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Encyclopedia > Romance languages
Romance
Geographic
distribution:
Originally Western Europe; now also Latin America, Quebec and much of Western Africa
Genetic
classification
:
Indo-European
 Italic
  Romance
Subdivisions:
Italo-Western
ISO 639-2: roa

Distribution of major Romance languages:     Spanish      French      Portuguese      Italian      Romanian A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... West Africa is the region of western Africa generally considered to include these countries: Benin Burkina Faso Cameroon Côte dIvoire (Ivory Coast) Equatorial Guinea Gabon The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Republic of the Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) Senegal Sierra Leone Togo Chad, Mauritania, and... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Hypothetical distribution of languages in Iron Age Italy during the sixth century BC. The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ... Italo-Western redirects here. ... Map of Balkans with regions inhabited by Romanians/Vlachs highlighted The Eastern Romance languages are a group of Romance languages that developed in Southeastern Europe from the local eastern variant of Vulgar Latin. ... Southern Romance languages are parte of Romance languages that includes the Sardinian language and Sicilian language. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 42 KB) Summary Romance languages in the World Blue - French Green - Spanish Orange - Portuguese Yellow - Italian Red - Romanian Compilation of Image:Map_Italophone_World. ...

Indo-European topics

Indo-European languages
Albanian · Armenian · Baltic
Celtic · Germanic · Greek
Indo-Iranian (Indo-Aryan, Iranian)
Italic · Slavic  

extinct: Anatolian · Paleo-Balkans (Dacian,
Phrygian, Thracian) · Tocharian For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Hypothetical distribution of languages in Iron Age Italy during the sixth century BC. The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Anatolian languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages, which were spoken in Asia Minor, the best attested of them being the Hittite language. ... The Paleo-Balkan languages were the Indo-European languages which were spoken in the Balkans in ancient times: Dacian language Thracian language Illyrian language Paionian language Ancient Macedonian language The only remnant of them is Albanian, but it is still disputed which language was its ancestor. ... The Dacian language was an Indo-European language spoken by the ancient people of Dacia. ... The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, a people of the central Asia Minor. ... The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ... Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the group of Indo-European languages. ...

Indo-European peoples
Albanians · Armenians
Balts · Celts · Germanic peoples
Greeks · Indo-Aryans
Iranians · Latins · Slavs

historical: Anatolians (Hittites, Luwians)
Celts (Galatians, Gauls) · Germanic tribes
Illyrians · Indo-Iranians (Iranian tribes)
Italic peoples · Thracians · Tocharians   For the language group, see Indo-European languages. ... http://www. ... This article concerns those peoples who consider themselves, or have been considered by others, to be Celts in modern times, ie post 1800. ... Charlemagne, first to unify the Germanic tribal confederations. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic/Indian) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... The Latin peoples, also known as Romance peoples, are those European linguistic-cultural groups and their descendants all over the world that speak Romance languages. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Distribution of the Luwian language (after Melchert 2003) Luwian hieroglyphic inscription from the city of Carchemish. ... Celts, normally pronounced //, is a modern term used to describe any of the European peoples who spoke, or speak, a Celtic language. ... The Epistle to Galatians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... Ancient Iranian peoples who settled Greater Iran in the 2nd millennium BC first appear in Assyrian records in the 9th century BC. They remain dominant throughout Classical Antiquity in Scythia and Persia. ... Ancient Italic peoples are all those peoples that lived in Italy before the Roman domination. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ...

Proto-Indo-Europeans
Language · Society · Religion
 
Urheimat hypotheses
Kurgan hypothesis · Anatolia
Armenia · India · PCT
 
Indo-European studies

The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. They have more than 700 million native speakers worldwide, mainly in the Americas, Europe, and Africa, as well as many smaller regions scattered throughout the world. The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE) were a patrilineal society of the Bronze Age (roughly 5th to 4th millennium BC), probably semi-nomadic, relying on animal husbandry. ... The question of the homeland (Urheimat) of the Proto-Indo-Europeans and the Proto-Indo-European language has been a recurring topic in Indo-European studies since the 19th century. ... Map of Indo European migrations from ca. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansion from the 7th to 5th millennia. ... The Paleolithic Continuity Theory (PCT) suggests that the Indo-European languages originated in Europe and have existed there since the Paleolithic. ... Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics, dealing with the Indo-European languages. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


All Romance languages descend from Vulgar Latin, the language of soldiers, settlers and merchants of the Empire, as distinguished from the Classical Latin of the Roman literati. Between 200 BC and AD 150, the expansion of the Empire, together with its administrative and educational policies, made Latin the dominant native language over an area spanning from the Iberian Peninsula to the Western coast of the Black Sea, and from the Maghreb to Britannia. During the Empire's decline, and after its fragmentation and collapse in the 5th century, Latin evolved within each local area at an accelerated rate; and eventually the dialects diverged into myriad distinct varieties; some of which survive in modern forms. The overseas empires established by Spain, Portugal and France from the 15th century onward spread their languages to the other continents, to such an extent that about 70% of all Romance speakers today live outside Europe. Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii, was the speech of ordinary people of the Roman Empire — different from the classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ... Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Arab Maghreb Union This article is about the region. ... For other uses, see Britannia (disambiguation). ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


Despite multiple influences from pre-Roman languages and from later invasions, the phonology, morphology, lexicon, and syntax of all Romance languages are predominantly evolutions of Latin. Consequently, the group shares several linguistic features that set it apart from other Indo-European branches. In particular, with only one or two exceptions, Romance languages have lost the declension system of Classical Latin and, as a result, have SVO sentence structure and make extensive use of prepositions. Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... Look up lexicon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... In linguistics, declension is the inflection of nouns, pronouns and adjectives to indicate such features as number (typically singular vs. ... In linguistic typology, subject-verb-object (SVO) is the sequence subject verb object in neutral expressions: Sam ate oranges. ... In grammar, an adposition is an element that, prototypically, combines syntactically with a phrase and indicates how that phrase should be interpreted in the surrounding context. ...

Contents

Name

The term "Romance" comes from the Vulgar Latin adverb romanice, derived from romanicus: used, for instance, in the expression romanice loqui, "to speak Roman" (that is, the Latin vernacular), contrasted with latine loqui, "to speak Latin" (the conservative version which was taught in schools), and with barbarice loqui, "to speak Barbarian" (the non-Latin languages of the peoples that conquered the Roman Empire).[1] From this adverb the noun romance originated, which applied initially to anything written romanice, or "in the Roman vernacular". Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. ... For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


The word romance with the sense of "romance novel" or "love affair" has the same origin. In the medieval literature of Western Europe, serious writing was usually in Latin, while popular tales, often focusing on love, were composed in the vernacular and came to be called "romances". A romance novel is a literary genre developed in Western culture, mainly in English-speaking countries. ... Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (encompassing the one thousand years from the fall of the Western Roman Empire ca. ...


History

Vulgar Latin

Main article: Vulgar Latin

There is very little documentary evidence about Vulgar Latin, which is often hard to interpret or generalise upon. Many of its speakers were soldiers, slaves, displaced peoples and forced resettlers, more likely to be natives of conquered lands than natives of Rome. It is believed that Vulgar Latin already had most of the features that are shared by all Romance languages[citation needed], which distinguish them from Classical Latin, such as the almost complete loss of the Latin declension system and its replacement by prepositions; the loss of the neuter gender, comparative inflections, and many verbal tenses; the use of articles; and the initial stages of change in pronunciation of c and g before the front vowels e and i. There are some modern languages, such as Finnish, which have similar, quite sharp, differences between their printed and spoken form. This perhaps suggests that the form of Vulgar Latin that evolved into the Romance languages was around during the time of the empire, and was spoken alongside the written Classical Latin, reserved for official and formal occasions. Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii, was the speech of ordinary people of the Roman Empire — different from the classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ... Latin is an inflected language, and as such its nouns, pronouns, and adjectives must be declined in order to serve a grammatical function. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with adposition. ... The word neuter can refer to: the property of being neither biologically male or female: being asexual the sterilization (castration, spaying, etc. ... Latin is an inflected language, and as such its nouns, pronouns, and adjectives must be declined in order to serve a grammatical function. ... An article is a word that combines with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. ...


Fall of the Empire

During the political decline of the Roman Empire in the fifth century, when there were large-scale migrations, including notably Germanic incursions, the Latin-speaking world was fragmented into several independent states. Central Europe and the Balkans were occupied by the Germanic and Slavic tribes, and the Huns and Turks, which isolated Romania from the rest of Latin Europe. Latin disappeared from southern Britain, which had been for a time part of the Empire. But the Germanic tribes that had entered Italy, France, and the Iberian Peninsula eventually adopted Latin and the remnants of Roman culture, keeping Latin the dominant language there. This article is about the historiography of the decline of the Roman Empire. ... (4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... Balkan redirects here. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... This is a tentative list of topics regarding Roman culture. ...

The Romance language family (simplified) - click to enlarge
The Romance language family (simplified) - click to enlarge

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 424 pixelsFull resolution (1085 × 575 pixel, file size: 50 KB, MIME type: image/png) Adapted from the picture made by Sheitan (and Bogdan Giuşcă) which is under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 424 pixelsFull resolution (1085 × 575 pixel, file size: 50 KB, MIME type: image/png) Adapted from the picture made by Sheitan (and Bogdan Giuşcă) which is under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. ...

Latent incubation

See also: Medieval Latin

Between the fifth and tenth centuries, the dialects of spoken Vulgar Latin diverged in various parts of their domain, eventually becoming innumerable distinct languages. This evolution is poorly documented because the written language kept close to the older Classical Latin. Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ...


Recognition of the vernaculars

Between the 10th and 13th centuries, some local vernaculars developed a written form and began to supplant Latin in many of its roles. In some countries, such as Portugal, this transition was expedited by force of law; whereas in others, such as Italy, many prominent poets and writers used the vernacular of their own accord. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Uniformization and standardization

The invention of the press apparently slowed down the evolution of Romance languages from the 16th century on, and brought a tendency towards greater uniformity of standard languages within political boundaries, at the expense of other Romance languages and dialects less favored politically. In France, for instance, the Francien spoken in the region of Paris gradually spread to the entire country, and the Langue d'oc and Franco-Provençal of the south lost ground. The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... OC redirects here. ... Franco-Provençal (Francoprovençal) or Arpitan (in vernacular: patouès) (in Italian: francoprovenzale, provenzale alpina, arpitano, patois; French: francoprovençal, arpitan, patois) is a Romance language with several dialects in a linguistic sub-group separate from Langue dOïl and Langue dOc. ...


Current status

The Romance language most widely spoken natively today is Spanish, followed by Portuguese, French, Italian and Romanian, all of which are main and official national languages in more than one country. A few other languages have official status on a regional or otherwise limited level, for instance Friulian, Sardinian and Valdôtain in Italy; Romansh in Switzerland; Galician, Occitan Aranese and Catalan in Spain (the last of which is also the only official language in the small sovereign state of Andorra). French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, and Romanian are also official languages of the European Union. Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, Romanian, and Catalan are the official languages of the Latin Union; French and Spanish are two of the six official languages of the United Nations. A national language is a language (or language variant, i. ... Friulian (friulano in Italian, Furlan in Friulian) is a Romance language belonging to the Rhaetian languages family, spoken in the north-east of Italy (Friuli-Venezia Giulia province) by about 600,000 people. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Franco-Provençal (Francoprovençal) or Arpitan (in vernacular: patouès) (in Italian: francoprovenzale, provenzale alpina, arpitano, patois; French: francoprovençal, arpitan, patois) is a Romance language with several dialects in a linguistic sub-group separate from Langue dOïl and Langue dOc. ... Romansh (also spelled Rumantsch, Romansch or Romanche) is one of the four national languages of Switzerland, along with German, Italian and French. ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... Aranese (aranés in Occitan/Gascon/Aranese) is a variety of Pyrenean Gascon (a dialect of the Occitan language), spoken in Val dAran, in northwestern Catalonia (Spain), where it is one of the three official languages besides Catalan and Spanish. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Headquarters Paris, France Official languages Catalan, Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese and Romanian Membership 37 (plus 3 observers) Leaders  -  General Secretariat Bernardino Osio Establishment 15 May 1954 Website http://www. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


Outside Europe, French, Spanish and Portuguese are spoken and enjoy official status in various countries that made up their respective colonial empires. French is an official language of Canada, Haiti, many countries in Africa, and some in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, as well as France's current overseas possession. Spanish is an official language of Mexico, much of South America, Central America and the Caribbean, and of Equatorial Guinea in Africa. Portuguese is the official language of Brazil (being the most spoken language in South America), six countries in Africa, East Timor and of Macau. Although Italy also had some colonial possessions, its language did not remain official after the end of the colonial domination, resulting in Italian being spoken only as a minority or secondary language by immigrant communities in North and South America and Australia or African countries like Libya, Eritrea and Somalia. Romanian is also the official language of Moldova (known by its local official name of Moldovan and in the Serbian province of Voivodina. Romania did not establish a colonial empire, but the language spread outside of Europe due to emigration, notably in Western Asia; Romanian flourished in Israel, where it is spoken by some 5% of the total population as mother tongue,[2] and by many more as a secondary language, considering the large population of Romanian-born Jews who moved to Israel after World War II.[3] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colony. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... West Indies redirects here. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Serbia and Montenegro  -Serbia    -Kosovo and Metohia    -Vojvodina  -Montenegro Official languages Serbian, Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Capital Novi Sad Area  - Total  - % water 21,500 km² n/a Population  - Total (2002)  - Density 2,031,992 94. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Proportion of the 690 million native Romance language speakers contained by each language.
Proportion of the 690 million native Romance language speakers contained by each language.

The total native speakers of Romance languages is divided as follows (with their ranking within the languages of the world in brackets):[4] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

The remaining Romance languages survive mostly as spoken languages for informal contact. National governments have historically viewed linguistic diversity as an economic, administrative or military liability, as well a potential source of separatist movements; therefore, they have generally fought to eliminate it, by extensively promoting the use of the official language, by restricting the use of the "other" languages in the media, by characterizing them as mere "dialects", or worse. Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... “Separatists” redirects here. ...


In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, however, increased sensitivity to the rights of minorities have allowed some of these languages to recover some of their prestige and lost rights. Yet, it is unclear whether these political changes will be enough to reverse the minority languages' decline. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... 20XX redirects here. ...


Linguistic features

Features inherited from Indo-European

As members of the Indo-European (IE) family, Romance languages have a number of features that are shared with other members of this family, and in particular with English; but which set them apart from languages of other families, such as Arabic, Basque, Hungarian, or Georgian. These include: The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ...

In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... Adverbs redirects here. ... For the function in NP structure, see Determiner (function). ... In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase with or without a determiner, such as you and they in English. ... In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... Inflection of the Spanish lexeme for cat, with blue representing the masculine gender, pink representing the feminine gender, grey representing the form used for mixed-gender, and green representing the plural number. ... Look up Suffix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A grammatical category is a general term. ... For other uses, see Point of view (literature). ... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood (or mode), which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... In linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a verb defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state. ... In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... In grammar, a clause is a word or group of words ordinarily consisting of a subject and a predicate, although in some languages and some types of clauses, the subject may not appear explicitly. ... A syntactic verb argument, in linguistics, is a phrase that appears in a relationship with the verb in a proposition. ... A fusional language (also called inflecting language) is a type of synthetic language, distinguished from agglutinative languages by its tendency to squish together many morphemes in a way which can be difficult to segment. ... In linguistics, morphosyntactic alignment is the system used to distinguish between the arguments of transitive verbs and those of intransitive verbs. ...

Features inherited from Classical Latin

The Romance languages share a number of features that were inherited from Classical Latin, and collectively set them apart from most other Indo-European languages.

  • They have two grammatical numbers, singular and plural (no dual).
  • In most languages, personal pronouns have different forms according to their grammatical function in a sentence (a remnant of the Latin case system); there is usually a form for the subject (inherited from the Latin nominative) another for the object (from the accusative or the dative), and a third set of personal pronouns used after prepositions or in stressed positions (see Prepositional pronoun and Disjunctive pronoun, for further information). Third person pronouns often have different forms for the direct object (accusative), the indirect object (dative), and the reflexive.
  • Most are null-subject languages. French is a notable exception.
  • Verbs have many conjugations, including in most languages:
    • A present tense, a preterite, an imperfect, a pluperfect and a future tense in the indicative mood, for statements of fact.
    • Present and preterite subjunctive tenses, for hypothetical or uncertain conditions. Several languages (for example, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish) have also imperfect and pluperfect subjunctives, while Portuguese has in addition future subjunctive.
    • An imperative mood, for direct commands.
    • Three non-finite forms: infinitive, gerund, and past participle.
    • Distinct active and passive voices, as well as an impersonal passive voice.
  • The main tense and mood distinctions that were made in classical Latin are generally still present in the modern Romance languages, though many are now expressed through compound rather than simple verbs. The passive voice, which was mostly made up of simple verbs in classical Latin, was completely replaced with compound forms. Because latin is the root of Spanish, French, etc., it also has past, present, present perfect, and future!
  • Several tenses, especially of the indicative mood, have been preserved with little change in most languages, as shown in the following table for the Latin verb dico (to say), and its descendants.
Present Preterite/Perfect Imperfect
Latin dīcit dīxit dicēbat
Catalan diu digué deïa
French il dit il dit il disait
Galician di dixo dicía
Italian dice disse diceva
Neapolitan dice dicette diceva
Piedmontese a dis a dìsser1 a disìa
Portuguese diz disse dizia
Romanian zice zise zicea
Sicilian dici dissi dicìa
Spanish dice dijo decía
Basic meaning he says he said he used to say

1Until the 18th century. Common Slavic had a complete singular-dual-plural number system, although the dual paradigms showed considerable syncretism. ... Personal pronouns are pronouns often used as substitutes for proper or common nouns. ... The subjective pronouns are pronouns used as the subject of a sentence; in other words, the initiator or instigator of a verb. ... An objective pronoun in grammar functions as the target of a verb, as distinguished from a subjective pronoun, which is the initiator of a verb. ... This article is about special pronominal forms used after prepositions. ... A disjunctive pronoun is a stressed form of a pronoun reserved for use in isolation or in certain syntactic contexts. ... “Oneself” redirects here. ... In linguistic typology, a null subject language is a language whose grammar permits an independent clause to lack an explicit subject. ... In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (regular alteration according to rules of grammar). ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... The preterite (also praeterite, in American English also preterit, or past historic) is the grammatical tense expressing actions which took place in the past. ... The imperfect tense, in the classical grammar of several Indo-European languages, denotes a past tense with an imperfective aspect. ... The pluperfect tense exists in most Indo-European languages, including English. ... It has been suggested that Future perfect tense be merged into this article or section. ... The subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood) is a grammatical mood of the verb that expresses wishes, commands (in subordinate clauses), and statements that are contrary to fact. ... The subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood) is a grammatical mood of the verb that expresses wishes, commands (in subordinate clauses), and statements that are contrary to fact. ... A non-finite verb is not limited by the person, tense and number of the subject. ... The impersonal passive voice is a verb voice that decreases the valency of an intransitive verb (which has valency one) to zero. ... Periphrasis, like its Latin counterpart circumlocution, is a figure of speech where the meaning of a word or phrase is indirectly expressed through several or many words. ...


For a more detailed illustration of how the verbs have changed with respect to classical Latin, see Romance copula: Morphological changes. The copula or copulae (the verb or verbs meaning to be) in all Romance languages derive from the Latin verbs SVM and STO. The former was the copular verb to be (ultimately from the Indo-European copula *h1es-), and the latter mainly meant to stand (ultimately from the Indo-European...


Features inherited from Vulgar Latin

Romance languages also have a number of features that are not shared with Classical Latin. Most of these features are thought to be inherited from Vulgar Latin. Even though the Romance languages are all derived from Latin, they are arguably much closer to each other than to their common ancestor, due to a core of common developments. The main difference is the loss of the case system of Classical Latin, an essential feature which allowed great freedom of word order, and has no counterpart in any Romance language except Romanian. In this regard, the distance between any modern Romance language and Latin is comparable to that between Modern English and Old English. While speakers of French, Italian or Spanish, for example, can quickly learn to see through the phonological changes reflected in spelling differences, and thus recognize many Latin words, they will often fail to understand the meaning of Latin sentences. Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii, was the speech of ordinary people of the Roman Empire — different from the classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ...

  • The distinctions of vowel length present in Classical Latin were lost in most Romance languages (an exception is Friulian), and partly replaced with "qualitative" contrasts like monophthong versus diphthong (Italian, Spanish; French to a lesser extent), or with vowel height contrasts (as in Portuguese and Catalan).
  • There are definite and indefinite articles, derived from Latin demonstratives and the numeral unus ("one").
  • There are only two grammatical genders, masculine and feminine. The neuter gender of Latin has been lost (mostly merging with the masculine). (Exceptions: Romanian, which retains neuter gender; Spanish, which has the neuter third person pronoun ello, the neuter demonstratives eso, esto, aquello, and the neuter article lo, all used for objects or some abstract notions; and Italian, which while not keeping the neuter gender intact, has residual traces of it represented by some words that switch gender between singular and plural, such as il dito (the finger), plural le dita, inherited from Latin digitum, plural digita).
  • Apart from gender and number, nouns, adjectives and determiners are not inflected. Cases have generally been lost, though a trace of them survives in the personal pronouns. An exception is Romanian, which retains a combined genitive-dative case.
  • Adjectives generally follow the noun they modify.
  • Many Latin combining prefixes were incorporated in the lexicon as new roots and verb stems, e.g. Italian estrarre ("to extract") from Latin ex- ("out") and trahere ("to drag").
  • Many Latin constructions involving nominalized verbal forms (e.g. the use of accusative plus infinitive in indirect discourse and the use of the ablative absolute) were dropped in favor of constructions with subordinate clauses in all Romance languages except Italian (for example, Latin tempore permittente > Italian tempo permettendo; L. hoc facto > I. fatto ciò).
  • The normal clause structure is SVO, rather than SOV, and is much less flexible than in Latin.
  • Due to sound changes which made it homophonous with the preterite, the Latin future indicative tense was dropped, and replaced with a periphrasis of the form infinitive + present tense of habēre ("to have"). Eventually, this structure was reanalysed as a new future tense.
  • In a similar process, an entirely new conditional form was created.
  • While the synthetic passive voice of classical Latin was abandoned in favour of periphrastic constructions, the active voice remained in use. However, several tenses have changed meaning, especially subjunctives. For example:
    • The Latin pluperfect indicative became a conditional in Catalan and Sicilian, and an imperfect subjunctive in Spanish.
    • The Latin pluperfect subjunctive developed into an imperfect subjunctive in all languages except Romansh, where it became a conditional, and Romanian, where it became a pluperfect indicative.
    • The Latin preterite subjunctive, together with the future perfect indicative, became a future subjunctive in Old Spanish, Portuguese, and Galician.
    • The Latin imperfect subjunctive became a personal infinitive in Portuguese and Galician.
  • Many Romance languages have two copular verbs, derived from the Latin stare (mostly used for "temporary state") and esse (mostly used for "essential attributes"). However, the distinction was eventually lost in some languages, notably French, which now have only the first copula. In French, stare and esse had become ester and estre by the late Middle Ages. Due to phonological development, there were the forms êter and être, which eventually merged to être. In Italian, the two verbs share the same past participle, stato. See Romance copula, for further information.

In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A monophthong (in Greek μονόφθογγος = single note) is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation; compare diphthong. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... In phonetics, vowel height refers to the position of the tongue relative to the roof of the mouth in a vowel sound. ... An article is a word that combines with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. ... // Demonstratives are deictic words (they depend on an external frame of reference) that indicate which entities a speaker refers to, and distinguishes those entities from others. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... The word neuter can refer to: the property of being neither biologically male or female: being asexual the sterilization (castration, spaying, etc. ... Determiners are words which quantify or identify nouns. ... In grammar, the case of a noun or pronoun indicates its grammatical function in a greater phrase or clause; such as the role of subject, of direct object, or of possessor. ... Personal pronouns are pronouns often used as substitutes for proper or common nouns. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ... Dative has several meanings. ... Free indirect speech (or free indirect discourse or free indirect style) is a style of third person narration which has some of the characteristics of direct speech. ... Latin, like all other ancient Indo-European languages, is highly inflectional, and so has a very flexible word order. ... In linguistic typology, subject-verb-object (SVO) is the sequence subject verb object in neutral expressions: Sam ate oranges. ... In linguistic typology, Subject Object Verb (SOV) is the type of languages in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear (usually) in that order. ... For the specialised use of homonym in scientific nomenclature, see Homonym (botany) and Homonym (zoology). ... It has been suggested that Future perfect tense be merged into this article or section. ... In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. ... Grammaticalisation, also referred to as Grammaticalization, Grammatisation or Grammatization is a theory describing the change of a content word (lexical morpheme) into a function word or grammatical affix. ... The conditional mood (or conditional tense) is the form of the verb used in conditional sentences to refer to a hypothetical state of affairs, or an uncertain event that is contingent on another set of circumstances. ... In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc. ... Periphrasis, like its Latin counterpart circumlocution, is a figure of speech where the meaning of a word or phrase is indirectly expressed through several or many words. ... The conditional mood (or conditional tense) is the form of the verb used in conditional sentences to refer to a hypothetical state of affairs, or an uncertain event that is contingent on another set of circumstances. ... In grammar, the subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood) is a verb mood that exists in many languages. ... Not to be confused with Romand which is one of the names for the Franco-Provençal language. ... The pluperfect tense (from Latin: plus quam perfectum more than perfect) is a perfective tense that exists in most Indo-European languages, used to refer to an event that has completed before another past action. ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. ... For other uses, see Copula (disambiguation). ... The copula or copulae (the verb or verbs meaning to be) in all Romance languages derive from the Latin verbs SVM and STO. The former was the copular verb to be (ultimately from the Indo-European copula *h1es-), and the latter mainly meant to stand (ultimately from the Indo-European...

Other shared features

The Romance languages also share a number of features that were not the result of common inheritance, but rather of various cultural diffusion processes in the Middle Ages — such as literary diffusion, commercial and military interactions, political domination, influence of the Catholic Church, and (especially in later times) conscious attempts to "purify" the languages by reference to Classical Latin. Some of those features have in fact spread to other non-Romance (and even non-Indo-European) languages, chiefly in Europe. Here are some of these "late origin" shared features: The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...

  • Most Romance languages have polite forms of address that change the person and/or number of 2nd person subjects (T-V distinction), such as the tu/vous contrast in French, the tu/Lei contrast in Italian, the tu/dumneavoastră (from dominus + vostre, literally meaning "your Highness") in Romanian or the (or vos) /usted contrast in Spanish.
  • They all have a large collection of learned Hellenisms and Latinisms, with prefixes, stems, and suffixes retained or reintroduced from Greek and Latin, and used to coin new words. Most of these are also used in English, e.g. tele-, poly-, meta-, pseudo-, dis-, ex-, post-, -scope, -logy, -tion. Some of these stems can have a local spelling, for example poly- becomes poli- in Romanian, Italian and Spanish.
  • During the Renaissance, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and a few other Romance languages developed a new, progressive aspect that did not exist in Latin. In French, progressive constructions remain very limited, the imperfect aspect generally being preferred, as in Latin.
  • Many Romance languages now have a verbal construction analogous to the present perfect of English. In some, it has taken the place of the old preterite (at least in the vernacular); in others, the two coexist with somewhat different meanings.

In sociolinguistics, a T-V distinction describes the situation wherein a language has second-person pronouns that distinguish varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, or insult toward the addressee. ... Hellenism, from Greek Έλληνισμός (Hellenismos), imitation of the Greeks; German Hellenizein, to speak Greek. ... A Latinism is a word borrowed from Latin into another language, such as English. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... In English, and sometimes in other languages, the continuous or progressive aspect is an aspect that denotes an incomplete action in progress at a specific time. ... The perfective aspect is a grammatical aspect. ... The present perfect tense denotes a present condition resulting from a previous action. ... The preterite (also praeterite, in American English also preterit, or past historic) is the grammatical tense expressing actions which took place in the past. ...

Divergent features

In spite of their common origin, the descendants of Vulgar Latin have many differences. These occur at all levels, including the sound systems, the orthography, the nominal, verbal, and adjectival inflections, the auxiliary verbs and the semantics of verbal tenses, the function words, the rules for subordinate clauses, and, especially, in their vocabularies. While most of those differences are clearly due to independent development after the breakup of the Roman Empire (including invasions and cultural exchanges), one must also consider the influence of prior languages in territories of Latin Europe that fell under Roman rule, and possible inhomogeneities in Vulgar Latin itself. Look up homogeneity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


It is often said that French and Portuguese are the most innovative of the Romance languages, each in different ways, that Sardinian and Romanian are the most isolated and conservative variants, and that the languages of Italy other than Sardinian (including Italian) occupy a middle ground.[citation needed] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Some even claim that Languedocian Occitan and its "Spanish" counterpart Catalan are the "most average" western Romance language. This concept comes from the fact that language wide rule changes (G->C, E->IE, O->U, T->D, LH->LL, beginning S->ES, V->U, Portuguese pronunciation, spelling of "O" as "U", etc) in languages North and West of Rome (Gaul, Iberia and Northwest Italy) seem to follow an evolutionary pattern from "proto-parent" languages and passed on to down the line, rather than patterns borne by random evolution from Latin, with modern Occitan/Catalan retaining much of the proto-language parent's changes. Many language wide rule changes between Occitan/Catalan and Latin are found in some words in every Latin language West, North, and South of the region (e.g. modern day France, Spain, and Portugal), but never found in languages East or Southeast. It was assumed that the entire Roman empire spoke Latin as their mother tongue, but this assumption may be way wrong. Outlying areas may have spoken a variety of "inferior" languages, and people may have wanted to incorporate latin words for their own benefit, but learned Latin orally from their neighbors, instead of Classical Latin, thus handing changes down the line. Languedocien is a Romance language akin to Provençal spoken by some people in the part of southern France known as Languedoc. ... Catalan can refer to: Catalan people Catalan language An inhabitant of Catalonia A Catalan speaker, whether or not from Catalonia proper (see Catalan Countries). ...


However, these evaluations are largely subjective, as they depend on how much weight one assigns to specific features. In fact all Romance languages, including Sardinian and Romanian, are all vastly different from their common ancestor.


Romanian (together with other related minor languages, like Aromanian) in fact has a number of grammatical features which are unique within Romance, but are shared with other non-Romance languages of the Balkans, such as Albanian, Bulgarian, Greek, Serbo-Croatian, Slovene and Turkish. These include, for example, the structure of the vestigial case system, the placement of articles as suffixes of the nouns (cer = "sky", cerul = "the sky"), and several more. This phenomenon, called the Balkan linguistic union, may be due to contacts between those languages in post-Roman times. Aromanians (also called: Macedo-Romanians or Vlachs, in Aromanian they call themselves arumâni, armâni or aromâni) are a population living as a minority in Northern Greece, Serbia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria; their number is estimated to about one or two million. ... Balkan redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Balkan linguistic union or Balkansprachbund is the similarity in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology among languages of the Balkans, which belong to various Indo-European branches, such as Albanian, Greek, Romance and Slavic. ...


Sound changes

The vocabularies of Romance languages have undergone considerable change since their birth, by various phonological processes that were characteristic of each language. Those changes applied more or less systematically to all words, but were often conditioned by the sound context or morphological structure.


Some languages have lost sounds from the original Latin words. French, in particular, has dropped all final vowels, and sometimes also the preceding consonant: thus Latin lupus and luna became Italian lupo and luna but French loup [lu] and lune [lyn]. Catalan, Occitan, many Northern Italian dialects, and Romanian (Daco-Romanian) lost the final vowels in most masculine nouns and adjectives, but retained them in the feminine. Other languages, including Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, and the Southern dialects of Romanian have retained those vowels. Daco-Romanian (Romanian: limba dacoromânǎ, Latin: lingua Daco-Romana) is the term used to identify the Romanian language in contexts where distinction needs to be made between the various Eastern Romance languages or dialects (Daco-Romanian, Aromanian, Istro-Romanian, and Megleno-Romanian). ...


Some languages have lost the final vowel -e from verbal infinitives, e.g. dīcere → Portuguese dizer ("to say"). Other common cases of final truncation are the verbal endings, e.g. Latin amāt → Italian ama ("he loves"), amābamamavo ("I loved"), amābatamava ("he loved"), amābatisamavate ("you (pl.) loved"), etc.


Sounds have often been lost in the middle of words, too; e.g. Latin Luna → Galician and Portuguese Lua, crēdere → Spanish creer ("to believe").


On the other hand, some languages have inserted many epenthetic vowels in certain contexts. For instance Spanish, Galician and Portuguese have generally inserted an e at the start of Latin words that began with s + consonant, such as sperōespero ("I hope"). French originally did the same, but then dropped the s: spatula → arch. espauleépaule ("shoulder"). In the case of Italian, a unique article, lo for the definite and uno for the indefinite, is used for masculine s + consonant words (sbaglio, "mistake"), as well as all masculine words beginning with z (zaino, "backpack"). In poetry and phonetics, epenthesis (, from Greek epi on + en in + thesis putting) is the insertion of a consonant, a vowel, or a whole syllable into a word, usually to facilitate pronunciation. ...


For more detailed descriptions, see the articles History of French, From Latin to Portuguese, Latin to Romanian sound changes, and Linguistic history of Spanish. French is a Romance language (meaning that it is descended from Latin) that evolved out of the Gallo-Romance dialects spoken in Northern France. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article presents the sound changes that happened from Latin to Romanian. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with History of the Spanish language. ...


Lexical stress

The position of the stressed syllable in a word generally varies from word to word in each Romance language, and often moves as the word is inflected. Sometimes the stress is lexically significant, e.g. Italian Papa [ˈpa.pa] ("Pope") and papà [pa.ˈpa] ("daddy"), or Spanish imperfect subjunctive cantara ("[if he] sang") and future cantará ("he will sing"). However, the main function of Romance stress in appears to be a clue for speech segmentation — namely to help the listener identify the word boundaries in normal speech, where inter-word spaces are usually absent. Speech segmentation is the process of identifying the boundaries between words, syllables, or phonemes in spoken natural languages. ...


In Romance languages, the stress is usually confined to one of the last three syllables of the word. That limit may be occasionally exceeded by some verbs with attached clitics, e.g. Italian mettiamocene [me.ˈtːja.mo.ʧe.ne] or Metintilu in Friulian ("let's put some of it in there"), Spanish entregándomelo [en.tre.ɣan.do.me.lo] ("delivering it to me") or Portuguese dávamo-vo-lo ['da.vɐ.mu.vu.lu] ("we were giving it to you"). Originally the stress was predominantly in the penultimate syllable, but that pattern has changed considerably in some languages. In French, for instance, the loss of final vowels has left the stress almost exclusively on the last syllable. Penultimate can mean next to last in a general context, but is used most often in linguistics as an adjective or noun to denote or refer to the penult of a word/ penultimate stress. ...


Formation of plurals

Main articles: Romance plurals and La Spezia-Rimini Line

Some Romance languages form plurals by adding /s/ (derived from the plural of the Latin accusative case), while others form the plural by changing the final vowel (by influence of the Latin nominative ending /i/). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with La Spezia-Rimini Line. ... In the linguistics of the Romance languages, the La Spezia-Rimini Line is a line that refers to a number of important isoglosses that distinguish the eastern Romance languages from the western Romance languages. ...

  • Vowel change: Italian, Romanian.
  • Plural in /s/: Portuguese, Galician, Spanish, Catalan, Occitan, Sardinian, Friulian, Romansh.
  • Special case of French: Falls into the second group historically (and orthographically), but the final -s is no longer pronounced (except in liaison contexts), meaning that singular and plural nouns are usually homophonous in isolation. Many determiners have a distinct plural formed by changing the vowel and allowing /z/ in liaison.

Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Determiners are words which modify nouns. ...

Borrowed words

Vulgar Latin borrowed many words, often from Germanic languages that replaced words from Classical Latin during the Migration Period, even including common basic vocabulary. Notable examples are *blancus (white), which replaced Classical Latin albus in most major languages and dialects except for Romanian; *guerra (war), which replaced bellum; and words for the cardinal directions, where words similar to English north, south, east and west replaced the Classical Latin words borealis (or septentrionalis) (north), australis (or meridionalis) (south), occidentalis (west) and orientalis (east) everywhere (for standard usage). See History of French - The Franks. The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... A compass rose showing the cardinal directions Cardinal directions or cardinal points are the four principal directions or points of the compass in plane. ... French is a Romance language (meaning that it is descended from Latin) that evolved out of the Gallo-Romance dialects spoken in Northern France. ...


Derivations

Words for "more"

Some Romance languages use a version of Latin plus, others a version of magis.

  • Plus-derived: Sardinian prusu, French plus /ply/, Piedmontese pi, Lombard pu, Ligurian ciù, Italian più /pju/, Friulian plui, Romansh pli, Venetian pi. In Catalan pus /pus/ is exclusively used on negative statements in Mallorcan Catalan dialect, and "més" is the word mostly used.
  • Magis-derived: Sardinian (mera), Galician and Portuguese (mais; mediaeval Galician-Portuguese had both words: mais and chus), Spanish (más), Catalan (més), Venetian (massa or masa, "too much") Occitan (mai), Romanian (mai), Italian (mai, used in constructions such as non... mai, meaning "never", or "Londra è la più grande città che io abbia mai visto" "London is the biggest city I have ever seen").

Galician-Portuguese (also known as galego-português or galaico-português in Portuguese and as galego-portugués or galaico-portugués in Galician) was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula. ...

Words for "nothing"

Although the Latin word for "nothing" is nihil, the common word for "nothing" became nudha in Sardinian, nada in Spanish and Portuguese, nada and ren in Galician, rien in French, res in Catalan, cosa and res in Aragonese, ren in Occitan, nimic in Romanian, and niente and nulla in Italian, gnente in Venetian, Lombard and Piedmontese (but the Piedmontese negative adverb nen cames from NE-Ente), and nue and nuie in Friulian. Some argue that all three roots derive from different parts of a Latin phrase nullam rem natam ("no thing born"), an emphatic idiom for "nothing". Meanwhile, Italian and Venetian niente and gnente would seem to be more logically derived from Latin ne(c) entem ("no being").


The number 16

Romanian constructs the names of the numbers 11–19 by a regular pattern which could be translated as "one-over-ten", "two-over-ten", etc.. All the other Romance languages use a pattern like "one-ten", "two-ten", etc. for 11–15, and the pattern "ten-and-seven, "ten-and-eight", "ten-and-nine" for 17–19. For 16, however, they split into two groups: some use "six-ten", some use "ten-and-six":

  • "Sixteen": Catalan and Occitan setze, French seize, Italian sedici, Venetian sédexe, Romansh sedesch, Friulian sedis, Lombard sedas / sedes, Franco-Provençal sèze, Sardinian sédichi, Piedmontese sëddes.
  • "Ten and six": Portuguese dezasseis or dezesseis, Galician dezaseis, Spanish dieciséis, the Marchigiano dialect digissei.
  • "Six over ten": Romanian șaisprezece (where spre derives from Latin super).

Classical Latin uses the "one-ten" pattern for 11–17 (ūndecim, duodecim, ..., septendecim), but then switches to "two-off-twenty" (duodēvigintī) and "one-off-twenty" (ūndēvigintī). For the sake of comparison, note that English and German use two special words derived from "one left over" and "two left over" for 11 and 12, then the pattern "three-ten", "four-ten", ..., "nine-ten" for 13–19. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


To have and to hold

The verbs derived from Latin habēre "to have", tenēre "to hold", and esse "to be" are used differently in the various Romance languages, to express possession, to construct perfect tenses, and to make existential statements ("there is"). If we use T for tenēre, H for habēre, and E for esse, we have the following distribution:

  • HHE: Romanian, Italian, Northern-Italian languages
  • HHH: Occitan, French, Romansh.
  • THH: Spanish, Catalan, Aragonese.
  • TTH: European Portuguese.
  • TTT: Brazilian Portuguese. (colloquial)

For example:

English: I have, I have done, there is (HHE)
Friulian: (jo) o ai, (jo) o ai fat, a 'nd è, al è (HHE)
Venetian: (mi) go, (mi) go fat, ghe xe, ghi n'é (HHE)
Lombard (Western): (mi) a gh-u, (mi) a u fai, al gh'è, a gh'è (HHE)
Piedmontese: (mi) i l'hai, (mi) i l'hai fàit, a-i é (HHE)
Romanian: (eu) am, (eu) am făcut, este (or e) (HHE)
Italian: (io) ho, (io) ho fatto, c'è (HHE)
Romansh: (jau) hai, (jau) hai fatg, igl ha (HHH)
French: j'ai, j'ai fait, il y a (HHH)
Catalan: (jo) tinc, (jo) he fet, hi ha (THH)
Aragonese: (yo) tiengo (but (yo) he dialectally), (yo) he feito, bi ha (THH)
Spanish: (yo) tengo, (yo) he hecho, hay (THH)
Galician: (eu) teño, - , hai (T-H; Galician does not have a present perfect)
Portuguese: (eu) tenho, (eu) tenho feito, in Portugal (TTH) / tem in Brazil (TTT)

Ancient Galician-Portuguese used to employ the auxiliary H for permanent states, such as Eu hei um nome "I have a name" (i.e. for all my life), and T for non-permanent states Eu tenho um livro "I have a book" (i.e. perhaps not so tomorrow), but this construction is no longer used in modern Galician and Portuguese. Informal Brazilian Portuguese uses the T verb even in the existential sense, e.g. Tem água no copo "There is water in the glass". In most languages, the descendant of tenēre still has the sense of "to hold", as well, e.g. Italian tieni il libro, French tu tiens le livre, Catalan tens el llibre, Romanian ține cartea, Friulian Tu tu tegnis il libri "You're holding the book". In others, like Portuguese, this sense has been mostly lost, and a different verb is currently used for "to hold". Romansh uses, besides igl ha, the form i dat (literally: it gives), borrowed from German es gibt. Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil in Portuguese) is a group of dialects of Portuguese written and spoken by virtually all the 190 million inhabitants of Brazil and by a couple of million Brazilian emigrants, mainly in the United States, United Kingdom, Portugal, Canada, Japan, and Paraguay. ...


To have or to be

Some languages use their equivalent of "have" as an auxiliary verb to form the perfect forms (e. g. French passé composé) of all verbs; others use "be" for some verbs and "have" for others. In linguistics, an auxiliary (also called helping verb, auxiliary verb, or verbal auxiliary) is a verb functioning to give further semantic or syntactic information about the main or full verb following it. ...

  • "Have" only: Standard Catalan, Spanish, Romanian, Sicilian.
  • "Have" and "be": Occitan, French, Italian, Northern-Italian languages (Piedmontese, Lombard, Ligurian, Venitian, Friulian), Romansh, some dialects of Catalan (although such usage is recessing in those).

In the latter, the verbs which use "be" as an auxiliary are unaccusative verbs, that is, intransitive verbs that show motion not directly initiated by the subject or changes of state, such as "fall", "come", "become". All other verbs (intransitive unergative verbs and all transitive verbs) use "have". For example, in French, J'ai vu "I have seen" vs. Je suis tombé "I am fallen" ("I have fallen"). A similar dichotomy exists in the Germanic languages, which share the same Sprachbund; German and the Scandinavian languages use "have" and "be", while modern English uses "have" only. An unaccusative verb is a special kind of intransitive verb, which is distinguished semantically by the fact that its subject does not actively initiate or is not actively responsible for the action of the verb; rather, it has properties which it shares with the direct object of a transitive verb... An unergative verb is a special kind of intransitive verb, which is distinguished semantically by the fact that the subject is perceived as actively initiating or actively responsible for the action expressed by the verb. ... A Sprachbund (German for language bond, also known as a linguistic area, convergence area, diffusion area) is a group of languages that have become similar in some way because of geographical proximity. ...


I did or I have done

Some languages (e.g. Spanish, Catalan, Occitan, Portuguese and written French and Italian) make a distinction between a preterite and a present perfect tense (cf. English I did vs. I have done). Others (spoken French, Italian and Galician) contain only one tense, which renders both meanings. French, Italian, and European Spanish use the compound past for this, while Sicilian and Latin American Spanish use the simple past. The preterite (also praeterite, in American English also preterit, or past historic) is the grammatical tense expressing actions which took place in the past. ... The present perfect tense is a perfect tense used to express action that has been completed with respect to the present. ...


Writing systems

Main article: Latin Alphabet

The Romance languages have kept the writing system of Latin, adapting it to their evolution. One exception was Romanian before the 19th century, where, after the Roman retreat, literacy was reintroduced through the Romanian Cyrillic alphabet due to Slavic influences. Also the non-Christian populations of Spain used the systems of their culture languages (Arabic and Hebrew) to write aljamiado versions of Castilian (Ladino among Sephardic Jews). Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... The Romanian Cyrillic alphabet was used to write Romanian language before 1860. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Aljamiado text by mancebo de Arévalo. ... This article deals with the Judaeo-Spanish language. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the...


Letter values

All Romance languages are written with the "core" Latin alphabet of 22 letters — A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, V, X, Y, Z — subsequently modified and augmented in various ways. In particular, the letters K and W are rarely used in most Romance languages, mostly for unassimilated foreign names and words, as they were in late Latin. Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... Variants of the Latin alphabet are used by the writing systems of many languages throughout the world. ...


While most of the 22 basic Latin letters have maintained their phonetic value, for some of them it has diverged considerably; and the new letters added since the Middle Ages have been put to different uses in different scripts. Some letters, notably H and Q, have been variously combined in digraphs or trigraphs (see below) to represent phonetic phenomena not recorded in Latin, or to get around previously established spelling conventions. Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... A trigraph (from the Greek words tria = three and grapho = write) is a group of three letters used to represent a single sound. ...


A characteristic feature of the writing systems of almost all Romance languages is that the Latin letters C and G — which originally always represented /k/ and /g/ respectively — represent other sounds when they come before E, I, and in some cases Y and Œ. This is due to a general palatalization of /k/ and /ɡ/ before front vowels like /i/ and /e/. This is believed to have occurred in the transition from Classical to Vulgar Latin. Since the written form of all the affected words was tied to the classical language, the shift was accommodated by a change in the pronunciation rules. However, the new sounds of C and G in those contexts differ from language to language. Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ...


The spelling rules of most Romance languages are fairly complex, and subject to considerable regional variation. To a first approximation, the phonetic representation of non-combined letters can be summarized as follows:

C: generally [k], but "softened" before E, I, or Y in most Romance languages — to [s] in French, Portuguese, Occitan, Catalan, and American Spanish; to [θ] in Peninsular Spanish and Galician; to [ts] in Romansh; and to [ʧ] in Italian, other Romance languages in Italy and Romanian. See Hard and soft C.
G: generally [ɡ] or [ɣ], but "softened" before E, I, or Y in most languages — to [ʒ] in French, Portuguese, Occitan and Catalan; to [x] or [h] in Spanish (according to dialect); to [ɟ] in Romansh; and to [ʤ] in other Romance languages in Italy and Romanian.. See Hard and soft G.
H: silent in most languages, but represents [h] in Romanian and Gascon Occitan. Used in various digraphs (see below).
J: represents [ʒ] in most languages; [x] or [h] in Spanish; [j] in Romansh and in several of Italy's languages, though it is normally replaced with "gi" [dʒi] or i (for the sound [j]) in native Italian words.
S: normally represents [s] (either laminal or apical) at syllable onset, but usually [z] between vowels. Intervocalic s is, however, pronounced [s] in Spanish, Romanian, Galician and several varieties of Italian. In the syllable coda, it may have special allophonic pronunciations.
W: used only in Walloon. Represents [v] in French, with the exception of words borrowed from English.
X: at the beginning of words, represents [ks] (in some words [ɡz]) in French, [s] or [ks] in Spanish, and [ʃ] in Portuguese, Catalan, and Galician. In intervocalic position, represents [ks] in French, Portuguese, Spanish, and Romanian; [ɡz] in Catalan, French, and Romanian; [ɡs] in Galician and Spanish; [ʃ] in Catalan, Galician and Portuguese; [ʒ] in Ligurian;[z] in Venetian, French and Portuguese; or [s] in French and Portuguese. Not used in Italian (except in borrowings), where it is replaced by s.
Y: used in French and Spanish for the vowel [i], and also as a consonant, [j] (esp. in French), [ʝ], [ʒ] or [ʤ].
Z: [z] in most languages; either [θ] or [s] in Galician and Spanish; either [ʣ] or [ʦ] in Italian.

Otherwise, letters that are not combined as digraphs generally have the same sounds as in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), whose design was, in fact, greatly influenced by the Romance spelling systems. A hard c vs. ... A hard c vs. ... A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the blade of the tongue, which is the flat top front surface just behind the tip of the tongue. ... An apical consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the apex of the tongue (i. ... For the computer operating system, see Syllable (operating system). ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... In phonetics, an allophone is one of several similar phones that belong to the same phoneme. ... Walloon (Walon) is a regional Romance language spoken as a second language by some in Wallonia (Belgium). ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...


Digraphs and trigraphs

Since most Romance languages have more sounds than can be accommodated in the Roman Latin alphabet they all resort to the use of digraphs and trigraphs — combinations of two or three letters with a single sound value. The concept (but not the actual combinations) derives from Classical Latin; which used, for example, TH, PH, and CH when transliterating the Greek letters "θ", "ϕ" (later "φ"), and "χ" (These were once aspirated sounds in Greek before changing to corresponding fricatives and the <H> represented what sounded to the Romans like an /ʰ/ following /t/, /p/, and /k/ respectively. Some of the digraphs used in modern scripts are: In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents. ...

CI: used in Italian, Romance languages in Italy and Romanian to represent /ʧ/ before A, O, or U.
CH: used in Italian, Romance languages in Italy, Romanian, Romansh and Sardinian to represent /k/ before E or I; /ʧ/ in Occitan, Spanish and Galician; [c] in Romansh before A, O or U; and /ʃ/ in most other languages.
ÇH: used in Poitevin-Saintongeais for voiceless palatal fricative /ç/
DD: used in Sicilian and Sardinian to represent the voiced retroflex plosive /ɖ/. In recent history more accurately transcribed as DDH.
DJ: used in Catalan and Walloon for /ʤ/.
GI: used in Italian, Romance languages in Italy and Romanian to represent /ʤ/ before A, O, or U.
GH: used in Italian, Romance languages in Italy, Romanian, Romansh and Sardinian to represent /ɡ/ before E or I, and in Galician for the voiceless pharyngeal fricative /ħ/ (not standard sound).
GL: used in Romansh before consonants and at the end of words for /ʎ/.
GLI: used in Italian and Romansh for /ʎ/.
GN: used in French, Italian, Romance languages in Italy and Romansh for /ɲ/, as in champignon or gnocchi.
GU: used before E or I to represent /ɡ/ or /ɣ/ in all Romance languages except Italian, Romance languages in Italy and Romanian.
IG: used at the end of word in Catalan for /ʧ/, as in maig, safareig or enmig.
IX: used between vowels or at the end of word in Catalan for /ʃ/, as in caixa or calaix.
LH: used in Portuguese and Occitan /ʎ/.
LL: used in Spanish, Catalan, Galician, Norman and Dgèrnésiais, originally for /ʎ/ which has merged in some cases with /j/. Represents /l/ in French unless it follows I (i) when it represents /j/ (or /ʎ/ in some dialects). It's used in Occitan for a long /lː/
L·L: used in Catalan for a geminate consonant /lː/.
NH: used in Portuguese and Occitan for /ɲ/, used in official Galician for /ŋ/ .
N-: used in Piedmontese for /ŋ/ between two vowels.
NY: used in Catalan for /ɲ/.
QU: represents [kw] in Italian and Romance languages in Italy; [k] in French and Spanish; [k] (before e or i) or [kw] (normally before a or o) in Occitan, Catalan and Portuguese.
RR: used between vowels in several languages (Occitan, Catalan, Spanish...) to denote a trilled /r/ or a guttural R, instead of the flap /ɾ/.
SC: used before E or I in Italian and Romance languages in Italy for /ʃ/, and in French and Spanish as /s/ in words of certain etymology.
SCH: used in Romansh for [ʃ] or [ʒ].
SCI: used in Italian and Romance languages in Italy to represent /ʃ/ before A, O, or U.
SH: used in Aranese Occitan for /ʃ/.
SS: used in French, Portuguese, Piedmontese, Occitan and Catalan for /s/ between vowels.
TG: used in Romansh for [c]. In Catalan is used for /ʤ/ between vowels, as in metge or fetge.
TH: used in Jèrriais for /θ/ (as in English "thick"); used in Aranese for either /t/ or /ʧ/.
TJ: used between vowels and before A, O or U, in Catalan for /ʤ/, as in sotjar or mitjó.
TSCH: used in Romansh for [ʧ].
TX: used at the beginnig or at the end of word or between vowels in Catalan for /ʧ/, as in txec, esquitx or atxa.

While the digraphs CH, PH, RH and TH were at one time used in many words of Greek origin, most languages have now replaced them with C/QU, F, R and T. Only French has kept these etymological spellings, which now represent /k/ or /ʃ/, /f/, /ʀ/ and /t/, respectively. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Occitan, or langue doc is a Romance language characterized by its richness, variability, and by the intelligibility of its dialects. ... The voiceless palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The voiced retroflex plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The voiceless pharyngeal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... In phonetics, gemination is when a spoken consonant is doubled, so that it is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than a single consonant. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another. ... Etymologies redirects here. ...


Gemination

For most languages in this family, consonant length is no longer phonemically distinctive or present. The double consonants in French spelling are due to etymology. However, Italian, Sardinian and Sicilian do have long consonants like BB, CC, DD, etc., where the doubling indicates a short hold before the consonant is released, which often has lexical value: e.g. note /ˈnɔ:.te/ ("notes") vs. notte /ˈnɔt.te/ ("night"). They may even occur at the beginning of words in Romanesco, Neapolitan and Sicilian, and are occasionally written, e.g. Sicilian cchiù (more), and ccà (here). In general, the letters B, R and Z are long at the start of a word. The double consonants in Piedmontese exist only after stressed [ə], written <ë> and they are not ethymological: vëdde (Latin videre, to see), sëcca (Latin sicca, dry, feminine of sech). In Jèrriais, long consonants are marked with an apostrophe: S'S is a long /z/, SS'S is a long /s/, and T'T is a long /t/. In Catalan and Occitan exists a geminate /lː/ sound written ŀl (Catalan) or ll (Occitan), but it is usually pronounced as a simple sound in colloquial (and even some formal) speech in both languages. In phonetics, gemination is when a spoken consonant is doubled, so that it is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than a single consonant. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Romanesco is a group of Romance dialects spoken in Rome and most of the surrounding regions of Lazio, Umbria, central Marche and extreme southern Tuscany in central Italy. ... Piedmont is a region of northwestern Italy. ... Jèrriais is the form of the Norman language spoken in Jersey, in the Channel Islands. ...


Diacritics and special characters

Diacritics found in the Romance languages are the acute accent (á), the grave accent (à), the circumflex accent (â), the diaeresis mark (ü), the tilde (ñ), and the breve (ă). The cedilla (ç), and the diacritical comma (ş and ţ, in Romanian) are used to mark sound changes due to historical palatalizations. The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... In linguistics, a, diaeresis, or dieresis (AE) (from Greek (diaerein), to divide) is the modification of a syllable by distinctly pronouncing one of its vowels. ... For the baseball player known as the Big Tilde, see Magglio Ordóñez. ... A breve (Latin brevis short, brief) is a diacritical mark Ë˜, shaped like a little round cup, designed to indicate a short vowel, as opposed to the macron Â¯ which indicates long vowels. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation. ... For other uses, see Comma. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ...


An accent mark placed over a vowel generally denotes stress, height, or both. In Spanish, only stress is indicated, with an acute accent. Romanian â/î and ă are central vowels; stress (though it exists) is not marked in this language. Catalan and Occitan regularly mark stress with an acute accent on high vowels, and with a grave accent on low vowels in a similar but not identical way. Similarly, French é is a high-mid vowel and French è is a low-mid vowel, although in French stress is not indicated with diacritics. Italian and other Romance languages in Italy mark stress with the grave accent, except on high e and o, which are sometimes marked with an acute accent. Galician marks both stress and height with an acute accent, due to the fact that only stressed vowels can be pronounced low. Portuguese marks stress with the acute accent, except for high a, e, o, which take a circumflex accent. Homophones may be differentiated by a grave accent in Italian and French, by an acute accent in Spanish or even both cases may ocur in Portuguese. In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... (a-circumflex) is a letter of Romanian and Vietnamese language. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, and other languages. ... Ä‚ (upper case) or ÇŽ (lower case) is a letter used in standard Romanian language orthography to represent the schwa sound, a vowel. ... A central vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A close vowel is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. ... An open vowel is a vowel sound of a type used in most spoken languages. ... This article is about the term in linguistics. ...


The French orthography includes the etymological ligatures œ and (more rarely) æ. In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ...


Upper and lower case

Most languages are written with a mixture of two distinct but phonetically identical variants or "cases" of the alphabet: majuscule ("uppercase" or "capital letters"), derived from Roman stone-carved letter shapes, and minuscule ("lowercase"), derived from Carolingian writing and Medieval quill pen handwriting which were later adapted by printers in the 15th and 16th centuries. In orthography and typography, letter case (or just case) is the distinction between majuscule (capital or upper-case) and minuscule (lower-case) letters. ... Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Letter case. ... Example from 10th century manuscript Carolingian or Caroline minuscule is a script developed as a writing standard in Europe so that the Roman alphabet could be easily recognized by the small literate class from one region to another. ... A quill pen is made from a flight feather (preferably a primary) of a large bird, most often a goose. ...


In particular, all Romance languages presently capitalize (use uppercase for the first letter of) the following words: the first word of each complete sentence, most words in names of people, places, and organizations, and most words in titles of books. The Romance languages do not follow the German practice of capitalizing all nouns including common ones. Unlike English, the names of months (except in European Portuguese), days of the weeks, and derivatives of proper nouns are usually not capitalized: thus, in Italian one capitalizes Francia ("France") and Francesco ("Francis"), but not francese ("French") or francescano ("Franciscan"). However, each language has some exceptions to this general rule. In linguistics, a sentence is a unit of language, characterized in most languages by the presence of a finite verb. ...


Vocabulary comparison

The table below provides a vocabulary comparison that illustrates a number of examples of sound shifts that have occurred between Latin and the main Romance languages, along with a selection of minority languages.

English Latin Catalan French Galician Italian Norman Jèrriais Lombard (literary Milanese) Piedmontese (West-Piedmont) Occitan Portuguese Romanian Romansh Sardinian Sicilian Spanish
Apple [Mattiana] Mala; Pomum (fruit) Poma Pomme Mazá Mela Poumme Pomm/Pumm Pom Poma Maçã Măr Mail Mela Pumu Manzana / Poma
Arm Bracchium Braç Bras Brazo Braccio Bras Brasc Brass Braç Braço Braț Bratsch Bratzu Vrazzu Brazo
Arrow Sagitta (Frankish Fleuka) Fletxa / Sageta Flèche Frecha / Seta Freccia / Saetta Èrchelle Frecia Flecia Sageta / Flècha Seta / Flecha Săgeată Frizza Fretza Fileccia Flecha / Saeta
Bed Lectus; Camba (for sleeping) Llit Lit Leito / Cama Letto Liet Lecc Let Lièch (lièit) Cama, Leito Pat[5] Letg Lettu Lettu Cama / Lecho
Black Nigrum Negre Noir Negro Nero Nièr Negher Nèir Negre Preto[6] / Negro Negru Nair Nieddu / Nigru Nìguru / Nìuru Negro / Prieto
Book Liber (acc. Librum) Llibre Livre Libro Libro Livre Liber/Libor Lìber Libre Livro Carte[7] Cudesch Libru / Lìburu Libbru Libro
Breast Pectus Pit Poitrine Peito Petto Estonma Stòmi Pièch (pièit) Peito Piept Pèz Pettus Pettu Pecho
Cat Feles; Cattus[8] Gat Chat (kat, khat, cat) Gato Gatto Cat Gatt Gat Cat (gat, chat (kat, khat, cat)) Gato Pisică[9] Giat Gattu / Battu Gattu / Jattu Gato
Chair Sella (Greek Kathedra, seat) Cadira Chaise Cadeira Sedia Tchaîse Cadrega Cadrega / Carea Cadièra (chadiera, chadèira) Cadeira[10] Scaun[11] Sutga Cadira / Cadrea Seggia Silla
Cold Frigus (adj. Frigidus) Fred Froid Frío Freddo Fraid Fregg Frèid Freg (freid, hred) Frio Frig Fraid Friu s Friddu Frío
Cow Vacca Vaca Vache Vaca Vacca / Mucca[12] Vaque Vaca Vaca Vaca (vacha) Vaca Vacă Vatga Bacca Vacca Vaca
Day Dies (adj. Diurnus) Dia / Jorn Jour Día Giorno / Dì Jour Di Jorn / Dia Dia Zi Di Die Jornu Día
Dead Mortuus Mort Mort Morto Morto Mort Mort Mòrt Mòrt Morto Mort Mort Mortu / Mottu Mortu Muerto
Die Morior Morir Mourir Morrer Morire Mouothi Morì/Mor Meuire/Murì Morir Morrer (a) Muri Murir Morrer Muriri / Mòriri Morir
Family Familia Família Famille Familia Famiglia Famil'ye Familia Famija Familha Família Familie[13] Famiglia Famìlia Famigghia Familia
Finger Digitus Dit Doigt Dedo Dito Dii Dil Det Dedo Deget Det Didu Jìditu Dedo
Flower Flos (acc. Florem) Flor Fleur Flor Fiore Flieur Fiôr Fior Flor Flor Floare Flur Frore (S)Ciuri / Hjuri Flor
Give Dono, -are;
Dare
Donar Donner Dar Dare Donner / Bailli Donar / Dar Doar[14] / Dar (a) Da Dar Dare Dari / Dunari Donar[14] / Dar
Go Eo, -ire; Ambulare (to take a walk) Anar Aller Ir Andare Aller Ndà Andé Anar Ir / Andar[15] (a) Umbla / (a) Merge[16] Ir Andare Jiri Ir / Andar[15]
Gold Aurum Or Or Ouro Oro Or Or Òr Aur Ouro, Oiro Aur Aur Oru Oru Oro
Hand Manus Main Man Mano Main Man Man Man Mão Mână Maun Manu Manu Mano
High Altus Alt Haut Alto Alto Haut Olt Àut Aut / Naut Alto[17] Înalt Aut Artu / Attu Àutu Alto
House Domus; Casa (hut) Casa Maison[18] Casa Casa Maîson Ca Ostal (ostau) / Maison / Casa Casa Casă Chasa Domu Casa Casa
I Ego Jo Je Eu Io Mi Mi / I Ieu / Jo Eu Eu Jau Deu Iu / Jo / Ju / Eu / Jia Yo
Ink Atramentum; Tincta (dye) Tinta Encre Tinta Inchiostro Encre Nciòster Anciòst Tencha (tinta) / Encra Tinta Cerneală[19] Tinta Tinta Inga[20] Tinta
January Januarius Gener Janvier Xaneiro Gennaio Janvyi Ginée / Genar Gené Genièr (girvèir) Janeiro Ianuarie Schaner Ghennarzu / Bennarzu Jinnaru Enero
Juice Sucus Suc Jus Zume Succo Jus Sugh Gius / Bagna Suc Suco / Sumo Suc Suc Sutzu Sucu Jugo / Zumo
Key Clavis (acc. Clavem) Clau Clé Chave Chiave Clié Ciav/Ciau Ciav Clau Chave Cheie Clav Crae Chiavi / Ciavi Llave
Language Lingua Llengua Langue Lingua Lingua Langue Lengua Lenga Lenga Língua Limbă Lingua Lingua Lingua Lengua
Man Homo (acc. Hominem) Home Homme Home Uomo Houmme Omm Òmo / Òm Òme Homem[21] Om Um Homine Omu / Òminu Hombre
Moon Luna Lluna Lune Lúa Luna Leune Luna Lun-a Luna (lua) Lua Lună Glina Luna Luna Luna
English Latin Catalan French Galician Italian Norman Jèrriais Lombard (literary Milanese) Piedmontese (West-Piedmont) Occitan Portuguese Romanian Romansh Sardinian Sicilian Spanish
Night Nox (acc. Noctem) Nit Nuit Noite Notte Niet Nocc/Nott Neuit Nuèch (nuèit) Noite Noapte Notg Notte Notti Noche
Old Senex (adj. Vetus) Vell Vieux[22] Vello[23] Vecchio Vyi Vegg Vej Vièlh Velho[23] Vechi[24] / Bătrân[25] Vegl Betzu / Sèneghe / Vedústus[26] Vecchiu / Vecciu Viejo
One Unus Un Un Un Uno Ieune Vun Un Un Um Unu In Unu Unu Un / Uno
Pear Pirum Pera Poire Pera Pera Paithe Pera Pruss Pera Pêra Pară Pair Pira Piru Pera
Play Ludo; Jocare (to joke) Jugar Jouer Xogar Giocare Jouer Giogà/Giugà Gieughe/Giughé Jogar (jugar, joar) Jogar (a se) Juca Giugar Zogare Jucari Jugar
Ring Anellus Anell Anneau Anel Anello Anné / Bague Anèl Anel Anèl (anèth, anèu) Anel Inel Anè Aneddu Aneddu Anillo
River Flumen; Rivus (small river) Riu Rivière / Fleuve Río[27] Fiume Riviéthe Riva/Riu Fium / Ri Riu / Flume Rio[27] Râu[28]/ Rîu[29] Flum Riu / Frùmine (S)Ciumi / Hjumi Río
Sew Consuo Cosir Coudre Coser Cucire Couôtre Cusì Cuse / Cusì Cóser Coser (a) Coase Cuser Cosire Cùsiri Coser
Snow Nix (acc. Nivem) Neu Neige Neve Neve Nev Fiòca Nèu Neve Nea / Zăpadă[30] Naiv Nie Nivi Nieve
Take Capio; Prehendere (to catch) Agafar / Prendre Prendre Prender[31] Prendere Prendre Ciapà Pijé Prene / Pilhar[32] Prender[31] (a) Lua[33] Prender Pigare[34] Pigghiari[32] Tomar / Prender[31]
That Ille (Eccu + Ille) Aquell Quel Aquel Quello Chu Quell Col Aquel (aqueth, aqueu) Aquele Acel/Acela Quel Kudhu / Kussu[35] Chiddu / Chissu[35] Aquél
The -; Ille/Illa/Illud,
Illi/Illae/Illa,
(acc. Illum/Illam/Illud,
Illos/Illas/Illa)
el/la/lo
els/les/los
Balearic: es/sa/so
ets/ses/sos[36]
le/la
les
o/a
os/as
il/lo/la
i/gli/le
lé/la el/la
i
ël/la
ij/le
lo/la
los/las (lei[s], lu/li)
o/a
os/as
-ul/-a
-i/-le
il/la
ils/las
su/sa
sos/sas (is)[36]
lu ('u) / la ('a)
li ('i)
el/la/lo
los/las
Throw Jacio; Lanceo, -are (to throw a weapon); Adtirare Llençar Lancer / Tirer Lanzar / Guindar Lanciare Pitchi Trà[37] Tiré/Campé Lançar Lançar / Atirar (a) Arunca[38] Trair Ghettare/Bettare Lanzari / Jittari Lanzar / Tirar / Echar
Thursday dies Jovis Dijous Jeudi Xoves Giovedì Jeudi Gioedì Giòbia Dijòus (dijaus) Quinta-feira[39] Joi Gievgia Zobia Jovi / Juvidìa Jueves
Tree Arbor Arbre Arbre Árbore Albero Bouais Pianta[40]/Albor Pianta / Erbo Arbre (aubre) Árvore Arbore / Pom[41]/ Copac[42] Planta Àrvore Àrvuru Árbol
Two Duo / Duae Dos / Dues Deux Dous / Dúas Due Deux Duu / Doo Doi / Doe Dos / Doas (dus, duas) Dois[43] / Duas Doi Dua Duos, Duas Dui Dos
Urn Urna Urna Urne Urna Urna Vas Urna Urna Urna Urnă Urna Urna Urna Urna
Voice Vox (acc. Vocem) Veu Voix Voz Voce Vouaix Vôs Vos Votz Voz Voce, Glas[44] Vusch Boghe Vuci Voz
Where Ubi (in-), Unde (from-), Quo (to-) On Onde / U Dove Ioù / Où'est Ndoe Andoa / Anté Ont (dont) Onde[45] Unde Nua Ue/Aundi Unni Donde[46]
White Albus (Germ. Blank) Blanc Blanc Branco Bianco Blianc Bianch Bianch Blanc Branco[47] Alb Alv Àbru Biancu / Vrancu / Jancu Blanco
Who Quis/Quæ (acc. Quem/Quam) Qui Qui Quen Chi Tchi Chi Chi Qual (quau), Qui, Cu Quem Cine Tgi Kini/Ki/Chie Cui (cu') Quien
World Mundus Món Monde Mundo Mondo Monde Mond/Mund Mond Mond Mundo Lume[48] Mund Mundu Munnu Mundo
Yellow Flavus (also meaning "reddish"); Galbus; Amarellus Groc Jaune Amarelo Giallo Jaune Giald Giàun Jaune Amarelo Galben Mellen Grogu Giarnu[49] Amarillo
English Latin Catalan French Galician Italian Norman Jèrriais Lombard (literary Milanese) Piedmontese (West-Piedmont) Occitan Portuguese Romanian Romansh Sardinian Sicilian Spanish

The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... Jèrriais is the form of the Norman language spoken in Jersey, in the Channel Islands. ... The term Lombard refers to a group of related varieties spoken mainly in Northern Italy (most of Lombardy and some areas of neighbouring regions) and Southern Switzerland (Ticino and Graubünden). ... Milanese (milanes, milanées, meneghin, meneghìn) is a variety of Western Lombard spoken in the city of Milan and in its province. ... Piedmontese (also known as Piemontèis, and Piemontese in Italian) is a language spoken by over 2 million people in Piedmont, northwest Italy. ... For other uses, see Piedmont (disambiguation). ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... Not to be confused with Romand which is one of the names for the Franco-Provençal language. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ... The Frankish language can refer to: Old Frankish, the language spoken by the Franks, a Germanic people active in the Roman era Low Franconian, the only linguistic subgroup containing modern variants of the Old Frankish language: Dutch and Afrikaans. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... Jèrriais is the form of the Norman language spoken in Jersey, in the Channel Islands. ... The term Lombard refers to a group of related varieties spoken mainly in Northern Italy (most of Lombardy and some areas of neighbouring regions) and Southern Switzerland (Ticino and Graubünden). ... Milanese (milanes, milanées, meneghin, meneghìn) is a variety of Western Lombard spoken in the city of Milan and in its province. ... Piedmontese (also known as Piemontèis, and Piemontese in Italian) is a language spoken by over 2 million people in Piedmont, northwest Italy. ... For other uses, see Piedmont (disambiguation). ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... Not to be confused with Romand which is one of the names for the Franco-Provençal language. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ... Balearic is the Catalan variant spoken in the Balearic Islands (Spanish las Islas Baleares), Spain. ... The (Late Old High) German speaking area of the Holy Roman Empire around 950. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ... Jèrriais is the form of the Norman language spoken in Jersey, in the Channel Islands. ... The term Lombard refers to a group of related varieties spoken mainly in Northern Italy (most of Lombardy and some areas of neighbouring regions) and Southern Switzerland (Ticino and Graubünden). ... Milanese (milanes, milanées, meneghin, meneghìn) is a variety of Western Lombard spoken in the city of Milan and in its province. ... Piedmontese (also known as Piemontèis, and Piemontese in Italian) is a language spoken by over 2 million people in Piedmont, northwest Italy. ... For other uses, see Piedmont (disambiguation). ... Occitan (IPA AmE: ), known also as Lenga dòc or Langue doc (native name: occitan [1], lenga dòc [2]; native nickname: la lenga nòstra [3] i. ... Not to be confused with Romand which is one of the names for the Franco-Provençal language. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ...

Classification and related languages

Romance languages, 20th c.
Romance languages, 20th c.

The classification of Romance languages is inherently difficult, since most of the linguistic area is a continuum. The Romance languages include 47 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken in Europe; this language group is a part of the Italic language family. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 566 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,355 × 2,372 pixels, file size: 181 KB, MIME type: image/png) Romance languages in Europe in 20 c. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 566 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,355 × 2,372 pixels, file size: 181 KB, MIME type: image/png) Romance languages in Europe in 20 c. ... The internal classification of the Romance languages is a rather controversial topic which may not even have a correct answer. ... The Romance languages include 47 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken in Europe; this language group is a part of the Italic language family. ... SIL International is a worldwide non-profit evangelical Christian organization whose main purpose is to study, develop and document lesser-known languages in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy and aid minority language development. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language group. ...


Proposed subfamilies

Here are the main subfamiles that have been proposed within the various classification schemes for Romance languages:

Italo-Western is the largest sub-group of Romance languages. ... Map of Balkans with regions inhabited by Romanians/Vlachs highlighted The Eastern Romance languages, sometimes known as the Vlach languages, are a group of Romance languages that developed in Southeastern Europe from the local eastern variant of Vulgar Latin. ... Southern Romance languages are parte of Romance languages that includes the Sardinian language and Sicilian language. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ...

Pidgins, creoles, and mixed languages

There are some languages that developed from a mixture of two established Romance languages. It is not always clear whether they should be classified as pidgins, creole languages, or mixed languages. See the main article, for full lists. This article is about simplified languages. ... A creole language, or simply a creole, is a stable language that originates seemingly as a new language, sometimes with features that are not inherited from any apparent source, without however qualifying in any appreciable way as a mixed language. ... A mixed language is a language that arises when speakers of different languages are in contact and show a high degree of bilingualism. ...


Auxiliary and constructed languages

Latin and the Romance languages also give rise to numerous auxiliary and constructed languages, such as Interlingua, its reformed version Modern Latin,[50] Latino sine flexione, Occidental, Lingua Franca Nova, and Esperanto), as well as languages created for artistic purposes only, such as Brithenig, Wenedyk and Talossan. A constructed or artificial language — known colloquially as a conlang — is a language whose phonology, grammar, and/or vocabulary have been devised by an individual or group, instead of having naturally evolved as part of a culture. ... An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... This article is about the auxiliary language created by the International Auxiliary Language Association. ... Latino sine flexione (Latin without inflections) is an auxiliary language invented by the mathematician Giuseppe Peano in 1903. ... The language Occidental, later Interlingue, is a planned language created by the Baltogerman naval officer and teacher Edgar de Wahl and published in 1922. ... Lingua Franca Nova is an auxiliary constructed language created by Dr. C. George Boeree of Shippensburg University, Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the language. ... Brithenig is an invented language, or constructed language (conlang). It was created as a hobby in 1996 by Andrew Smith from New Zealand, who also invented the alternate history of Ill Bethisad to explain it. ... Wenedyk (in English: Venedic) is a constructed language of the naturalistic kind, created by the Dutch translator Jan van Steenbergen. ... The Talossan language (El Glheþ Talossán) is a constructed language created by R. Ben Madison for the micronation he founded, the Kingdom of Talossa. ...


See also

Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii, was the speech of ordinary people of the Roman Empire — different from the classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ... Headquarters Paris, France Official languages Catalan, Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese and Romanian Membership 37 (plus 3 observers) Leaders  -  General Secretariat Bernardino Osio Establishment 15 May 1954 Website http://www. ... Latin Europe Latin Europe (Italian, Portuguese and Spanish: Europa latina; French: Europe latine; Romanian: Europa latină; Catalan: Europa llatina; Franco-Provençal: Eropa latina) is composed of those nations and areas in Europe that speak a Romance language and are seen as having a distinct culture from the Germanic and... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... This article is about the auxiliary language created by the International Auxiliary Language Association. ... The copula or copulae (the verb or verbs meaning to be) in all Romance languages derive from the Latin verbs SVM and STO. The former was the copular verb to be (ultimately from the Indo-European copula *h1es-), and the latter mainly meant to stand (ultimately from the Indo-European... The subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood) is a grammatical mood of the verb that expresses wishes, commands (in subordinate clauses), and statements that are contrary to fact. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Ilari, Rodolfo (2002). Lingüística Românica. Ática, 50. ISBN 85-08-04250-7. 
  2. ^ 1993 Statistical Abstract of Israel reports 250,000 speakers of Romanian in Israel, while the 1995 census puts the total figure of the Israeli population at 5,548,523
  3. ^ Reports of about 300,000 Jews who left the country after WW2
  4. ^ Source: MSN Encarta - Languages Spoken by More Than 10 Million People (number of Romance speakers estimated at 690 million speakers, number of Catalan language speakers estimated at 9.1 million)
  5. ^ <Greek πάτος
  6. ^ <appectoratum
  7. ^ <carta
  8. ^ unknown origin
  9. ^ onomatopoeic
  10. ^ also sela (saddle)
  11. ^ <scamnum
  12. ^ from either muggire (to moo) or, more likely, mungere (to milk)
  13. ^ Initially femeie; the meaning of the word shifted to "woman". Later, the word familie was reintroduced from Latin.
  14. ^ a b meaning "to donate"
  15. ^ a b meaning "to walk"
  16. ^ <mergere
  17. ^ arch. outo
  18. ^ <mansio
  19. ^ from Slavic *črъniti
  20. ^ Old Fr. enque
  21. ^ arch. home
  22. ^ <diminutive vetulus
  23. ^ a b arch. also vedro
  24. ^ objects, temporal
  25. ^ people, <veteranus
  26. ^ <vetustus
  27. ^ a b arch. also frume
  28. ^ according to the 1993 orthographic rules
  29. ^ according to the 1953 orthographic rules
  30. ^ from Slavic *zapadati
  31. ^ a b c meaning "to arrest", "to catch", or "to hold"
  32. ^ a b <Lat. pilare, *pileare
  33. ^ <levare
  34. ^ <captiare
  35. ^ a b <Lat. eccu + istud
  36. ^ a b <ipsu/ipsa
  37. ^ <trahere
  38. ^ <eruncare
  39. ^ <quinta feria
  40. ^ <planta
  41. ^ from poamă, "fruit" (<poma)
  42. ^ part of the Eastern Romance substratum
  43. ^ arch. dous
  44. ^ from Slavic *gols
  45. ^ arch. also u
  46. ^ <de + onde; arch. also onde
  47. ^ also literary alvo
  48. ^ <lumen
  49. ^ Old Norm. jauln or Old Fr. jalne
  50. ^ Modern Latin

For the supervillain, see Onomatopoeia (comics). ... The Eastern Romance languages contain around 300 words considered by many linguists to be of substratum origin [1]. Including place-names and river-names, and most of the forms labelled as being of unknown etymology, the number of the substratum elements in Eastern Romance may surpass 500 basic roots. ...

External links

  • Orbis Latinus, site on Romance languages

Image File history File links from en:Latin Europe File links The following pages link to this file: Latin Europe ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Romance languages (5794 words)
All Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic) descend from Vulgar Latin, the language of soldiers, settlers and slaves of the Roman Empire, which was substantially different from the Classical Latin of the Roman literati.
Despite multiple influences from pre-Roman languages and from later invasions, the phonology, morphology, lexicon, and syntax of all Romance languages are predominantly derived from Vulgar Latin.
Diacritics common across Romance languages are the acute accent (á), the grave accent (à), the circumflex accent (â), the diaeresis mark (ü), the cedilla (ç), and the tilde (ñ).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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