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Encyclopedia > Roman Republic
Res publica Romana
Roman Republic

509 BC – 27 BC
Motto
Senatus Populusque Romanus
Location of Roman Republic
Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. 44 BC
Capital Rome
Language(s) Latin (imperial), Greek (administrative)
Religion Roman polytheism
Government Republic
Consul
 - 509–508 BC Lucius Junius Brutus, Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus
 - 27 BC Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
Legislature Roman assemblies
Historical era Classical antiquity
 - Rape of Lucretia 509 BC
 - Caesar proclaimed perpetual dictator 44 BC
 - Battle of Actium 2 September, 31 BC
 - Octavian proclaimed Augustus 16 January
Area
 - 326 BC[1] 10,000 km² (3,861 sq mi)
 - 200 BC[1] 360,000 km² (138,997 sq mi)
 - 146 BC[1] 800,000 km² (308,882 sq mi)
 - 100 BC[1] 1,200,000 km² (463,323 sq mi)
 - 50 BC[1] 1,950,000 km² (752,899 sq mi)
Roman Empire Provinces (compare with above) around a century after the end of the Republic.
Roman Empire Provinces (compare with above) around a century after the end of the Republic.

The Roman Republic was the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a republican form of government. The republican period began with the overthrow of the Monarchy c. 509 BC and lasted over 450 years until its subversion, through a series of civil wars, into the Principate form of government and the Imperial period. The precise event which signaled the transition of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire is a matter of interpretation. Historians have variously proposed the appointment of Julius Caesar as perpetual dictator (44 BC), the Battle of Actium (2 September 31 BC), and the Roman Senate's grant of Octavian's extraordinary powers under the first settlement (January 16, 27 BC), as candidates for the defining pivotal event. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Flag of the Roman Republic The Roman Republic was proclaimed on March 7, 1798 during the French Revolutionary Wars, when French forces invaded the city of Rome. ... Military flag of the Roman Republic. ... The ancient quarters of Rome. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created... ojuooiuououoieerwerwerwerwerwwe Year 27 BC was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... For the series of murder mystery novels, see SPQR series. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 489 pixelsFull resolution (1020 × 624 pixel, file size: 17 KB, MIME type: image/png) Map of the Roman provinces in 44 BC. Territories where the extent of Roman control is uncertain (Ilyria) are marked with a lighter colour of green. ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the highest office of the Roman Republic. ... This article is about the founder of the Roman Republic . ... Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus is traditionally one of the first two consuls of Rome, together with Lucius Junius Brutus. ... May refer to the persons: Augustus, Roman Emperor Pope John XIII nigger Category: ... Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (c. ... A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honours Emperor Institutions and Law Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Roman assemblies were the Comitia Calata, the Comitia Curiata, the Comitia Centuriata, and the Comitia Tributa. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... Death of Lucretia by Sandro Botticelli Lucretia is a legendary figure in the history of the Roman Republic. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The ancient quarters of Rome. ... For the version control system, see Subversion (software). ... There were several Roman civil wars, especially during the time of the late Republic. ... The Principate is, according to its etymological derivation from the Latin word princeps, meaning chief or first, the political regime dominated by such a political leader, whether or not he is formally head of state and/or head of government. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up epoch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Determining the precise end of the Republic is a task of dispute by modern historians; Roman citizens of the time did not recognize that the Republic had ceased to exist. The early Julio-Claudian "Emperors" maintained that the res publica still existed, albeit under the protection of their extraordinary powers, and would eventually return to its full Republican form. The Roman state continued to call itself a res publica as long as it continued to use Latin as its official language. Template:Julio-Claudian Dynasty The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... Res publica is a Latin phrase, made of res + publica, literally meaning public thing or public matter. It is the origin of the word Republic. // The word publica is the feminine singular of the 1st- and 2nd-declension adjective publicus, publica, publicum, which is itself derived from an earlier form...

Contents

The structure of Republican Rome

Ancient Rome

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Image File history File links Roman_SPQR_banner. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Institutions and Law Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      This is a tentative list of topics regarding political institutions of Ancient Rome. ...


Periods
Roman Kingdom
753 BC510 BC

Roman Republic
510 BC27 BC
Roman Empire
27 BCAD 480 The ancient quarters of Rome. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC - 750s BC - 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC Events and Trends 756 BC - Founding of Cyzicus. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC Events and Trends Establishment of the Roman Republic March 12, 515 BC - Construction is completed on the... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC Events and Trends Establishment of the Roman Republic March 12, 515 BC - Construction is completed on the... ojuooiuououoieerwerwerwerwerwwe Year 27 BC was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... ojuooiuououoieerwerwerwerwerwwe Year 27 BC was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events Odoacer defeats an attempt by Julius Nepos to recapture Italy, and has Julius killed; Odoacer also captured Dalmatia. ...

Principate
Western Empire
The Principate is, according to its etymological derivation from the Latin word princeps, meaning chief or first, the political regime dominated by such a political leader, whether or not he is formally head of state and/or head of government. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ...

Dominate
Eastern Empire
The Dominate was the despotic last of the two phases of government in the ancient Roman Empire between its establishment in 27 BC and the formal date of the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476. ... Byzantine redirects here. ...

Ordinary Magistrates

Consul
Praetor
Quaestor
Promagistrate This article is about the highest office of the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... See Roman Governor for the duties of a promagistrate as a governor of a province A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office. ...

Aedile
Tribune
Censor
Governor Aedile (Latin Aedilis, from aedes, aedis temple, building) was an office of the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law A Censor was a magistrate of high rank in the ancient Roman Republic. ... A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief adminstator of Roman law throughout one or more of Ancient Romes many provinces. ...

Extraordinary Magistrates

Dictator
Magister Equitum
Consular tribune Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, is) a historical position of varying importance in several European nations. ... The Tribuni militum consulari potestate, or Consular Tribunes were tribunes elected with consular power during the Conflict of the Orders in the Roman Republic, starting in 444 BCE and then continuiously from 408 BCE to 394 BCE, and again from 391 BCE to 367 BCE. According the the histories of...

Rex
Triumviri
Decemviri Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The King of Rome (Latin: rex, regis) was the chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom. ... The term triumvirate is commonly used to describe a political regime dominated by three powerful political and/or military leaders. ... Decemviri (singular decemvir) is a Latin term meaning Ten Men which designates any such commission in the Roman Republic (cf. ...

Titles and Honours
Emperor

Legatus
Dux
Officium
Praefectus
Vicarius
Vigintisexviri
Lictor Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ... The Misspeling of Ducks ... Officium (plural officia) is a Latin word with various meanings, including service, (sense of) duty, courtesy, ceremony and the likes. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Vigintisexviri (sing. ... The lictor, derived from the Latin ligare (to bind), was a member of a special class of Roman civil servant, with special tasks of attending magistrates of the Roman Republic and Empire who held imperium. ...

Magister Militum
Imperator
Princeps senatus
Pontifex Maximus
Augustus
Caesar
Tetrarch Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... The princeps senatus (plural principes senatus) was the leader of the Roman senate. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ...

Institutions and Law
Roman Constitution

Roman Senate
Cursus honorum
Roman assemblies
Collegiality This is a tentative list of topics regarding political institutions of Ancient Rome. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honours Emperor Institutions and Law Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Under the Constitution of the Roman Republic, the Senate was the chief foreign policy-making branch of Roman government. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The cursus honorum (Latin: course of honours) was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Empire. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honours Emperor Institutions and Law Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Roman assemblies were the Comitia Calata, the Comitia Curiata, the Comitia Centuriata, and the Comitia Tributa. ... Collegiality is the relationship between colleagues. ...

Roman law
Roman citizenship
Auctoritas
Imperium Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... The toga was the characteristic garment of the Roman citizen. ... Auctoritas is the Latin origin of English authority. According to Benveniste [citation?], auctor (which also gives us English author) is derived from Latin augeó (to augment): The auctor is is qui auget, the one who augments the act or the juridical situation of another. ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ...


Other countries · Atlas
 Politics Portal
view  talk  edit

Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ...

Citizens

Main article: Roman citizenship

The Roman Republic had many different classes of people who existed within the city-state. Each one of them had differing rights, responsibilities, and status under Roman law. The toga was the characteristic garment of the Roman citizen. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ...


Government

An informal constitution of the Roman Republic was used throughout the history of the Republic. It occasionally was changed by rulers for their own advantage. Roman republican government was a complex system with several apparent redundancies, based on custom and tradition as much as law. The Roman system of government was loosely based on three elements: the two consuls, the senate, and the people. Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honours Emperor Institutions and Law Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Under the Constitution of the Roman Republic, the Senate was the chief foreign policy-making branch of Roman government. ...


Assemblies and magistrates

The basis of republican government, at least in theory, was the division of responsibilities between various assemblies, whose members (or blocks of members) would vote on issues placed before their assembly. These assemblies included the Curiate Assembly, the Centuriate Assembly, the Tribal Assembly, the Plebeian Assembly and the Roman Senate. Membership in such assemblies was limited by such factors as class, order, family, and income. Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honours Emperor Institutions and Law Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Roman assemblies were the Comitia Calata, the Comitia Curiata, the Comitia Centuriata, and the Comitia Tributa. ... The Roman Republic (Latin: Res Publica Romanorum) vested formal governmental powers in four separate peoples assemblies — the Comitia Curiata, the Comitia Centuriata, the Comitia Tributa, and the Concilium Plebis. ... The Roman Republic (Latin: Res Publica Romanorum) vested formal governmental powers in four separate peoples assemblies — the Comitia Curiata, the Comitia Centuriata, the Comitia Tributa, and the Concilium Plebis. ... Known in Latin as the Comitia Plebis Tributa. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ...


Several of these assemblies had specific and specialized functions, such as the Curiate Assembly which conferred Imperium on the Roman magistrates. However, two of these assemblies dominated the political life of the Republic: the Plebeian Assembly, and the Roman Senate. The Roman Republic (Latin: Res Publica Romanorum) vested formal governmental powers in four separate peoples assemblies — the Comitia Curiata, the Comitia Centuriata, the Comitia Tributa, and the Concilium Plebis. ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... A magistrate is a civil or criminal (or both) judicial officer with limited authority to administer and enforce the law. ... Known in Latin as the Comitia Plebis Tributa. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ...


Within the various assemblies, there were a number of magistratus — "magistrates", who performed specialized functions. Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ...


The Romans observed two principles for their magistrates: annuality, the observation of a one-year term, and collegiality, the holding of the same office by at least two men at the same time. The supreme office of consul, for instance, was always held by two men together, each of whom exercised a power of mutual veto over any actions by the other consul. If the entire Roman Army took the field, it was always under the command of the two consuls who alternated days of command. Many offices were held by more than two men; in the late Republic there were eight praetors a year and 20 quaestors. Collegiality is the relationship between colleagues. ... This article is about the highest office of the Roman Republic. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Roman army was a set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ...


The office of dictator was an exception to annuality and collegiality, and the offices of Censors to annuality. In times of military emergency a single dictator was chosen for a term of six months to have sole command of the Roman state. On a regular, but not annual basis two censors were elected: every five years for a term of 18 months. Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... Exception may refer to: An action that is not part of normal operations or standards. ... Censor was the title of two magistrates of high rank in the Roman Republic. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ...


Evolution of republican government

During the early and middle Republic, the Roman Senate, highest in prestige and being composed of the aristocratic, rich, and politically influential (towards the end of the Republic, it was exclusively composed of ex-magistrates), was predominant in the state. The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ...


During the later years of the Republic, a division developed within the Senate with two factions arising: the Optimates and the Populares. The Optimates held to the traditional forms of Roman government, while the Populares were those who used the fact that the Plebeian Assembly was the only body capable of passing binding laws (plebiscites) on the Republic to pursue political influence outside the Senate. Since the Senate controlled the finances of the state this led to conflicts between the Senate and the Plebeian Assembly. Many ambitious politicians used these conflicts to further their political career, advancing themselves as champions either of "Roman tradition" or of "the people". Optimates (Good Men) were the aristocratic faction of the later Roman Republic. ... Populares (Favoring the people, singular popularis) were aristocratic leaders in the late Roman Republic who tended to use the peoples assemblies in an effort to break the stranglehold of the nobiles and optimates on political power. ... Known in Latin as the Comitia Plebis Tributa. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


Early Rome was divided into two groups or orders, patricians and plebeians. Plebeians were less wealthy landholders, craftspeople, merchants, and small farmers. The smaller group which were Rome's ruling class and in early times alone made up the senate: 'patricians' coming from 'patres'='fathers'. Later on, a plebeian aristocracy developed alongside the patrician one; from 367BC the law allowed one of the two consuls to be a plebeian.


Military

The Roman Legions formed the backbone of Roman military power. Rome used its legions to expand its borders to eventually dominate most of Europe and the area around the Mediterranean Sea. The Punic Wars was a series of three wars to establish dominance of the Mediterranean. See: Structural history of the Roman military The branches of the Roman military at the highest level were the Roman army and the Roman navy. ... Legion redirects here. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC.[1] They are known as the Punic Wars because the Latin term for Carthaginian was Punici (older Poenici, from their Phoenician ancestry). ...


The Roman Legions exhibited high levels of discipline, training and professionalism. It was a standardized military machine in which the heroics and bravery of individuals were secondary to the function of the army as a whole. Equipment, tactics, organization, and military law were uniformly implemented. Procedures for everything from training and marching to camp building were laid out specifically, tasks allocated, and each unit and man knew his role and responsibilities within the army as a whole. The evolution of the Roman legion owed much to the influence of Hellenistic city-states in the south of Italy (Magna Graecia), the mountainous terrain of central Italy and the constant adaptation of new tactics and weapons from defeated tribes/peoples.


The early Republic had no standing army. Instead, legions would be conscripted as needed (the term legion comes from the Latin term legio — "muster" or "levy"), put into the field to fight the war for which they had been created, and would then disband back to their civilian lives, which for most meant farming. Troops would be levied from Rome and its surrounding colonies, each of which would be responsible for providing a particular number of soldiers. Such conscripts were theoretically taken only from those men who were property/land holders wealthy enough to equip themselves, although in time of dire military need this requirement was overlooked. This made the Roman Legion less expensive to the state, and ensured that the Legions were fighting to preserve their own property and way of life as much as trying to protect their country. Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


In the later Republic, Gaius Marius instituted the Marian reforms (107 BC) which completely altered the form of the Legion. Marius restructured the standard legion and updated its equipment and tactical doctrines for modern warfare. He also recast the legions as a standing professional Roman army whose ranks were open to volunteers from any class. Marius did this to address the new reality that Rome needed dedicated professional armies for extended campaigns lasting years (and not just a season), and to address the severe shortage of eligible middle class landholder recruits whose existence had been decimated by economic changes within Roman society, and the battlefield casualties inflicted by Rome's prolonged military campaigns. Now, instead of being a short term landholder recruit fighting to defend his own home and property, the typical Roman legionnaire was a lower-class "career soldier" who had enlisted for a period of 20 years, working towards a "pension" which was a land grant provided by the state by tradition (but not guaranteed by law) at the end of their service. The fact that such pensions were not guaranteed by law, but had to be proposed before the Senate by the Senator-General who was disbanding his legion(s) had the subtle, but important, effect of refocusing the loyalty of the legionary, who now fought as much for his General, who could guarantee his pension, as for the country. So-called “Marius”, Munich Glyptothek (Inv. ... The Marian reforms of 107 BC were a group of military reforms initiated by Gaius Marius, a statesman and general of the Roman republic. ... Roman legionaries, 1st century. ...


Each time Rome conquered new lands, the territory would be sectioned off into one or more provinces, under the administration of a Roman governor, chosen annually by the Senate. He would be awarded a promagisterial rank, either proconsular or propraetorial, depending on the size and importance of the province (see Roman provinces for list of governor's ranks). In the later Republic, newly acquired land was often partly used to settle the discharged veterans of the military campaign who had earned their "land grant". This not only "paid off" the army, but had the added benefit of settling Roman people, with Roman customs, bringing Roman culture to newly conquered people: a form of "cultural imperialism" as well as a military one; see Cultural Romanization. Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120 AD. In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin, provincia, pl. ... A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief adminstator of Roman law throughout one or more of Ancient Romes many provinces. ... See Roman Governor for the duties of a promagistrate as a governor of a province A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office. ... For the Miocene ape, see Proconsul (genus) Under the Roman Empire a proconsul was a promagistrate filling the office of a consul. ... A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office. ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120 AD. In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin, provincia, pl. ... Romanization was a gradual process of cultural assimilation, in which the conquered barbarians (non-Greco-Romans) gradually adopted and largely replaced their own native culture (which in many cases were quite developed, like the culture of the Gauls or Carthage) with the culture of their conquerors - the Romans. ...


Location

Further information: Roman province

The city of Rome itself stands on the banks of the river Tiber, near the west coast of Italy. It marked the border between the regions of Latium (the territory in which the Latin language and culture was dominant) to the south, and Etruria (the territory in which the Etruscan language and culture was dominant) to the north. Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Tiber River in Rome. ... Latium (Lazio in Italian) is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... The area covered by the Etruscan civilzation. ... Languages in Iron Age Italy, 6th century BC Etruscan was a language spoken and written in the ancient region of Etruria (current Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of what are now Lombardy, Veneto, and Emilia-Romagna (where the Etruscans were displaced by Gauls), in Italy. ...


The Roman Republic expanded outwards from this single city state. Eventually its empire included all of the Italian peninsula, large parts of Gaul and Iberia, much of the Balkan Peninsula, parts of the Balkans, coastal regions of Asia Minor, part of the North African coastline, Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily. A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city, usually having sovereignty. ... Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Balkan redirects here. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Categories: Historical stubs | Ancient Roman provinces ... Corsica et Sardinia was an ancient Roman province including the islands of Corsica and Sardinia. ... Corsica et Sardinia was an ancient Roman province including the islands of Corsica and Sardinia. ... Sicilia (Latin) was the name given to the first province acquired by the Roman Republic in its rise to Empire, organised in 241 BCE as a proconsular governed territory in the aftermath of the First Punic War with Carthage. ...


Culture

The toga was the characteristic garment of the wealthy and working Roman citizen. Roman women and other non-citizens were not allowed to wear one
The toga was the characteristic garment of the wealthy and working Roman citizen. Roman women and other non-citizens were not allowed to wear one

Julius Caesar, from the bust in the British Museum, in Cassells History of England (1902). ... Image File history File links Toga_Illustration. ... Image File history File links Toga_Illustration. ... Marcus Aurelius wearing a toga. ... In the Roman Republic and later in the Roman Empire, all men could be very roughly divided into three classes. ...

Greek influence on Rome

It is likely that the Romans first came in contact with Greek civilization through the Greek city-states in southern Italy and in Sicily (both of which formed Magna Graecia — "Greater Greece"). These colonies had been established as a result of Greek expansion that took place in these two areas beginning in the eighth century BC. There is a remarkable commonality between the world of classical Athens and the classical world of Magna Graecia. As proof of this, one need look no further than the Greek temples in Akragas and Silinus in Sicily and the Parthenon of Athens to see that they partake of the same style of architecture at virtually the same level of architectural refinement. Thucydides documents the substantial political and military contacts that the Greek city-states of Sicily had with Sparta and Athens during the Peloponnesian War, and how the Syracusans allied with Sparta were able to defeat the military forces of Athens as they laid siege to Syracuse. Magna Graecia around 280 b. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... The Parthenon west façade For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Thucydides (disambiguation). ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... Athenian War redirects here. ... Syracuse (Italian, Siracusa, ancient Syracusa - see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a city on the eastern coast of Sicily and the capital of the province of Syracuse, Italy. ...


This, in as much as trading, as well as the mere day to day interaction between peoples of different cultures, provided opportunities for the Romans to gain exposure to Greek culture, literature, architecture, political and philosophical ideas, religious beliefs and traditions. There was a great sharing of ideas and culture among the peoples of the Mediterranean Sea while Rome was developing into the dominant power in the area.


The Latin alphabet was certainly influenced by the Greek alphabet, and the Latin language itself contains many words of Greek origin. Latin literature was also influenced by the Greeks as well. Early Latin plays were sometimes translations of Greek plays, and different types of poetry often were modeled after their counterparts, such as Virgil's Aeneid on the Homeric Epics. It was not uncommon for wealthy Romans to send their sons to Greece for the purpose of study, most notably in Athens. This Roman passion of Hellenic culture would increase over time. Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... This page contains special characters. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story...


Greek and Latin became the lingua franca of the eastern half of the Mediterranean area. Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ...


Religion

According to the German historian Georg Wissowa the Romans distinguished two classes of gods, the di indigetes and the di novensides or novensiles. The indigetes were the original gods of the Roman state; see List of Di Indigetes. The novensides were later divinities whose cults were introduced to the city in the historical period, usually in response to a specific crisis or need. Religion in ancient Rome combined several different cult practices and embraced more than a single set of beliefs. ... List of Roman gods, goddesses and other beings not present in Greek mythology Most of these are very minor gods that are little more than personifications of an abstract quality. ...


The Romans worshipped a number of gods, among which the triad Jupiter, Mars, and Quirinus were pre-eminent. Later this triad was supplanted by the Capitoline Triad, Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva. Religious ceremonies on behalf of the state were delegated to a strict system of priestly offices under the governance of the College of Pontiffs, with at its head the Pontifex maximus was the most important. Flamens took care of the cults of various gods, while augurs were trusted with taking the auspices. The Rex Sacrorum, or "sacrificial king" took on the religious responsibilities of the deposed kings. Jupiter et Thétis - by Jean Ingres, 1811. ... Mars was the Roman god of war, the son of Juno and a magical flower (or Jupiter). ... In Roman mythology, Quirinus was an early god of the Roman state. ... The Capitoline Triad was comprised of three deities of Roman mythology who were worshipped most famously in an elaborate temple on Romes Capitoline Hill. ... Vatican statue of Juno Sospita This article is about a figure in mythology. ... This article is about the Roman goddess. ... The College of Pontiffs or Collegium Pontificum (collegium in Latin means a board or committee rather than an educational institution) was a body of the ancient Roman state whose members were the highest-ranking priests of the polytheistic state religion. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... Bust of a flamen, 3rd century, Louvre A flamen was a name given to a priest assigned to a state supported god or goddess in Roman religion. ... The Augur was a priest or official in ancient Rome. ... Categories: Ancient Rome | Classical oracles | Historical stubs ... A sacred king, according to the systematic interpretation of mythology developed by Sir James George Frazer in his influential book The Golden Bough, was a king who represented a solar deity in a periodically re-enacted fertility rite. ...


From the earliest days of the Republic, foreign gods were imported, especially from Greece, which had a great cultural influence on the Romans. In addition, the Romans connected some of their indigenous deities with Greek gods and goddesses. Roman mythology was strongly influenced by Greek mythology and Etruscan mythology. ...


Roman law was divided into two parts: res divina and res publica. Res divina comprised the laws pertaining to the religious duties of government officials for sacrifices, festivals and discipline.[citation needed] Res publica laid out the secular duties of government officials and the delegating of the responsibilities of the different bodies and the rights of the classes. Res divina Latin for service of the gods, was the laws of the Roman state that dealt with the religious duties of the state and its officials. ... Res publica is a Latin phrase, made of res + publica, literally meaning public thing or public matter. It is the origin of the word Republic. // The word publica is the feminine singular of the 1st- and 2nd-declension adjective publicus, publica, publicum, which is itself derived from an earlier form...


Legends

Few sources of Rome written before the last decades of the Republic have survived, and none of those is complete. By that time, the Romans retold a lengthy and complex sequence of stories about their own history, which were clearly intended as models of Roman character, good and bad, and examples for living Romans. Unfortunately, there is little independent evidence for early Roman history aside from these sources, and good reasons to believe that many of the stories did not actually happen as they are told. Many of them are borrowed from pre-existing Greek stories; some of them are plainly family stories in praise of great Roman families; some of them are etiologies of Roman institutions. These were not invented in Rome, and were common to a much larger area. This article is about the medical term. ...


Aeneas and the founding of the City

Further information: Aeneid and Romulus and Remus

The mythology surrounding the founding of the city of Rome was largely written ex post facto. Much of this comes from the poet Virgil, who wrote the epic, the Aeneid. The epic centers on Aeneas, who was mentioned in Homer's epic, the Iliad. In the Iliad, Aeneas was mentioned as the leader of a group of Trojan allies, the Dardanians. Virgil picks up on this. According to Virgil, Aeneas fled the burning city of Troy at the end of the Trojan War with a small group of Trojan Refugees. Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story... This page describes the ancient heroes who founded the city of Rome. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story...


The Trojans under Aeneas sailed to Carthage, where they met the Carthaginian queen Dido. They then sailed to Italy, where they met Latinus, who was the king of the Latins. After fighting a war, Aeneas founded the city of Lavinium. The legend said that Aeneas' son Julus (the legendary ancestor of Julius Caesar) founded the city of Alba Longa. This was included because Virgil was a partisan of the Emperor Augustus. Augustus was Caesar's great-nephew and adopted son. Therefore, through Caesar, Augustus could claim to be a descendent from one of Rome's oldest families.


According to legend, several generations after Julus founded Alba Longa, twin boys were born to the Alba Longan noble family. These twins, Romulus and Remus, would settle on what is now Rome. After Romulus killed Remus, the legend said that Romulus then founded the city of Rome, the Roman Senate and the Roman army. Romulus would be the first king of the Roman Kingdom.


Overthrow of the kings

Further information: Lucretia and Lucius Tarquinius Superbus

Livy's version of the foundation of the Republic states that the last of the Kings of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus ("Tarquin the proud") had a son, Sextus Tarquinius. Sextus raped a Roman noblewoman named Lucretia. Lucretia compelled her family to take action by gathering her kinsmen, telling them what happened, and then killing herself. The incident led to an uprising that expelled the royal house, the Tarquins, out of Rome into refuge in Etruria. Death of Lucretia by Sandro Botticelli Lucretia is a legendary figure in the history of the Roman Republic. ... Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (also called Tarquin the Proud or Tarquin II) was the last of the seven legendary kings of Rome, son of Tarquinius Priscus and son-in-law of Servius Tullius, the sixth king. ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... There were seven traditional Kings of Rome before the establishment of the Roman Republic. ... Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (also called Tarquin the Proud or Tarquin II) was the last of the seven legendary kings of Rome, son of Tarquinius Priscus and son-in-law of Servius Tullius, the sixth king. ... Sextus Tarquinius was the son of the last legendary king of Rome, L. Tarquinius Superbus (Tarquin the Proud). ... Death of Lucretia by Sandro Botticelli Lucretia is a legendary figure in the history of the Roman Republic. ... The area covered by the Etruscan civilzation. ...


When a king left office, his powers would return to the senate until it elected a new king. However, Tarquin was so despised that the senate refused to elect a new king to replace him. Instead, it retained his powers, and appointed magistrates to exercise those powers. Lucretia's widowed husband Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus and her brother Lucius Junius Brutus were elected as the first two consuls of the new Republic. Marcus Junius Brutus, who later assassinated Julius Caesar, claimed descent from this earlier Brutus. Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus is traditionally one of the first two consuls of Rome, together with Lucius Junius Brutus. ... This article is about the founder of the Roman Republic . ... This article is about the Roman rank. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Marcus Junius Brutus (85–42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ...


History

Further information: Timeline of ancient Rome

The origins and early history of Rome are very uncertain. While there are quite specific accounts of Rome's origins and early history, these tend to be of a more mythological nature, and do not stand up as objective history when subjected to modern analysis. There even have been archeological findings in the city of Rome that predate the mythological founding date; on the other hand, the traces of actual settlement do not go back as far as that date. However, Roman origin myths probably do contain aspects of the truth, and were responsible for shaping the Romans' views of themselves. This is a Timeline of events concerning ancient Rome, from the city foundation until the last attempt of the Roman Empire of the East to conquer Rome. ...


Founding of Rome

Main article: Founding of Rome

The tradition supplies several different dates for the founding of Rome, of which the most well-known is that given by the Roman historian and chronographer M. Terentius Varro: 753 BC, but this depends on the extremely doubtful traditional chronology of the Roman kings. There are some archaeological finds older than Varro's date; but the earliest traces of continuous settlement are usually dated to the early 600s BC. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Marcus Terentius Varro ([[116 BC]–27 BC), also known as Varro Reatinus to distinguish him from his contemporary Varro Atacinus, was a Roman scholar and writer, who the Romans came to call the most learned of all the Romans. ...


According to Roman mythology, after the end of the Trojan war, the Trojan prince Aeneas sailed across the Mediterranean Sea to Italy and founded the city of Lavinium. His son Iulus later founded the city of Alba Longa, and from Alba Longa's royal family came the twins Romulus and Remus (supposedly sons of the god Mars by Rhea Silvia), who went on to found the city of Rome on April 21, 753 BC. Thus the Romans traced their origins back to the Hellenic world. The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... Lavinium was an ancient Roman city of the Latium, said to have been named by Aeneas in honor of Lavinia, daughter of Latinus, king of the Latins, and his wife, Amata. ... In Greek and Roman mythology, Ascanius was a son of Aeneas and Creusa. ... Alba Longa (in Italian sources occasionally written Albalonga) was an ancient city of Latium, in the Alban Hills founder and head of the Latin Confederation; it was destroyed by Rome around the middle of the 7th century BC. // Legendary history According to legend Alba Longa was founded by Ascanius or... This page describes the ancient heroes who founded the city of Rome. ... Mars was the Roman god of war, the son of Juno and a magical flower (or Jupiter). ... Rhea Silvia (also written as Rea Silvia), and also known as Ilia, was the mythical mother of the twins Romulus and Remus, who founded the city of Rome. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Monarchy (6th century BC)

Main article: Roman Kingdom

In the beginning, Rome had kings. The tradition portrays these kings more as culture heroes than as historical figures, each of them being credited with devising some aspect of Roman culture; for example, Numa Pompilius devised Roman religion, and Ancus Marcius the arts of war. It also gives most of them reigns of about forty years, which probably owes more to numerology than to history. Other details have been seen as origin stories of various Roman noble houses. The ancient quarters of Rome. ... The ancient quarters of Rome. ... A culture hero is a historical or mythological hero who changes the world through invention or discovery. ... rome hotel According to legend, Numa Pompilius was the second of the Kings of Rome, succeeding Romulus. ... Religion in ancient Rome combined several different cult practices and embraced more than a single set of beliefs. ... Ancus Marcius (r. ... Look up numerology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


There is, however, general agreement that Rome did have a series of monarchs (some of whom were of Etruscan origin; the influence of the Etruscans can still be seen on early Roman art and architecture) and that these kings were displaced by the Roman aristocracy sometime around 500–450 BC. Extent of Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ...


Establishment of the Republic

Further information: Political institutions of Rome

The traditional date of the revolution against the kings led by Lucius Junius Brutus is 509 BC; for the story see Overthrow of the kings above. This is again open to doubt; the arrangement of the consular fasti which support this date squeezes six consuls into the first year of the Republic, and has long stretches without any consuls at all. It is possible that, as a matter of national pride, Roman historians altered the chronology of the early republic to make it appear that Rome freed itself before Cleisthenes brought freedom to Athens. This is a tentative list of topics regarding political institutions of Ancient Rome. ... This article is about the founder of the Roman Republic . ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Cleisthenes (also Clisthenes or Kleisthenes) was a noble Athenian of the accursed Alcmeonidate family. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ...


The early consuls took over the roles of the king with the exception of his high priesthood in the worship of Jupiter Optimus Maximus at the sacred temple on the Capitoline Hill. For that duty the Romans elected a Rex sacrorum — a "king of holy things". It is interesting to note that the Roman Rex Sacrorum was forbidden membership in the Senate; one could not be a Senator and a Rex Sacrorum at the same time. Republican Rome distanced even this vestigial "king" from any possibility of power. Until the end of the Republic, the accusation that a powerful man wanted to make himself rex — "king" — remained a career-shaking charge (Julius Caesar's assassins claimed that they were preserving Rome from the re-establishment of a monarchy). Louis XIV, king of France and Navarre (Painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701). ... Jupiter et Thétis - by Jean Ingres, 1811. ... The Capitoline Hill (Capitolinus Mons), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the most famous and smallest of the seven hills of Rome. ... A sacred king, according to the systematic interpretation of mythology developed by Sir James George Frazer in his influential book The Golden Bough, was a king who represented a solar deity in a periodically re-enacted fertility rite. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ...


Conflict of the Orders

Further information: Conflict of the Orders and Secessio plebis

The relationship between the plebeians and the patricians sometimes came under such strain that the plebeians would secede from the city, taking their families and moveable possessions, and set up camp on a hill outside the walls. Their refusal to cooperate any longer with the patricians led to social changes. Only about 15 years after the establishment of the Republic in 494 BC, plebeians seceded and chose two leaders to whom they gave the title Tribunes. The plebeians took an oath that they would hold their leaders sacrosanct — untouchable during their terms of office, and that a united plebs would kill anyone who harmed a tribune. The second secession in 471 BC led to further legal definition of their rights and duties and increased the number of tribunes to 10. The final secession ended in 287 BC and the resulting Lex Hortensia gave the vote of the Concilium Plebis or "Council of the Plebeians" the force of law. It is important to note that this force of law was binding for both patricians and plebeians, and in fact made the Council of the Plebeians a leading body for approving Roman laws. The Conflict of the Orders, also referred to as the Struggle of the Orders, was a political struggle between the plebeians (plebs) and patricians (patricii) of the ancient Roman Republic, in which the plebeians sought political equality and achieved it in 287 BC, after two centuries of strife. ... Secessio plebis was an informal exercise of power by Romes plebian citizens, similar to a strike. ... In Ancient Rome, the plebs was the general body of Roman citizens, distinct from the privileged class of the patricians. ... This is an article about the privileged class in ancient Rome. ... Secessio plebis was an informal exercise of power by Romes plebian citizens, similar to a strike. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... In Roman law, Lex Hortensia (287 BCE) was the final result of the long class struggle between patricians and plebeians. ... This is an attempted alphabetical List of Roman laws. ...


Roman expansion into Italy (340–268 BC)

Further information: Samnite WarsLatin War, and Pyrrhic War

During this era, Rome, and others of the Latin League, clashed with foreign powers, and not always successfully. In 390 BC the Gauls from Gallia Cisalpina (modern Po Valley) under the leadership of Brennus, defeated the Roman legions and sacked Rome itself, requiring a huge ransom to avoid completely destroying the city (A Roman senator protested that the weights used to measure the ransom of gold were inaccurate. In response, Brennus threw his sword onto the weights and uttered the famous words, "Vae victis" — "Woe to the vanquished"). Belligerents Roman Republic Samnium The First, Second, and Third Samnite wars, between the early Roman Republic and the tribes of Samnium, extended over half a century, involving almost all the states of Italy, and ended in Roman domination of the Samnites. ... The Latin War (340-338 BC) was a conflict between the Roman Republic and its neighbors the Latin peoples of ancient Italy. ... Combatants Carthage* Roman Republic* Epirus Magna Graecia Samnium Commanders Publius Valerius Laevinus Publius Decius Mus Pyrrhus of Epirus * Note: Carthage and Rome were not strong allies in this conflict. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Province of the Roman Republic, in modern-day northern Italy. ... Po redirects here, for alternate uses see Po (disambiguation). ... A sculpture, depicting this Brennus that adorned an 18th or 19th century French naval vessel Brennus, a chieftain of the Senones of the Adriatic coast of Italy, who in 387 BC, in the Battle of the Allia, led an army of Cisalpine Gauls in their attack on Rome. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


First Samnite War

In 496 BC, an army of allied Etruscans and Latins fought a Roman army under the dictator Aulus Postumius at the Battle of Lake Regillus. The Roman victory led to the formation of the Roman alliance with the Latin League after the signing of the foedus Cassianum (Treaty of Cassius). In the middle of the 4th century BC, disputes between the neighboring Campanians and Samnite highlanders (from the Apennine Mountains along Italy's east coast) resulted in an alliance between Rome and Campania. In 343 BC, Rome declared war on the Samnites, resulting in the First Samnite War. The Battle of Lake Regillus was a legendary early Roman victory, won over either the Etruscans or the Latin League. ...

The Growth of Roman Power in Italy.
The Growth of Roman Power in Italy.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 366 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1043 × 1709 pixel, file size: 243 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Título: The Growth of Roman Power in Italy. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 366 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1043 × 1709 pixel, file size: 243 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Título: The Growth of Roman Power in Italy. ...

Latin War

The First Samnite War ended quickly and inconclusively. But Campania was absorbed into the Roman Republic as a consequence of the war. Disputes between Rome and the Latin League immediately following the end of the First Samnite War in 340 BC resulted in the Latin War. This war, won by Rome, ended in 338 BC. The cities that composed this League were absorbed into the Roman Republic. By this point, Rome had grown to control the western half of central Italy.


Second Samnite War

The Second Samnite War began in 326 BC due to Campanian concerns regarding Samnite troop movements. The war ended in 304 BC with a Roman victory. During this war, Rome abandoned its hoplite-based military structure (a formation copied from the Greek Phalanx) and adopted the maniple-based structure from the Samnites. Maniple-based legions drove much of Rome's territorial growth for centuries. This structure was so effective that it was used by Rome until the final years of the Roman Empire.


Third Samnite War

The Third Samnite War began in 298 BC. The Samnites allied with other major Italian powers (the Etruscans, Umbrians, and Gauls). The war ended in 290 BC with a decisive Roman victory. The Result was the absorption into Rome of the territories of the Etruscans (northern Italy), the Umbrians (non-Roman central Italy) and the Samnites (southern Italy). Therefore, at the end of the third and final Samnite war, Rome had expanded into most of Italy.


Pyrrhic War

In 283 BC, Rome fought the Pyrrhic War. That year, Pyrrhus of Epirus arrived to aid the Greek colony of Tarentum against the Romans. Pyrrhus was widely considered the greatest military leader since Alexander the Great, but even after winning three battles he was unable to defeat the Roman Republic, taking great losses as he did so. Pyrrhus is said to have uttered the phrase, "Another such victory and I shall be lost", coining the term "Pyrrhic victory". Pyrrhus withdrew to fight wars in Sicily and Greece, giving the Romans international military prestige, and bringing them to the attention of the Hellenistic superpowers of the East. By the time the war ended, Rome had absorbed the cities of southern Italy that it had not taken in the Samnite Wars. It also absorbed the remaining independent Etruscan cities in the north. Pyrrhus of Epirus Pyrrhus (318-272 BC) (Greek: Πύρρος) was one of the most successful ancient Greek generals of the Hellenistic era. ... Taranto is a coastal city in Apulia, southern Italy. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... A Pyrrhic victory is a victory with devastating cost to the victor. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance...


Consequences of these early wars

The result of the Samnite, Latin and Pyrrhic wars was Roman control of all of Italy. The Rubicon River, between Italy and Cisalpine Gaul, marked the northern limit of Roman territory. Presumed course of the Rubicon For other uses, see Rubicon (disambiguation). ... Map with location of Cisalpine Gaul This article is about the Roman province. ...


Through its colonies and allied city-states, Rome had a vast amount of manpower to draw upon, which it used as a recruitment pool for its Legions. This gave it the ability to simply raise legion after legion, continuing to fight where other nations may simply have capitulated. Rome also demonstrated an unwillingness to be, or to stay, beaten. This characteristic determination was shown in later engagements such as the First Punic War, where the Roman military, faced with a 70% loss of its fleet in storms, managed to rebuild the entire fleet in a mere two months. Osama was here and he doesnt enjoy this site???? the red sox won and i am one happy camper. ...


Another unique characteristic of the Republic was its treatment of conquered people. Those conquered by Rome were brought under the "protection" of Rome; they were granted a form of citizenship, and had specific rights under Roman law. They were also held to certain obligations as well, most notably the requirement to provide troops for the Legions. This had a twofold effect. First, Rome had a large pool of manpower to draw its Legions from (the entire Latin League). This allowed it to simply field army after army, refusing to be defeated. Second, by having several levels of citizenship and rights under Roman law, the conquered people's attention was focused on improving their rights within the Roman law, and in competing with rival client-states for status within the Roman sphere of influence, rather than trying to rid themselves of Roman dominance. This policy of "divide and rule" made conquered people willing participants in their own submission to Roman law. The Latin League was an alliance of Rome and the many other cities and villages in and around the area of Latium. ... For the collection of novellas by L. Sprague de Camp, see Divide and Rule (collection). ...


By 268 BC the Romans dominated most of Italy through a network of allies, conquered city-states, colonies, and strategic garrisons. At that time Rome started to look beyond Italy, towards the islands and the rich trade of the Mediterranean Sea.


Punic Wars

See main article: Punic Wars

Before the First Punic War began in 288 BC, the North African city of Carthage (which was located in what is now modern Tunisia) dominated an empire that stretched from North Africa through Spain to Gaul (modern France). It was also the dominant naval power in the Mediterranean. By the end of the Third Punic War in 146 BC, Carthage had been destroyed and its empire absorbed into the Roman Republic. Rome also emerged as the unchallenged naval power in the Mediterranean. The wars lasted for so long and were so violent, that they had the effect of militarizing the Roman Republic. This militarization set the stage for the final century of the Roman Republic. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC.[1] They are known as the Punic Wars because the Latin term for Carthaginian was Punici (older Poenici, from their Phoenician ancestry). ... Osama was here and he doesnt enjoy this site???? the red sox won and i am one happy camper. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Scipio Aemilianus Hasdrubal the Boetarch Strength 40,000 90,000 Casualties 17,000 62,000 The Third Punic War (149 BC to 146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars fought between the former Phoenician colony of Carthage, and the Republic of...


First Punic War

In 288 BC, a group of mercenaries from Campania were hired to occupy a city in the northeastern tip of Sicily. The Campanian mercenaries came into conflict with Hiero II, tyrant of Syracuse, who fought and defeated the Campanians. The Campanian mercenaries appealed for help from both Rome and Carthage. The Romans wanted to absorb these cities, and thus all of Sicily, into its republic. Carthage refused to allow that, and so the two powers declared war on each other.


During the first several years of the war, Rome fought a series of naval battles, some of which Rome won and some of which Rome lost. There were some sporadic battles on land during the war, but due to the inhospitable terrain of Sicily, these land-based battles played a minor role.


In 244 BC, following a span of several years where Rome had lost most of its navy, a Carthaginian faction led by the land-owning aristocrat Hanno the Great took control of the Carthaginian senate. Hanno owned a large amount of land in Africa and Spain. He wanted Carthage to focus on winning land in Africa and Spain instead of Italy and Sicily. The Carthaginians followed the advice of Hanno.


Rome used this opportunity to rebuild its navy. In 241 BC, the consul Gaius Lutatius Catulus readied his newly-built Roman navy for a final battle against Carthage. The Carthaginians were caught off guard. They hastily built a fleet of substandard warships. They met the Roman fleet under the consul Catulus at the Battle of the Aegates Islands (off the coast of northwestern Sicily). The Carthaginian fleet was annihilated. The Carthaginians surrendered to Rome, ending the war.


Second Punic War

The First Punic War, fought between 264 and 241 BC, ended with a treaty that forced Carthage to both return all 8,000 Roman prisoners of war, and pay Rome a large war indemnity. The indemnity was to be paid for in silver, which Carthage had ample access to due to its silver mines in Spain. However, a clause in the treaty required the Roman popular assemblies to ratify the treaty before it became official. The assemblies not only refused to ratify the treaty, but they actually increased the indemnity required to be paid to Rome.


The inability of Carthage to pay their war indemnity, as well as to pay the mercenaries who worked for them during the First Punic war, resulted in unrest. Following the assassination of his father, Hannibal Barca became the leader of Carthaginian forces in Spain. In violation of a treaty with Rome, Hannibal took an unarmed Carthaginian force across the Ebro River (in northern Spain). Rome demanded that Carthage hand over Hannibal. Carthage refused, and so Rome declared war on Carthage.


Hannibal famously took his army of soldiers and war elephants across the Alps in the winter of 218 BC. One of the two Roman consuls for the year 218 BC, Publius Cornelius Scipio, met Hannibal’s army but was defeated. The other consul for 218 BC, Tiberius Sempronius Longus, was defeated at the Battle of the Trebbia. Also in 218 BC, the army under the consul Gaius Flaminius was defeated at the Battle of Lake Trasimene. Flaminius died during the battle.


The Romans elected the former consul Quintus Fabius Maximus dictator. Fabius picked a strategy that sought to wear down Hannibal's army. He avoided direct battles and instead focused on raids and quick, low scale attacks. The strategy succeeded in preventing any major victories for Hannibal, and thus prevented Italian cities from defecting to Hannibal.


After Fabius' term ended, the consuls Gaius Terentius Varro and Lucius Aemilius Paullus took a combined army of 100,000 to fight Hannibal. They met Hannibal at the Battle of Cannae. The Romans heavily outnumbered Hannibal's army. Hannibal used his army to envelop the Roman lines. The resulting slaughter was spectacular. Almost the entire army of 100,000 Romans was destroyed.


Hannibal took his army to the gates of Rome, but decided not to attack the city.


Fabius Maximus was reelected consul in 215 BC and again in 214 BC. Rome mounted a full-scale insurgency war against Hannibal. Fabius's strategy ensured that none of the battles were large and thus Hannibal didn't get another spectacular victory as he did at Cannae.


Rome then attempted to take Carthage's provinces in Spain. The former consul Publius Cornelius Scipio, as well as his brother Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, was defeated and killed at the Battle of the Upper Baetis. In 209 BC, the son of Publius Cornelius Scipio, the famous general Scipio Africanus Major, was elected consul. He was sent to Spain to avenge the death of his father. He seized a critical Carthaginian supply post at Carthago Nova, and defeated the Carthaginian army at the Battle of Baecula.


As the Romans prepared to attack Carthage itself, Hannibal's army was ordered to return to Carthage to protect the city.


On October 19, 202 BC, the Roman army under Scipio Africanus Major met Hannibal's army at the final Battle, in the north African town of Zama. Scipio's superior cavalry swept aside Hannibal's cavalry. Scipio's infantry smashed Hannibal's first two lines of infantry. When Hannibal sent his war elephants into the Roman lines, Scipio (who had anticipated this), ordered his lines to open gaps, allowing the elephants to pass harmlessly through. Once through, the elephants were cut to pieces. The ones who survived turned around, and smashed into Hannibal's own lines. Hannibal's troops regrouped, and at one point, seemed to be on the verge of victory. However, Scipio's cavalry had returned just in time, and hit Hannibal's troops from their rear. Seeing the opening, Scipio ordered his infantry to charge at Hannibal's army from the front. What was left of Hannibal's army was cut to pieces. Rome had defeated Hannibal, and won the Second Punic War.


Third Punic War

In 151 BC, a Numidian army besieged a Carthaginian town. Carthage responded by sending an army to fight Numidia, despite restrictions placed on Carthage by the treaty that had ended the Second Punic War. This was done without requesting permission from Rome (who was a Numidian ally). Carthage's army was repelled by Numidia. Infuriated, Rome demanded that Carthage pay Numidia a huge indemnity. The Roman Senate told Carthage that in order to prevent another war, Carthage had to "satisfy the Roman People." The city of Utica, a Carthaginian ally in North Africa, soon defected to Rome. Rome then declared war on Carthage.


The Roman army landed at Utica in 149 BC, under the new consuls L. Marcius Censorinus and M. Manilius. Censorinus and Manilius demanded that the Carthaginian army outside of the city hand over their arms. The Carthaginians obeyed, but were sent another order by the Romans. They told the Carthaginians that they must move their city ten miles inland, so that Rome could destroy the city. Upon hearing this, Carthage gave up any hope for a peace. The city of Carthage was turned into a fort, and the Romans under Censorinus and Manilius besieged the city.


After two years, Scipio Aemilianus Africanus was elected consul, and was sent to command the army besieging Carthage. In 146 BC, Scipio's army broke through the Carthaginian gates, and began fighting house-to-house.


Most Carthaginians had died in the later months of the fighting due to starvation. Many of those who remained died in the last six days of fighting. The city was leveled, being burned for almost three weeks after Carthage had surrendered. The soil was sowed with salt (supposedly) so that nothing could ever grow there again. 50,000 surviving Carthaginians were sold into slavery. What was left of the city (including its libraries and the histories of its civilization) was looted, taken deep into Africa, and never found again. The city became a part of the Roman province of Africa. The land became public land, or Ager publicus.


Macedonian and Seleucid wars

See main article: Macedonian and Seleucid wars

The Macedonian Wars were fought between Rome and Macedon (northern Greece). They started when a Macedonian King, Philip V, attempted to supply Hannibal with troops during the Second Punic War. The resulting series of wars ended with the complete annexation of Greece into the Roman Republic. The Macedonian and Seleucid wars were a series of conflicts fought by Rome during and after the second Punic war, in the eastern Mediterranean, the Adriatic, and the Aegean. ...


First Macedonian War

In 217 BC, King Philip V of Macedon learned of the Roman disaster at the Battle of Lake Trasimene. The tyrant of Illyria, Demetrius of Pharos, convinced Philip to form an alliance with Hannibal. Philip constructed a navy, and wanted to use this navy to transport his troops to Italy through Illyria (near the modern Balkans). The Romans sent a fleet to stop Philip. While on his way to Apollonia in Illyria, he was informed that a Roman fleet of quinqueremes was nearing Apollonia. Knowing that he could never beat the Romans, Philip returned his fleet to Macedon. Polybius speaks of "panic" and "disorder" during the Macedonian retreat. In reality, the Roman ships spotted were simply a small scouting detachment. But Philip lost his only real chance to make it to Italy.


In 214, Philip tried again. His navy sailed to Apollonia, and besieged the city. The Roman commander in the region was the pro-praetor Marcus Valerius Laevinus. In addition to his navy, Laevinus was given a legion (about 6,000 infantrymen). Laevinus sent a force of 2,000 soldiers, under the command of Quintus Naevius Crista, to lift Philip's siege. Philip's army was annihilated. His fleet was destroyed, and most of his soldiers died. Without his fleet, Philip had no way to get his army to Italy.


With Philip's navy destroyed and his army crippled, he lost any real chance of winning the war. He kept fighting, and losing. In 205 BC, he made peace with the Romans, ending the First Macedonian War. While he kept his territory, the Romans had succeeded in preventing Philip from supplying Hannibal with more troops.


Second Macedonian War

The Second Macedonian War, which began in 200 BC, was much shorter. Philip was still interested in taking on Rome. He wanted to follow in the footsteps of his ancestor Alexander the Great. He formed an alliance with another Greek tyrant, Antiochus III of the Seleucid Empire. The Romans, still angry over Philip's support for Hannibal, sent an army under the consul Titus Flamininus to put down Philip.


In 197 BC, Flaminius' army met the army of Philip at the Battle of Cynoscephalae. Flaminius kept his right wing in reserve, and put his war elephants in the front. Flaminius led the charge on horseback, near the left wing of his army. Philip's hoplite-based phalanx was of the type used by Alexander the Great. It had been the most effective fighting unit in the world. But the Roman maniple-based legion actually was far more flexible.


Philip's phalanx forced Flaminius' legion back during the beginning of the battle. But it forced them into rough terrain. The flexible legion could operate more effectively in such terrain than the phalanx. Philip ordered his hoplites to throw away their spears and fight with their swords. Flamininus had his war elephants charge into Philip's left wing, which routed it completely. He ordered one of his military Tribunes to take 20 maniples (about 4,000 soldiers) and charge into Philip's right wing. Philip's army was now in chaos, and was quickly cut to pieces by the Romans. Rome declared Greece "free", and withdrew completely. This ended the Second Macedonian War, and effectively passed the superpower torch from the Greeks to the Romans.


Third Macedonian War

By 171 BC, Philip had died, and his son, Perseus, had become king of Macedon. Perseus started forming alliances with other Greek states. The Romans were afraid that Perseus was attempting to follow in the footsteps of his father, so they declared war on Macedon. This began the Third Macedonian War.


The first couple of years of the war were uneventful. But in 168 BC, the consul Lucius Aemilius Paulus took his army to finish off the Macedonians. They met at the Battle of Pydna. Just as had happened at the Battle of Cynoscephalae, the inflexibility of the Greek phalanx caused it to break apart. The phalanx was smashed by the Roman army. Perseus fled the battle before it had ended. The Third Macedonian War had ended.


Fourth Macedonian War

Perseus was captured and taken to Rome. Macedonia, while technically still independent, was divided into four puppet republics. In 167 BC, Paulus was ordered by the senate to attack the Greek town of Epirus, despite the fact that Epirus had been a Roman ally against Macedon. The city was destroyed, and its 150,000 inhabitants were sold into slavery.


Greece was mostly peaceful for the next several years. But in 150 BC, a Macedonian citizen named Andriscus, who claimed to be a son of Perseus, started a popular uprising. The Romans had enough. They declared war on Macedon, starting the Fourth Macedonian War. They sent an army to Macedon, put down the rebellion, and turned Macedon into a new Roman province.


A popular uprising swept the rest of Greece, forcing the Romans to put down the rebellion. After defeating the rebellion, Rome annexed the remaining independent cities of Greece.


Acquisition of Asia

In 133 BC, a dying King Attalus III of Pergamon willed his entire kingdom to the Roman Republic to avoid dynastic disputes amongst his heirs, and to avoid the possibility that Rome would take the opportunity to seize Pergamon by force. Events were complicated by the rebellion of Aristonicus, a relative of Attalus III who was proclaimed king of Pergamon with the title of Eumenes III. After four years of war (133–129 BC) he was defeated and captured by Rome. Pergamon was reorganized into the foundation of the province of Asia, and became one of the most wealthy provinces the Romans ever controlled. Because of the vast wealth of Asia, the province attracted the corrupt and greedy among the Senate, and its Governors were notorious for nearly a century after its acquisition. Attalus III was the last Attalid king of Pergamon, ruling from 138 BC to 133 BC. He succeeded Attalus II, although their relationship, if any, is unknown. ... View of the reconstructed Temple of Trajan at Pergamon Sketched reconstruction of ancient Pergamon Pergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, modern day Bergama in Turkey, ) was an ancient Greek city, in Mysia, north-western Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river... Eumenes III (originally named Aristonicus) was the pretender to the throne of Pergamon. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...

The growth of Roman political power in Asia Minor
The growth of Roman political power in Asia Minor

This sudden windfall had unforeseen, and perhaps unfortunate, consequences for the political situation in Rome, and the political reform movement of the Gracchi. Download high resolution version (1055x1772, 336 KB)Asia Minor - Growth of Roman Power (337K) The Growth of Roman Power in Asia Minor. ... Download high resolution version (1055x1772, 336 KB)Asia Minor - Growth of Roman Power (337K) The Growth of Roman Power in Asia Minor. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ...


Beginning of the end

Political instability

Increasing instability and violence marked the final years of the Republic. This trend, initiated by the Gracchi in the 2nd century BC, and Sulla's proscriptions in the late 80s BC, ended centuries of relatively peaceful governance. This kind of violent and sensationalist politics only sought to inflame tensions within Roman society, namely the poor and the disenfranchised. However, despite potential for revolution within the lower ranks, revolution itself only threatened twice before the final collapse, during the Social War and the Catiline conspiracy. For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The Gracchi were a plebeian family of ancient Rome. ... Proscription (Latin: proscriptio) is the public identification and official condemnation of enemies of the state. ... Combatants Roman Republic Italian allies of the Marsi, Samnites, Marrucini, Vestini, Paeligni, Frentani, Picentes Praetutii, Hirpini Commanders Publius Rutilius Lupus , Gaius Marius, Pompeius Strabo, Lucius Julius Caesar, Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Titus Didius, Lucius Porcius Cato Quintus Poppaedius Silo, Gaius Papius Mutilus, Herius Asinius, Publius Vettius Scato, Publius Praesenteius, Gaius Vidacilius... Catiline (Lucius Sergius Catilina) (108 BC-62 BC) was a Roman politician of the 1st century BC who is best known for the Catiline (or Catilinarian) conspiracy, an attempt to overthrow the Roman Republic, and in particular the power of the aristocratic Senate. ...


Other political problems stemmed from the domination of the consulship by Pompey and Julius Caesar. For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ...


Economic factors

The expansion of the Roman Empire brought about the development of a money-based economy, which altered the old system based on land ownership. This had many effects, including the weakening of the landed nobility's position in favour of the wealthy knights, and finally contributed to the steadily declining state of public morale in Rome. Out of this depressed situation Catiline led a rabble of economically wounded nobles and veterans on the political platform of debt cancellation; however, Cicero through luck, patient care, sober judgment and exceptional intelligence, thwarted the attempted revolution and checked the threat of civil war, all without the use of arms. Cicero, now heralded as the "Saviour of Rome", reached the pinnacle of his fame, and cemented his role as a defender of the Republic; however, the manner in which the Senate dealt with the crisis demonstrated the Senate's reactionary tendencies to secure its own interests first. This move away from a policy of compromise to self-interested reaction was a key shift in Roman politics which would in the long term contribute to the final collapse of the Republic. Lucius Sergius Catilina (108 BC–62 BC), known in English as Catiline, was a Roman politician of the 1st century BC who is best known for the Catiline (or Catilinarian) conspiracy, an attempt to overthrow the Roman Republic. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ...


Economic and political strife

Rome's military and diplomatic success resulted in serious economic and political tensions within the Republic itself. While factional strife had always been a part of Roman political life, the stakes were now much higher. Beginning with the Punic Wars, the Roman economy began to change, and wealth became concentrated in the hands of a few powerful clans. These rich and powerful families seized most of Rome's newly conquered territories.

Roman Republic in 200 BC, along with its neighbors.
Roman Republic in 200 BC, along with its neighbors.

Additionally, only men who could provide their own arms were eligible to serve in the Legions. As a result, the majority of Roman troops came from middle class landowning families. But with military campaigns now lasting years instead of a few months, these soldiers could not return to work their farms as they had traditionally done. With their holdings lying fallow, their families quickly fell into debt, and their lands were eventually lost to creditors — typically wealthy landholders who consolidated these properties into vast estates or latifundia. Formerly middle-class soldiers would return from years of campaigning to find themselves landless, unable to support their families. Ironically, they were also unemployable, the success of the Legions having made slaves a much cheaper source of labor. Latifundia are pieces of landed property covering tremendous areas. ...


By 133 BC the economic imbalance had become too acute to ignore, but the wealthy patrician families in the Senate had a vested interest in preserving the status quo, making land reform through the traditional channels an unlikely prospect. This article is about the social and political class in ancient Rome. ...


Gracchi reforms (133–121 BC)

Main article: Tiberius Gracchus

In 133 BC, tribune Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus attempted to introduce land reform, calling for the redistribution of "publicly held land" to now-landless veterans. Accordingly, he proposed the enforcement of an old Roman law, customarily ignored, which limited the use of public lands. While these "public lands" were technically state-owned, they were used by wealthy landholders, many of whom were Senators. They faced the loss of this valuable property if Tiberius' proposals were enacted. Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (Latin: TI·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS) (168 BC-133 BC) was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC. As a plebeian tribune, he caused political turmoil in the Republic by his attempts to legislate agrarian reforms. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (Latin: TI·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS) (168 BC-133 BC) was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC. As a plebeian tribune, he caused political turmoil in the Republic by his attempts to legislate agrarian reforms. ...


Realizing that the Senate would not agree to enforce the law, Tiberius bypassed the Senate entirely and tried to pass his reform through the Plebeian Assembly as a plebiscite, using the legal principle of Lex Hortensia. While technically legal, this was a violation of political custom and outraged many patricians. The Senate blocked Tiberius by bribing his fellow tribune to veto the bill. In response, Tiberius passed a bill to depose his colleague from office, violating the principle of collegiality. With the veto withdrawn, the land reform passed. The Senate, incensed, refused to fund the resulting land commission. Tiberius in turn used the plebeian assembly to divert funds from the income of Pergamon to fund the commission, thus challenging the Senate's traditional control of state finances and foreign policy. When it became clear that Tiberius did not have enough time left in his term to complete the land reforms, he announced that he would run again for the tribunate, violating the principle of annuality. This was the last straw for the patricians. Fearing that Tiberius intended to become a tyrant, they had him and 300 of his followers assassinated in the streets of Rome. Known in Latin as the Comitia Plebis Tributa. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... In Roman law, Lex Hortensia (287 BCE) was the final result of the long class struggle between patricians and plebeians. ... Collegiality is the relationship between colleagues. ... View of the reconstructed Temple of Trajan at Pergamon Sketched reconstruction of ancient Pergamon Pergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, modern day Bergama in Turkey, ) was an ancient Greek city, in Mysia, north-western Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river...


Tiberius' younger brother Gaius Sempronius Gracchus attempted to continue his brother's work almost ten years later. He appears to have been more of a demagogue than a serious reformer, and he attempted to pass a slew of laws in order to gain popular support. Unlike his brother, Gaius had no specific reform agenda. He was neither as successful nor as popular as Tiberius, but he did succeed in acquiring many political enemies. Escalating political tensions finally exploded once again into violence on the Capitoline Hill, where Gaius and 3,000 of his followers were killed. Gaius Gracchus (Latin: C·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS) (154 BC-121 BC) was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC. He was the younger brother of Tiberius Gracchus and, like him, pursued a popular political agenda that ultimately ended in his death. ... A demagogue (sometimes spelled demagog) is a leader who obtains power by appealing to the gut feelings of the public, usually by powerful use of rhetoric and propaganda. ... The Capitoline Hill (Capitolinus Mons), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the most famous and smallest of the seven hills of Rome. ...


Whatever their true intentions may have been, the political careers of the Gracchi brothers broke the political traditions of Rome and introduced mob violence as a tool of Roman political life. It was a change from which the Republic never recovered.


Fall of the Republic

Gaius Marius (107–100 BC)

Main article: Gaius Marius
A bust of Gaius Marius
A bust of Gaius Marius

Following the scandal of the Gracchi, Roman politics became a mix of tradition, demagoguery, and mob violence. So-called “Marius”, Munich Glyptothek (Inv. ... The Jugurthine War (122-105 BC) was fought between the Roman Republic and Jugurtha, the renegade king of the African client state of Numidia. ... The Battle of Suthul was fought between ancient Rome and Jugurtha of Numidia, a kingdom on the north African coast approximating to modern Algeria. ... The Battle of the Muthul was fought in 108 BC between the Numidians led by the Berber King Jugurtha, and a Roman force under Caecilius Metellus. ... The Battle of Thala was part of the Jugurthine War of 111-104 BC between Rome and Jugurtha of Numidia, a kingdom on the north African coast approximating to modern Algeria. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 388 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1518 × 2343 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 388 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1518 × 2343 pixel, file size: 1. ...


In addition, the military demands of the Republic's expanding empire proved increasingly onerous. The badly executed and unpopular Jugurthine War (112–105 BC) in Numidia would launch the career of Gaius Marius, and bring about fundamental changes in the Republic and its army. The Jugurthine War (122-105 BC) was fought between the Roman Republic and Jugurtha, the renegade king of the African client state of Numidia. ... Numidia was an ancient Berber kingdom in North Africa that later alternated between a Roman province and a Roman client state, and is no longer in existence today. ... So-called “Marius”, Munich Glyptothek (Inv. ...


Marius was a "novus homo" - or self-made man - from Arpinum. He was wealthy and possessed minor political influence, but was not a descendant of the Roman aristocracy. After serving as a minor officer in the Jugurthine War, Marius returned to Rome and stood for election as Consul in 107 BC, promising to end the war within a year. Surprisingly, he was elected. The term novus homo (literally, new man in Latin), referred in ancient Roman times to a person who was the first of his family to serve in the Roman Senate, or, less generally, the first to be elected as consul. ... Arpinum was an ancient Roman town in southern Latium, now Arpino. ... This article is about the Roman rank. ...


Upon attaining the Consulship, Marius instituted the Marian reforms in 107 BC, in the face of overwhelming Senate opposition. These reforms reorganized the structure of the Roman legions, recruiting poor and landless Roman citizens into the army at state expense. Soldiers would now enlist for a period of 16 years, and, at the end of their service, receive a land grant as reward. This fundamentally changed the nature of the Roman army. From this point on, legionaries would be professional soldiers fighting for their "pension" and the general who could obtain it for them. The Marian reforms of 107 BC were a group of military reforms initiated by Gaius Marius, a statesman and general of the Roman republic. ... A Legionary is a member of a legion. ...


With his new armies, Marius returned to Numidia as the Consular commander. Although he did not complete the war within the year, he was elected Consul for a second time in absentia, a nearly unprecedented accomplishment. In 105 BC, Marius defeated Jugurtha, who was captured by King Bocchus I of Mauretania and handed over to one of Marius' quaestors, Lucius Cornelius Sulla. For in absentia medical care, see Health care delivery. ... Jugurtha, (c. ... Bocchus (Greek, Βοκχος, Bochos) was a King of Mauretania designated by historians as Bocchus I. He was also the father-in-law of Jugurtha, with whom he made war against the Romans. ... Bold text:For the modern country, see Mauritania. ... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX)[1] (ca. ...


Returning to Rome a military hero, Marius was quickly confronted with the near catastrophe of the disastrous Battle of Arausio in 105 BC. This defeat caused a serious breach in the Roman defenses in northern Italy. For the first time since Hannibal, the Roman heartland was open to invasion. This time the opponents were not the relatively civilized Carthaginians, but the migrating Cimbri and Teutoni tribes, whom the Romans saw as nothing more than barbarians. Marius was elected Consul for three more years (104–102 BC) to fight the remainder of the Cimbrian War. Combatants Cimbri and Teutones Roman Republic Commanders Kings Boiorix and Teutobod Quintus Servilius Caepio and Gnaeus Mallius Maximus† Strength about 200,000 80,000 troops in 10-12 legions with up to 40,000 auxiliaries and camp followers Casualties Unknown, perhaps several thousand An estimated 112,000 The Battle of... For other uses, see Hannibal (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient city-state of Carthage in North Africa. ... The migrations of the Teutons and the Cimbri The Cimbri were a Celtic tribe who together with the Teutones and the Ambrones threatened the Roman Republic in the late 2nd century BC. The ancient sources located their home of origin in the northern Jutland. ... The term Germanic peoples may refer to: the Germanic tribes that in the first millennium were seen as a barbarian threat by the Roman Empire and its successors; the Germanic Christianity that in the second millennium came to dominate much of Northern Europe, politically organized in the Holy Roman Empire... Combatants Roman Republic Cimbri, Teutons Commanders Marius, Lutatius Catulus, Servilius Caepio, Mallius Maximus, Papirius Carbo Boiorix, Teutobod Lugius Strength Varied, ranging from around 40,000 to over 80,000 Varied but estimated at around 300,000 maxium Casualties Estimated between 150-180,000 300,000, Both tribes annihalated The Cimbrian...


Marius acted swiftly, raised new Legions from plebeian volunteers, trained them, and crushed the Teutoni at the Battle of Aquae Sextae in 102 BC. He then aided Quintus Lutatius Catulus in defeating the Cimbri at the Battle of Vercellae in 101 BC. Having saved Rome, Marius was elected Consul an unprecedented sixth time in 100 BC. The term Germanic peoples may refer to: the Germanic tribes that in the first millennium were seen as a barbarian threat by the Roman Empire and its successors; the Germanic Christianity that in the second millennium came to dominate much of Northern Europe, politically organized in the Holy Roman Empire... The Battle of Aquae Sextae was fought in 102 BC between a Roman army led by Gaius Marius and a large force of Teutoni. ... Quintus Lutatius Catulus Caesar was a Roman general and was consul with Marius in 102 BC. He was originally Sextus Julius Caesar, son of Sextus Julius Caesar (brother of Gaius Julius Caesar, who was father of Gaius Julius Caesar, who was in turn father of Julius Caesar) and brother of... The migrations of the Teutons and the Cimbri The Cimbri were a Celtic tribe who together with the Teutones and the Ambrones threatened the Roman Republic in the late 2nd century BC. The ancient sources located their home of origin in the northern Jutland. ... Combatants Cimbri Roman Republic Commanders King Boiorix † Marius Lutatius Catulus Sulla Strength 160,000 - over 200,000 50,000 (8 legions with cavalry and auxillaries) Casualties 100,000 - 140,000 killed 60,000 captured Insignificant, probably under 1,000 The Battle of Vercellae, also called The Battle of the Raudine...


Marius' military skills, however, did not translate into political aptitude or even competence. After a humiliating political scandal concerning Lucius Appuleius Saturninus, Marius completely withdrew from public life. Lucius Appuleius Saturninus, Roman demagogue. ...


Social War (91–88 BC)

Further information: Gaius MariusLucius Cornelius Sulla, and Social War

Marius' retirement cleared the way for the political career of Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Sulla was a patrician and a politically conservative traditionalist. He had served competently under Marius as an officer in Numidia and Germany. Nonetheless, there was serious political enmity between the two, as Sulla felt that Marius had "slighted" him by failing to give him proper credit for the capture of Jugurtha. So-called “Marius”, Munich Glyptothek (Inv. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX)[1] (ca. ... Template:Campaignbox Social War This article is about the conflict between Rome and her allies between 91 and 88 BC The Social War (also called the Italian War or the Marsic War, Social come from Socii meaning ¨Allies¨) was a war from 91 – 88 BC between the Roman Republic and... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX)[1] (ca. ... Jugurtha, (c. ...


In 91 BC, tribune Marcus Livius Drusus, a champion of the Latin allies, attempted to pass a law granting full Roman citizenship to all allied Italians living south of the Po River. When Drusus was murdered, many of the Italians, especially those among the Samnites, exploded into a rebellion called the Social War (socius is Latin for "ally"). The younger Marcus Livius Drusus, son of Marcus Livius Drusus, was tribune of the plebeians in 91 BC. In the manner of Gaius Gracchus, he set out with comprehensive plans, but his aim was to strengthen senatorial rule. ... The toga was the characteristic garment of the Roman citizen. ... The Po (Latin: Padus, Italian: Po) is a river that flows 652 kilometers (405 miles) eastward across northern Italy, from Monviso (in the Cottian Alps) to the Adriatic Sea near Venice. ... Samnite warriors Samnium (Oscan Safinim) was a region of the southern Apennines in Italy that was home to the Samnites, a group of Sabellic tribes that controlled the area from about 600 BC to about 290 BC. Samnium was delimited by Latium in the north, by Lucania in the south... Combatants Roman Republic Italian allies of the Marsi, Samnites, Marrucini, Vestini, Paeligni, Frentani, Picentes Praetutii, Hirpini Commanders Publius Rutilius Lupus , Gaius Marius, Pompeius Strabo, Lucius Julius Caesar, Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Titus Didius, Lucius Porcius Cato Quintus Poppaedius Silo, Gaius Papius Mutilus, Herius Asinius, Publius Vettius Scato, Publius Praesenteius, Gaius Vidacilius...


Ironically, in an attempt to end the war, Rome offered full citizenship to any of the rebels who would end the conflict. Most of them ceased fighting, but several continued the rebellion. In response, Gaius Marius came out of retirement and took command of the Roman forces in northern Italy, while Sulla commanded the Roman legions in southern Italy. Together, they brought the war to an end in 88 BC. Following their joint victory, Sulla stood for election as Consul and was elected.


First Mithridatic and Roman civil wars (88–83 BC)

Further information: Gaius MariusLucius Cornelius Sulla, and First Mithridatic War

As the Social war came to an end, Mithridates VI of Pontus overran Bithynia and slaughtered tens of thousands of Roman citizens in the Asiatic Vespers. In response, the Senate gave Sulla Consular command of an expeditionary force sent to exact revenge against Mithridates. So-called “Marius”, Munich Glyptothek (Inv. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX)[1] (ca. ... The First Mithridatic War was fought between the Roman Republic and Mithridates VI Eupator Dionysius, the king of Pontus. ... Combatants Roman Republic Italian allies of the Marsi, Samnites, Marrucini, Vestini, Paeligni, Frentani, Picentes Praetutii, Hirpini Commanders Publius Rutilius Lupus , Gaius Marius, Pompeius Strabo, Lucius Julius Caesar, Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Titus Didius, Lucius Porcius Cato Quintus Poppaedius Silo, Gaius Papius Mutilus, Herius Asinius, Publius Vettius Scato, Publius Praesenteius, Gaius Vidacilius... A silver coin depicting Mithradates VI of Pontus. ... Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ... Asiatic Vespers - (Night of the Vespers) Date: Exact Date Unknown; circa 88-83 B.C.E. Mithridates Eupator VI of Pontus (Mithridates the Great) ordered the excecution of roughly 100,000 Italians that were Roman citizens or any person who spoke with an Latin accent. ...


However, Marius did not wish to return to political obscurity. Through the use of bribes, he passed a bill in the Plebeian Assembly giving himself command of Sulla's armies. When Sulla heard of this while raising his legions in southern Italy, he turned his armies on Rome itself. Sulla's legions captured the city after protracted and bloody street fighting in Rome, and Marius was forced to flee to Africa. Sulla then departed to confront Mithridates and his allies. Marius returned to Rome with Lucius Cornelius Cinna and captured the city with his legions. Marius appointed himself Consul for a seventh time and proceeded to butcher Sulla's supporters. However, only a few weeks later Marius died of a massive brain hemorrhage. Cinna retained power and, in an almost comedic episode, decided to ignore Sulla's existence completely, even sending a second army to Pontus. Sulla eventually took over that army and combined it with his own. The war came to a close with the Treaty of Dardanos in 85 BC. Known in Latin as the Comitia Plebis Tributa. ... A silver coin depicting Mithradates VI of Pontus. ... Lucius Cornelius Cinna[1] (d. ... Lucius Cornelius Cinna[1] (d. ... The Treaty of Dardanos (85 BC) was a Roman treaty after the First Mithridatic War. ...


Sulla then returned to Rome with his Legions in 83 BC.


Sulla (82–80 BC)

Cinna was killed by his own troops trying to muster them against the returning Legions of Sulla, leaving Gnaeus Papirius Carbo and other of Marius's supporters to deal with Sulla's return. In 83 BC Sulla landed in southern Italy, and full scale Roman civil war broke out in the Italian countryside. The war raged on for a year and a half, but Sulla's legions (aided by Metellus Pius, Marcus Licinius Crassus and a young Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) finally prevailed, taking the city of Rome at the Battle of the Colline Gate. Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX)[1] (ca. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 393 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1645 × 2508 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 393 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1645 × 2508 pixel, file size: 1. ... This page is about the Roman dictator Sulla, for the Brythonic goddess sometimes called Sulla, see Sul. ... Lucius Cornelius Cinna[1] (d. ... Gnaeus Papirius Carbo (c. ... The Caecilii Metellii was one of the most important and wealthiest families in the Roman Republic. ... Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS[1]) (c. ... This article refers to the Roman General. ... The battle of the Colline Gate, fought in November of 82 BC, was the final battle of the civil war between the peoples party of ancient Rome (originally led by Marius) and the aristocrats led by Sulla. ...


Sulla then instituted a bloody series of purges, subjecting his enemies to proscription: a process named for the lists of the condemned posted in the Roman forum. People whose names appeared on the lists were stripped of their legal rights and protection, had their (and their family's) property impounded by the state, and a bounty placed on their lives. Each day, the lists in the forum were updated by Sulla and his supporters. New names could be added to the list and others removed based solely on the whim of Sulla. This allowed him to maintain a grip of fear among those now under his control and keep anyone who may consider plotting against him fearful that his name may appear at any moment on the infamous lists. Thousands of Romans who opposed Sulla, or even those who simply had wealth that he and his followers coveted, were butchered in this fashion over a period of two years. Proscription (Latin: proscriptio) is the public identification and official condemnation of enemies of the state. ... Part of the Roman Forum. ...


Sulla was appointed dictator "for the writing of laws and reorganizing of the state" (rei publicæ constituendæ causa), and began reorganizing Roman political institutions to return power to the Senate. He strongly curtailed the power of the Plebeian Assembly, doubled the size of the Roman Senate, gave the Senate veto power over the decrees of the Plebeian Assembly, and stripped the Tribunes of much of their power. He reorganized the legal system, curtailed the actions of provincial governors and expanded the Pomerium, among other constitutional reforms. Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... Known in Latin as the Comitia Plebis Tributa. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... The pomerium (or pomoerium) was the sacred boundary of the city of Rome. ...


With his reforms in place, Sulla then resigned the dictatorship in 80 BC, and was elected consul with Metellus Pius as his colleague. In 79 BC he withdrew completely from public life, and retired to his country estates where he finished his memoirs (now lost) and died in 78 BC.


Revolts of Lepidus and Sertorius (78–72 BC)

Bust of Pompey the Great

Within two years of Sulla's death, someone attempted to emulate him. When one of the Consuls of 78 BC, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, failed to carry out his intended political agenda, or have his Consulship extended, he attempted to raise an army in Cisalpine Gaul and march on Rome to seize power. The Senate turned to a military general who had aided Sulla in his civil war, and had shown himself also to be a competent commander in Africa for Sulla: Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. Image File history File links CS002910. ... Image File history File links CS002910. ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (120-77 BC), was a Roman statesman. ... Map with location of Cisalpine Gaul This article is about the Roman province. ... This article refers to the Roman General. ...


Pompey put down Lepidus's rebellion, and then marched his own legions on Rome. Pompey camped his army outside the walls of Rome, and "requested" that he be given the right to campaign against the rebellion of Quintus Sertorius in Hispania (Sertorius was an opponent of Sulla's who had fled to Hispania during the proscriptions, and set up his own "counter-Rome" in that province). Though the brilliant guerilla tactics and leadership of Sertorius proved a thorn in Pompey's side, his murder by his former allies ended the campaign against his forces. The Senate, having "blessed" Pompey with the undertaking, was pleased at the young general's success and he was able to gain great political and military influence from his campaigns. Quintus Sertorius (died 72 BC), Roman statesman and general. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Proscription (Latin: proscriptio) is the public identification and official condemnation of enemies of the state. ...


Crassus: Spartacus and the Third Servile War (73–71 BC)

Further information: Third Servile WarSpartacus, and Marcus Licinius Crassus

One of the more easily over-looked social aspects in classical antiquity and of Roman society is slavery. At that time almost all societies used slaves in various positions. The vast majority would perform back-breaking and dangerous labor and the more educated slaves (a small minority) would work in a more bureaucratic position. The lives of the majority of slaves would usually consist of hard work and their living conditions would be quite harsh. From time to time slaves would revolt and military might would be used to crush the rebellion and the matter would be conveniently forgotten and nothing would happen. This time, it would be different. Combatants Army of escaped slaves Roman Republic Commanders Crixus †, Oenomaus †, Spartacus † , Castus †, Gannicus † Gaius Claudius Glaber, Publius Varinius, Gnaeus Clodianus, Lucius Gellius Publicola, Gaius Cassius Longinus, Gnaeus Manlius, Marcus Licinius Crassus, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus, Lucius Quinctius, Gnaeus Tremellius Scrofa Strength 120,000 escaped slaves and gladiators... This article is about the historical figure. ... Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS[1]) (c. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD...


The Roman Republic would be rocked by a slave revolt led by Spartacus who according to ancient sources was a Thracian auxiliary who had deserted from the Roman legions. He had been captured, enslaved and trained as a gladiator. In 73 BC he and some of his fellow gladiators rebelled at Capua and set up a military camp on Mount Vesuvius. Slaves across all the Italian peninsula flocked to him, and their numbers soon swelled to about 70,000. The best Roman legions were absent from Italy: some were in Hispania under the command of Pompey, suppressing the rebellion led by Quintus Sertorius, while others were fighting in Asia Minor under the command of Lucius Licinius Lucullus against Mithridates. Initially, the rebel slaves had great success against the Roman legions sent against them, and wreaked havoc across the Italian peninsula. In 71 BC, however, Marcus Licinius Crassus was given military command and crushed the rebels. About 6,000 were crucified; 10,000 survivors who escaped were intercepted by Pompey, then returning with his army from Hispania. Although Crassus did most of the fighting, Pompey also claimed credit for the victory, and this created tension between the two men. This article is about the historical figure. ... The term auxiliaries comes from the latin auxilia (help). ... For other uses, see Gladiator (disambiguation). ... Capua is a city in the province of Caserta, (Campania, Italy) situated 25 km (16 mi) north of Napoli, on the northeastern edge of the Campanian plain. ... This article is about the mountain in Italy. ... Lucius Licinius Lucullus (c. ... Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS[1]) (c. ...


Pompey and Crassus (70 BC)

With the slave rebellion crushed, Pompey once again marched his legions on Rome, and encamped outside its walls. He then demanded that he be elected Consul for the year 70 BC. In response Crassus immediately marched his legions towards Rome. However, instead of blocking Pompey's extortion, he camped his own legions outside Rome and demanded that he be elected co-Consul with Pompey. The Senate had no real choice but to agree.


Crassus and Pompey spent most of the year trying to outdo each other in the lavishness of their public expenditures. However they also pushed through several laws which wiped away the last vestiges of the "Sullan Reforms" and restored the power of the Plebeian Assembly. Known in Latin as the Comitia Plebis Tributa. ...


Third Mithradatic War

Meanwhile, Lucullus was fighting quite successfully against Mithridates and his ally and son-in-law, Tigranes the Great, King of Armenia, but was unable to completely pacify the territories he conquered. At the same time, Marcus Antonius Creticus (father of Mark Antony) and Q. Caecilius Metellus were attempting to stamp out the plague of piracy afflicting the Mediterranean, with reportedly grotesque incompetence. This article is about a king of Armenia in the 1st century BCE. For other historical figures with the same name (including other kings of Armenia) see Tigranes. ... Marcus Antonius Creticus (lived 1st century BC) was a Roman politician, member of the Antonius family. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ...

Catiline propaganda cup for the election to 62 BC consulate (right cup). These cups, filled with food or drinks, were distributed to the electors to gain support for the candidates.
Catiline propaganda cup for the election to 62 BC consulate (right cup). These cups, filled with food or drinks, were distributed to the electors to gain support for the candidates.

Because of these lack of successes, Pompey was given an extraordinary military command in 66 BC. He stamped out piracy within forty-nine days and then began pursuing Mithridates. Pompey annihilated his army, and Mithridates remained a fugitive for the last three years of his life. Pompey followed up these successes by conquering the entirety of the eastern coast of the Mediterranean, ending the rule of the Syrian Seleucid dynasty. The captured wealth of the conquests more than doubled the income of the Roman state, and Pompey now surpassed Crassus as the wealthiest man in Rome. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2032x1524, 470 KB) Roman propaganda cups, 1st century BC, from Museo Nazionale Romano - Terme di Diocleziano, Rome. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2032x1524, 470 KB) Roman propaganda cups, 1st century BC, from Museo Nazionale Romano - Terme di Diocleziano, Rome. ... Lucius Sergius Catilina (108 BC–62 BC), known in English as Catiline, was a Roman politician of the 1st century BC who is best known for the Catiline (or Catilinarian) conspiracy, an attempt to overthrow the Roman Republic. ...


Catilinarian conspiracies

The economic situation in Rome itself, however, was still problematic. Debt was the intractable problem and many, both noble and not, found themselves burdened with incredible debts. Their mantle was taken up by Lucius Sergius Catilina, who ran for consul in 64 BC for the following year on the platform of a wholesale debt cancellation — essentially a redistribution of wealth. Despite his noble birth, his policies scared the optimates, who instead supported the novus homo Marcus Tullius Cicero. Cicero was duly elected; Catilina finished third and out of office. Catilina ran again the following year, but this time he was defeated even more heavily. He then, along with several dissolute senators, began planning a coup d'état that would include arson throughout Rome, the arming of slaves, and the accession of Catilina as dictator. Cicero found out and informed the Senate in a series of brilliant speeches, and was given absolute power by the senate ("senatus consultum ultimum"), in order to save the republic. He ordered the execution of the conspirators in the city without due trial; and his fellow consul, Gaius Antonius Hybrida defeated the army of Catilina near Pistoria. None of Catilina's soldiers were taken alive. Catiline (Lucius Sergius Catilina) (108 BC-62 BC) was a Roman politician of the 1st century BC who is best known for the Catiline (or Catilinarian) conspiracy, an attempt to overthrow the Roman Republic, and in particular the power of the aristocratic Senate. ... For other uses see Cicero (disambiguation) Marcus Tullius Cicero (January 3, 106 BC - December 7, 43 BC) was an orator and statesman of Ancient Rome, and is generally considered the greatest Latin prose stylist. ... Coup redirects here. ... A Senatus consultum ultimum (Ultimate decree of the Senate), or more properly, senatus consultum de re publica defendenda (Decree of the Senate on defending the Republic) was a decree of the Roman Senate during the late Roman Republic passed in times of emergency. ... Gaius Antonius Hybrida (lived 1st century BC) was an Ancient Rome politician. ... Pistoia (ancient Pistoria) is a city in the Tuscany region of Italy, the capital of a province of the same name, located about 30 km (18 mi) west and north of Florence. ...


Julius Caesar and the First Triumvirate

In 62 BC Pompey returned from the east. Many senators, especially among the optimates, feared that Pompey would follow in the footsteps of Sulla and establish himself as dictator. Instead, Pompey disbanded his army upon arriving in Italy. Nevertheless, the Senate maintained its opposition to land grants for Pompey's veterans and the ratification of Pompey's eastern settlement. In addition, the Senate was also stonewalling Pompey's old enemy, Crassus, in his attempts to gain some measure of relief for his allies, the tax farmers. Now arriving onto the scene was a young politician who had a heretofore successful, but not brilliant, career — Gaius Julius Caesar. Caesar took advantage of the two enemies' dissatisfaction to bring them into an informal alliance known as the First Triumvirate. In addition, he reinforced his alliance by marrying his daughter, Julia, to Pompey. The three triumvirs would be able to dominate Roman politics because of their collective influence; the first step was Caesar's election to the consulship for 59 BC. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Julia Caesaris (Classical Latin: IVLIA•CAESARIS) was the daughter of Gaius Julius Caesar the dictator, by Cornelia Cinna, and his only child in marriage. ...


Attempting to pass the laws which would benefit both Pompey and Crassus, Caesar ran into heavy opposition from his very conservative consular colleague Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus, who used all manner of parliamentary tactics to stall the legislation. Caesar resorted to violence and Bibulus ended up under house arrest for most of the year, while Caesar was able to pass almost all of his legislation. He was then appointed Governor of Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum for a five year period. When the Governor of Transalpine Gaul died unexpectedly, the Senate assigned that province to him as well. Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus (d. ... Map with location of Cisalpine Gaul This article is about the Roman province. ... This article is about an ancient civilization in southeastern Europe; see also Illyria (software), Illyria (character in the TV series Angel). ... Transalpine Gaul was a Roman province whose name was chosen to distinguish it from Cisalpine Gaul. ...


Caesar took up his governorships in 58 BC. He immediately launched a series of military campaigns across all of Gaul known as the Gallic Wars, and even raided Germania and Britannia. For a nine year period he carefully played the Gallic tribes against each other (divide and rule) and crushed all military opposition. These wars caused massive death and destruction and were, technically, illegal, as Caesar had exceeded his authority (which was supposedly limited to his provinces) in launching the invasions, but in Rome no one, except his enemies in the Senate, was too concerned. Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Belligerents Roman Republic Several Gallic tribes Commanders Julius Caesar, Titus Labienus, Mark Antony, Quintus Cicero, Publius Crassus Vercingetorix, Ambiorix, Commius Strength estimated around 120,000 (legionaries and auxilia) estimated several hundreds of thousands, possibly millions Casualties and losses estimated tens of thousands according to Caesar, one million This article is... Map of the Roman Empire and the free Germania, Magna Germania, in the early 2nd century For other uses, see Germania (disambiguation). ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... For the collection of novellas by L. Sprague de Camp, see Divide and Rule (collection). ...


Meanwhile, the Triumvirate at home needed a boosting. In 56 BC, the three triumvirs met at Lucca, just inside Caesar's province of Cisalpine Gaul (as a man in control of an army, he was not allowed to cross into Italy). The three triumvirs reached a new settlement: Crassus and Pompey were once again to be elected consuls for the year 55 BC; Pompey kept the command of the Roman legions in Hispania (which he ruled in absentia), and Crassus, desiring military glory so that he could be on the same level as Pompey and Caesar, was given a military command in the east. Caesar's governorships were extended for another five years. For the Chrono Trigger character, see Lucca (Chrono Trigger). ...


Death of Crassus

The Parthian Empire, the arch-rival of Rome, at its greatest extent, c. 60 BC.
The Parthian Empire, the arch-rival of Rome, at its greatest extent, c. 60 BC.

In 53 BC, Crassus launched an invasion of the Parthian Empire. He marched his army deep into the desert; but there his army was cut off deep in enemy territory, surrounded and routed at the Battle of Carrhae. Crassus himself was killed in battle, the story being that the Parthians, upon finding his body, poured molten gold down his throat thus symbolising Crassus' obsession with money. Image File history File links The location of ancient Parthia, an Iranian kingdom, c. ... Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and... Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BC) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Parthia, 247 BC]] History  - Established 247 BC  - Disestablished 220 AD Parthian votive relief. ... Combatants Roman Republic Parthia Commanders Marcus Licinius Crassus †, Publius Crassus † Surena Strength 35,000 Roman legionaries, 4,000 cavalry, 4,000 light infantry 10,000 cavalry Casualties 20,000 dead, 10,000 captured, 4,000 wounded Reportedly very light The Battle of Carrhae was a decisive battle fought in 53...


The death of Crassus removed some of the balance in the Triumvirate; consequently, Caesar and Pompey began to move apart (a process which had begun in 54 BC, when Julia died in childbirth). Pompey, who previously had been the effective leader of the Triumvirate and, indeed, of the republic, was beginning to see his authority threatened by Caesar, whose campaigns in Gaul were vastly increasing his prestige, fortune and power. Consequently, Pompey began to align increasingly with the optimates, who themselves were very much opposed to Caesar and his "party" (that is, the populares).


At the same time a united Gallic uprising, led by Vercingetorix, nearly succeeded in toppling the Roman military presence in Gaul; but Caesar, with his usual speed and brilliant mix of military strategy and ruthlessness, was able to defeat Vercingetorix at the siege of Alesia. The Gallic Wars were essentially over (a third of all male Gauls had been slain; another third had been sold into slavery). Statue of Vercingetorix by Bartholdi, on Place de Jaude, in Clermont-Ferrand Vercingetorix (pronounced in Gaulish) (died 46 BC), chieftain of the Arverni, originating from the Arvernian city of Gergovia, and known as the man who led the Gauls in their ultimately unsuccessful war against Roman rule under Julius Caesar. ... Combatants Roman Republic Gallic Tribes Commanders Julius Caesar Vercingetorix Commius Strength ~30,000-60,000, 12 Roman legions and auxiliaries ~330,000 some 80,000 besieged ~250,000 relief forces Casualties 12,800 40,000-250,000 [] The Battle of Alesia or Siege of Alesia took place in September 52...


By 50 BC all Gallic resistance had been stamped out and Caesar had a veteran and loyal army to further his political ambitions. With Caesar's governorship drawing to a close, the two greatest political and military leaders of the Roman Republic were hard-pressed to find any common ground, and a crisis was growing which would be the final nail in the coffin of the Republic.


Civil war

The key issue was whether or not Caesar would be able to stand for the consulship of 48 BC in absentia. Caesar's governorship would expire at the end of 49 BC, and so would his immunity from trial. He was sure to be charged with violations of the constitution stemming from his consulship of 59 BC, which could result in his political, and perhaps even physical, death. If he was allowed to run in absentia, he could immediately assume another consulship, and then following that, immediately assume a new governorship, always maintaining his immunity. The optimates were heavily opposed to Caesar's standing in absentia, and on 1 January 49 BC passed a law declaring Caesar a public enemy and demanded his return to Rome to stand trial. Pompey was given absolute authority to defend the Roman Republic. This news reached Caesar probably on January 10, and proclaiming, "Alea iacta est" — "The die is cast" (in fact, he said it in Greek, quoting Menander), Caesar crossed the Rubicon River (the boundary between Cisalpine Gaul and Italy) with his army. Civil war had begun again. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bust of Menander Menander (342–291 BC) (Greek ), Greek dramatist, the chief representative of the New Comedy, was born in Athens. ... Presumed course of the Rubicon For other uses, see Rubicon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ...


Caesar, leading a tough veteran army, quickly swept down the Italian peninsula, and encountered meager resistance from freshly recruited legions. The only exception was at Corfinium, where Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus was defeated. Caesar pardoned him, under his notable policy of clemency — he wanted to let everyone know that he would not be the next Sulla. He took Rome without opposition, and then marched south to try to stop Pompey, who was trying to withdraw from Brundisium across the Adriatic Sea to Greece. Caesar came close, but Pompey and his armies were able to escape at the last minute. Corfinium (Greek: ) was a city in Ancient Italy, on the eastern side of the Apennines, due east of Rome, the site of which is now occupied by the small hamlet of San Pelino, Avezzano commune, LAquila province, Abruzzo region. ... Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, a member of the noble Ahenobarbus family, accompanied his father at Corfinium and Pharsalus, and, having been pardoned by Julius Caesar, returned to Rome in 46 BC. After Caesars assassination he attached himself to Marcus Junius Brutus and Cassius, and in 43 BC was condemned by... A pardon is the forgiveness of a crime and the penalty associated with it. ... Brundisium (Gr. ...


In 48 BC Pompey controlled the seas, and his legions heavily outnumbered Caesar's; but the legions of Caesar, after ten years of vigorous campaigns, were experienced veterans. Caesar, for his lack of a navy, solidified his control over the western Mediterranean, notably at Massilia and in Hispania. Then he invaded Greece. The two leaders first faced each other at the Battle of Dyrrhachium, where Pompey won. Nevertheless, Pompey failed to follow up on his victory, and Caesar was able to regroup and win a decisive victory at the Battle of Pharsalus on 9 August. Pompey fled to Egypt, where he hoped to find assistance. Marseilles redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Combatants Optimates Populares Commanders Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus Gaius Julius Caesar Strength 45,000 15,000 Casualties Unknown 1,000 The Battle of Dyrrachium (or Dyrrhachium) on 10 July 48 BC was one of a series of contests between Gaius Julius Caesar and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus that ended with Pompeys... Combatants Populares Optimates Commanders Gaius Julius Caesar Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus Strength Approximately 22,000 legionaries, 5,000-10,000 Auxiliaries and Allies, and Allied Cavalry of 1800 Approximately 60,000 legionaries, 4,200 Auxiliaries and Allies, and Allied Cavalry of 5,000-8,000 Casualties 1,200 6,000 The... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bust of Cleopatra, with her hair in a Greek-style bun

Caesar, pursuing Pompey, arrived in Alexandria, capital of Ptolemaic Egypt, to find the breadbasket of the Mediterranean in a state of civil war. Agents of the young king, Ptolemy XIII, had assassinated Pompey and presented his head to Caesar, believing it would please him and that he would support Ptolemy against his sister, Cleopatra. Caesar was too cunning a politician to make such a mistake. In a careful way he lamented the inglorious death of Pompey, a fellow Roman, and supported the militarily weaker side, whose gratitude would logically be much greater. He even began an affair with Cleopatra. A long, drawn-out city battle resulted, one of the most dangerous of Caesar's career, but he triumphed and placed Cleopatra on the throne along with another brother, Ptolemy XIV. Cleopatra later gave birth to Caesar's son, Caesarion, titled Ptolemy Caesar. Caesar, hearing of an invasion in Asia Minor led by Pharnaces II of Pontus, the son of the old Roman enemy Mithridates, advanced there in 47 BC, and won a quick victory at the Battle of Zela. It was then that Caesar famously said, "Veni, vidi, vici" — "I came, I saw, I conquered." Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... The Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt began following Alexander the Greats conquest in 332 BC and ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. It was founded when Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt, creating a powerful Hellenistic state from southern Syria... The Breadbasket of a country is a region which, because of richness of soil or advantageous climate, produces an agricultural surplus which is often considered vital for the country as a whole. ... Ptolemy XIII (lived 62 BC/61 BC -January 13? 47 BC, reigned 51 BC - January 13?, 47 BC) was one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Ptolemy XIV (lived 60 BC/59 BC - 44 BC, reigned 47 BC - 44 BC), a son of Ptolemy XII of Egypt was one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. ... A relief of Cleopatra and Caesarion at the temple of Dendera, Egypt Ptolemy XV[1] Philopator Philometor Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion (little Caesar) Greek: Πτολεμαίος ΙΕ Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλομήτωρ Καίσαρ, Καισαρίων (June 23, 47 BC – August, 30 BC) was the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, who reigned, as a child, jointly with his mother, Cleopatra... Pharnaces II of Pontus (63 BC - 47 BC), was the king of Pontus and son of the great Mithridates VI. Pompey had defeated Mithridates VI in 64 BC and gained control of much of Asia Minor, but Pharnaces II attempted to take advantage of the Roman civil war to retake... The Battle of Zela (47 BC) was a decisive battle in Julius Caesars civil war. ... Veni, vidi, vici (IPA or ) is a famous Latin phrase spoken by Julius Caesar in 47 BC. The phrase appears in Plutarch and Suetonius (Plut. ...


In 46 BC Caesar went to North Africa to deal with the regrouping remnants of the pro-Pompeian forces under Cato the Younger and Titus Labienus. After a slight setback in the Battle of Ruspina he defeated them at the Battle of Thapsus. Much to Caesar's chagrin, Cato committed suicide. Caesar had wanted to pardon Cato, his most intractable foe, in order to gain popularity through further clemency. In 45 BC, he went to Hispania, and won the final victory over the pro-Pompeian forces in the terrifying Battle of Munda. He said that before, he always had fought for victory, but in Munda he had fought for his life. He then returned to Rome; he had less than a year to live. Marcus Porcius Catō Uticensis (95 BC–46 BC), known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather Cato the Elder), was a politician and statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. ... Titus Labienus (ca. ... Combatants Populares Optimates Commanders Julius Caesar Titus Labienus The Battle of Ruspina was fought on January 4, 46 BC between the forces of Julius Caesar and the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus. ... Combatants Populares Optimates Commanders G. Julius Caesar Metellus Scipio †, Cato the younger † Strength Unknown (at least 10 legions) Unknown (at least 10 legions), 2,500 cavalry Jubas allied troops with 60 elephants Casualties 1,000 30,000 The Battle of Thapsus took place on February 6, 46 BC near... Combatants Populares Optimates Commanders Julius Caesar Titus Labienus †, Gnaeus Pompeius; Strength 8 legions, 8,000 cavalry total: circa 40,000 men 13 legions, cavalry and auxiliaries total: circa 70,000 men Casualties 1,000 30,000 The Battle of Munda took place on March 17, 45 BC in the plains...


In that final year Caesar launched many reforms. He tightly regulated the distribution of free grain, keeping those who could afford private grain from having access to the grain dole. He reformed the calendar, changing from a Lunar to a Solar calendar and giving his gens name to the seventh month, July. This calendar, with minor changes made by Octavian (who would later rename the eighth month, August, after one of his titles) and Pope Gregory in 1582, has survived until now. He also reformed the debt problem. At the same time, he continued to accept enormous honors from the Senate. He was named Pater Patriae — "Father of the Country", and began wearing the purple toga of the old Roman kings. This deepened the rift between Caesar and the aristocratic republican Senators, many of whom he had pardoned during the civil war. A lunar calendar is a calendar that is based on cycles of the moon phase. ... A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving on the celestial sphere). ... GENS is an open source emulator for the Sega Genesis (Sega Megadrive). ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 45 BC he had been named dictator for ten years. This was followed up in 44 BC with his appointment of dictator for life. A twofold problem was created; first, all political power would be concentrated in the hands of Caesar for the foreseeable future, in effect subordinating the Senate to his whims; and second, only Caesar's death would end this. As such, a group of about 60 senators, led by Gaius Cassius Longinus and Marcus Junius Brutus, conspired to assassinate Caesar in order to save the republic. They carried out their deed on the Ides of March15 March 44 BC, three days before Caesar was scheduled to go east to fight the Parthians. A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e. ... Caius Cassius Longinus featured on a denarius (42 BC). ... Marcus Junius Brutus (85–42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. ... Vincenzo Camuccini, Mort de César, 1798. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ...


Second Triumvirate

Bust of Mark Antony

After Caesar's assassination, his friend and chief lieutenant, Marcus Antonius, seized the last will of Caesar and using it in an inflammatory speech against the murderers, incited the mob against them. The murderers panicked and fled to Greece. In Caesar's will, his grand-nephew Octavianus who also was the adopted son of Caesar, was named as his political heir. Octavian returned from Apollonia (where he and his friends Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Gaius Maecenas had been studying and helping in the gathering of the Macedonian legions for the planned invasion of Parthia) and raised a small army from among Caesar's veterans. After some initial disagreements, Antony, Octavian, and Antony's ally Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, formed the Second Triumvirate. Their combined strength gave the triumvirs absolute power. In 42 BC, they followed the assassins into Greece, and mostly because of the generalship of Antony, defeated them at the Battle of Philippi on 23 October. To pay for about forty legions that were engaged by the triumvirate for this purpose, proscriptions were declared against about 300 senators and 2,000 equites, including Cicero, who was killed at his villa. After the victory, about 22 of the largest Italian cities suffered confiscations to provide land for the veterans. Bust of Marcus Antonius Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N¹) (c. ... May refer to the persons: Augustus, Roman Emperor Pope John XIII nigger Category: ... Apollonia in Illyria (modern Albania), known as Apollonia (κατ Εριδαμνον or προς Εριδαμνω), was located on the right bank of the Aous, the ruins of which are situated in the Fier region, near the village of Pojan (Pojani), geographically located at 40°43′N 19°28′E. It was founded in 588 BCE by... Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (c. ... Villa of Maecenas in Tivoli, Italy, Jacob Philipp Hackert, 1783. ... Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (Latin: M·AEMILIVS·M·F·Q·N·LEPIDVS),[1] d. ... For other uses, see Second Triumvirate (disambiguation). ... Belligerents Triumvirs Liberators Commanders Octavian and Mark Antony Brutus† and Cassius† Strength 19 legions, allied cavalry 33,000; total over 100,000 men 17 legions, allied cavalry 17,000; total about 100,000 men Casualties and losses  ? Surrender of entire army The Battle of Philippi was the final battle in... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Proscription (Latin: proscriptio) is the public identification and official condemnation of enemies of the state. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ...


In 40 BC, Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus negotiated the Pact of Brundisium. Antony received all the richer provinces in the east, namely Achaea, Macedonia and Epirus (roughly modern Greece), Bithynia, Pontus and Asia (roughly modern Turkey), Syria, Cyprus and Cyrenaica and he was very close to Ptolemaic Egypt, then the richest state of all. Octavian on the other hand received the Roman provinces of the west: Italia (modern pointed by the Roman Senate of the command of the Italian coasts.]] The Roman Empire 120 CE, the province of Achaea highlighted. ... The Roman province of Macedonia was officially established in 146 BC, after the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated Andriscus of Macedon in 148 BC, and after the four client republics established by Rome in the region were dissolved. ... Epirus, spanning Greece and Albania. ... Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The Roman Empire ca. ... The Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt began following Alexander the Greats conquest in 332 BC and ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. It was founded when Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt, creating a powerful Hellenistic state from southern Syria... A portion of the Tabula Peutingeriana, a Roman map of the 4th century, depicting the southern part of Italia. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ...


In the west, Octavian and Lepidus had first to deal with Sextus Pompeius, the surviving son of Pompey, who had taken control of Sicily and was running pirate operations in the whole of the Mediterranean, endangering the flow of the crucial Egyptian grain to Rome. In 36 BC, Lepidus, while besieging Sextus forces in Sicily, ignored Octavian's orders that no surrender would be allowed. Octavian then bribed the legions of Lepidus, and they deserted to him. This stripped Lepidus of all his remaining military and political power. Sextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey, was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC). ...


Antony, in the east, was waging war against the Parthians. His campaign was not as successful as he would have hoped, though far more successful than Crassus. He took up an amorous relationship with Cleopatra, who gave birth to three children by him. In 34 BC, at the Donations of Alexandria, Antony "gave away" much of the eastern half of the empire to his children by Cleopatra. In Rome, this donation, the divorce of Octavia Minor and the affair with Cleopatra, and the seized testament of Antony (in which he famously asked to be buried in his beloved Alexandria) was used by Octavian in a vicious propaganda war accusing Antony of "going native", of being completely in the thrall of Cleopatra and of deserting the cause of Rome. He was careful not to attack Antony directly, for Antony was still quite popular in Rome; instead, the entire blame was placed on Cleopatra. Cleopatra Cleopatra VII Philopator (December, 70 BC or January, 69 BC–August 12?, 30 BC) was queen of ancient Egypt. ... Octavia Minor (69 - 11 BC), also known as Octavia the Younger or simply Octavia, was the sister of the first Roman Emperor, Augustus, and half sister of Octavia Thurina Major. ... 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ...


In 31 BC war finally broke out. Approximately 200 senators, one-third of the Senate, abandoned Octavian to support Antony and Cleopatra. The final confrontation of the Roman Republic occurred on 2 September 31 BC, at the naval Battle of Actium where the fleet of Octavian under the command of Agrippa routed the combined fleet of Antony and Cleopatra; the two lovers fled to Egypt. After his victory, Octavian skillfully used propaganda, negotiation, and bribery to bring Antony's legions in Greece, Asia Minor, and Cyrenaica to his side. is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (c. ...

Bronze statue of Octavian, Archaeological Museum, Athens
Bronze statue of Octavian, Archaeological Museum, Athens

Octavian continued on his march around the Mediterranean towards Egypt, receiving the submission of local kings and Roman governors along the way. He finally reached Egypt in 30 BC, but before Octavian could capture him, Antony committed suicide. Cleopatra did the same within a few days. The period of civil wars were finally over. Thereafter, there was no one left in the Roman Republic who wanted to, or could, stand against Octavian, as the adopted son of Caesar moved to take absolute control. He designated governors loyal to him to the half dozen "frontier" provinces, where the majority of the legions were situated, thus, at a stroke, giving him command of enough legions to ensure that no single governor could try to overthrow him. He also reorganized the Senate, purging it of unreliable or dangerous members, and "refilled it" with his supporters from the provinces and outside the Roman aristocracy, men who could be counted on to follow his lead. However, he left the majority of Republican institutions apparently intact, albeit feeble. Consuls continued to be elected, tribunes of the plebeians continued to offer legislation, and debate still resounded through the Roman Curia. However it was Octavian who influenced everything and ultimately, controlled the final decisions, and had the legions to back it up, if necessary. Image File history File links Acaugustus. ... Image File history File links Acaugustus. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... A Curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people, i. ...


The Roman Senate and the Roman citizens, exhausted by lengthy civil war, were willing to relinquish the rule of the Senate and popular assemblies in favor of a temporary security. By 27 BC the transition, though subtle and disguised, was made complete. In that year, Octavian offered back all his extraordinary powers to the Senate, and in a carefully staged way, the Senate refused and in fact titled Octavian Augustus — "the revered one". He was always careful to avoid the title of rex — "king", and instead took on the titles of princeps — "first citizen" and imperator, a title given by Roman troops to their victorious commanders. All these titles, alongside the name of Caesar, were used by all Roman Emperors and still survive slightly changed to this date. Prince derives from princeps and emperor from imperator; Caesar became Kaiser (in German) and czar (in Russian).[citation needed] Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... This is a list of Roman Emperors with the dates they controlled the Roman Empire. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ...


Nonetheless, on 16, January, 27 BC (when the official designation of "princeps" was put upon Octaivan and he was declared Augustus), the era of the Roman Republic was now officially over and the reign of the Roman emperors had begun. For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


Figures of the Republic

Death of Lucretia by Sandro Botticelli Lucretia is a legendary figure in the history of the Roman Republic. ... This article is about the founder of the Roman Republic . ... With one hand he returns the fasces, symbol of power as appointed dictator of Rome. ... Appius Claudius Caecus (Appius Claudius the Blind, c. ... Belligerents Roman Republic Samnium The First, Second, and Third Samnite wars, between the early Roman Republic and the tribes of Samnium, extended over half a century, involving almost all the states of Italy, and ended in Roman domination of the Samnites. ... The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC.[1] They are known as the Punic Wars because the Latin term for Carthaginian was Punici (older Poenici, from their Phoenician ancestry). ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hannibal (disambiguation). ... Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major (Latin: P·CORNELIVS·P·F·L·N·SCIPIO·AFRICANVS) (236 - 183 BC) was a general in the Second Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic. ... Storybook illustration depicting Scipio as the reluctant servant of the Senate as he orchestrated the genocide of the Carthaginians. ... Marcus Porcius Cato (Latin: M·PORCIVS·M·F·CATO[1]) (234 BC, Tusculum–149 BC) was a Roman statesman, surnamed the Censor (Censorius), Sapiens, Priscus, or the Elder (Major), to distinguish him from Cato the Younger (his great-grandson). ... The Macedonian and Seleucid wars were a series of conflicts fought by Rome during and after the second Punic war, in the eastern Mediterranean, the Adriatic, and the Aegean. ... Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (Latin: TI·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS) (163 BC-132 BC) was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC. In his short life he caused a political turmoil in the Republic, by his attempts, as plebeian tribune, to legislate agrarian reforms. ... Gaius Sempronius Gracchus (Latin: C·SEMPRONIVS·TI·F·P·N·GRACCVS) (154 BC-121 BC) was a Roman politician of the 2nd century BC. He was the younger brother of Tiberius Gracchus and, like him, pursued a popular political agenda that eventually got him killed by the conservative faction of... So-called “Marius”, Munich Glyptothek (Inv. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX)[1] (ca. ... This article is about the historical figure. ... Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS[1]) (c. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the Roman General. ... Marcus Porcius Catō Uticensis (95 BC–46 BC), known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather Cato the Elder), was a politician and statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Caius Cassius Longinus featured on a denarius (42 BC). ... Marcus Junius Brutus (85–42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Bust of Marcus Antonius Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N¹) (c. ...

Latin literature of the Republic

For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Fresco from Herculaneum, presumably showing a love couple. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Quintus Ennius (239 - 169 BC) was a writer during the period of the Roman Republic, and is often considered the father of Roman poetry. ... Quintus Fabius Pictor (c. ... Lucius Livius Andronicus (280/260 BC?–200 BC?), was a Greco-Roman dramatist and epic poet who produced the first Roman dramatic work and translated many Greek works into Latin. ... Lucretius Titus Lucretius Carus (c. ... Naevius was the nomen for the plebeian gens Naevia of ancient Rome. ... Titus Macchius Plautus, generally referred to simply as Plautus, was a playwright of Ancient Rome. ... Publius Terentius Afer, better known as Terence, was a comic playwright of the Roman Republic. ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ...

Tourist resorts

Baiae (Italian: Baia), in the Campania region of Italy on the Bay of Naples, today a frazione of the comune of Bacoli, was for several hundred years a fashionable and luxurious coastal resort, especially towards the end of the period of the Roman Republic. ... For other uses, see Capri (disambiguation). ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Ostia Antica was the harbour of ancient Rome and perhaps its first colonia. ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ...

See also

The Crisis of the Roman Republic refers to an extended period of political instability and social unrest that culminated in the demise of the Roman Republic and the advent of the Roman Empire. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honours Emperor Institutions and Law Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Under the Constitution of the Roman Republic, the Senate was the chief foreign policy-making branch of Roman government. ... This is a list of topics related to ancient Rome that aims to include aspects of both the ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.". Social Science History 3 (3/4): 125. doi:10.2307/1170959. 

2. Ward,A.M., etal. AHistoryoftheRomanPeople. PrenticeHall,1998 (206-207) Rein Taagepera (born 28 February 1933) is an Estonian-American political scientist and politician. ... Rein Taagepera (born 28 February 1933) is an Estonian-American political scientist and politician. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...


References

  • Eck, Werner; translated by Deborah Lucas Schneider; new material by Sarolta A. Takács. (2003) The Age of Augustus. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing (hardcover, ISBN 0-631-22957-4; paperback, ISBN 0-631-22958-2).
  • Francis Owen, "The Germanic people; their Origin Expansion & Culture", 1993 Barnes & Noble Books ISBN 0880295791
  • "The conquest of Gaul" by Julius Caesar ISBN 0-14-044433-5
  • Harriet I. Flower (ed.): The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic, Cambridge 2004.
  • "The Cambridge Ancient History", vols. 7–9, Cambridge 1990ff.
  • "The Enemies of Rome" by Philip Matyszak edited by Thames & Hudson ISBN 0-500-25124-X
  • "Rubicon : the last years of the Roman Republic" by Tom Holland edited by Doubleday ISBN 0-385-50313-X
  • "The Complete Roman Army" by Adrian Goldsworthy edited by Thames & Hudson ISBN 0-500-05124-0
  • "Scipio Africanus — Greater than Napoleon" by B. H. Liddell Hart published by DA CAPO Press ISBN 0-306-81363-7
  • "The Roman Army" by Peter Connolly

For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Philip Matyszak is a British non-fiction author, primarily of historical works relating to ancient Rome [1]. Matyszak has a doctorate in Roman history from St Johns College, Oxford. ... Tom Holland was born on July 11th, 1943 in Phoughkeepsie, New York, USA. He has directed five movies including: Childs Play Fright Night External Links Tom Holland at the Internet Movie Database Categories: Movie stubs ... Adrian Goldsworthy (born 1969) is a British historian and military writer. ... Basil Henry Liddell Hart (October 31, 1895 _ January 29, 1970) was a military historian and is considered among the great military strategists of the 20th century. ... Peter Connolly (born 1935) is a renowned British scholar of the ancient world, Greek and Roman military equipment historian and artist. ...

External links

In Our Time is a discussion programme hosted by Melvyn Bragg on BBC Radio 4 in the United Kingdom. ... This is a list of topics related to ancient Rome that aims to include aspects of both the ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see History of Rome (disambiguation). ... This is a Timeline of events concerning ancient Rome, from the city foundation until the last attempt of the Roman Empire of the East to conquer Rome. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The ancient quarters of Rome. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Principate is, according to its etymological derivation from the Latin word princeps, meaning chief or first, the political regime dominated by such a political leader, whether or not he is formally head of state and/or head of government. ... The Dominate was the despotic last of the two phases of government in the ancient Roman Empire between its establishment in 27 BC and the formal date of the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476. ... This article is about the historiography of the decline of the Roman Empire. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... A Curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people, i. ... The Forum of Jerash, in Jordan. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The cursus honorum (Latin: course of honours) was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Empire. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honours Emperor Institutions and Law Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Roman assemblies were the Comitia Calata, the Comitia Curiata, the Comitia Centuriata, and the Comitia Tributa. ... Collegiality is the relationship between colleagues. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ... The Misspeling of Ducks ... Officium (plural officia) is a Latin word with various meanings, including service, (sense of) duty, courtesy, ceremony and the likes. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Vigintisexviri (sing. ... The lictor, derived from the Latin ligare (to bind), was a member of a special class of Roman civil servant, with special tasks of attending magistrates of the Roman Republic and Empire who held imperium. ... Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... The princeps senatus (plural principes senatus) was the leader of the Roman senate. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... Aedile (Latin Aedilis, from aedes, aedis temple, building) was an office of the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... This article is about the highest office of the Roman Republic. ... Censor was the title of two magistrates of high rank in the Roman Republic. ... See Roman Governor for the duties of a promagistrate as a governor of a province A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office. ... A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief adminstator of Roman law throughout one or more of Ancient Romes many provinces. ... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, is) a historical position of varying importance in several European nations. ... Decemviri (singular decemvir) is a Latin term meaning Ten Men which designates any such commission in the Roman Republic (cf. ... Military tribunes elected with consular power during the Conflict of the Orders in the Roman Republic on and off starting in 444 BCE and then continuiously from 408 BCE - 394 BCE and from 391 BCE - 367 BCE The practice of electing consular tribunes ended in 366 BCE when the Lex... The term triumvirate (Latin for rule by three men) or troika in Russian, is commonly used to describe an alliance between three equally powerful political or military leaders. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The King of Rome (Latin: rex, regis) was the chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The Law of the Twelve Tables (Lex Duodecim Tabularum, more informally simply Duodecim Tabulae) was the ancient legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law. ... The toga was the characteristic garment of the Roman citizen. ... Auctoritas is the Latin origin of English authority. According to Benveniste [citation?], auctor (which also gives us English author) is derived from Latin augeó (to augment): The auctor is is qui auget, the one who augments the act or the juridical situation of another. ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... The system for Roman litigation passed through three stages over the years: until around 150 BC, the Legis Actiones system; from around 150 BC until around 342 AD, the formulary system; and from 342 AD onwards, the cognito procedure. ... Map of all the territories once occupied by the Roman Empire. ... Main article: Military history of ancient Rome As the Roman kingdom successfully overcame opposition from the Italic hill tribes and became a larger state, the age of tyranny in the eastern Mediterranean began to pass away. ... The branches of the Roman military at the highest level were the Roman army and the Roman navy. ... The history of ancient Rome—originally a city-state of Italy, and later an empire covering much of Eurasia and North Africa from the ninth century BC to the fifth century AD—was often closely entwined with its military history. ... The technology history of the Roman military covers the development of and application of technologies for use in the armies and navies of Rome from the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Root directory at Military history of ancient Rome Romes military was always tightly keyed to its political system. ... Map of all the territories once occupied by the Roman Empire, along with locations of limes Roman military borders and fortifications were part of a grand strategy of territorial defense in the Roman Empire. ... Basic ideal plan of a Roman castrum. ... The strategy of the Roman Military encompasses its grand strategy (the arrangements made by the state to implement its political goals through a selection of military goals, a process of diplomacy backed by threat of military action, and a dedication to the military of part of its production and resources... Roman military engineering is a type of Roman engineering carried out by the Roman Army - almost exclusively by the Roman legions for the furthering of military objectives. ... The Roman army was a set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... Legion redirects here. ... Roman infantry tactics refers to the theoretical and historical deployment, formation and maneuvers of the Roman infantry from the start of the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Roman military personal equipment was produced in large numbers to established patterns and used in an established way. ... Roman siege engines were, for the most part, adapted from Hellenistic siege technology. ... The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis, lit. ... The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis, lit. ... Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = supports) formed the standing non-citizen corps of the Roman army of the Principate (30 BC - 284 AD), alongside the citizen legions. ... As with most other military forces the Roman military adopted a carrot and stick approach to military, with an extensive list of decorations for military gallantry and likewise a range of punishments for military transgressions. ... Julius Caesar, from the bust in the British Museum, in Cassells History of England (1902). ... This article is about theatrical performances in ancient Rome. ... The toga was the distinctive garb of Romen men, while women wore stolas. ... Still life with fruit basket and vases (Pompeii, ca. ... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... Fresco from the Villa of the Mysteries. ... We know less about the music of ancient Rome than we do about the music of ancient Greece. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Roman Funerals and Burial Introduction In ancient Rome, important people had elaborate funerals. ... Within the wider stream of influences that contributed to the Christianization of the Roman Empire, followers of the Ancient Roman religion were persecuted by Christians during the period after the death of Constantine and the reign of Julian, only to enjoy a respite for a number of years before the... The Imperial cult in Ancient Rome was the worship of the Roman Emperor as a god. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... The Forum of Jerash, in Jordan. ... For the series of murder mystery novels, see SPQR series. ... The Pont du Gard in France is a Roman aqueduct built in ca. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For centuries the monetary affairs of the Roman Republic had rested in the hands of the Senate, which was steady and fiscally conservative. ... Roman commerce was the engine that drove the growth of the Roman Empire. ... The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. ... Clothing in Ancient Rome consisted generally of the toga, the stola, brooches for them, and breeches. ... Roman holidays generally were celebrated to worship and celebrate a certain god or mythological occurrence, and consisted of religious observances, various festival traditions and usually a large feast. ... Circus Maximus, Rome The Roman Circus, the theatre and the amphitheatre were the most important buildings in the cities for public entertainment in the Roman Empire. ... The institution of slavery in ancient Rome made many people non-persons before their legal system. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For the Old Latin Bible used before the Vulgate, see Vetus Latina. ... Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ... Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. ... Renaissance Latin is a name given to the distinctive form of Latin style developed during the European Renaissance of the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries, particularly by the humanist movement. ... New Latin (or Neo-Latin) is a post-medieval version of Latin, now used primarily in International Scientific Vocabulary cladistics and systematics. ... Recent Latin is the form of Latin used from the late nineteenth century down to the present. ... The Duenos inscription, from the 6th century BC, is the second-earliest known Latin text. ... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... Not to be confused with Latin profanity. ... The term Ecclesiastical Latin (sometimes called Church Latin) refers to the Latin language as used in documents of the Roman Catholic Church and in its Latin liturgies. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... The following is a List of Roman wars fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, organized by date. ... The following is a List of Roman battles (fought by the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire), organized by date. ... // Manius Acilius Glabrio -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 191 BC) -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 91) -- Titus Aebutius Helva -- Aegidius -- Lucius Aemilius Barbula -- Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir) -- Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus -- Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (praetor 56 BC) -- Flavius Aëtius -- Lucius Afranius (consul) -- Sextus Calpurnius Agricola -- Gnaeus Julius Agricola -- Flavius Antoninus -- Marcus... This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion. ... This is a list of the Roman Emperors with the dates they ruled the Roman Empire. ... List of ancient Roman triumphal arches (By modern country) // France Orange Reims: Porte de Mars Saint Rémy de Provence: Roman site of Glanum Saintes: Arch of Germanicus Greece Arch of Galerius, Thessaloniki Hadrians Arch, Athens Italy It has been suggested that List of Roman arches in Rome be... This is a tentative list of topics regarding political institutions of Ancient Rome. ... This is an attempted alphabetical List of Roman laws. ... Abbreviations: Imp. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Rome: The Republic (1309 words)
The era of the great expansion of Roman power and civilization is the era of the Roman Republic, in which Rome is ruled by its Senate and its assembly, which were institutions formed at the beginning of the monarchy.
The history of the Republic is a history of continuous warfare; all of the historical stories which the Romans will use as stories of Roman virtue and values date from this tumultuous period of defense and invasion.
Roman conquest, then, was pursued largely for Roman security; the end result of this process would be, first, the conquest of the entire Italian peninsula by 265 BC, and then the conquest of the world.
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