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Encyclopedia > Roman numerals

Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. The system used in classical antiquity was slightly modified in the Middle Ages to produce the system we use today. It is based on certain letters which are given values as numerals This article is about different methods of expressing numbers with symbols. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Etruscan numerals were used by the ancient Etruscans. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Roman numerals are commonly used today in numbered lists (in outline format), clock faces, pages preceding the main body of a book, chord triads in music analysis, the numbering of movie publication dates, successive political leaders or children with identical names, and the numbering of some annual sport events.


For arithmetics involving Roman numerals, see Roman arithmetic and Roman abacus. In Rome, merchants used Roman numerals to perform basic arithmetic operations. ... The Romans developed the so-called fucken Roman abacus, or rather a portable counting board, based on previous Greek counting boards. ...

Numeral systems by culture
Hindu-Arabic numerals
Indian
Eastern Arabic
Khmer
Indian family
Brahmi
Thai
East Asian numerals
Chinese
Suzhou
Counting rods
Japanese
Korean 
Alphabetic numerals
Abjad
Armenian
Cyrillic
Ge'ez
Hebrew
Greek (Ionian)
Āryabhaṭa
 
Other systems
Attic
Babylonian
Egyptian
Etruscan
Mayan
Roman
Urnfield
List of numeral system topics
Positional systems by base
Decimal (10)
2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64
1, 3, 9, 12, 20, 24, 30, 36, 60, more…
v  d  e
Entrance to section LII of the Colosseum, with numerals still visible
Entrance to section LII of the Colosseum, with numerals still visible

Contents

This article is about different methods of expressing numbers with symbols. ... I like cream cheese, it tastes good on toast. ... The Eastern Arabic numerals (also called Eastern Arabic numerals, Arabic-Indic numerals, Arabic Eastern Numerals) are the symbols (glyphs) used to represent the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet in Egypt, Iran, Pakistan and parts of India, and also in the no longer used Ottoman Turkish... Khmer numerals are the numerals used in the Khmer language of Cambodia. ... India has produced many numeral systems. ... The Brahmi numerals are an indigenous Indian numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). ... Today, speakers of Chinese use three numeral systems: the ubiquitous system of Arabic numerals, along with two ancient Chinese numeral systems. ... The counting rods (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: chou2) were used by ancient Chinese before the invention of the abacus. ... The Abjad numerals are a decimal numeral system which was used in the Arabic-speaking world prior to the use of the Hindu-Arabic numerals from the 8th century, and in parallel with the latter until Modern times. ... Cyrillic numerals was a numbering system derived from the Cyrillic alphabet, used by South and East Slavic peoples. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. ... Attic numerals were used by ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as Herodianic numerals because they were first described in a 2nd century manuscript by Herodian. ... Babylonian numerals were written in cuneiform, using a wedge-tipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a permanent record. ... The Etruscan numerals were used by the ancient Etruscans. ... Mayan numerals. ... During the beginning of the Urnfield culture, around 1200 BC, a series of votive sickles of bronze with marks that have been interpreted as a numeral system, appeared in Central Europe. ... This is a list of numeral system topics, by Wikipedia page. ... A positional notation or place-value notation system is a numeral system in which each position is related to the next by a constant multiplier, a common ratio, called the base or radix of that numeral system. ... The radix (Latin for root), also called base, is the number of various unique symbols (or digits or numerals) a positional numeral system uses to represent numbers. ... For other uses, see Decimal (disambiguation). ... The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, is a numeral system that represents numeric values using two symbols, usually 0 and 1. ... Quaternary is the base four numeral system. ... The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. ... In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal, base-16, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16, usually written using the symbols 0–9 and A–F, or a–f. ... Base32 is a derivation of Base64 with the following additional properties: The resulting character set is all uppercase, which can often be beneficial when using a case-sensitive filesystem. ... In computing, base64 is a data encoding scheme whereby binary-encoded data is converted to printable ASCII characters. ... The unary numeral system is the simplest numeral system to represent natural numbers: in order to represent a number N, an arbitrarily chosen symbol is repeated N times. ... Ternary or trinary is the base-3 numeral system. ... Nonary is a base 9 numeral system, typically using the digits 0-8, but not the digit 9. ... The duodecimal (also known as base-12 or dozenal) system is a numeral system using twelve as its base. ... The vigesimal or base-20 numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the ordinary decimal numeral system is based on ten). ... As there are 24 hours in a day a numbering system based upon 24, and as the base 12 is convenient here some examples of the base 24 (quadrovigesimal) system. ... Base 30 or trigesimal is a positional numeral system using 30 as the radix. ... Base 36 is a positional numeral system using 36 as the radix. ... The sexagesimal (base-sixty) is a numeral system with sixty as the base. ... The Colosseum by night: exterior view of the best-preserved section. ...

Symbols

Symbol Value
I 1 (one) (unus)
V 5 (five) (quinque)
X 10 (ten) (decem)
L 50 (fifty) (quinquaginta)
C 100 (one hundred) (centum)
D 500 (five hundred) (quingenti)
M 1000 (one thousand) (mille)

Multiple symbols may be combined to produce numbers in between these values, subject to certain rules on repetition. In cases where it may be shorter, it is sometimes allowable to place a smaller, subtractive, symbol before a larger value, so that, for example, one may write IV or iv for four, rather than IIII. Sometimes, especially in medical prescriptions, a final i becomes j, such as iij for 3 or vij for 7. This was originally done to prevent forgery. Again, for the numbers not assigned a specific symbol, the above given symbols are combined: Look up I, i in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... One redirects here. ... Look up V, v in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up five in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see X (disambiguation). ... This article is about the number 10. ... For other uses of L, see L (disambiguation). ... 50 (fifty) is the number following 49 and preceding 51. ... Look up C, c in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 100 (one hundred) (the Roman numeral is C for centum) is the natural number following 99 and preceding 101. ... For other uses, see D (disambiguation). ... Five hundred is the natural number following four hundred ninety-nine and preceding five hundred one. ... For other uses of M, see M (disambiguation). ... Look up one thousand in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Repetition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A medical prescription ) is an order (often in written form) by a qualified health care professional to a pharmacist or other therapist for a treatment to be provided to their patient. ...

For large numbers (4000 and above), a bar is placed above a base numeral to indicate multiplication by 1000:[1] For other uses of 2, see 2 (disambiguation). ... This article is about the number. ... Look up four in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up five in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the mathematical number. ... Seven redirects here. ... Look up eight in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the number. ... This article is about the number 10. ... 11 (eleven) is the natural number following 10 and preceding 12. ... 32 (thirty-two) is the natural number following 31 and preceding 33. ... 45 (forty-five) is the natural number following 43 and followed by 47. ... In mathematics, multiplication is an elementary arithmetic operation. ...

The basic Roman numerals follow a pattern: Five thousand (5000) is the natural number following 4999 and preceding 5001. ... Look up ten thousand in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... One hundred thousand (100000) is the natural number following 99999 and preceding 100001. ... One million (1,000,000), or one thousand thousand, is the natural number following 999,999 and preceding 1,000,001. ...

Units I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX
Tens X XX XXX XL L LX LXX LXXX XC
Hundreds C CC CCC CD D DC DCC DCCC CM
Thousands M MM MMM IV V VI VII VIII IX

Origins

[2]


Although the Roman numerals are now written with letters of the Roman alphabet, they were originally independent symbols. The Etruscans, for example, used I Λ X 8 ⊕ for I V X L C M, of which only I and X happened to be letters in their alphabet. One folk etymology has it that the V represented a hand, and that the X was made by placing two Vs on top of each other, one inverted. However, the Etrusco-Roman numerals actually appear to derive from notches on tally sticks, which continued to be used by Italian and Dalmatian shepherds into the 19th century. The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways: A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology. ... Tally sticks are an ancient mnemonic device (memory aid) to record and document numbers or quantities even messages. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ...


Thus I descends not from the letter I but from a notch scored across the stick. Every fifth notch was double cut (i.e. , , , , etc.), and every tenth was cross cut (X), IIIIΛIIIIXIIIIΛIIIIXII…, much like European tally marks today. This produced a positional system: Eight on a counting stick was eight tallies, IIIIΛIII, or the eighth of a longer series of tallies; either way, it could be abbreviated ΛIII (or VIII), as the existence of a Λ implies four prior notches. By extension, eighteen was the eighth tally after the first ten, which could be abbreviated X, and so was XΛIII. Likewise, number four on the stick was the I-notch that could be felt just before the cut of the Λ (V), so it could be written as either IIII or IΛ (IV). Thus the system was neither additive nor subtractive in its conception, but ordinal. When the tallies were transferred to writing, the marks were easily identified with the existing Roman letters I, V, X. A sign warning hikers on the trail to Hanakapiai Beach. ... In linguistics, ordinal numbers are the words representing the rank of a number with respect to some order, in particular order or position (i. ...


The tenth V or X along the stick received an extra stroke. Thus 50 was written variously as N, И, K, Ψ, , etc., but perhaps most often as a chicken-track shape like a superimposed V and I - . This had flattened to (an inverted T) by the time of Augustus, and soon thereafter became identified with the graphically similar letter L. Likewise, 100 was variously Ж, , , H, or as any of the symbols for 50 above plus an extra stroke. The form Ж (that is, a superimposed X and I) came to predominate. It was written variously as >I< or ƆIC, was then abbreviated to Ɔ or C, with C variant finally winning out because, as a letter, it stood for centum, Latin for "hundred". The famous statue of Octavian at the Prima Porta Caesar Augustus (Latin:IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS) ¹ (23 September 63 BC–19 August AD 14), known to modern historians as Octavian for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, is considered the first and one of the most...


The hundredth V or X was marked with a box or circle. Thus 500 was like a Ɔ superposed on a or — that is, like a Þ with a cross bar,— becoming D or Ð by the time of Augustus, under the graphic influence of the letter D. It was later identified as the letter D, perhaps as an abbreviation of demi-mille "half-thousand"; this at least was the folk etymology given to it later on.


Meanwhile, 1000 was a circled or boxed X: , , ⊕, and by Augustinian times was partially identified with the Greek letter Φ phi. In different traditions it then evolved along several different routes. Some variants, such as Ψ and CD (the latter more accurately a mirror image of a D, which is not supported by Unicode, adjacent to a regular D), were historical dead ends, although folk etymology later identified D for 500 as graphically half of Φ for 1000 because of the CD variant. A third line, , survives to this day in two variants:

  • One, CIƆ, led to the convention of using parentheses to indicate multiplication by a thousand: the original CIƆ = (I) 1000, then (III) for 3000, (V) 5000, (IX) 9000, (X) 10 000, (L) 50 000, (C) 100 000, (D) 500 000, (M) 1000 000, etc. This was later extended to double parentheses, as in , , etc. See #Alternate forms below.
  • In the other, became and , eventually changing to M under the influence of the Latin word mille "thousand".

Zero

In general, the number zero did not have its own Roman numeral, but a primitive form (nulla) was known by medieval computists (responsible for calculating the date of Easter). They included zero (via the Latin word nulla meaning "none") as one of nineteen epacts, or the age of the moon on March 22. The first three epacts were nullae, xi, and xxii (written in minuscule or lower case). The first known computist to use zero was Dionysius Exiguus in 525. Only one instance of a Roman numeral for zero is known. About 725, Bede or one of his colleagues used the letter N, the initial of nullae, in a table of epacts, all written in Roman numerals. Zero redirects here. ... Computus (Latin for computation) is the calculation of the date of Easter in the Christian calendar. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The epact (from Greek: epaktai hèmerai = added days) is, as the second Canon of the Gregorian Calendar reform puts it, nothing else than the number of days which the common solar year of 365 days surpasses the common lunar year of 354 days (Latin: Epacta nihil aliud est quam... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Minuscule, or lower case, is the smaller form (case) of letters (in the Roman alphabet: a, b, c, ...). Originally alphabets were written entirely in majuscule (capital) letters which were spaced between well-defined upper and lower bounds. ... Dionysius Exiguus (Dennis the Little, meaning humble) (c. ... For other uses, see Bede (disambiguation). ... For other uses of N, see N (disambiguation). ...


Fractions

A triens coin (1/3 or 4/12 of an as). Note the four dots •••• indicating its value.
A triens coin (1/3 or 4/12 of an as). Note the four dots •••• indicating its value.
A semis coin (1/2 or 6/12 of an as). Note the S indicating its value.
A semis coin (1/2 or 6/12 of an as). Note the S indicating its value.

Though the Romans used a decimal system for whole numbers, reflecting how they counted in Latin, they used a duodecimal system for fractions, because the divisibility of twelve (12 = 3×2×2) makes it easier to handle the common fractions of 1/3 and 1/4 than does a system based on ten (10 = 2×5). On coins, many of which had values that were duodecimal fractions of the unit as, they used a tally-like notational system based on twelfths and halves. A dot • indicated an uncia "twelfth", the source of the English words inch and ounce; dots were repeated for fractions up to five twelfths. Six twelfths (one half) was abbreviated as the letter S for semis "half". Uncia dots were added to S for fractions from seven to eleven twelfths, just as tallies were added to V for whole numbers from six to nine. Image File history File links Vecchi_003. ... Image File history File links Vecchi_003. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1850x800, 320 KB) en: Roman Republic - Semissis (i. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1850x800, 320 KB) en: Roman Republic - Semissis (i. ... For other uses, see Decimal (disambiguation). ... The whole numbers are the nonnegative integers (0, 1, 2, 3, ...) The set of all whole numbers is represented by the symbol = {0, 1, 2, 3, ...} Algebraically, the elements of form a commutative monoid under addition (with identity element zero), and under multiplication (with identity element one). ... The duodecimal (also known as base-12 or dozenal) system is a numeral system using twelve as its base. ... In mathematics, a rational number is a number which can be expressed as a ratio of two integers. ... In mathematics, a divisor of an integer n, also called a factor of n, is an integer which evenly divides n without leaving a remainder. ... For other uses, see Fraction (disambiguation). ... This article is about monetary coins. ... The As (plural Asses) was a bronze, and later copper, coin used during the Roman Republic and Roman Empire, named after the homonymous weight unit (12 unciae = ounces), but not immune to weight depreciation. ... Look up S, s in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Each of these fractions had a name, which was also the name of the corresponding coin:

Fraction Roman Numeral Name (nominative and genitive) Meaning
1/12 uncia, unciae "ounce"
2/12 = 1/6 •• or : sextans, sextantis "sixth"
3/12 = 1/4 ••• or quadrans, quadrantis "quarter"
4/12 = 1/3 •••• or :: triens, trientis "third"
5/12 ••••• or :: quincunx, quincuncis "five-ounce" (quinquae unciaequincunx)
6/12 = 1/2 S semis, semissis "half"
7/12 S• septunx, septuncis "seven-ounce" (septem unciaeseptunx)
8/12 = 2/3 S•• or S: bes, bessis "twice" (as in "twice a third")
9/12 = 3/4 S••• or S: dodrans, dodrantis
or nonuncium, nonuncii
"less a quarter" (de-quadransdodrans)
or "ninth ounce" (nona uncianonuncium)
10/12 = 5/6 S•••• or S:: dextans, dextantis
or decunx, decuncis
"less a sixth" (de-sextansdextans)
or "ten ounces" (decem unciaedecunx)
11/12 S••••• or S:: deunx, deuncis "less an ounce" (de-unciadeunx)
12/12 = 1 I as, assis "unit"

The arrangement of the dots was variable and not necessarily linear. Five dots arranged like :·: (as on the face of a die) are known as a quincunx from the name of the Roman fraction/coin. The Latin words sextans and quadrans are the source of the English words sextant and quadrant. The uncia (Latin ounce, plural unciae) was an ancient Roman bronze coin valued at one-twelfth of an as produced during the Roman Republic. ... The sextans was an Ancient Roman bronze coin produced during the Roman Republic valued at one-sixth of an as (2 unciae). ... The quadrans (literally meaning a a quarter) was low value Roman bronze coin worth 1/4th of an as. ... The triens was an Ancient Roman bronze coin produced during the Roman Republic valued at one-third of an as (4 unciae). ... The quincunx was an Ancient Roman bronze coin produced during the Roman Republic. ... The semis (literally meaning half) was small Roman bronze coin that was valued at half an as. ... The bes was an Ancient Roman bronze coin produced during the Roman Republic. ... The dodrans was an Ancient Roman bronze coin produced during the Roman Republic. ... The As (plural Asses) was a bronze, and later copper, coin used during the Roman Republic and Roman Empire, named after the homonymous weight unit (12 unciae = ounces), but not immune to weight depreciation. ... Two standard six-sided pipped dice with rounded corners. ... Five dots forming a quincunx This aes grave coin is a Roman quincunx but the five pellets do not appear in the quincunx arrangement. ... A sextant is a measuring instrument generally used to measure the angle of elevation of a celestial object above the horizon. ... Look up Quadrant on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Quadrant can mean: HMS Quadrant (G11), a WW-II British/Australian warship. ...


Other Roman fractions include:

  • 1/8 sescuncia, sescunciae (from sesqui- + uncia, i.e. 1½ uncias), represented by a sequence of the symbols for the semuncia and the uncia.
  • 1/24 semuncia, semunciae (from semi- + uncia, i.e. ½ uncia), represented by several variant glyphs deriving from the shape of Greek letter sigma Σ, one variant resembling the pound sign £ without the horizontal line(s) and another resembling Cyrillic letter Є.
  • 1/36 binae sextulae, binarum sextularum ("two sextulas") or duella, duellae, represented by ƧƧ, a sequence of two reversed S.
  • 1/48 sicilicus, sicilici, represented by Ɔ, a reversed C.
  • 1/72 sextula, sextulae (1/6 of an uncia), represented by Ƨ, a reversed S.
  • 1/144 dimidia sextula, dimidiae sextulae ("half a sextula"), represented by ƨ, a reversed S crossed by a horizontal line.
  • 1/288 scripulum, scripuli, represented by a symbol resembling Cyrillic letter Э.
  • 1/1728 siliqua, siliquae, represented by a symbol resembling closing guillemets ».

Sesqui- is a prefix from Latin meaning 3/2 (a. ... Semi- is a prefix from the Latin language meaning 1/2. ... For other uses, see Sigma (disambiguation). ...

IIII vs. IV

The notation of Roman numerals has varied through the centuries. Originally, it was common to use IIII to represent four, because IV represented the Roman god Jupiter, whose Latin name, IVPPITER, begins with IV. The subtractive notation (which uses IV instead of IIII) has become universally used only in modern times. For example, Forme of Cury, a manuscript from 1390, uses IX for nine, but IIII for four. Another document in the same manuscript, from 1381, uses IV and IX. A third document in the same manuscript uses IIII, IV, and IX. Constructions such as IIIII for five, IIX for eight or VV for 10 have also been discovered. Subtractive notation arose from regular Latin usage: the number 18 was duodeviginti or “two from twenty”; the number 19 was undeviginti or "one from twenty". The use of subtractive notation increased the complexity of performing Roman arithmetic, without conveying the benefits of a full positional notation system. A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... For the planet see Jupiter. ... Subtractive notation is an early form of positional notation used with Roman numerals as a shorthand to replace four or five characters in a numeral representing a number with usually just two characters. ... Title page of the Forme of Cury The Forme of Cury was the name given by Samuel Pegge to a roll of cookery written by the Master Cooks of King Richard II of England. ... Subtractive notation is an early form of positional notation used with Roman numerals as a shorthand to replace four or five characters in a numeral representing a number with usually just two characters. ... In Rome, merchants used Roman numerals to perform basic arithmetic operations. ... A positional notation or place-value notation system is a numeral system in which each position is related to the next by a constant multiplier, a common ratio, called the base or radix of that numeral system. ...

An inscription on Admiralty Arch, London. The numeral translates to 1910.
An inscription on Admiralty Arch, London. The numeral translates to 1910.

Likewise, on some buildings it is possible to see MDCCCCX, for example, representing 1910 instead of MCMX – notably Admiralty Arch in London. The Leader Building in Cleveland, Ohio, at the corner of Superior Avenue and E.6th Street, is marked MDCCCCXII, representing 1912. Another notable example is on Harvard Medical School's Gordon Hall, which reads MDCCCCIIII for 1904. In Dubrovnik, Croatia, a commemorative inscription marking the 1000th anniversary of King Tomislav’s coronation (Croatia’s first King), appears as DCCCCXXV - MDCCCCXXV (925 -1925). Image File history File links AdmiraltyArchLondonCloseup. ... Image File history File links AdmiraltyArchLondonCloseup. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Cleveland redirects here. ... Harvard Medical School (HMS) is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. ...


Calendars and clocks

The Shepherd gate clock with Roman numbers up to XXIII (and 0), in Greenwich
The Shepherd gate clock with Roman numbers up to XXIII (and 0), in Greenwich

Clock faces that are labeled using Roman numerals conventionally show IIII for four o'clock and IX for nine o'clock, using the subtractive principle in one case and not the other. There are many suggested explanations for this, several of which may be true: Shepherd Gate Clock at Royal Greenwich Observatory The Shepherd Gate Clock is the clock mounted on the wall outside the gate of the Royal Greenwich Observatory building in Greenwich, London. ...

  • Louis XIV, king of France, who preferred IIII over IV, ordered his clockmakers to produce clocks with IIII and not IV, and thus it has remained.[3]
  • Using the standard numerals, two sets of figures would be similar and therefore confuseable by children and others unused to reading clockfaces: IV and the VI; and IX and XI. Since the first pair are additionally upside down on the face, an added level of confuseability would be introduced. Better, then, to make greater character distinction between them by using IIII and VI
  • The four-character form IIII creates a visual symmetry with the VIII on the other side, which the character IV would not.
  • With IIII, the number of symbols on the clock totals twenty I's, four V's, and four X's, so clock makers need only a single mold with a V, five I's, and an X in order to make the correct number of numerals for their clocks: VIIIIIX. This is cast four times for each clock and the twelve required numerals are separated:
    • V IIII IX
    • VI II IIX
    • VII III X
    • VIII I IX
The IIX and one of the IX’s are rotated 180° to form XI and XII. The alternative with IV uses seventeen I's, five V's, and four X's, requiring the clock maker to have several different molds.
  • Only the I symbol would be seen in the first four hours of the clock, the V symbol would only appear in the next four hours, and the X symbol only in the last four hours. This would add to the clock's radial symmetry.

Louis XIV redirects here. ...

Chemistry

As it relates to the nomenclature of inorganic compounds. For example MnO2 should be named manganese(IV) oxide; manganese(IIII) oxide is unacceptable. The IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry is a systematic method of naming inorganic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). ...


XCIX vs. IC

Rules regarding Roman numerals often state that a symbol representing 10n may not precede any symbol larger than 10n+1. For example, C cannot be preceded by I or V, only by X (or, of course, by a symbol representing a value equal to or larger than C). Thus, one should represent the number ninety-nine as XCIX (using decimal places -- 90 (XC) then 9 (IX)), not as the "shortcut" IC.


This problem manifested in such questions as why 1990 was not written as MXM instead of the universal usage MCMXC, or why 1999 was not written simply IMM or MIM as opposed to the universal MCMXCIX.


However, these rules are not universally followed.


Modern Roman numerals (i.e. under the rule above) are written by expressing each digit separately starting with the left most digit and skipping any digit with a value of zero. To see this in practice, consider the above example of 1990. In Roman numerals 1990 is rendered: 1000=M, 900=CM, 90=XC; resulting in MCMXC. 2008 is written as 2000=MM, 8=VIII; or MMVIII.


Year in Roman numerals

In seventeenth-century Europe, using Roman numerals for the year of publication for books was standard; there were many other places it was used as well. Publishers attempted to make the number easier to read by those more accustomed to Arabic positional numerals. On British title pages, there were often spaces between the groups of digits: M DCC LX I (relating to 1000 700 60 1 or 1761) is one example. This may have come from the French, who separated the groups of digits with periods, as: M.DCC.LXI. or M. DCC. LXI. Notice the period at the end of the sequence; many countries did this for Roman numerals in general, but not necessarily Britain. (Periods were also common on each side of numerals in running text, as in "commonet .iij. viros illos".) A full stop or period (sometimes stop, full point, decimal point, or dot), is the punctuation mark commonly placed at the end of several different types of sentences in English and many other languages. ...


These practices faded from general use before the start of the twentieth century, though the cornerstones of major buildings still occasionally use them. Roman numerals are today still used on building faces for dates: 2008 can be represented as MMVIII. They are also sometimes used in the credits of movies and television programs to denote the year of production, particularly programs made by the BBC and CBS. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... Look up cornerstone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... This article is about the broadcast network. ...


Modern usage

Roman numbers on stern of Cutty Sark, Greenwich
Roman numbers on stern of Cutty Sark, Greenwich
Bow of Clipper ship Cutty Sark
Bow of Clipper ship Cutty Sark

Roman numerals remained in common use until about the 14th century, when they were replaced by Arabic numerals (thought to have been introduced to Europe from al-Andalus, by way of Arab traders and arithmetic treatises, around the 11th century). The Roman number system is generally regarded as obsolete in modern usage, but is still seen occasionally. Classical numbering is often used to suggest importance or timelessness, or in other cases where an alternate numbering system is useful for clarity. Examples of their current use include: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x1536, 491 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Roman numerals Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x1536, 491 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Roman numerals Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Cutty sark is 18th century Scots for short chemise or short undergarment[1]. Hyphenated, Cutty-sark was a nickname for a fictional character created by Robert Burns, and from there it became part of an idiom - Weel done, Cutty-sark! (Well done, Cutty-sark!) in colloquial English, especially Scottish English. ... This article is about Greenwich in England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1185x1743, 235 KB) Cutty Sark Detail Source: Jan van der Crabben (Photographer) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cutty Sark Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1185x1743, 235 KB) Cutty Sark Detail Source: Jan van der Crabben (Photographer) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cutty Sark Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... For other uses, see Arabic numerals (disambiguation). ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...

Sometimes the numerals are written using lower-case letters (thus: i, ii, iii, iv, etc.), particularly if numbering paragraphs or sections within chapters, or for the pagination of the front matter of a book. Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... Ordinal numbers, or ordinals for short, are numbers used to denote the position in an ordered sequence: first, second, third, fourth, etc. ... This article is about computer and video games. ... Grand Theft Auto III (abbreviated as GTA III or GTA3) is a sandbox-style action-adventure computer and video game developed by DMA Design (now Rockstar North), and published by Rockstar Games. ... Grand Theft Auto IV (abbreviated to GTA IV and GTA 4) is a sandbox-style action-adventure video game developed by Rockstar North. ... An example of a postmark A postmark is a postal marking made on a letter, package, postcard or the like indicating the (more or less precise) date and time that the item was delivered into the care of the postal service. ... This article is about the prewriting technique of outlining. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... The winning Super Bowl team receives the Vince Lombardi Trophy. ... Official WrestleMania logo WrestleMania is an annual professional wrestling pay-per-view event produced by World Wrestling Entertainment since 1985. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A film series is a collection of related films in succession. ... For other uses, see Sequel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Book (disambiguation). ... Computer and video games redirects here. ... This article is about a military unit. ... A crossword is a word puzzle that normally takes the form of a square grid of black and white squares. ... Cranial nerves Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge directly from the brain in contrast to spinal nerves which emerge from segments of the spinal cord. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... First page of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub. ... This box:      The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Rugby league football is a full-contact team sport played with a prolate spheroid-shaped ball by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ... Soccer redirects here. ... A game of field hockey in progress Field hockey is a popular sport for men, women and children in many countries around the world. ... This article is about the sport. ...


Undergraduate degrees at British universities are generally graded using I, IIi, IIii, III for first, upper second (often pronounced "two one"), lower second (often pronounced "two two") and third class respectively.


In chemistry, Roman numerals were formerly used to denote the group in the periodic table of the elements. But there was not international agreement as to whether the group of metals which dissolve in water should be called Group IA or IB, for example, so although references may use them, the international norm has recently switched to Arabic numerals. However, Roman numerals are still used in the IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry, for the oxidation number of cations which can take on several different positive charges. For example, FeO is iron(II) oxide and Fe2O3 is iron(III) oxide. In contrast, Arabic numerals are used to denote the formal oxidation state (which is not always the same as the oxidation number) of positively or negatively charged atoms. They are also used for naming phases of polymorphic crystals, such as ice. For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... A periodic table group is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements, also called the Mendeleev periodic table, is a tabular display of the known chemical elements. ... The IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic chemistry is a systematic method of naming inorganic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). ... Not to be confused with oxidation state. ... A cation is an ion with positive charge. ... In chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... Polymorphism in materials science is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... This article is about water ice. ...


In astronomy, the natural satellites or "moons" of the planets are traditionally designated by capital Roman numerals, at first by order from the center of the planet, as the four Galilean satellites of Jupiter are numbered, and later by order of discovery; e.g., Callisto was "Jupiter IV" or "J IV". This is particularly amusing in the case of Callisto, because, as mentioned above, the notation IV was mostly disused by the Romans for its similarity to the first two letters of Jupiter. With recent discoveries—Jupiter currently has 63 known satellites—as well as computerization, this is somewhat disparaged for the minor worlds, at least in computerized listings. For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... A natural satellite or moon is a celestial body that orbits a planet or smaller body, which is called the primary. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... Jupiters 4 Galilean moons, in a composite image comparing their sizes and the size of Jupiter (Great Red Spot visible). ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... There is also an asteroid named 204 Kallisto. ...


Science fiction, and not astronomy per se, has adopted the use for numbering the planets around a star; e.g., Planet Earth is called "Sol III". Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Standards Of Learning SOL stands for The Standards Of Learning. ...


In photography, Roman numerals (with zero) are used to denote varying levels of brightness when using the Zone system.-1... This article or section may be excessively or inappropriately using first or second person, contrary to the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ...


In earthquake seismology, Roman numerals are used to designate degrees of the Mercalli intensity scale. This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... Seismology (from the Greek seismos(σεισμός) = earthquake and λόγος,logos = knowledge ) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth. ... The Mercalli intensity scale is a scale used for measuring the intensity of an earthquake. ...


In music theory, while scale degrees are typically represented with Arabic numerals, often modified with a caret or circumflex, the triads that have these degrees as their roots are often identified by Roman numerals (as in chord symbols). See also diatonic functions. Upper-case Roman numerals indicate major triads while lower-case Roman numerals indicate minor triads, as the following chart illustrates. Lower-case Roman numerals with a degree symbol indicate diminished triads. For example, in the major mode the triad on the seventh scale degree, the leading tone triad is diminished. Music theory is a field of study that investigates the nature or mechanics of music. ... In music or music theory a scale degree is an individual note of a scale, both its pitch and its diatonic function. ... For other uses, see Caret (disambiguation). ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) (often called a caret, a hat or an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Dutch, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans and other languages, and formerly in Turkish [citation needed]. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus (bent... In music or music theory, a triad is a tonal or diatonic tertian trichord. ... In music a chord symbol is an abbreviated notation for chord names and qualities, using letters, numbers, and other symbols. ... A diatonic function, in tonal music theory, is the specific, recognized roles of notes or chords in relation to the key. ... This article describes the typographical or mathematical symbol. ... Generally speaking, a diminished chord is a chord which has a diminished fifth in it. ... In music theory, the major scale (or major mode) is one of the diatonic scales. ...


Also in music theory, the strings on stringed instruments, such as the violin. are often denoted by Roman numerals, with higher numbers meaning higher strings. For example I signifies the E string on the violin and the A string on the viola and cello. They are also sometimes used to signify position. In this case, the number in Roman numerals corresponds with the position number. For example, III means third position and VI means fifth. Music theory is a field of study that investigates the nature or mechanics of music. ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... For other uses, see Viola (disambiguation). ... This article is about the stringed musical instrument. ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ...

Roman numeral I ii iii IV V vi vii°
Scale degree
(major mode)
tonic supertonic mediant subdominant dominant submediant leading tone
Roman numeral i ii° III iv V VI (b)VII vii°
Scale degree
(minor mode)
tonic supertonic mediant subdominant dominant submediant subtonic leading tone

The tonic is the first note of a musical scale, and in the tonal method of music composition it is extremely important. ... In music or music theory, the supertonic is the second degree of the scale, it is the second note of a diatonic scale. ... For mediant in mathematics, see Mediant (mathematics) In music, the mediant is the third degree of the diatonic scale. ... In music, the subdominant is the technical name for the fourth tonal degree of the diatonic scale. ... In music, the dominant is the fifth degree of the scale. ... In music, the submediant is the sixth degree of the scale. ... In music theory, a leading-tone (called the leading-note outside the US) is a note or pitch which resolves or leads to a note one semitone higher or lower, being a lower and upper leading-tone, respectively. ... The tonic is the first note of a musical scale, and in the tonal method of music composition it is extremely important. ... In music or music theory, the supertonic is the second degree of the scale, it is the second note of a diatonic scale. ... For mediant in mathematics, see Mediant (mathematics) In music, the mediant is the third degree of the diatonic scale. ... In music, the subdominant is the technical name for the fourth tonal degree of the diatonic scale. ... In music, the dominant is the fifth degree of the scale. ... In music, the submediant is the sixth degree of the scale. ... In music, the subtonic is the lowered seventh degree of the scale, as opposed to the leading tone. ... In music theory, a leading-tone (called the leading-note outside the US) is a note or pitch which resolves or leads to a note one semitone higher or lower, being a lower and upper leading-tone, respectively. ...

Modern non-English-speaking usage

The above uses are customary for English-speaking countries. Although many of them are also maintained in other countries, those countries have additional uses for Roman numerals which are unknown in English-speaking regions.


The Catalan, the French, the Hungarian, the Portuguese, the Polish, the Romanian, the Russian and the Spanish languages use capital Roman numerals to denote centuries. For example, XVIII refers to the eighteenth century, so as to avoid confusion between the 18th century and the 1800s. (The Italians also take the opposite approach, basing names of centuries on the digits of the years; quattrocento for example is a common Italian name for secolo XV, the fifteenth century.) Some scholars in English-speaking countries have adopted the former method. Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


In Poland, Russia, and in Portuguese, Romanian and Serbian languages, mixed Roman and Arabic numerals are used to record dates (usually on tombstones, but also elsewhere, such as in formal letters and official documents). Just as an old clock recorded the hour by Roman numerals while the minutes were measured in Arabic numerals, the month is written in Roman numerals while the day is in Arabic numerals: 14-VI-1789 is 14 June 1789. This is how dates are inscribed on the walls of the Kremlin, for example. This method has the advantage that days and months are not confused in rapid note-taking, and that any range of days or months can be expressed without confusion. For instance, V-VIII is May to August, while 1-V-31-VIII is May 1 to August 31. Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... For other uses, see Arabic numerals (disambiguation). ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Kremlin Wall Necropolis The Kremlin Wall Necropolis (Некрополь у Кремлёвской стены in Russian) is a part of the Kremlin Wall, which surrounds the Moscow Kremlin and overlooks the Red Square. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In Eastern Europe, especially the Baltic nations, Roman numerals are used to represent the days of the week in hours-of-operation signs displayed in windows or on doors of businesses. Monday is represented by I, which is the initial day of the week. Sunday is represented by VII, which is the final day of the week. The hours of operation signs are tables composed of two columns where the left column is the day of the week in Roman numerals and the right column is a range of hours of operation from starting time to closing time. The following example hours-of-operation table would be for a business whose hours of operation are 9:30AM to 5:30PM on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Thursdays; 9:30AM to 7:00PM on Tuesdays and Fridays; and 9:30AM to 1:00PM on Saturdays; and which is closed on Sundays. Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... For more details on each day of the week, see days of the week. ...

I 9:30–17:30
II 9:30–19:00
III 9:30–17:30
IV 9:30–17:30
V 9:30–19:00
VI 9:30–13:00
VII

Since the French use capital Roman numerals to refer to the quarters of the year (III is the third quarter), and this has become the norm in some European standards organisation, the mixed Roman–Arabic method of recording the date has switched to lowercase Roman numerals in many circles, as 4-viii-1961. (ISO has since specified that dates should be given in all Arabic numerals, in ISO 8601 formats.) “ISO” redirects here. ... ISO 8601 is an international standard for date and time representations issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ...


In geometry, Roman numerals are often used to show lines of equal length. For other uses, see Geometry (disambiguation). ...


In Romania, Roman numerals are used for floor numbering. Likewise apartments in central Amsterdam are indicated as 138-III, with both an Arabic numeral (number of the block or house) and a Roman numeral (floor number). The apartment on the ground floor is indicated as '138-huis'. Elevator plate with floor numbering. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ...


In Poland, Roman numerals are used for ordinals in names of some institutions. In particular high schools ("V Liceum Ogólnokształcące w Krakowie" - 5th High School in Kraków), tax offices ("II Urząd Skarbowy w Gdańsku" - 2nd Office of Treasury in Gdańsk) and courts ("I Wydział Cywilny Sądu Okręgowego" - District Court, 1st Civil Division) - use Roman numerals. Institutions that use "Instutition nr N" notation always use Arabic numerals. These include elementary ("Szkoła Podstawowa nr 5") and middle schools ("Gimnazjum nr 5").


Roman numerals are rarely used in Asia. The motion picture rating system in Hong Kong uses categories I, IIA, IIB, and III based on Roman numerals. For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A motion picture rating system categorizes films with regard to suitability for audiences in terms of issues such as sex, violence, substance abuse, profanity, impudence or other types of mature content. ...


Alternate forms

Roman Numerals, 16th century
Roman Numerals, 16th century

In the Middle Ages, Latin writers used a horizontal line above a particular numeral to represent one thousand times that numeral, and additional vertical lines on both sides of the numeral to denote one hundred times the number, as in these examples: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (456x817, 45 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Roman numerals ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (456x817, 45 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Roman numerals ...

The same overline was also used with a different meaning, to clarify that the characters were numerals. Sometimes both underline and overline were used, e. g. MCMLXVII, and in certain font-faces, particularly Times New Roman, the capital letters when used without spaces simulates the appearance of the under/over bar, e.g. MCMLXVII, which is often exaggerated when written by hand. Look up one thousand in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Five thousand (5000) is the natural number following 4999 and preceding 5001. ... One hundred thousand (100000) is the natural number following 99999 and preceding 100001. ... The Times New Roman typeface, on top at 88. ...


Sometimes 500, usually D, was written as I followed by an apostrophus (which resembles a backwards C, i.e. Ɔ), while 1,000, usually M, was written as CIƆ. This is believed to be a system of encasing numbers to denote thousands (imagine the Cs as parentheses). This system has its origins from Etruscan numeral usage. The D and M symbols to represent 500 and 1,000 were most likely derived from and CIƆ, respectively.


An extra Ɔ denoted 500, and multiple extra Ɔs are used to denote 5,000, 50,000, etc. For example:

Base number   CIƆ = 1,000 CCIƆƆ = 10,000 CCCIƆƆƆ = 100,000
1 extra Ɔ IƆ = 500 CIƆƆ = 1,500 CCIƆƆƆ = 10,500 CCCIƆƆƆƆ = 100,500
2 extra Ɔs IƆƆ = 5,000   CCIƆƆƆƆ = 15,000 CCCIƆƆƆƆƆ = 105,000
3 extra Ɔs IƆƆƆ = 50,000     CCCIƆƆƆƆƆƆ = 150,000

Sometimes CIƆ was reduced to an lemniscate symbol () for denoting 1,000. John Wallis is often credited for introducing this symbol to represent infinity (), and one conjecture is that he based it on this usage, since 1,000 was hyperbolically used to represent very large numbers. Similarly, 5,000 (IƆƆ) was reduced to ; and 10,000 (CCIƆƆ) was reduced to A lemniscate In mathematics, a lemniscate is a type of curve described by a Cartesian equation of the form: Graphing this equation produces a curve similar to . ... John Wallis John Wallis (November 22, 1616 - October 28, 1703) was an English mathematician who is given partial credit for the development of modern calculus. ... Not to be confused with Hyperbola. ...


In medieval times, before the letter j emerged as a distinct letter, a series of letters i in Roman numerals was commonly ended with a flourish; hence they actually looked like ij, iij, iiij, etc. This proved useful in preventing fraud, as it was impossible, for example, to add another i to vij to get viij. This practice is now merely an antiquarian's note; it is never used.


Medieval Roman numerals

Most uniquely, during the Middle Ages there came about a unique, more comprehensive shorthand for writing Roman numerals, called today the "medieval Roman numerals." This system used almost every other letter of the Roman alphabet to stand as abbreviations for more longhand numbers (usually those that consisted of repetitions of the same symbol). They are still listed today in most dictionaries, although through disfavor are primarily out of use.[4]

Modern
number
Medieval
abbreviation
Notes
5 A Resembles an upside-down V. Also said to equal 500.
7 S, Z Presumed abbreviation of septem, Latin for 7.
11 O
40 F Presumed abbreviation of English forty.
70 S Also could stand for 7, and has same etymology.
80 R
90 N Presumed abbreviation of nonaginta, Latin for 90.
150 Y Possibly derived from the lowercase y's shape.
151 K This unusual abbreviation's origin is unknown; it has also been said to stand for 250.
160 T Possibly derived from Greek tetra, as 4 x 40 = 160.
200 H
250 E
300 B
400 P, G
500 Q Redundant with D, abbreviation for quingenti, Latin for 500.
800 W More properly, the Greek ω, as W was a fairly new creation.
900 ĵ, ↑ Resembled a crooked up arrow.
2000 Z

Modern Roman numerals

Some "modern" Roman numerals, post-Victorian era, are shown below: The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ...

Standard Arabic Notes
none 0 N was used at least once (by Bede about 725).
I 1
II 2
III 3
IV 4 IIII is still used on clock and Tarot card faces. See Calendars and clocks above.
V 5 IIIII was used rarely in the Middle Ages.
VI 6
VII 7
VIII 8 IIX was used rarely in the Middle Ages.
IX 9 10-1
X 10 VV was used rarely in the Middle Ages.
XI 11
XII 12
XIII 13
XIV 14
XV 15
XVI 16
XVII 17
XVIII 18
XIX 19
XX 20
XXI 21
XXV 25
XXX 30
XL 40 50−10
XLV 45
XLIX 49 Per rule above, IL would not be generally accepted.
L 50
LX 60
LXIX 69
LXX 70 The abbreviation for the Septuagint
LXXX 80
XC 90 100−10
XCIX 99 As opposed to the "shortcut" way IC seen above.
C 100 This is the origin of using the slang term "C-bill" or "C-note" for "$100 bill".
CC 200
CCC 300
CD 400 500−100
D 500
DC 600
DCLXVI 666 Using every symbol except M in descending order gives the beast number.
DCC 700
DCCC 800
CM 900 1000−100
M 1000
MCDXLIV 1444 Smallest pandigital number (each symbol is used)
MDCLXVI 1666 Largest efficient pandigital number (each symbol occurs exactly once)
MCMXLV 1945
MCMXCVII 1997
MCMXCIX 1999 Shortcuts like IMM and MIM disagree with the rule stated above
MM 2000
MMVIII 2008
MMD 2500
MMM 3000
MV[citation needed] 4000 5000−1000, sometimes MMMM[citation needed]
V 5000
VMDCLXVI 6666 This number uses every symbol up to V once.
X 10000
L 50000
C 100000
D 500000
M 1000000

An accurate way to write large numbers in Roman numerals is to handle first the thousands, then hundreds, then tens, then units.
Example: the number 1988.
One thousand is M, nine hundred is CM, eighty is LXXX, eight is VIII.
Put it together: MCMLXXXVIII. Zero redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bede (disambiguation). ... One redirects here. ... For other uses of 2, see 2 (disambiguation). ... This article is about the number. ... Look up four in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Austrian-style 54-card Tarock hand: the Fool; six trumps; King, Queen, 1 of hearts. ... Look up five in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the mathematical number. ... Seven redirects here. ... Look up eight in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the number. ... This article is about the number 10. ... 11 (eleven) is the natural number following 10 and preceding 12. ... Look up twelve in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 13 (thirteen) is the natural number after 12 and before 14. ... 14 (fourteen) is the natural number following 13 and preceding 15. ... 15 (fifteen) is the natural number following 14 and preceding 16. ... 16 (sixteen) is the natural number following 15 and preceding 17. ... 17 (seventeen) is the natural number following 16 and preceding 18. ... 18 (eighteen) is the natural number following 17 and preceding 19. ... 19 (nineteen) is the natural number following 18 and preceding 20. ... Twenty redirects here. ... 21 (twenty-one) is the natural number following 20 and preceding 22. ... 25 (twenty-five) is the natural number following 24 and preceding 26. ... 30 (thirty) is the natural number following 29 and preceding 31. ... 40 (forty) is the natural number following 39 and preceding 41. ... 45 (forty-five) is the natural number following 43 and followed by 47. ... 49 (forty-nine) is the natural number following 48 and preceding 50. ... 50 (fifty) is the number following 49 and preceding 51. ... 60 (sixty) is the natural number following 59 and preceding 61. ... 69 (sixty-nine) is a number following 68 and preceding 70. ... Look up seventy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... 80 (eighty) is the natural number following 79 and preceding 81. ... 90 (ninety) is the natural number preceded by 89 and followed by 91. ... // 99 (ninety-nine) is the natural number following 98 and preceding 100. ... 100 (one hundred) (the Roman numeral is C for centum) is the natural number following 99 and preceding 101. ... The U.S. hundred dollar bill ($100) is a denomination of United States currency. ... 200 is the natural number following 199 and preceding 201. ... 300 (three hundred) is the natural number following two hundred ninety-nine and preceding three hundred one. ... Four hundred is the natural number following three hundred ninety-nine and preceding four hundred one. ... Five hundred is the natural number following four hundred ninety-nine and preceding five hundred one. ... Six hundred is the natural number following five and hundred ninety-nine and preceding six hundred and one. ... // 666 is the natural number following 665 and preceding 667. ... The Number of the Beast is mentioned in the Book of Revelation of the Christian New Testament and has long been accepted to be 666. ... 700 (seven hundred) is the natural number following 699 and preceding 701. ... 800 (eight hundred) is the natural number following 799 and preceding 801. ... Nine hundred is the natural number following eight hundred ninety-nine and preceding nine hundred one. ... Look up one thousand in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up one thousand in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A pandigital number is an integer that in a given base has among its significant digits each digit used in the base at least once. ... Look up one thousand in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up one thousand in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cardinal 1000 one thousand Ordinal 1000th one thousandth Factorization Divisors 2, 4, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50 Roman numeral M Roman numeral (Unicode) M, m prefixes Wiktionary:chilia (from Greek) Wiktionary:milli- (from Latin) Binary 1111101000 Octal 1750 Duodecimal 6B4 Hexadecimal 3E8 Look up one thousand in Wiktionary, the free... Look up one thousand in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 2000 (two thousand) is the natural number following 1999 and preceding 2001. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Three thousand (3000) is the natural number following 2999 and preceding 3001. ... 4000 (four thousand) is the natural number following 3999 and preceding 4001. ... Five thousand (5000) is the natural number following 4999 and preceding 5001. ... Six thousand (6000) is the natural number following 5999 and preceding 6001. ... Look up ten thousand in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 50,000 (fifty thousand) is the number that comes before 49,999 and before 50,001. ... One hundred thousand (100000) is the natural number following 99999 and preceding 100001. ... One million (1,000,000), or one thousand thousand, is the natural number following 999,999 and preceding 1,000,001. ...


Unicode

Unicode has a number of characters specifically designated as Roman numerals, as part of the Number Forms range from U+2160 to U+2183. For example, MCMLXXXVIII could alternatively be written as ⅯⅭⅯⅬⅩⅩⅩⅧ. This range includes both upper- and lowercase numerals, as well as pre-combined glyphs for numbers up to 12 ( or XII), mainly intended for the clock faces for compatibility with large East-Asian character sets such as JIS X 0213 that provide these characters. The pre-combined glyphs should only be used to represent the individual numbers where the use of individual glyphs is not wanted, and not to replace compounded numbers. Additionally, glyphs exist for alternate forms of 1000, 5000, and 10000. The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... A glyph is a carved figure or character, incised or in relief; a carved pictograph; hence, a pictograph representing a form originally adopted for sculpture, whether carved or painted. ... The term compatibility has the following meanings: In telecommunication, the capability of two or more items or components of equipment or material to exist or function in the same system or environment without mutual interference. ... JIS X 0213 is a Japanese Industrial Standard defining coded character sets for encoding the characters used in Japan. ...

Table of Roman numerals in Unicode
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+2160
U+2170
U+2180

The characters in the range U+2160–217F are present only for compatibility with other character set standards which provide these characters. For ordinary uses, the regular Latin letters are preferred. Displaying these characters requires a program that can handle Unicode and a font that contains appropriate glyphs for them. In discussing Unicode and the UCS, many often refer to compatibility characters. ... “Font” redirects here. ...


Games

After the Renaissance, the Roman system could also be used to write chronograms. It was common to put in the first page of a book some phrase, so that when adding the I, V, X, L, C, D, M present in the phrase, the reader would obtain a number, usually the year of publication. The phrase was often (but not always) in Latin, as chronograms can be rendered in any language that utilises the Roman alphabet. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... A chronogram is a sentence or inscription in which the capital letters, interpreted in Roman numerals, stand for a particular date if rearranged. ...


Mnemonic devices

There are several mnemonics that can be useful in remembering the Roman numeral system. For other uses, see Mnemonic (disambiguation). ...


The following mnemonics recall the order of Roman numeral values above ten, with L being 50, C being 100, D being 500, and M being 1000.

  • Lucky Cows Drink Milk
  • Lucy Can't Drink Milk
  • Lazy Cows Don't Moo
  • Little Cats Drink Milk
  • LCD Monitor

A longer mnemonic helps to recall the order of Roman numerals from large to small.

  • My Dear Cat Loves Xtra Vitamins Intensely

References

  1. ^ Roman numerals: How they work: Larger numbers
  2. ^ Georges Ifrah, The Universal History of Numbers: From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. Translated by David Bellos, E. F. Harding, Sophie Wood, Ian Monk. John Wiley & Sons, 2000.
  3. ^ W.I. Milham, Time & Timekeepers (New York: Macmillan, 1947) p. 196
  4. ^ Capelli, A. Dictionary of Latin Abbreviations. 1912.
  • Menninger, Karl (1992). Number Words and Number Symbols: A Cultural History of Numbers. Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-27096-3. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Roman numerals
The ISO basic Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz

history palaeography derivations diacritics punctuation numerals Unicode list of letters JavaScript is a scripting language most often used for client-side web development. ... The GNU logo For other uses of GPL, see GPL (disambiguation). ... Java language redirects here. ... C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... ISO 646 is an ISO standard that specifies a 7-bit character code from which several national standards are derived, the best known of which is ASCII. Since the portion of ISO 646 shared by all countries specified only the letters used in the English alphabet, other countries using the... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... For other uses of A, see A (disambiguation). ... For other uses of B, see B (disambiguation). ... Look up C, c in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see D (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see E (disambiguation). ... For other uses of F, see F (disambiguation). ... For other uses of G, see G (disambiguation). ... Look up H, h in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up I, i in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... J# redirects here for technical reasons; see J Sharp. ... For other uses, see K (disambiguation). ... For other uses of L, see L (disambiguation). ... For other uses of M, see M (disambiguation). ... For other uses of N, see N (disambiguation). ... Look up O, o in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Latin alphabet letter. ... This article is about the Latin alphabet letter. ... Look up R, r in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up S, s in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see T (disambiguation). ... For other uses of U, see U (disambiguation). ... Look up V, v in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up W, w in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see X (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Y, see Y (disambiguation). ... Look up Z, z in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Palaeography (British) or paleography (American) (from the Greek palaiós, old and graphein, to write) is the study of ancient handwriting, independent of the language (Koine Greek, Classical Latin, Medieval Latin, Old English, etc. ... Variants of the Latin alphabet are used by the writing systems of many languages throughout the world. ... Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritic or diacritical mark, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... The term punctuation has two different linguistic meanings: in general, the act and the effect of punctuating, i. ... Unicode as of version 5. ... List of Latin letters. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Roman Numerals (507 words)
The Romans were active in trade and commerce, and from the time of learning to write they needed a way to indicate numbers.
The big differences between Roman and Arabic numerals (the ones we use today) are that Romans didn't have a symbol for zero, and that numeral placement within a number can sometimes indicate subtraction rather than addition.
You see a lot of Ms because Roman numerals are used a lot to indicate dates.
Roman numerals (958 words)
A numeral that is “out of order,” that is, that appears to the left of a numeral with a larger value, has its value subtracted from the value of the larger numeral.
Roman numerals encountered today usually begin with, at most, M's and only M's.
Today, Roman numerals are used mainly as an alternative to the Hindu-Arabic numerals in outlines and other instances in which two distinct sets of numerals are useful, for clock faces, for ceremonial and monumental purposes, and by publishers and film distributors who have an interest in making copyright dates difficult to read.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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