the stone horizontally bedded. The majority are vertically bedded and are sometimes of a variety of colours. They may have retained their original Roman capitals, generally of the Corinthian or Roman Composite style. [11] The Corinthian order as used for the portico of the Pantheon, Rome provided a prominent model for Renaissance and later architects, through the medium of engravings. ...

Santiago de Compostela has large columns constructed of drums, with attached shafts. pic G.Jansoone.
Santiago de Compostela has large columns constructed of drums, with attached shafts. pic G.Jansoone.

Some buildings, like the atrium at San Clemente in Rome, may have an odd assortment of columns in which large capitals are placed on short columns and small capitals are placed on taller columns to even the height. Architectural compromises of this type would have been unthinkable to either Roman or Gothic architects. Salvaged columns were also used to a lesser extent in France. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1243 pixel, file size: 479 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1243 pixel, file size: 479 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Location Location of Santiago de Compostela Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Santiago de Compostela (Galician) Spanish name Santiago de Compostela Postal code 15700 Website http://www. ... The Basilica of San Clemente is a complex of buildings in Rome centered around a 12th century Roman Catholic church dedicated to Pope Clement I. The site is notable as being an archeological record of Roman architectural, political and religious history from the early Christian era to the Middle Ages. ...


In Germany and other areas, small columns cut from a single piece of stone were used alternately between more massive piers.[11]


Drum columns

In most parts of Europe, Romanesque columns were massive, as they supported thick upper walls with small windows, and sometimes heavy vaults. The most common method of construction was to build them out of stone cylinders called drums, as in the crypt at Speyer Cathedral.[11][14] This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ...

Durham Cathedral, England, has decorated masonry columns and the earliest pointed high ribs.pic Nina Aldin Thune
Durham Cathedral, England, has decorated masonry columns and the earliest pointed high ribs.pic Nina Aldin Thune

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 399 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (532 × 800 pixel, file size: 70 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (Uploaded using CommonsHelper or PushForCommons) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 399 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (532 × 800 pixel, file size: 70 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (Uploaded using CommonsHelper or PushForCommons) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Durham Cathedrals famous Sanctuary Knocker on the North Door Ground plan of Durham Cathedral Legend of the founding of Durham depicted on cathedral The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, which is almost always referred to as Durham Cathedral, in the city...

Hollow core columns

Where really massive columns were called for, such as those at Durham Cathedral, they were constructed of ashlar masonry and the hollow core was filled with rubble. These huge untapered columns are sometimes ornamented with incised decorations. [10] Durham Cathedrals famous Sanctuary Knocker on the North Door Ground plan of Durham Cathedral Legend of the founding of Durham depicted on cathedral The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, which is almost always referred to as Durham Cathedral, in the city...


Capitals

The foliate Corinthian style provided the inspiration for many Romanesque capitals, and the accuracy with which they were carved depended very much on the availability of original models, those in Italian churches such as Pisa Cathedral and southern France being much closer to the Classical than those in England. [11][1] The Corinthian order as used for the portico of the Pantheon, Rome provided a prominent model for Renaissance and later architects, through the medium of engravings. ... The Campo dei Miracoli (Field of Miracles) is a wide, walled area at the heart of the city of Pisa, Tuscany, Italy ( ), recognized as one of the main centers for medieval art in the world. ...


The Corinthian capital is essentially round at the bottom where it sits on a circular column and square at the top, where it supports the wall or arch. This form of capital was maintained in the general proportions and outline of the Romanesque capital. This was achieved most simply by cutting a rectangular cube and taking the four lower corners off at an angle so that the block was square at the top, but octagonal at the bottom, as can be seen at St. Michael's Hildesheim.[11]

Paired columns like those at Duratón, near Sepúlveda, Spain, are a feature of Romanesque cloisters in Spain. Italy and souther France.
Paired columns like those at Duratón, near Sepúlveda, Spain, are a feature of Romanesque cloisters in Spain. Italy and souther France.

This shaped leant itself to a wide variety of superficial treatments, sometimes foliate in imitation of the source, but often figurative. In Northern Europe the foliate capitals generally bear far more resemblance to the intricacies of manuscript illumination than to Classical sources. In parts of France and Italy there are strong links to the pierced capitals of Byzantine architecture. It is in the figurative capitals that the greatest originality is shown. While some are dependent on manuscripts illustrations of Biblical scenes and depictions of beasts and monsters, others are lively scenes of the legends of local saints.[4] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 686 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Iglesia Románica, Duratón, near Sepúlveda, Spain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 686 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Iglesia Románica, Duratón, near Sepúlveda, Spain. ... An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript, often of a religious nature, in which the text is supplemented by the addition of colourful ornamentation, such as decorated initials, borders and the like. ... Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire. ...


The capitals, while retaining the form of a square top and a round bottom, were often compressed into little more than a bulging cushion-shape. This is particularly the case on large masonry columns, or on large columns that alternate with piers as at Durham.

St. Michael's, Hildesheim has alternating piers and columns.
St. Michael's, Hildesheim has alternating piers and columns.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2136 × 2848 pixel, file size: 504 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Hildesheim, Cathedral St. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2136 × 2848 pixel, file size: 504 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Hildesheim, Cathedral St. ... The Church of St. ...

Alternation

A common characteristic of Romanesque buildings, occurring both in churches and in the arcades which separate large interior spaces of castles, is the alternation of piers and columns.


The most simple form that this takes is to have a column between each adjoining pier. Sometimes the columns are in multiples of two or three. At St. Michael's, Hildesheim, an ABBA alternation occurs in the nave while an ABA alternation can be seen in the transepts. The Church of St. ...


At Jumieges there are tall drum columns between piers each of which has a half-column supporting the arch. There are many variations on this theme, most notably at Durham Cathedral where the mouldings and shafts of the piers are of exceptional richness and the huge masonry columns are each deeply incised with a different geometric pattern. [11] Jumièges is a commune of the Seine-Maritime département, in Normandy, France. ... Durham Cathedrals famous Sanctuary Knocker on the North Door Ground plan of Durham Cathedral Legend of the founding of Durham depicted on cathedral The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, which is almost always referred to as Durham Cathedral, in the city...


Often the arrangement was made more complex by the complexity of the piers themselves, so that it was not piers and columns that alternated, but rather, piers of entirely different form from each other, such as those of Sant' Ambrogio, Milan where the nature of the vault dictated that the alternate piers bore a great deal more weight than the intermediate ones and are thus very much larger. [3] The hut façade of SantAmbrogio with the entrance portico. ...

The apse of the Cathedral of la Seu d'Urgell, Spain, has a round-topped windows, an arcade with colonnettes and an occular window.pic K.Jeaves
The apse of the Cathedral of la Seu d'Urgell, Spain, has a round-topped windows, an arcade with colonnettes and an occular window.pic K.Jeaves

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Arches and openings

Arches in Romanesque architecture are semicircular, with the exception of a very small number of buildings such as Autun Cathedral in France and Monreale Cathedral in Sicily in both of which pointed arches have been used extensively. It is believed that in these cases there is a direct imitation of Islamic architecture. Autun Cathedral. ... Monreale (contraction of monte-reale, so-called from a palace built here by Roger I of Sicily) is a small city in the province of Palermo, in Sicily, Italy, on the slope of Monte Caputo, overlooking the beautiful and very fertile valley called La Conca doro (the Golden Shell... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


While small windows might be surmounted by a solid stone lintel, larger windows are nearly always arched. Doorways are also surmounted by a semi-circular arch, except where the door is set into a large arched recess and surmounted by a semi-circular "lunette" with decorative carving. [3]

The interior of St Gertrude, Nivelles, Belgium, has a king post roof.
The interior of St Gertrude, Nivelles, Belgium, has a king post roof.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 1. ...

Vaults and roofs

The majority of buildings have wooden roofs, generally of a simple truss, tie beam or king post form. In the case of trussed rafter roofs, they are sometimes lined with wooden ceilings in three sections like those which survive at Ely and Peterborough cathedrals in England. In churches, typically the aisles are vaulted, but the nave is roofed with timber, as is the case at both Peterborough and Ely.[10] In Italy where open wooden roofs are common, and tie beams frequently occur in conjunction with vaults, the timbers have often been decorated as at San Miniato al Monte, Florence.[1] Front of Ely Cathedral Ely Cathedral (in full, The Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Ely) is the principal church of the diocese of Ely, in Cambridgeshire, England, and the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Ely. ... Peterborough Cathedral Plan Peterborough Cathedral is dedicated to Saint Peter, Saint Paul and Saint Andrew, and is very unusual amongst mediæval cathedrals in Britain because of its triple front (dominated by the statues of the three saints) and overall asymmetrical appearance. ... San Miniato al Monte and the Bishops Palace The Basilica di San Miniato al Monte (Basilica of St Minias on the Mountain) stands atop one of the highest points in Florence, and has been described as the finest Romanesque structure in Tuscany and one of the most beautiful churches...


Vaults of stone or brick took on several different forms and showed marked development during the period, evolving into the pointed ribbed arch which is characteristic of Gothic architecture. Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ...


Barrel vault

The simplest type of vaulted roof is the barrel vault in which a single arched surface extends from wall to wall, the length of the space to be vaulted, for example, the nave of a church. An important example, which retains Medieval paintings, is the vault of Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe, France, of the early 12th century. However, the barrel vault generally required the support of solid walls, or walls in which the windows were very small. [11] Saint Savin, also referred to as Saint-Savin sur Gartempe, is a commune of the Vienne département, in the former province of Poitou, France. ...

Bayeux Cathedral, the crypt has groin vaults and simplified Corinthian capitals.
Bayeux Cathedral, the crypt has groin vaults and simplified Corinthian capitals.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 545 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cathedral of Bayeux, inside, crypt / Personal picture taken by user Urban Copyright Urban, February 2005 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 545 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cathedral of Bayeux, inside, crypt / Personal picture taken by user Urban Copyright Urban, February 2005 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del...

Groin vault

Groin vaults occur very frequently in earlier Romanesque buildings, and also for the less visible and smaller vaults in later buildings, particularly in crypts and aisles. A groin vault is almost always square in plan and is constructed of two barrel vaults intersecting at right angles. Unlike a ribbed vault, the entire arch is a structural member. Groin vaults are frequently separated by transverse arched ribs of low profile as at Santiago de Compostela. At La Madeleine, Vézelay, the ribs are square in section, strongly projecting and polychrome. [15] Location Location of Santiago de Compostela Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Santiago de Compostela (Galician) Spanish name Santiago de Compostela Postal code 15700 Website http://www. ... Vézelay Abbey was a Benedictine and Cluniac monastery in Vézelay in the Yonne département in Burgundy, France. ...


Ribbed vault

At Saint-Etienne, Caen, both the nave and the tower are covered by ribbed vaults. c.1080.
At Saint-Etienne, Caen, both the nave and the tower are covered by ribbed vaults. c.1080.

In ribbed vaults, not only are there ribs spanning the vaulted area transversely, but each vaulted bay has diagonal ribs. In a ribbed vault, the ribs are the structural members, and the spaces between them can be filled with lighter, none-structural material. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 201 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) St Etienne abbey church, lantern tower, Caen / Photo from user Urban February 2005 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 201 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) St Etienne abbey church, lantern tower, Caen / Photo from user Urban February 2005 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this... The Abbaye-aux-Hommes ( man monastery Saint Étienne) is considered together with the neighbouring woman Mrs. ...


Because Romanesque arches are nearly always semi-circular, the structural and design problem inherent in the ribbed vault is that the diagonal span is larger and therefore higher than the transverse span. The Romanesque builders used a number of solutions to this problem. One was to have the centre point where the diagonal ribs met as the highest point, with the infil of all the surfaces sloping upwards towards it, in a domical manner. This solution was employed in Italy at San Michele, Pavia and Sant' Ambrogio, Milan.[11] Façade. ... The hut façade of SantAmbrogio with the entrance portico. ...


Another solution was to stilt the transverse ribs, or depress the diagonal ribs so that the centreline of the vault was horizontal, like a that of a barrel vault. The latter solution was used on the sexpartite vaults at both the Saint-Etienne, the Abbaye-aux-Hommes and Abbaye-aux-Dames at Caen, France, in the late 11th and early 12th centuries.[1] The Abbaye-aux-Hommes ( man monastery Saint Étienne) is considered together with the neighbouring woman Mrs. ... Façade. ...

The nave of the abbey church of Saint-Georges, Boscherville, has pointed transverse ribs.
The nave of the abbey church of Saint-Georges, Boscherville, has pointed transverse ribs.

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Pointed arched vault

Late in the Romanesque period another solution came into use for regualting the height of diagonal and transverse ribs. This was to use arches of the same diameter for both horizontal and transverse ribs, causing the transverse ribs to meet at a point. This is seen most notably at Durham Cathedral in northern England, dating from 1128. Durham is a cathedral of massive Romanesque proportions and appearance, yet its builders introduced several structural features which were new to architectural design and were to later to be hallmark features of the Gothic. Another Gothic structural feature employed at Durham is the flying buttress. However, these are hidden beneath the roofs of the aisles. The earliest pointed vault in France is that of the narthex of La Madeleine, Vézelay, dating from 1130.[13] Durham Cathedrals famous Sanctuary Knocker on the North Door Ground plan of Durham Cathedral Legend of the founding of Durham depicted on cathedral The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, which is almost always referred to as Durham Cathedral, in the city... Flying buttresses at Bath Abbey, Bath, England. ... Vézelay Abbey was a Benedictine and Cluniac monastery in Vézelay in the Yonne département in Burgundy, France. ...


Church and cathedral plan and section

The abbey church of Fongombault displays a cruciform plan, round chancel, apsidal chapels and high nave with lower aisles.
The abbey church of Fongombault displays a cruciform plan, round chancel, apsidal chapels and high nave with lower aisles.

Many parish churches, abbey churches and cathedrals are in the Romanesque style, or were originally built in the Romanesque style and have subsequently undergone changes. The simplest Romanesque churches are aisless halls with a projecting apse at the chancel end, or sometimes, particularly in England, a projecting rectanglar chancel with a chancel arch that might be decorated with mouldings. More ambitious churches have aisles separated from the nave by arcades. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...


Abbey and cathedral churches generally follow the Latin Cross plan. In England, the extension eastward may be long, while in Italy it is often short or non-existent, the church being of T plan, sometimes with apses on the transept ends as well as to the east. In France the church of St Front, Perigueux, appears to have been modelled on St. Mark's Basilica, Venice or another Byzantine church and is of a Greek cross plan with five domes. In the same region, Angouleme Cathedral is an aisless church of the Latin cross plan, more usual in France, but is also roofed with domes. [11][1] The traditional form of the Christian cross, known as the Latin cross The Christian cross is a familiar religious symbol of most Christianity. ... For the Basilica di San Marco in Rome, see Basilica di San Marco (Rome). ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Façade. ...

The south transept of Winchester Cathedral is in 3 stages. pic C.Finot
The south transept of Winchester Cathedral is in 3 stages. pic C.Finot

In Germany, Romanesque churches are often of distinctive form, having apses at both east and west ends, the main entrance being central to one side. It is probable that this form came about to accommodate a baptistery at the west end. [13] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 485 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 485 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


In section, the typical aisled church or cathedral has a nave with a single aisle on either side. The nave and aisles are separated by an arcade carried on piers or on columns. The roof of the aisle and the outer walls help to buttress the upper walls and vault of the nave, if present. Above the aisle roof are a row of windows know as the clerestory, which give light to the nave. During the Romanesque period there was a development from this two-stage elevation to a three-stage elevation in which there is a gallery, known as a triforium, between the arcade and the clerestory. This varies from a simple blind arcade decorating the walls, to a narrow arcaded passage, to a fully-developed second story with a row of windows lighting the gallery. [11]


Church and cathedral east ends

Schoengrabern church, Austria, shows a semi-circular chancel, flat buttresses and arcade beneath the roof. The tower is of the Baroque period.
Schoengrabern church, Austria, shows a semi-circular chancel, flat buttresses and arcade beneath the roof. The tower is of the Baroque period.

The eastern end of a Romanesque church is almost always semi-circular, with either a high chancel surrounded by an ambulatory as in France, or a square end fom which an apse projects as in Germany and Italy. Where square ends exist in English churches, they are probably influenced by Anglo Saxon churches. Peterborough and Norwich Cathedrals have retained round east ends in the French style. However, in France, simple churches without apses and with no decorative features were built by the Cistercians who also founded many houses in England, frquenly in remote areas.[16] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3168 × 2376 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3168 × 2376 pixel, file size: 3. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... Look up Anglo-Saxon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cistercians coat of arms The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin: ), otherwise White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which a black scapular or apron is sometimes worn) is a Roman Catholic order of enclosed monks. ...


Buttresses

Because of the massive nature of Romanesque walls, buttresses are not a highly significant feature, as they are in Gothic architecture. Romanesque buttresses are generally of flat square profile and do not project a great deal beyond the wall. In the case of aisled churches, barrel vaults, or half-barrel vaults over the aisles helped to buttress the nave, if it was vaulted.


In the cases where half-barrel vaults were used, they effectively became like flying buttresses. Often aisles extended through two storeys, rather than the one usual in Gothic architecture, so as to better support the weight of a vaulted nave. In the case of Durham Cathedral, flying buttresses have been employed, but are hidden inside the triforium gallery.[10] Flying buttresses at Bath Abbey, Bath, England. ...

Limburger Dom, Germany, has recently had its polychrome plaster restored.
Limburger Dom, Germany, has recently had its polychrome plaster restored.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Church and cathedral facades and external decoration

Romanesque church facades, generally to the west end of the building, are usually symmetrical, have a large central portal made significant by its mouldings or porch and an arrangement of arched-topped windows. In Italy there is often a single central ocular window. The common decorative feature is arcading. [1]


Smaller churches often have a single tower which is usually placed to the western end, in France or England, either centrally or to one side, while larger churches and cathedrals often have two.


In France, Saint-Etienne, Caen presents the model of a large French Romanesque facade. It is a symmetrical arrangement of nave flanked by two tall towers each with two buttress of low flat profile which divide the facade into three vertical units. The three horizontal stages are marked by a large door set within an arch in each of the three vertical sections. The wider central section has two tiers of three identical windows, while in the outer tiers their are two tiers of single windows, giving emphasis to the mass of the towers. The towers rise through three tiers, the lowest of tall blind arcading, the next of arcading pierced by two narrow windows and the third of two large windows, divided into two lights by a colonette. [15] The Abbaye-aux-Hommes ( man monastery Saint Étienne) is considered together with the neighbouring woman Mrs. ...


This facade can be seen as the foundation for many other buildings, including both French and English Gothic churches. While the form is typical of northern France, its various components were common to many Romanesque churches of the period across Europe. Similar facades are found in Portugal. In England, Southwell Cathedral has maintained this form, despite the insertion of a huge Gothic window between the towers. Lincoln and Durham must once have looked like this. In Germany, Limbourg Cathedral has a rich variety of openings and arcades in horizontal storeys of varying heights. Southwell Minster Southwell Minster is a minster and cathedral, in the English town of Southwell in Nottinghamshire, six miles away from Newark-on-Trent. ... Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. ... Durham Cathedrals famous Sanctuary Knocker on the North Door Ground plan of Durham Cathedral Legend of the founding of Durham depicted on cathedral The Cathedral Church of Christ, Blessed Mary the Virgin and St Cuthbert of Durham, which is almost always referred to as Durham Cathedral, in the city... Limbourg is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ...

San Miniato al Monte, Florence, presents of polychrome marble facade favoured in Tuscany.
San Miniato al Monte, Florence, presents of polychrome marble facade favoured in Tuscany.

The churches of San Zeno Maggiore, Verona and San Michele, Pavia present two types of facade that are typical of Italian Romanesque, that which reveals the architectural form of the building, and that which screens it. At San Zeno, the components of nave and aisles are made clear by the vertical shaftes which rise to the level of the central gable and by the varying roof levels. At San Miniato al Monte the definition of the architectural parts is made even clearer by the polychrome marble, a feature of many Italian Medieval facades, particularly in Tuscany. At San Michele the vertical definition is present as at San Zeno, but the rooflines are screened behind a single large gable decorated with stepped arcading. At Santa Maria della Pieve, Arezzo this screening is carried even further, as the roofline is horizontal and the arcading rises in many different levels while the colonettes which support them have a great diversity of decoration. [13][3] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 926 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:de. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 926 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:de. ... The basilica of San Zeno. ... Façade. ... San Miniato al Monte and the Bishops Palace The Basilica di San Miniato al Monte (Basilica of St Minias on the Mountain) stands atop one of the highest points in Florence, and has been described as the finest Romanesque structure in Tuscany and one of the most beautiful churches... Polychrome is one of the terms used to describe the use of multiple colors in one entity. ...

The richly decorated tower of Norwich Cathedral is surmounted by a 15th Century spire.
The richly decorated tower of Norwich Cathedral is surmounted by a 15th Century spire.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 270 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 270 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Towers

Towers were an important feature of Romanesque churches and a great number of them are still standing. They take a variety of forms, square, circular and octagonal, and are positioned differently in relation to the church in different countries. In northern France, two large towers, such as those at Caen, were to become an integral part of the facade of any large abbey or cathedral. In central and southern France this is more variable and large churches may have one tower or a central tower. Large churches of Spain and Portugal usually have two towers.


Many abbeys of France, such as that at Cluny, had many towers of varied forms. This is also common in Germany, where the apses were sometimes framed with circular towers and the crossing surmounted by an octagonal tower as at Worms Cathedral. Large paired towers of square plan could also occur on the transept ends, such as those at Tournai Cathedral in Belgium. In Germany, where four towers frequently occur, they often have spires which may be four or eight sided, or the distinctive Rhenish helm shape seen on Limbourg Cathedral.[11] Worms Cathedral East facade The spacious Cathedral of St. ... Tournai Cathedral Notre-Dame Cathedral of Tournai is one of the most important architectural monuments in Belgium. ... Limbourg is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Liège. ...


In England, for large abbeys and cathedral buildings, three towers were favoured, with the central tower being the tallest. This was often not achieved, through the slow process of the building stages, and in many cases the upper parts of the tower were not completed until centuries later as at Durham and Lincoln. Large Norman towers exist at the cathedrals of Durham, Exeter, Southwell and Norwich. [10] The west front. ... Southwell Minster Southwell Minster is a minster and cathedral, in the English town of Southwell in Nottinghamshire, six miles away from Newark-on-Trent. ... Norwich Cathedral: Spire and south transcept. ...

At Sant Climent de Taüll, Vall de Bohí, the tower has an increasing size in the windows at each level, typical also of Italian and German towers. pic Núria Pueyo
At Sant Climent de Taüll, Vall de Bohí, the tower has an increasing size in the windows at each level, typical also of Italian and German towers. pic Núria Pueyo

In Italy towers are almost always free standing and the position is often dictated by the landform of the site, rather than aesthetics. This is the case in Italian nearly all churches both large and small, except in Sicily where a number of churches were founded by the Norman rulers and are more French in appearance. [1] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 426 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1032 × 1452 pixel, file size: 129 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sant Climent de Taüll, Vall de Bohí. Picture take it by Núria Pueyo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 426 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1032 × 1452 pixel, file size: 129 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Sant Climent de Taüll, Vall de Bohí. Picture take it by Núria Pueyo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete...


As a general rule, large Romanesque towers are square with corner buttresses of low profile, rising without diminishing through the various stages. Towers are usually marked into clearly defined stages by horizontal courses. As the towers rise, the number and size of openings increases as can be seen on the right tower of the transept of Tournai Cathedral where two narrow slits in the fourth level from the top becomes a single window, then two windows, then three windows at the uppermost level. This sort of arrangement is particularly noticeable on the towers of Italian churches, which are usually built of brick and may have no other ornament. Two fine examples occur at Lucca, at the church of San Frediano and at the Duomo. It is also seen in Spain. [1] Tournai Cathedral Notre-Dame Cathedral of Tournai is one of the most important architectural monuments in Belgium. ... Lucca is a city in Tuscany, northern central Italy, situated on the river Serchio in a fertile plain near (but not on) the Ligurian Sea. ... Basilica of San Frediano The basilica of San Frediano is a Romanesque church, situated on the Piazza San Frediano in Lucca, Italy. ... Façade and bell tower of the Duomo di Lucca. ...


In Italy, there are a number of large free-standing towers which are circular, the most famous of these being the Leaning Tower of Pisa. In other countries where circular towers occur, such as Germany, they are usually paired and often flank an apse. Circular towers are uncommon in England, but occur throughout the Early Medieval period in Ireland. The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italian: Torre pendente di Pisa) or simply The Tower of Pisa (La Torre di Pisa) is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa. ...


Octagonal towers were often used on crossings and occur in France, Germany, Spain and Italy where an example that is unusual for its height is that on the crossing of Sant' Antonio, Piacenza, 1140. Piacenza (Placentia in Latin and old-fashioned English, Piasëinsa in the local dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo) is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. ...


In Spain, in the 12th century, a feature is the polygonal towers at the crossing. These have ribbed vaults and are elaborately decorated, such as the "Torre del Gallo" at Salamanca Old Cathedral. [11]

Santa Maria della Pieve, Arezzo, has a screen front with varied tiers of colonettes.
Santa Maria della Pieve, Arezzo, has a screen front with varied tiers of colonettes.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 799 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Arezzo - Chiesa di Santa Maria della Pieve File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 799 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Arezzo - Chiesa di Santa Maria della Pieve File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this...

Decoration

Architectural embellishment

Arcading is the single most significant decorative feature of Romanesque architecture. It occurs in a variety of forms, from the Lombard band which is a row of small arches that appear to support a roofline or course, to shallow blind arcading often a feature of English architecture and seen in great variety at Ely Cathedral, to open galleries such as those on both Pisa Cathedral and its famous Leaning Tower. Arcades could be used to great effect, both externally and internally, as exemplified by the church of Santa Maria della Pieve, in Arezzo.[13] A decorative blind arcade that is usually exterior during the Romanesque and Gothic Medieval Periods of Architecture. ... Front of Ely Cathedral Ely Cathedral (in full, The Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Ely) is the principal church of the diocese of Ely, in Cambridgeshire, England, and the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Ely. ... The Campo dei Miracoli (Field of Miracles) is a wide, walled area at the heart of the city of Pisa, Tuscany, Italy ( ), recognized as one of the main centers for medieval art in the world. ... The Leaning Tower of Pisa. ...

The "blind arcade" beneath this window at Canterbury Cathedral has overlapping arches forming points, a common decorative feature of Romanesque architecture in England.
The "blind arcade" beneath this window at Canterbury Cathedral has overlapping arches forming points, a common decorative feature of Romanesque architecture in England.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 419 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1339 × 1913 pixel, file size: 687 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: view of Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, United Kingdom Source own photography --Immanuel Giel 13:06, 28 August 2006 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 419 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1339 × 1913 pixel, file size: 687 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: view of Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, United Kingdom Source own photography --Immanuel Giel 13:06, 28 August 2006 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this... Canterbury Cathedral is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. ...

Architectural sculpture

The Romanesque period produced a profusion of sculptural ornamentation. This most frequently took a purely geometric form and was particularly applied to mouldings, both straight courses and the curved moldings of arches. In La Madeleine, Vezelay, for example, the polychorme ribs of the vault are all edged with narrow filets of pierced stone. Similar decration occurs around the arches of the nave and along the horizontal course separating arcade and clerestory. Combined with the pierced carving of the capitals, this gives a delicacy and refinement to the interior. [13]


In England, such decoration could be discrete, as at Hereford and Peterborough cathedrals, or have a sense of massive energy as at Durham where the diagonal ribs of the vaults are all outlined with chevrons, the mouldings of the nave arcade are carved with several layers of the same and the huge columns are deeply incised with a variety of geometric patterns creating an impression of directional movement. These features combine to create one of the richest and most dynamic interiors of the Romanesque period.[17] The current Hereford Cathedral, located at Hereford in England, United Kingdom, dates from 1079. ... Chevron may refer to: Chevron, a V-shaped pattern seen in military or police insigna, heraldry, flag design, and architectural frets Chevron, a series of bones on the underside of the tail of reptiles Chevron Corporation, a petrochemical company Chevron Cars, an advertising campaign of the Chevron Corporation including stylized...

On these much-restored mouldings around the portal of Lincoln Cathedral are formal chevron ornament, tongue-poking monsters, vines and figures, and symmetrical motifs in the Byzantine style.
On these much-restored mouldings around the portal of Lincoln Cathedral are formal chevron ornament, tongue-poking monsters, vines and figures, and symmetrical motifs in the Byzantine style.

Although much sculptural ornament was sometimes applied to the interiors of churches, the focus of such decoration was generally the west front, and in particular, the portals. Chevrons and other geometric ornaments, referred to by 19th century writers as "barbaric ornament" are most frequently found on the mouldings of the central door. Stylized foliage often appears, sometimes deeply carved and curling outward after the manner of the acanthus leaves on Corinthian capitals, but also carved in shallow relief and spiral patterns, imitating the intricacies of manuscript illuminations. In general, the style of ornament was more classical in Italy, such as that seen around the door of Sant Giusto in Lucca, and more "barbaric" in England, Germany and Scandinavia, such as that seen at Speyer Cathedral. France produced a great range of ornament, with particularly fine interwoven and spiralling vines in the "manuscript" style occurring at Saint-Sernin, Toulouse. [13][4][11] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 395 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 395 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The Corinthian order as used for the portico of the Pantheon, Rome provided a prominent model for Renaissance and later architects, through the medium of engravings. ... Lucca is a city in Tuscany, northern central Italy, situated on the river Serchio in a fertile plain near (but not on) the Ligurian Sea. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... East end elevation of Saint-Sernin Basilica Crypt of Saint-Sernin Basilica View of the back side of the building and the tower Saint-Sernin basilica located in Toulouse, France, was built during the Romanesque Period between AD 1080 and 1120. ...


Figurative sculpture

The tympanum of Vézelay Abbey, Burgundy, France, 1130s, has much decorative spiral detail in the draperies.
The tympanum of Vézelay Abbey, Burgundy, France, 1130s, has much decorative spiral detail in the draperies.

With the fall of the Roman Empire, the tradition of carving large works in stone and sculpting figures in bronze died out, as it effectively did (for religious reasons) in the Byzantine world. Some life-size sculpture was evidently done in stucco or plaster, but surviving examples are understandably rare.[18] The best-known surviving large sculptural work of Proto-Romanesque Europe is the life-size wooden Crucifix commissioned by Archbishop Gero of Cologne in about 960-65.[19] During the 11th and 12th centuries, figurative sculpture flourished. It was based on two other sources in particular, manuscript illumination and small-scale sculpture in ivory and metal. The extensive friezes sculpted on Armenian and Syriac churches are have been proposed as another likely influence.[20] These sources together produced a distinct style which can be recognised across Europe, although the most spectacular sculptural projects are concentrated in South-Western France, Northern Spain and Italy. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Vézelay Abbey was a Benedictine and Cluniac monastery in Vézelay in the Yonne département in Burgundy, France. ... région of Bourgogne, see Bourgogne. ... Stucco is a material made of an aggregate, a binder, and water which is applied wet, and hardens when it dries. ...


Images that occurred in metalwork were frequently embossed. The resultant surface had two main planes and details that were usually incised. This treatment was adapted to stone carving and is seen particularly in the tympanum above the portal, where the imagery of Christ in Majesty with the symbols of the Four Evangelists is drawn directly from the gilt covers of medieval Gospel Books. This style of doorway occurs in many places and continued into the Gothic period. A rare survival in England is that of the "Prior's Door" at Ely Cathedral. In South-Western France, many have survivied, with impressive examples at Saint-Pierre, Moissac, Souillac[21], and La Madaleine, Vézelay - all daughter houses of Cluny, with extensive other sculpture remaining in cloisters and other buildings. Nearby, Autun Cathedral has a Last Judgement of great rarity in that it has uniquely been signed by its creator, Giselbertus. [3][13] Tympanum may mean: The eardrum; or A sculpted panel that stands within the recessed area formed by a larger arch above the doors to a church or similar building, especially in Romanesque and Gothic architecture; or A single drum in the orchestral percussion section usually called timpani. ... The Christian icon of Christ in Majesty, in the Greek-speaking East the Deesis, was developed under Imperial patronage and survives, in its earliest examples, in Byzantine mosaics. ... The symbols of the four Evangelists are here depicted in the Book of Kells The Four Evangelists are the four followers of Jesus to whom are ascribed the writings forming the four Gospels of the New Testament: the Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. ... A Gospel Book is a codex or bound volume, containing one or more of the four Gospels of the Christian New Testament. ... Front of Ely Cathedral Ely Cathedral (in full, The Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Ely) is the principal church of the diocese of Ely, in Cambridgeshire, England, and the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Ely. ... A stop on the way to Santiago of Compostella The town of Moissac holds 3 major points of interest : the National heritage, tourism and economy which reflect Monuments, Streams and Fruit. ... Souillac is the name of two places: Souillac, in the Lot département Souillac, a city and the capital of the district of Savanne Category: ... Vézelay Abbey was a Benedictine and Cluniac monastery in Vézelay in the Yonne département in Burgundy, France. ... Autun Cathedral. ... Image:Michelangelo - Fresco of the Last Judgment. ...

A Capital from Seu Vella, Lleida, Spain, showing spiral and paired motifs.
A Capital from Seu Vella, Lleida, Spain, showing spiral and paired motifs.

A feature of the figures in manuscript illumination is that they often occupy confined spaces and are contorted to fit. The custom of artists to make the figure fit the available space lent itself to a facility in designing figures to ornament door posts and lintels and other such architectural surfaces. The robes of painted figures were commonly treated in a flat and decorative style that bore little resemblance to the weight and fall of actual cloth. This feature was also adapted for sculpture. Among the many examples that exist, one of the finest is the figure of the Prophet Jeremiah from the pillar of the portal of the Abbey of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, from about 1130. [13] Image File history File links Capitel en la Seu Vella Imagen reproducida bajo la GFDL con la autorización del Turisme de Lleida (Ajuntament de Lleida). ... Image File history File links Capitel en la Seu Vella Imagen reproducida bajo la GFDL con la autorización del Turisme de Lleida (Ajuntament de Lleida). ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... A stop on the way to Santiago of Compostella The town of Moissac holds 3 major points of interest : the National heritage, tourism and economy which reflect Monuments, Streams and Fruit. ...


One of the most significant motifs of Romanesque design, occurring in both figurative and non-figurative sculpture is the spiral. One of the sources may be Ionic capitals. Scrolling vines were a common motif of both Byzantine and Roman design, and may be seen in mosaic on the vaults of the 4th century Church of Santa Costanza, Rome. Manuscripts and architectural carvings of the 12th century have very similar scrolling vine motifs. Architects first real look at the Greek Ionic order: Julien David LeRoy, Les ruines plus beaux des monuments de la Grèce Paris, 1758 (Plate XX) The Ionic order forms one of the three orders or organizational systems of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and... View of the mausoleum of Santa Costanza from the Constantinian cemetery basilica. ...

This capital of the Three Kings at Autun has stong narrative qualities in the interaction of the figures.
This capital of the Three Kings at Autun has stong narrative qualities in the interaction of the figures.

Another source of the spiral is clearly the illuminated manuscripts of the 7th to 9th centuries, particularly Irish manuscripts such as the St. Gall Gospel Book, spread into Europe by the Hiberno-Scottish mission. In these illuminations the use of the spiral has nothing to do with vines or other natural growth. The motif is abstract and mathematical. It is in an adaptation of this form that the spiral occurs in the draperies of both sculpture and stained glass windows. Of all the many examples that occur on Romanesque portals, one of the most outstanding is that of the central figure of Christ at La Madaleine, Vezelay. [13] Another influence from Insular art are engaged and entwined animals, often used to superb effect in capitals (as at Silos) and sometimes on a column itself (as at Moissac). Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 613 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1440 × 1408 pixel, file size: 458 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 613 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1440 × 1408 pixel, file size: 458 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Three Kings can refer to several things: Three Kings, a 1999 American movie. ... In the strictest definition of illuminated manuscript, only manuscripts decorated with gold or silver, like this miniature of Christ in Majesty from the Aberdeen Bestiary (folio 4v), would be considered illuminated. ... This page (folio 292r) of the Book of Kells contains the lavishly decorated text that opens the Gospel of John. ... The St. ... It has been suggested that Schottenklöster be merged into this article or section. ... Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ... Vézelay Abbey was a Benedictine and Cluniac monastery in Vézelay in the Yonne département in Burgundy, France. ... This page (folio 292r) of the Book of Kells contains the lavishly decorated text that opens the Gospel of John. ...

Schoengrabern Church, Austria, is decorated with naif figures, here representing Adam being approaced by an angry angel.
Schoengrabern Church, Austria, is decorated with naif figures, here representing Adam being approaced by an angry angel.

Many of the smaller sculptural works, particularly capitals, are Biblical in subject and include scenes of Creation and the Fall of Man, episodes from the life of Christ and those Old Testament scenes which prefigure his Death and Resurrection, such as Jonah and the Whale and Daniel in the Lions' Den. Many Nativity scenes occur, the theme of the Three Kings being particularly popular. The cloisters of Santo Domingo de Silos Abbey in Northern Spain, and Moissac are fine examples surviving complete. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3168 × 2376 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3168 × 2376 pixel, file size: 3. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with create. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... Typology is a theological doctrine or theory of types and their antitypes found in scripture. ... Crucifixion of St. ... Look up Resurrection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Prophet Jonah, as depicted by Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel Jonah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Arabic: يونس, Yunus or يونان, Yunaan ; Latin Ionas ; Dove) was a prophet in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh/Old Testament) and Quran who was swallowed by a great fish. ... This article is about the Biblical figure called Daniel. ... For the Nativity of Jesus, see Nativity of Jesus. ... Three Kings can refer to several things: Three Kings, a 1999 American movie. ... Cloister with twisted columns Carved panel from the cloisters Chant Location of Santo Domingo de Silos in Spain Santo Domingo de Silos Abbey (Spanish: Monasterio de Santo Domingo de Silos) is a Benedictine monastery in the village of Santo Domingo de Silos in southern Burgos Province, Spain. ... A stop on the way to Santiago of Compostella The town of Moissac holds 3 major points of interest : the National heritage, tourism and economy which reflect Monuments, Streams and Fruit. ...


A feature of some Romanesque churches is the extensive sculptural scheme which covers the area surrounding the portal or, in some case, much of the facade. Angouleme Cathedral in France has a highly elaborate scheme of sculpture set within the broad niches created by the arcading of the facade. In Spain, an elaborate pictorial scheme in low relief surrounds the door of the church of Santa Maria at Ripoli. [13] Façade. ...

Around the upper wall of the chancel at the Abbaye d'Arthous, Landes, France, are small figures depicticting lust, intemperance and a Barbary ape, symbol of human depravity.pic P Charpiat
Around the upper wall of the chancel at the Abbaye d'Arthous, Landes, France, are small figures depicticting lust, intemperance and a Barbary ape, symbol of human depravity.pic P Charpiat

The purpose of the sculptural schemes was to convey a message that the Christian believer should recognise their wrong-doings, repent and be redeemed. The Last Judgement reminds the believe to repent. The carved or painted Crucifix, displayed prominently within the church, reminded the sinner of their redemption. The scuplture which reminded the sinners of their sins often took alarming forms. These sculptures, not being of Christ, were usually not large and are rarely magnificent, but are often fearsome or simply entertaining in nature. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 840 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Abbaye dArthous - Landes - France Modillons de labside - XIIe siècle Auteur/author: P Charpiat - 2006 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 840 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Abbaye dArthous - Landes - France Modillons de labside - XIIe siècle Auteur/author: P Charpiat - 2006 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current... Image:Michelangelo - Fresco of the Last Judgment. ... The Crucifix, a cross with corpus, a symbol used in Catholicism in contrast with some other Christian communions, which use only a cross. ...


These are the works that frequently decorate the smaller architectural features. They are found on capitals, corbels and bosses, or entwined in the foliage on door mouldings. They represent the Seven Deadly Sins but often take forms that are not easily recognisable today. Lust, gluttony and avarice are probably the most frequently represented. The appearance of many figures with oversized genitals can clearly be equated with carnal sin, but so also can the numerous figures shown wth protuding tongues, which are a feature of the doorway of Lincoln Cathedral. Pulling ones beard was a symbol of mastubation, and pulling ones mouth wide open was also a sign of lewdity. A common theme found on capitals of this period is a tongue poker or beard stroker being beaten by his wife or seized by demons. Demons fighting over the soul of a wrongdoer such as a miser is another popular subject. [22] For other uses, see Cardinal sin (disambiguation). ... Lincoln Cathedral (in full The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, or sometimes St. ...

Pórtico da Gloria, Santiago. The colouring once common to much Romanesque sculpture has been preserved.
Pórtico da Gloria, Santiago. The colouring once common to much Romanesque sculpture has been preserved.

Gothic architecture is usually considered to begin with the design of the choir at the Abbey of Saint-Denis, north of Paris, by the Abbot Suger, consecrated 1144. The beginning of Gothic sculpture is usually dated a little later, with the carving of the figures around the Royal Portal at Chartres Cathedral, France, 1150-55. The style of sculpture spread rapidly from Chartres, overtaking the new Gothic architecture. In fact, many churches of the late Romanesque period post-date the building at Saint-Denis. The sculptural style based more upon observation and naturalism than on formalised design developed rapidly. It is thought that one reason for the rapid development of naturalistic form was a growing awareness of Classical remains in places where they were most numerous and a deliberate imitation of their style. The consequence is that there are doorways which are Romanesque in form, and yet show a naturalism associated with Early Gothic sculpture. [13] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 680 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1295 × 1141 pixel, file size: 801 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 680 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1295 × 1141 pixel, file size: 801 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... The Basilica of Saint Denis (in French, la Basilique de Saint-Denis), a famous burial site for French monarchs, is located in Saint Denis (near Paris). ... Suger of Saint-Denis on a medieval window Suger (c. ... The Cathedral of Chartres (Cathedral of Our Lady in Chartres, French: Cathédrale Notre_Dame de Chartres), located in Chartres, about 50 miles from Paris, is considered the finest example in all France of the high Gothic style of architecture. ...


One of these is the Pórtico da Gloria dating from 1180, at Santiago de Compostela. This portal is internal and is particularly well preserved, even retaining colour on the figures and indicating the gaudy appearance of much architectural decoration which is now perceived as monochrome. Around the dooorway are figures who are integrated with the colonnettes that make the mouldings of the doors. They are three dimensional, but slightly flattened. They are highly individualised, not only in appearance but also expression and bear quite strong resemblance to those around the north porch of the Abbey of St. Denis, dating from 1170. Beneath the tympanum there is a realistically carved row of figures playing a range of different and easily identifiable musical instruments. Location Location of Santiago de Compostela Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Santiago de Compostela (Galician) Spanish name Santiago de Compostela Postal code 15700 Website http://www. ...

Fresco from Church of St. Clement, now in Museo de Arte de Cataluña.
Fresco from Church of St. Clement, now in Museo de Arte de Cataluña.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 531 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 2286 pixel, file size: 706 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 531 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2024 × 2286 pixel, file size: 706 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Murals

The large wall surfaces and plain, curving vaults of the Romanesque period leant themselves to mural decoration. Unfortunately, many of these early wall paintings have been destroyed by damp or the walls have been replastered and painted over. In England, France and the Netherlands such pictures were systematically destroyed in bouts of Reformation iconoclasm. In other countries they have suffered from war, neglect and changing fashion. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, attacked in Reformation iconoclasm in the 16th century. ...


A classic scheme for the full painted decoration of a church, derived from earlier examples often in mosaic, had, as its focal point in the semi-dome of the apse, Christ in Majesty or Christ the Redeemer enthroned within a mandorla and framed by the four winged beasts, symbols of the Four Evangelists, comparing directly with examples from the gilt covers or the illuminations of Gospel Books of the period. If the Virgin Mary was the dedicatee of the church, she might replace Christ here. On the apse walls below would be saints and apostles, perhaps including narrative scenes, for example of the saint to whom the church was dedicated. On the sanctuary arch were figures of apostles, prophets or the twenty-four "elders of the Apocalypse", looking in towards a bust of Christ, or his symbol the Lamb, at the top of the arch. The north wall of the nave would contain narrative scenes from the Old Testament, and the south wall from the New Testament. On the rear west wall would be a Last Judgement, with an enthroned and judging Christ at the top.[23] Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ... The Christian icon of Christ in Majesty, in the Greek-speaking East the Deesis, was developed under Imperial patronage and survives, in its earliest examples, in Byzantine mosaics. ... In iconography, a Mandorla is an almond-shaped aureola which surrounds the figure of Christ in traditional Christian art. ... The symbols of the four Evangelists are here depicted in the Book of Kells The Four Evangelists are the four followers of Jesus to whom are ascribed the writings forming the four Gospels of the New Testament: the Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. ... A Gospel Book is a codex or bound volume, containing one or more of the four Gospels of the Christian New Testament. ... The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept... Heavenly host refers in the Bible to an army (Luk. ... Image:Michelangelo - Fresco of the Last Judgment. ...

The painted crypt at Léon, Spain.
The painted crypt at Léon, Spain.

One of the most intact schemes to exist is that at Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe in France. The long barrel vault of the nave provides an excellent surface for fresco, and is decorated with scenes of the Old Testament, showing the Creation, the Fall of Man and other stories including a lively depiction of Noah's Ark complete with a fearsome figurehead and numerous windows through with can be seen the Noah and his family on the upper deck, birds on the middle deck, while on the lower are the pairs of animals. Another scene shows with great vigour the swamping of Pharaoh's army by the Red Sea. The scheme extends to other parts of the church, with the martyrdom of the local saints shown in the crypt, and Apocalypse in the narthex and Christ in Majesty. The range of colours employed is limited to light blue-green, yellow ochre, reddish brown and black. Similar paintings exist in Serbia, Spain, Germany, Italy and elsewhere in France. [11] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the movie. ... Saint Savin, also referred to as Saint-Savin sur Gartempe, is a commune of the Vienne département, in the former province of Poitou, France. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with create. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... A painting by the American Edward Hicks (1780–1849), showing the animals boarding Noahs Ark two by two. ... Look up Apocalypse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Christian icon of Christ in Majesty, in the Greek-speaking East the Deesis, was developed under Imperial patronage and survives, in its earliest examples, in Byzantine mosaics. ...

Stained glass from Poitiers Cathedral, 12th century.
Stained glass from Poitiers Cathedral, 12th century.

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Stained glass

The oldest-known fragments of medieval pictorial stained glass appear to date from the 10th century. The earliest intact figures are five prophet windows at Augsburg, dating from the late 11th century. The figures, though stiff and formalised, demonstrate considerable proficiency in design, both pictorially and in the functional use of the glass, indicating that their maker was well accustomed to the medium. At Canterbury and Chartres Cathedrals, a number of panels of the 12th century have survived, including, at Canterbury, a figure of Adam digging, and another of his son Seth from a series of Ancestors of Christ. Adam represents a highly naturalistic and lively portrayal, while in the figure of Seth, the robes have been used to great decorative effect, similar to the best stone carving of the period. Lukes genealogy of Jesus, from the Book of Kells transcribed by Celtic monks circa 800 The genealogy of Jesus through either one or both of his earthly parents (Mary and Joseph) is given by two passages from the Gospels, Matthew 1:2–16 and Luke 3:23–38. ...


Most of the magnificent stained glass of France, including the famous windows of Chartres, date from the 13th century. Far fewer large windows remain intact from the 12th century. One such is the Crucifixion of Poitiers, a remarkable composition which rises throught three stages, the lowest with a quatrefoil depicting the Martyrdom of St Peter, the largest central stage dominated by the crucifixion and the upper stage showing the Ascension of Christ in a mandorla. The figure of the crucified Chirst is already showing the Gothic curve. The window is described by George Seddon as being of "unforgettable beauty".[24] The Christian doctrine of the Ascension holds that Jesus bodily ascended to heaven following his resurrection. ...

Ely Cathedral, England, had an elaborate west front with its central tower framed by smaller towers showing transitional features, 1180s. One of the smaller towers fell. Porch, 1250s; lantern, 1390s.
Ely Cathedral, England, had an elaborate west front with its central tower framed by smaller towers showing transitional features, 1180s. One of the smaller towers fell. Porch, 1250s; lantern, 1390s.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1224 × 1632 pixel, file size: 245 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ely Cathedral Source: Tom- File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1224 × 1632 pixel, file size: 245 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Ely Cathedral Source: Tom- File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Front of Ely Cathedral Ely Cathedral (in full, The Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Ely) is the principal church of the diocese of Ely, in Cambridgeshire, England, and the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Ely. ...

Transitional style

During the 12th century, features that were to become typical of Gothic architecture began to appear. It is not uncommon, for example, for a part of building that has been constructed over a lengthy period extending into the 12th century, to have very similar arcading of both semi-circular and pointed shape, or windows that are identical in height and width, but in which the later ones are pointed. This can be seen on the towers of Tournai Cathedral and on the western towers and facade at Ely Cathedral. Other variations that appear to hover between Romanesque and Gothic occur, such as the facade designed by Abbot Suger at the Abbey of Saint-Denis which retains much that is Romanesque in its appearance, and the Facade of Laon Cathedral which, despite its Gothic form, has round arches. [10][25] Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... Tournai Cathedral Notre-Dame Cathedral of Tournai is one of the most important architectural monuments in Belgium. ... Front of Ely Cathedral Ely Cathedral (in full, The Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Ely) is the principal church of the diocese of Ely, in Cambridgeshire, England, and the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Ely. ... Suger of Saint-Denis on a medieval window Suger (c. ... Notre-Dame of Laon is a cathedral located in Laon, France. ...

The facade of Laon Cathedral, 1225, maintains rounded arches and arcading in the Romanesque manner.

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Romanesque influence

Paris and its surrounding area were quick to adopt the Gothic style of Abbot Suger Abbey of Saint-Denis in the 12th century but other parts of France were slower to take it up, and provincial churches continued to be built in the heavy manner and rubble stone of the Romanesque, even when the openings were treated with the fashionable pointed arch. The Basilica of Saint Denis (in French, la Basilique de Saint-Denis), a famous burial site for French monarchs, is located in Saint Denis (near Paris). ...


In England, the Romanesque groundplan, which in that country commonly had a very long nave, continued to affect the style of building of cathedrals and those large abbey churches which were also to become cathedrals in the 16th century. Despite the fact that English cathedrals were rebuilt in many stages, substantial areas of Norman building can be seen in many of them, particularly in the nave arcades. In the case of Winchester Cathedral, the Gothic arches were literally carved out of the existent Norman piers. [10] Winchester Cathedral as seen from the Cathedral Close View along the nave of Winchester Cathedral to the west door A plan published in 1911 View of Winchester Cathedral Winchester Cathedral at Winchester in Hampshire is one of the largest cathedrals in England, said to be the second longest, and with...


In Italy, although many churches such as Florence Cathedral and Santa Maria Novella were built in the Gothic style, sturdy columns with capitals of a modified Corinthian form continued to be used. The pointed vault was utilised where convenient, but it is commonly interspersed with semicircular arches and vaults wherever they conveniently fit. The facades of Gothic churches in Italy are not always easily distinguishable from the Romanesque. Santa Maria del Fiore Santa Maria del Fiore (also known as the Duomo) is Florences cathedral, noted for its distinctive dome. ... The Romanesque-Gothic facade, completed by Leon Battista Alberti in 1470 Santa Maria Novella is a church in Florence. ...


Germany was not quick to adopt the Gothic style, and when it did so, often the buildings were modelled very directly upon French cathedrals, as Cologne Cathedral was modelled on Amiens. The smaller churches and abbeys continued to be constructed in a more provincial Romanesque manner, the date only being registered by the pointed window openings. [13] The Cologne Cathedral (German: Kölner Dom, official name: ) is one of the best-known architectural monuments in Germany and has been Colognes most famous landmark since its completion in the late 19th century. ...

Paired columns in the foyer of the Natural History Museum, London.
Paired columns in the foyer of the Natural History Museum, London.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Natural History Museum in South Kensington, London, has an ornate terracotta facade typical of high Victorian architecture. ...

Romanesque Revival

During the 19th century, when Gothic Revival architecture was fashionable, buildings were occasionally designed in the Romanesque style. There are a number of Romanesque Revival churches, dating from as early as the 1830s and continuing into the 20th century where the massive and "brutal" quality of the Romanesque style was appreciated and designed in brick. Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin San Sebastian Church in Manila, Philippines made entirely of steel. ...

The Romanesque Revival facade of Speyer Cathedral, architect- Heinrich Hübsch, 1854-1858.
The Romanesque Revival facade of Speyer Cathedral, architect- Heinrich Hübsch, 1854-1858.

The Natural History Museum, London designed by Alfred Waterhouse, 1879, on the other hand, is a Romanesque revival building which makes full use of the decorative potential of Romanesque arcading and architectural sculpture. The Romanesque appearance has been achieved while freely adapting an overall style to suit the function of the building. The columns of the foyer, for example, give an impression of incised geometric design similar to those of Durham Cathedral. However, the sources of the incised patterns are the trunks of palms, cycads and tropical tree ferns. The animal motifs, of which there are many, include rare and exotic species. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 451 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1163 × 1546 pixel, file size: 391 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Speyrer Dom (Cathedral of Speyer, Germany) Source: own photography Date: November 2005 Author: --Immanuel Giel 12:20, 7 November 2005 (UTC) Other versions: none... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 451 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1163 × 1546 pixel, file size: 391 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Speyrer Dom (Cathedral of Speyer, Germany) Source: own photography Date: November 2005 Author: --Immanuel Giel 12:20, 7 November 2005 (UTC) Other versions: none... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... The Natural History Museum in South Kensington, London, has an ornate terracotta facade typical of high Victorian architecture. ... The Natural History Museum in South Kensington, London, has an ornate terracotta facade typical of high Victorian architecture. ...


The type of modern buildings for which the Romanesque style was most frequently adapted was the warehouse, where a lack of large windows and an appearance of great strength and stability were desirable features. These buildings, generally of brick, frequently have flattened buttresses rising to wide arches at the upper levels after the manner of some Italian Romanesque facades. This style was adapted to suit commercial buildings by opening the spaces between the arches into large windows, the brick walls becoming a shell to a building that was essentially of modern steel-frame construction, the architect Henry Hobson Richardson giving his name to the style, "Richardson Romanesque". Good examples of the style are Marshall Fields store, Chicago by H.H.Richardson, 1885, and the Chadwick Lead Works in Boston USA by William Preston, 1887. The style also lent itself to the building of cloth mills, steelworks and powerstations. [15][1] Henry Hobson Richardson, portrait by Sir Hubert von Herkomer Trinity Church in Boston is one of Richardsons most famous works. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... William Ballard Preston (1805 - 1862) was a U.S. political figure. ...


Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Bannister Fletcher, A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method’’.
  2. ^ Jean Hubert, Romanesque Art.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Helen Gardner, Art through the Ages’’.
  4. ^ a b c George Holmes, ed. The Oxford History of Medieval Europe.
  5. ^ "In the years that followed the year 1000, we witnessed the rebuilding of churches all over the universe, but especially in Italy and Gaul." Chronicle of Raoul Glaber, quoted by Jean Hubert, Romanesque Art.
  6. ^ famous for the ancient Roman "Mouth of Truth" set into the wall of its narthex
  7. ^ famous for the 15th century Ghiberti Doors
  8. ^ tradtionally the marriage place of Romeo and Juliet
  9. ^ John Harvey, English Cathedrals
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Alec Clifton-Taylor, The Cathedrals of England
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Rolf Toman, Romanesque.
  12. ^ National Tourism Organisation of Serbia[1]
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Rene Hyughe, Larousse Encyclopedia of Byzantine and Medieval Art
  14. ^ This technique was also used in the Classical world, notably at the Parthenon.
  15. ^ a b c Nikolaus Pevsner, An Ouline of European Architecture
  16. ^ F.H.Crossley, The English Abbey.
  17. ^ Alec Clifton-Taylor says "With the Cathedral of Durham we reach the incomparable masterpiece of Romanesque architecture not only in England but anywhere."
  18. ^ Some (probably) 9th century near life-size stucco figures were discovered behind a wall in Santa Maria in Valle, Cividale del Friuli in Northern Italy relatively recently. Atroshenko and Collins p. 142
  19. ^ See details at Cologne Cathedral.
  20. ^ V.I. Atroshenko and Judith Collins, The Origins of the Romanesque,p. 144-50, Lund Humphries, London, 1985, ISBN 085331487X
  21. ^ slides from boston College
  22. ^ Website, Satan in the Groin [2]
  23. ^ James Hall, A History of Ideas and Images in Italian Art, p154, 1983, John Murray, London, ISBN 0719539714
  24. ^ George Seddon in Lee, Seddon and Stephens, Stained Glass
  25. ^ Wim Swaan, Gothic Cathedrals

Romeo and Juliet in the famous balcony scene by Ford Madox Brown For other uses, see Romeo and Juliet (disambiguation). ... The Parthenon seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... Cividale del Friuli (Friulian Cividât, Slovenian Čedad) is a town in Northern Italy, close to Udine. ... The Cologne Cathedral (German: Kölner Dom, official name: ) is one of the best-known architectural monuments in Germany and has been Colognes most famous landmark since its completion in the late 19th century. ...

Bibliography

  • Rolf Toman, Romanesque, Könemann, (1997), ISBN 3-89508-447-6
  • Banister Fletcher, A History of Architecture on the Comparative method (2001). Elsevier Science & Technology. ISBN 0-7506-2267-9.
  • Helen Gardner; Fred S. Kleiner, Christin J. Mamiya, Gardner's Art through the Ages. Thomson Wadsworth,(2004) ISBN 0-15-505090-7.
  • George Holmes, editor, The Oxford Illustrated History of Medieval Europe, Oxford University Press, (1992) ISBN 0-19-820073-0
  • René Huyghe, Larousse Encyclopedia of Byzantine and Medieval Art, Paul Hamlyn, (1958)
  • Francois Ischer, Building the Great Cathedrals. Harry N. Abrams,(1998). ISBN 0-8109-4017-5.
  • Nikolaus Pevsner, An Outline of European Architecture. Pelican Books (1964)
  • John Beckwith, Early Medieval Art, Thames and Hudson, (1964)
  • Peter Kidson, The Medieval World, Paul Hamlyn, (1967)
  • T. Francis Bumpus, , The Cathedrals and Churches of Belgium, T. Werner Laurie. (1928)
  • Alec Clifton-Taylor, The Cathedrals of England, Thames and Hudson (1967)
  • John Harvey, English Cathedrals, Batsford (1961).

The Gillette Factory on the Great West Road, Brentford, Middlesex. ... Helen Gardner (1909-1986) was an English literary critic. ... Sir Nikolaus Pevsner CBE (January 30, 1902 – August 18, 1983) was a German-born British historian of art and, especially, architecture. ... Announcer for Double Dare and History IQ. Categories: Television biographical stubs ...

See also

These categories on Mediawiki Commons hold many images of Romanesque art and Architecture:
Romanesque_art, Romanesque crypts, Lombard bands, Ottonian architecture, Romanesque portals, Romanesque architects, Romanesque architecture by country, Romanesque church towers, Romanesque Rotundas, Taqueado jaqués, Romanesque architecture, Bayeux Tapestry, Romanesque paintings, Romanesque art by country, Romanesque artists, Romanesque frescos, Romanesque manuscripts, Romanesque pulpits and Romanesque sculptures


Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... St-Sernin basilica, Toulouse, 1080 – 1120: elevation of the east end Romanesque sculpture, cloister of St. ... France, Saint-Front, Périgueux. ... Interior of the Saint-Saturnin church St-Sernin, Toulouse, 1080 – 1120: elevation of the east end Romanesque sculpture, cloister of St. ... Romanesque sculpture was most often made in stone, though sometimes in bronze and timber. ... New technological discoveries allowed the development of the gothic style. ... Romanesque Revival is a style of building in the late 19th century (roughly 1840 and 1900) inspired by the 11th and 12th century Romanesque style of architecture. ... Church of the Intercession on the Nerl(1165) - an archetypal example of early Russian architecture. ... Pre-Romanesque art is the roughly 400 year period in Western European art from about the Carolingian Renaissance in the 8th century, to the beginning of the 12th century Romanesque period. ... Ottonian Architecture evolved during the reign of Emperor Otto the Great (936-975). ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ...

External links

St-Sernin basilica, Toulouse, France: elevation of the east end (1080-1120).
St-Sernin basilica, Toulouse, France: elevation of the east end (1080-1120).
Look up Romanesque in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Romanesque architecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1085 words)
Geometrisation and rigidity in Romanesque architecture is evident in the transformation of column capitals from corinthian to cubic capitals, as found in the church of St.Michael, Hildesheim.
Romanesque first developed in Spain in the 10th and 11th centuries and before Cluny`s influence, in Lérida, Barcelona, Tarragona and Huesca and in the Pyrinees, simultaneously with the north of Italy, into what is been called "First Romanesque" or "Lombard Romanesque".
The model of the Spanish Romanesque in 12th century was the Cathedral of Jaca, with its characteristic absis structure and plan, and its "chess" decoration in strips, called taqueado jaqués.
Wikipedia: Romanesque architecture (270 words)
The name Romanesque, like many other stylistic designations, was not a term contemporary with the art it describes but an invention of modern scholarship to categorize a period.
Romanesque is characterised by a use of round or slightly pointed arches, barrel vaults, cruciform piers supporting vaults, and groin vaults.
Romanesque seems to have been the first pan-European style since Roman Imperial Architecture and examples are found in every part of the continent.
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