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Encyclopedia > Romance (genre)
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As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ... Buskers perform in San Francisco A performance, in performing arts, generally comprises an event in which one group of people (the performer or performers) behave in a particular way for another group of people (the audience). ... A book is a set or collection of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of paper, parchment, or other material, usually fastened together to hinge at one side. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to the patterns of everyday speech. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poiesis, a making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic and evocative qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... A stone tablet containing part of the Epic of Gilgamesh The history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose or poetry which attempt to provide entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the reader/hearer/observer, as well as the development of the literary techniques used in the communication... This article is homosexual and should be burned the second in a series of The History of Literature. ... These are lists of books: List of books by title List of books by author Lists of authors List of anonymously published works (List of Hiberno-Saxon illustrated manuscripts) List of books by genre or type List of books by award or notoriety List of books by year of publication... The following are lists of authors and writers: By name A – B – C – D – E – F – G – H – I – J – K – L – M – N – O – P – Q – R – S – T &#8211... A list of famous prizes, medals and awards including cups, trophies, bowls, badges, state decorations etc. ... Literature is prose, written or oral, including fiction and non-fiction, drama and poetry. ... The following is a list of literary terms; that is, those words used in discussion, classification, and analysis of literature. ... Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ... Literary theory is the theory (or the philosophy) of the interpretation of literature and literary criticism. ... A literary magazine is a periodical devoted to literature in a broad sense. ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to the patterns of everyday speech. ... Verse is a writing that uses meter as its primary organisational mode, as opposed to prose, which uses grammatical and discoursal units like sentences and paragraphs. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ...

Contents

Characteristics of the romance

The term was coined to distinguish popular material in the vernacular (at first the Romance languages French, Portuguese and Spanish, later German, English and others) from scholarly and ecclesiastical literature in Latin. Vernacular literature is literature written in the vernacular - the speech of the common people. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


The boundaries between the romance and the chansons de geste of the troubadours were somewhat fluid. In general, the strophic heroic chansons ("ballads") were the property of professional performers, while the romance was associated more with aristocratic amateurs and private readers. Nevertheless, a professional poet-performer like Chrétien de Troyes could turn his hand to composing romances. The distinction between an early verse romance and a chanson de geste is often difficult, and perhaps unnecessary, to make. The chansons de geste, Old French for songs of heroic deeds, are the epic poetry that appears at the dawn of French literature. ... A troubadour composing lyrics, Germany c. ... Strophe (Greek, to turn) is a term in versification which properly means a turn, as from one foot to another, or from one side of a chorus to the other. ... Chrétien de Troyes was a French poet and trouvère who flourished in the late 12th century. ...


Unlike the later form of the novelnouvelle romaine or "new romance"— and like the chansons de geste, the genre of romance dealt with traditional themes, above all linked in some way, perhaps only in an opening frame story, with three thematic cycles of tales: these were assembled in imagination at a late date as the "Matter of Rome" (actually centered on the life and deeds of Alexander the Great), the "Matter of France" (Charlemagne and Roland, his principal paladin) and the "Matter of Britain" (the lives and deeds of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table, within which was incorporated the quest for the Holy Grail). The Acritic songs (dealing with Digenis Acritas and his fellow frontiersmen) resemble much the chanson de geste, though they developed simultaneously but separately. A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ... The chansons de geste, Old French for songs of heroic deeds, are the epic poetry that appears at the dawn of French literature. ... A frame story (also frame tale, frame narrative, etc. ... According to the mediæval poet Jean Bodel, the Matter of Rome was the literary cycle made up of Greek and Roman mythology, together with episodes from the history of classical antiquity, focusing on military heroes like Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1][2] Megas Alexandros; July 20 356 BC – June 10 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, was an Ancient Greek king of Macedon (336–323 BC). ... The Matter of France, also known as the Carolingian cycle is a body of legendary history that springs from the Old French medieval literature of the chansons de geste. ... Charlemagne and Pippin the Hunchback. ... It has been suggested that Orlando (character) be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Paladin (disambiguation). ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... A bronze Arthur in plate armour with visor raised and with jousting shield wearing Kastenbrust armour (early 15th century) by Peter Vischer, typical of later anachronistic depictions of Arthur. ... In the legend of King Arthur, the Round Table was a mystical table in Camelot around which King Arthur and his knights sat to discuss matters crucial to the security of the realm. ... For historical artifacts associated with the cup of the Last Supper, see Holy Chalice. ... The acritic songs (Greek: ακριτικά τραγούδια — frontiersmen songs) are the heroic or epic poetry that emerged from 10th century Byzantium, inspired by the almost continuous state of warfare with the Arabs in eastern Asia Minor. ... Digenis Acritas (Greek: Διγενής Ακρίτας) is the most famous epic poem that emerged out of the 12th century Byzantine Empire, following the Acritic songs tradition. ...


A related tradition existed in Northern Europe, and comes down to us in the form of epics, such as Beowulf and the Nibelungenlied. However, the richest set of Germanic literature of Romance comes from Scandinavia in the form of the Fornaldarsagas. The setting is Scandinavia, but occasionally it moves temporarily to more distant and exotic locations. There are also very often mythological elements, such as gods, dwarves, elves, dragons, giants and magic swords. The heroes often embark on dangerous quests where they fight the forces of evil, dragons, witchkings, barrow-wights, and rescue fair maidens. The first page of Beowulf Beowulf is an Old English heroic elegy,[1] composed during the Early Middle Ages. ... The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe which includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... A Fornaldarsaga deals with matter that took place in Scandinavia (and a few distant places) before the colonization of Iceland. ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe which includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... Norse gods Divided between the Æsir and the Vanir, and sometimes including Jotun, the dividing line between these groups is less than clear. ... The Norse dwarves or Duergar (ON Dvergar) are highly significant entities within Norse mythology. ... A small forest elf (älva) rescuing an egg, from Solägget (1932), by Elsa Beskow An elf is a creature of Germanic mythology which still survives in northern European folklore. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Dragon. ... The giants Fafner and Fasolt seize Freyja in Arthur Rackhams illustration to Richard Wagners version of the Norse myths. ... The term magic sword refers to any kind of mythological or fictional sword imbued with magical power to increase its strength or grant it other supernatural qualities. ...

Fornalder ("Times Past"), by Peter Nicolai Arbo

Many or most of the sagas are based on distant historic events and this is evident in cases where there are corroborating sources, such as Göngu-Hrólfs saga, Ragnars saga loðbrókar, Yngvars saga víðförla and Völsunga saga. In the case of Hervarar saga the names in the Gothic setting indicate a historic basis, and the latter parts of the saga are still used as a historic source for Swedish history. They often contain very old Germanic matter, such as the Hervarar saga and the Völsunga saga which contains poetry about Sigurd that did not find its way into the Poetic Edda and which would otherwise have been lost. Other sagas deal with heroes such as Ragnar Lodbrok, Starkad, Orvar-Odd, Hagbard and Signy. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1252x756, 297 KB)Painting by Norwegian artist Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831-1892). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1252x756, 297 KB)Painting by Norwegian artist Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831-1892). ... Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831–1892) was a Norwegian painter, who specialized in painting historical motifs and images from Norse mythology. ... Göngu-Hrólfs saga is a legendary saga about Rollo, who is presented as a Norwegian viking. ... Aella murdering Ragnar Lodbrok Ragnar Lodbrok (Ragnar Hairy-Breeks, Old Norse: Ragnarr Loðbrók) was a Norse king, who ruled the early kingdoms of Sweden and Denmark for some time in the 8th or 9th century. ... Ingvar the Far-Travelled was the leader of the Swedish Ingvar expedition, which was an unsuccessful Swedish Viking attack against Persia, in 1036-1041. ... The Ramsund carving in Sweden depicts 1) how Sigurd is sitting naked in front of the fire preparing the dragon heart, from Fafnir, for his foster-father Regin, who is Fafnirs brother. ... Hervarar saga ok Heidhreks is a fornaldarsaga from the 13th century using material from an older saga. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche, is a highly romanticized portrait of the Goths as cavalrymen. ... Hervarar saga ok Heidhreks is a fornaldarsaga from the 13th century using material from an older saga. ... The Ramsund carving depicting the Saga of the Völsungs The Volsunga saga is a late 13th century Icelandic prose rendition of the story of Sigurd and Brynhild, and the destruction of the Burgundians. ... Sigurd sculpture in Bremen Sigurd (Old Norse: Sigurðr, German: Siegfried) was a legendary hero of Norse mythology, as well as the central character in the Völsunga saga. ... Look up Poetic Edda in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aella murdering Ragnar Lodbrok Ragnar Lodbrok (Ragnar Hairy-Breeks, Old Norse: Ragnarr Loðbrók) was a Norse king, who ruled the early kingdoms of Sweden and Denmark for some time in the 8th or 9th century. ... Starkad, Starkotter, Starkodder, Starkadhr (ice. ... Orvar Odd informs Ingeborg about Hjalmars death, by August Malmström (1859) Orvar-Odd (i. ... Signhild Hagbard and Signy (Signe) (the Viking Age) or Habor and Sign(h)ild (the Middle Ages and later) were a pair of lovers in Scandinavian mythology and folklore whose legend was widely popular. ...


Later romances

In late medieval and Renaissance high culture, the important European literary trend was to fantastic fictions in the mode of Romance. Exemplary work, such as the English Le Morte d'Arthur by Sir Thomas Malory (c.1408–1471), and the Spanish/Portuguese Amadis de Gaula (1508), spawned many imitators, and the genre was popularly well-received, producing such masterpiece of Renaissance poetry as Ludovico Ariosto's Orlando furioso and Torquato Tasso's Gerusalemme Liberata and other sixteenth-century literary works in the romance genre. From the high Middle Ages, in works of piety, clerical critics often deemed Romances to be harmful worldly distractions from more substantive or moral works, and by 1600 many secular readers would agree; in the judgement of many learned readers in the shifting intellectual atmsosphere of the seventeenth century, the romance was trite and childish literature, inspiring only broken-down ageing and provincial persons such as Don Quixote, knight of the culturally isolated province of La Mancha. Hudibras also lampoons the faded conventions of chivalrous romance, from an ironic, consciously realistic viewpoint. Some of the magical and exotic atmosphere of Romance informed tragedies for the stage, such as John Dryden's collaborative The Indian Queen (1664) as well as Restoration spectaculars and opera seria, such as Handel's Rinaldo (1711), based on a magical interlude in Tasso's Gerusalemme liberata.. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... The Last Sleep of Arthur by Edward Burne-Jones Le Morte dArthur (spelt Le Morte Darthur in the first printing and also in some modern editions, Middle French for la mort dArthur, the death of Arthur) is Sir Thomas Malorys compilation of some French and English Arthurian... Amadís de Gaula (English, Amadis of Gaul) is a landmark work among the knight-errantry tales which were in vogue in 16th century Spain, and formed the earliest reading of many Renaissance and Baroque writers. ... Statue of the poet in Reggio Emilia. ... Ruggiero Rescuing Angelica by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Jerusalem Delivered (La Gerusalemme liberata) 1580) is a baroque epic poem by Torquato Tasso which tells the (largely fictionalized) story of the First Crusade in which Christians knights, lead by Godfrey of Bouillon, battle Muslims in order to raise the siege of Jerusalem. ... (IPA: , but see spelling and pronunciation below), fully titled (The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha) is an early novel written by Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. ... Thanks to Miguel de Cervantes, La Mancha is famous for its windmills. ... Hudibras is a mock heroic poem from the 17th century written by Samuel Butler. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... This naval battle was one of the sets for Elkanah Settles Empress of Morocco (1673) at the theatre in Dorset Garden. ... Opera seria is an Italian musical term which refers to the noble and serious style of Italian opera that predominated in Europe from the 1720s to ca 1770. ... HANDEL was the code-name for the UKs National Attack Warning System in the Cold War. ... Rinaldo and Armida by Francois Boucher, 1734 (Louvre Museum) Rinaldo is an Italian opera by George Friderich Handel. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Jerusalem Delivered (La Gerusalemme liberata) 1580) is a baroque epic poem by Torquato Tasso which tells the (largely fictionalized) story of the First Crusade in which Christians knights, lead by Godfrey of Bouillon, battle Muslims in order to raise the siege of Jerusalem. ...


Many medieval romances recount the marvellous adventures of a chivalrous, heroic knight, often of super-human ability, who, abiding chivalry's strict codes of honour and demeanour, goes on a quest, and fights and defeats monsters and giants, thereby winning favour with a lady.[1] The story of the medieval romance focuses not upon love and sentiment, but upon adventure; some would call contemporary comic books and science fiction the genre's successors. [2] Look up adventure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Heroine” redirects here. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... This article is about the word, for other meanings see Quest (disambiguation) A quest is a journey towards a goal with great meaning and is used in mythology and literature as a plot device. ... A princess lointaine, (in French, distant princess) is a stock character from medieval romances. ... The adventure novel is a literary genre of novels that has adventure, an exciting undertaking involving risk and physical danger, as its main theme. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ...


The first romances heavily drew on the legends and fairy tales to supply their characters with marvelous powers. The tale of Sir Launfal features a fairy bride from folklore, and Sir Orfeo's wife is kidnapped by the fairy king, and Sir Orfeo frees her from there. These marvelous abilities subside with the development of the genre; fairy women such as Morgan le Fay become enchantresses, and knights lose magical abilities.[3] Garrett, E. H (1853-1929), Sir Launfal Scorns a Beggar from: The Vision of Sir Launfal. ... Sir Orfeo is an anonymous Middle English narrative poem. ... by Sophie Anderson For other uses, see Fairy (disambiguation). ... Morgan le Fay, by Anthony Frederick Sandys (1829 - 1904), 1864 (Birmingham Art Gallery): A spell-brewing Morgaine distinctly of Tennysons generation Morgan le Fay, alternatively known as Morgaine, Morgain, Morgana and other variants, is a powerful sorceress and sometime antagonist of King Arthur and Guinevere in the Arthurian legend. ...


Romancers wrote many of their stories in three, thematic cycles: (i) the Arthurian (the lives and deeds of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table); (ii) the Carlovingian (the lives and deeds of Charlemagne, and Roland, his principal paladin); and, (iii) the Alexandrian (the life and deeds of Alexander the Great). In the later medieval and Renaissance period, the important European literary trend was to fantastic fiction. Exemplary work, such as the English Le Morte d'Arthur (c.1469), by Sir Thomas Malory (c.1408–1471), and the Spanish Amadís of Gaul (1508), spawned many imitators, and the genre was popularly well-received. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The Last Sleep of Arthur by Edward Burne-Jones Le Morte dArthur (spelt Le Morte Darthur in the first printing and also in some modern editions, Middle French for la mort dArthur, the death of Arthur) is Sir Thomas Malorys compilation of some French and English Arthurian... Amadís de Gaula (English, Amadis of Gaul) is a landmark work among the knight-errantry tales which were in vogue in 16th century Spain, and formed the earliest reading of many Renaissance and Baroque writers. ...


Originally, this literature was written in Middle English and Provençal, later, in French and German—the notable works being King Horn, Havelok the Dane; and Amis and Amiloun; later romances were written as prose, e.g. Le Morte d'Arthur. Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Provençal (Provençau) is one of several dialects of Occitan spoken by a minority of people in southern France and other areas of France and Italy. ... The Lay of Havelok the Dane is one of the earliest Romances in English. ...


Don Quixote (1605, 1615), by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (1547–1616), is a satirical story of an elderly country gentleman, living in La Mancha province, who is so obsessed by chivalric romances that he seeks to emulate their various heroes. (IPA: , but see spelling and pronunciation below), fully titled (The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha) is an early novel written by Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. ... Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (September 29, 1547 - April 23, 1616), was a Spanish author, best known for his novel Don Quixote de la Mancha. ...


Relationship to modern 'romantic fiction'

In later romances, particularly those of French origin, there is a marked tendency to emphasize themes of courtly love, such as faithfulness in adversity. From ca. 1800 the connotations of "romance" moved from fantastic and eerie, somewhat Gothic adventure narratives of novelists like Ann Radcliffe's The Sicilian Romance (1790) or The Romance of the Forest (1791) with erotic content to novels centered on the episodic development of a courtship that ends in marriage. With a female protagonist, during the rise of Romanticism the depiction of the course of such a courtship within contemporary conventions of realism, the female equivalent of the "novel of education", informs much Romantic fiction. Court of Love in Provence in the 14th Century (after a manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gothic novel. ... This article is about the 19th-century author. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe during the Industrial Revolution. ... Realism in the visual arts and literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation. ... A bildungsroman (IPA: /, German: novel of personal development) is a novelistic form which concentrates on the spiritual, moral, psychological, or social development and growth of the protagonist usually from childhood to maturity. ... This article refers to the wide variety of writing called romantic. For literature from the European Romantic movement of the 18th and 19th centuries, see Romanticism: Art and Literature. ...


The starting point of the fornaldarsagas' influence on the creation of the Fantasy genre is the publication, in 1825, of the most famous Swedish literary work Frithjof's saga, which was based on the Friðþjófs saga ins frœkna, and it became an instant success in England and Germany. It is said to have been translated twenty-two times into English, twenty times into German, and once at least into every European language, including modern Icelandic in 1866. Their influence on authors, such as J. R. R. Tolkien, William Morris and Poul Anderson and on the subsequent modern fantasy genre is considerable, and can perhaps not be overstated. Smaug in his lair: an illustration for the fantasy The Hobbit Fantasy is a genre of art that uses magic and other supernatural forms as a primary element of plot, theme, or setting. ... Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Ingeborg, by Peter Nicolai Arbo Friðþjófs saga hins frÅ“kna is a legendary saga from Iceland which in its present form is from ca 1300. ... Ingeborg, by Peter Nicolai Arbo Friðþjófs saga hins frÅ“kna is a legendary saga from Iceland which in its present form is from ca 1300. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the United Kingdom anthem is God Save the Queen. ... John Ronald Reuel Tolkien CBE (3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English philologist, writer and university professor, best known as the author of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... William Morris, socialist and innovator in the Arts and Crafts movement William Morris (March 24, 1834 – October 3, 1896) was an English artist, writer, socialist and activist. ... Poul William Anderson (November 25, 1926–July 31, 2001) was an American science fiction author of the genres Golden Age. ...


Modern usage of Romance novel denotes a particular erotic style in a highly conventionalized modern genre, and its sub-genres in historical settings, the well-named "Bodice rippers" produced by teams of authors often writing under joint pseudonyms. A romance novel is a literary genre developed in Western culture, mainly in English-speaking countries. ... A bodice ripper is variant of romantic fiction, often historical fiction, in which the heroine often loses her virginity by force. ... A pseudonym (Greek: , pseudo + -onym: false name) is an artificial, fictitious name, also known as an alias, used by an individual as an alternative to a persons legal name. ...


Despite the popularity of this meaning of Romance, other works are still, occasionally, referred to as romances because of their uses of other elements descended from the medieval romance, or from the Romantic movement: larger-than-life heroes and heroines, drama and adventure, marvels that may become fantastic, themes of honor and loyalty, or fairy-tale-like stories and story settings. Shakespeare's later comedies, such as The Tempest or The Winter's Tale are sometimes called his romances. Modern works may differentiate from love-story as romance into different genres, such as planetary romance or Ruritanian romance. Prospero and Ariel from a painting by William Hamilton The Tempest is a play written by William Shakespeare. ... Florizel and Perdita by Charles Robert Leslie. ... The late romances, often simply called the romances, are a grouping of William Shakespeares later plays, including Pericles, Prince of Tyre, Cymbeline, The Winters Tale, and The Tempest. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sword and Planet. ... A Ruritanian Romance is a story set in a imaginary Middle European or East European country, such as the Ruritania that gave the genre its name, in a time contemporary to the author. ...


Northrop Frye's definition

The critic Northrop Frye in Anatomy of Criticism (1957) used romance in two separate meanings. Herman Northrop Frye, CC, MA, D.Litt. ... Northrop Fryes Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays (Princeton University Press, 1957) attempts to formulate an overall view of the scope, theory, principles, and techniques of literary criticism derived exclusively from literature. ...


In one, he separated some essentials of romance from the Medieval historical vehicles, to distinguish Romance as a mode that may be detected as a theme or atmosphere in other fictions, one that falls between the mode of "myth" and that of "high mimetic". Expanding Aristotle's Poetics, Frye classified fictions by the power of the hero's actions, which may be greater than ours, or less, or roughly of the same degree. Thus if the hero is superior in kind to men, the action is a myth. If the hero is superior in degree to others and to his environment, the mode is that of Romance, where the actions are marvellous, but the hero is human. Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Aristotles Poetics aims to give an account of poetry. ... The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from mythologein to relate myths, from mythos, meaning a narrative, and logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and...

The hero of romance moves in a world in which the ordinary laws of nature are slightly suspended: prodigies of courage and endurance, unnatural to us, are natural to him, and enchanted weapons, talking animals, terrifying ogres and witches, and talismans of miraculous power violate no rule of probability... Romance divides into two main forms: a secular form dealing with chivalry and knight-errantry, and a religious form devoted to legends of saints. Both lean heavily on miraculous violations of natural law for their interest as stories" (Frye pp 33-34). Bors Dilemma - he chooses to save a maiden rather than his brother Lionel Chivalry[1] is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood. ... Hagiography is the study of saints. ...

If, on the other hand, the hero is superior to other men but not to his environment, the tale falls into the mode of high mimetic.[4]


He also divided fictions into the fields of comedy, romance, tragedy, and irony. In this division, the essential component of romance is adventure, and the central theme is the hero's rescue of a princess from a dragon.[5]


List of romances

Medieval examples:

Romance as a fictive mode: Romance may or may not be realistic depending on the story and its events. The Lancelot-Grail, also known as the prose Lancelot, the Vulgate Cycle, or the Pseudo-Map Cycle, is a major source of Arthurian legend. ... The prose romance of Perceforest with lyrical interludes of poetry, in six books, appears to have been composed in French in the Low Countries between 1330 and 1344, forming a late addition to the cycle of narratives with loose connections both to the Arthurian cycle and to the feats of... Valentine and Orson is a romance which has been attached to the Carolingian cycle. ... Romance of Horn is an Anglo-Norman literature romans daventure (romance and adventure) tale written around 1170 by an anonymous author named Thomas. The hero, named Horn, is the son of the king Aälof of Suddene (probably somewhere near Devonshire). ... The Roman de la Rose is a late medieval French work of fiction in allegorical dream form. ... The original Gawain Manuscript, Cotton Nero A.x. ... Guillaume de Palerme (William of Palerne), hero of romance. ... The Last Sleep of Arthur by Edward Burne-Jones Le Morte dArthur (spelt Le Morte Darthur in the first printing and also in some modern editions, Middle French for la mort dArthur, the death of Arthur) is Sir Thomas Malorys compilation of some French and English Arthurian... Sir Thomas Malory (c. ... Amadís de Gaula (English, Amadis of Gaul) is a landmark work among the knight-errantry tales which were in vogue in 16th century Spain, and formed the earliest reading of many Renaissance and Baroque writers. ... João Lobeira (c. ...

An illustration of the book Romance of the Three Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), written by Luo Guanzhong in the 14th century, is a Chinese historical novel based upon events in the turbulent years near the end of the Han Dynasty, and the Three Kingdoms period (220–280). ... Beginning of the Odyssey The Odyssey (Greek Οδύσσεια (Odússeia) ) is one of the two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to the Ionian poet Homer. ... Prospero and Ariel from a painting by William Hamilton The Tempest is a play written by William Shakespeare. ...

References

  1. ^ Northrop Frye, Anatomy of Criticism, p 186, ISBN 0-691-01298-9
  2. ^ Debra Doyle, "Doyle's SF Genre Rant"
  3. ^ Katharine Briggs, An Encyclopedia of Fairies, Hobgoblins, Brownies, Boogies, and Other Supernatural Creatures, "Fairies of medieval romances", p132. ISBN 0-394-73467-X
  4. ^ Northrop Frye, Anatomy of Criticism p33-4 ISBN 0-691-01298-9
  5. ^ Northrop Frye, Anatomy of Criticism p186-206 ISBN 0-691-01298-9

Northrop Fryes Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays (Princeton University Press, 1957) attempts to formulate an overall view of the scope, theory, principles, and techniques of literary criticism derived exclusively from literature. ... Dr. Debra Doyle (1952- ) is an American author writing in multiple related genres, including science fiction, fantasy, and mystery. ... Katharine Mary Briggs (November 8, 1898 – 1980) is the author of The Anatomy of Puck, the definitive 4-volume Dictionary of British Folk-Tales, and various other books on fairies and folklore. ... Herman Northrop Frye, CC, MA, D.Litt. ... Northrop Fryes Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays (Princeton University Press, 1957) attempts to formulate an overall view of the scope, theory, principles, and techniques of literary criticism derived exclusively from literature. ... Herman Northrop Frye, CC, MA, D.Litt. ... Northrop Fryes Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays (Princeton University Press, 1957) attempts to formulate an overall view of the scope, theory, principles, and techniques of literary criticism derived exclusively from literature. ...

External Links

List of Medieval Classics, including romances, compiled by Michael J. Farrand.


  Results from FactBites:
 
I Know What It Is When I Read It: Defining the Romance Genre (1148 words)
The mystery genre is based on the same assumption, only there it's a moral justice, a sense of fair play in human legal interaction: because the good guys risk and struggle, the murderers get punished and good triumphs in a safe world.
So in romance, the lovers who risk and struggle for each other and their relationship are rewarded with emotional justice, unconditional love in an emotionally safe world.
So we tried “A romance is a love story that ends in emotional justice.” Somehow that wasn't quite the note we wanted to strike, especially since, as someone pointed out, emotional justice could leave both of the protagonists dead on the linoleum with the cockroaches.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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