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Encyclopedia > Roman mythology
A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath
A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath

Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. One part, largely later and literary, consists of whole-cloth borrowings from Greek mythology. The other, largely early and cultic, functioned in very different ways from its Greek counterpart. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (802x852, 158 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Minerva Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (802x852, 158 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Minerva Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Roman Bath The Great Bath — the entire structure above the level of the pillar bases is a later reconstruction. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ...

Contents

Nature of early Roman myth

The Romans had no sequential narratives about their gods comparable to the Titanomachy or the seduction of Zeus by Hera until their poets began to adopt Greek models in the later part of the Roman Republic. What the Romans did have, however, were: In Greek mythology, the Titanomachy, or War of the Titans (Greek: Τιτανομαχία), was the eleven-year series of battles fought between the two races of deities long before the existence of mankind: the Titans, fighting from Mount Othrys, and the Olympians, who would come to reign on Mount Olympus. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hera (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ...

  • a highly developed system of rituals, priestly colleges, and pantheons of related gods.
  • a rich set of historical myths about the foundation and rise of their city involving human actors, with occasional divine interventions.

Early mythology about the gods

The Roman model involved a very different way of defining and thinking about gods than that of Greek gods. For example, if one were to ask a Greek about Demeter, he might reply with the well-known story of her grief at the abduction of Persephone by Hades. This article is about the grain goddess Demeter. ... This article is about the Greek goddess. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ...


An archaic Italian, by contrast, would tell you that Ceres had an official priest called a flamen, who was junior to the flamens of Jupiter, Mars, and Quirinus, but senior to the flamens of Flora and Pomona. He might tell you that she was grouped in a triad with two other agricultural gods, Liber and Libera. And he might even be able to rattle off all of the minor gods with specialized functions who attended her: Sarritor (weeding), Messor (harvesting), Convector (carting), Conditor (storing), Insitor (sowing), and dozens more. In Roman mythology, Ceres was the goddess of growing plants (particularly cereals) and of motherly love. ... Jupiter et Thétis - by Jean Ingres, 1811. ... Mars was the Roman god of war, the son of Juno and a magical flower (or Jupiter). ... In Roman mythology, Quirinus was an early god of the Roman state. ... In Roman mythology, Flora was a goddess of flowers and the season of spring. ... Pomona, Nicolas Fouché, c. ... Bacchus by Caravaggio Dionysus, the name of a god, is occasionally confused with one of several historical figures named Dionysius. ... In Roman mythology, Libera is a goddess of fertility and the Earth. ...


Thus the archaic Roman "mythology", at least concerning the gods, was made up not of narratives, but rather of interlocking and complex interrelations between and among gods and humans.


The original religion of the early Romans was modified by the addition of numerous and conflicting beliefs in later times, and by the assimilation of a vast amount of Greek mythology. We know what little we do about early Roman religion not through contemporary accounts, but from later writers who sought to salvage old traditions from the desuetude into which they were falling, such as the 1st century BC scholar Marcus Terentius Varro. Other classical writers, such as the poet Ovid in his Fasti (Calendar), were strongly influenced by Hellenistic civilization models, and in their works they frequently employed Greek beliefs to fill gaps in the Roman tradition. Because the Romans had so many gods to worship, they lived in fear of angering them. The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... Marcus Terentius Varro ([[116 BC]–27 BC), also known as Varro Reatinus to distinguish him from his contemporary Varro Atacinus, was a Roman scholar and writer, who the Romans came to call the most learned of all the Romans. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ...


Early mythology about Roman history

In contrast to the dearth of narrative material about the gods, the Romans had a rich panoply of legends about the foundation and early growth of their own city. In addition to these largely home-grown traditions, material from Greek heroic legend was grafted onto this native stock at an early date, rendering Aeneas, for example, an ancestor of Romulus and Remus, and by extension, the Trojans as the ancestors of the Roman people (which is why the Roman centurions took a uniform based on the Greeks' drawing of the Trojans). Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... This page describes the ancient heroes who founded the city of Rome. ...


The Aeneid and the first few books of Livy are the best extant sources for this human mythology. Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ...


Native Roman and Italic gods

Statue of Ceres carrying fruit.
Statue of Ceres carrying fruit.

The Roman ritual practice of the official priesthoods clearly distinguishes two classes of gods, the di indigetes and the di novensides or novensiles. The indigetes were the original gods of the Roman state (see List of Di Indigetes), and their names and nature are indicated by the titles of the earliest priests and by the fixed festivals of the calendar; 30 such gods were honored with special festivals. The novensides were later divinities whose cults were introduced to the city in the historical period, usually at a known date and in response to a specific crisis or felt need. Early Roman divinities included, in addition to the di indigetes, a host of so-called specialist gods whose names were invoked in the carrying out of various activities, such as harvesting. Fragments of old ritual accompanying such acts as plowing or sowing reveal that at every stage of the operation a separate deity was invoked, the name of each deity being regularly derived from the verb for the operation. Such divinities may be grouped under the general term of attendant, or auxiliary, gods, who were invoked along with the greater deities. Ceres (mythology) - statue in the Louvre, Paris File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Ceres (mythology) - statue in the Louvre, Paris File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... List of Roman gods, goddesses and other beings not present in Greek mythology Most of these are very minor gods that are little more than personifications of an abstract quality. ...


The character of the indigetes and their festivals show that the early Romans were not only members of an agricultural community but also were fond of fighting and much engaged in war. The gods represented distinctly the practical needs of daily life, as felt by the Roman community to which they belonged. They were scrupulously accorded the rites and offerings considered proper. Thus, Janus and Vesta guarded the door and hearth, the Lares protected the field and house, Pales the pasture, Saturn the sowing, Ceres the growth of the grain, Pomona the fruit, and Consus and Ops the harvest. Even the majestic Jupiter, the ruler of the gods, was honored for the aid his rains might give to the farms and vineyards. In his more encompassing character he was considered, through his weapon of lightning, the director of human activity and, by his widespread domain, the protector of the Romans in their military activities beyond the borders of their own community. Prominent in early times were the gods Mars and Quirinus, who were often identified with each other. Mars was a god of war; he was honored in March and October. Quirinus is thought by modern scholars to have been the patron of the armed community in time of peace. Roman bust of Janus, Vatican. ... Vesta was the virgin goddess of the hearth, home, and family in Roman mythology, analogous to Hestia in Greek mythology. ... Lares (pl. ... Saturnus, Caravaggio, 16th c. ... In Roman mythology, Ceres was the goddess of growing plants (particularly cereals) and of motherly love. ... For the planet see Jupiter. ... Mars, painting by Diego Velazquez Mars was the Roman warrior god, the son of Juno and Jupiter, husband of Bellona, and the lover of Venus. ... In Roman mythology, Quirinus was an early god of the Roman state. ...


At the head of the earliest pantheon were the triad Jupiter, Mars, and Quirinus (whose three priests, or flamens, were of the highest order), and Janus and Vesta. These gods in early times had little individuality, and their personal histories lacked marriages and genealogies. Unlike the gods of the Greeks, they were not considered to function in the manner of mortals, and thus not many accounts of their activities exist. This older worship was associated with Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome, who was believed to have had as his consort and adviser the Roman goddess of fountains and flowers, Egeria, who is often identified as a nymph in later literary sources. New elements were added at a relatively early date, however. To the royal house of the Tarquins was ascribed by legend the establishment of the great Capitoline triad, Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, which assumed the supreme place in Roman religion. Other additions were the worship of Diana on the Aventine Hill and the introduction of the Sibylline books, prophecies of world history, which, according to legend, were purchased by Tarquin in the late 6th century BC from the Cumaean Sibyl. rome hotel According to legend, Numa Pompilius was the second of the Kings of Rome, succeeding Romulus. ... In Roman mythology, the goddess Egeria (of the black poplar) was a goddess of childbirth, wisdom and prophecy and was one of the Camenae. ... In Greek mythology, a nymph is any member of a large class of female nature entities, either bound to a particular location or landform or joining the retinue of a god or goddess. ... Vatican statue of Juno Sospita This article is about a figure in mythology. ... This article is about the Roman goddess. ... The Diana of Versailles In Roman mythology, Diana was the goddess of the hunt, in literature the equivalent of the Greek goddess Artemis, though in cult she was Italic in origin. ... The Aventine Hill is one of the seven hills on which ancient Rome was built. ... The Sibylline Books or Sibyllae were a collection of oracular utterances, set out in Greek hexameters, purchased from a sibyl by the semi-legendary last king of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus, and consulted at momentous crises through the history of the Republic and the Empire. ...


Foreign gods

The absorption of neighboring local gods took place as the Roman state conquered the surrounding territory. The Romans commonly granted the local gods of the conquered territory the same honors as the earlier gods who had been regarded as peculiar to the Roman state. In many instances the newly acquired deities were formally invited to take up their abode in new sanctuaries at Rome. In 203 BC, the cult object embodying Cybele was removed from Phrygian Pessinos and ceremoniously welcomed to Rome. Moreover, the growth of the city attracted foreigners, who were allowed to continue the worship of their own gods. In this way Mithras came to Rome and his popularity in the legions spread his cult as far afield as Britain. In addition to Castor and Pollux, the conquered settlements in Italy seem to have contributed to the Roman pantheon Diana, Minerva, Hercules, Venus, and other deities of lesser rank, some of whom were Italic divinities, others originally derived from the Greek culture of Magna Graecia. The important Roman deities were eventually identified with the more anthropomorphic Greek gods and goddesses, and assumed many of their attributes and myths. A fountain in Madrid depicting Cybele in her chariot drawn by lions, in the Plaza de Cibeles Originally a Phrygian goddess, Cybele (Greek: Κυβέλη) was a deification of the Earth Mother who was worshipped in Anatolia from Neolithic times. ... This article or section contains too much jargon and may need simplification or further explanation. ... Kastor redirects here. ... Magna Graecia around 280 b. ... 7th millennium BC anthropomorphized rocks, with slits for eyes, found in modern-day Israel. ...


Sources

  • Alan Cameron Greek Mythography in the Roman World (2005) OUP, Oxford (reviewed by T P Wiseman in Times Literary Supplement 13 May 2005 page 29)
  • Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae (LIMC) (1981-1999) Artemis-Verlag, 9 volumes.
The Times Literary Supplement (or TLS) is a weekly literary review published in London by News International, a subsidiary of News Corporation. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Roman polytheism was the religion of the Etruscans, Romans, and most of their subjects. ... The Augur was a priest or official in ancient Rome. ... Bust of a flamen, 3rd century, Louvre A flamen was a name given to a priest assigned to a state supported god or goddess in Roman religion. ... The bronze sheeps liver of Piacenza, with Etruscan inscriptions In Roman practice inherited from the Etruscans, a haruspex (plural haruspices) was a man trained to practice a form of divination called haruspicy, hepatoscopy or hepatomancy. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... The rex Nemorensis, (Latin: the king of Nemi or the king of the grove) was a sort of sacred king who served as priest of the goddess Diana at Aricia in Italy, by the shores of lake Nemi. ... A sacred king, according to the systematic interpretation of mythology developed by Sir James George Frazer in his influential book The Golden Bough, was a king who represented a solar deity in a periodically re-enacted fertility rite. ... Image of a Roman Vestal Virgin In Ancient Rome, the Vestal Virgins (sacerdos Vestalis), were the virgin holy priestesses of Vesta, the goddess of the hearth. ... Roman holidays generally were celebrated to worship and celebrate a certain god or mythological occurrence, and consisted of religious observances, various festival traditions and usually a large feast. ... Roman Funerals and Burial Introduction In ancient Rome, important people had elaborate funerals. ... The Imperial cult in Ancient Rome was the worship of the Roman Emperor as a god. ... Many adherents of Roman religion have been persecuted, mainly by Christians. ... The Sibylline Books or Sibyllae were a collection of oracular utterances, set out in Greek hexameters, purchased from a sibyl by the semi-legendary last king of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus, and consulted at momentous crises through the history of the Republic and the Empire. ... The Temple of Hercules Victor, near the Teatro di Marcello in Rome (a Greek-style Roman temple) // Pagan history and architecture Originally in Roman paganism, a templum was not (necessarily) a cultic building but any ritually marked observation site for natural phenomena believed to allow predictions, such as the flight... This is a list of Roman deities with brief descriptions. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... In Roman mythology, Ceres was the goddess of growing plants (particularly cereals) and of motherly love. ... The Diana of Versailles In Roman mythology, Diana was the goddess of the hunt, in literature the equivalent of the Greek goddess Artemis, though in cult she was Italic in origin. ... Vatican statue of Juno Sospita This article is about a figure in mythology. ... For the planet see Jupiter. ... Mars, painting by Diego Velazquez Mars was the Roman warrior god, the son of Juno and Jupiter, husband of Bellona, and the lover of Venus. ... A sculpture of the Roman god Mercury by 17th-century Flemish artist Artus Quellinus. ... This article is about the Roman goddess. ... Genoese admiral Andrea Doria as Neptune, by Agnolo Bronzino. ... Marble Venus of the Capitoline Venus type, Roman (British Museum) Venus was a major Roman goddess principally associated with love and beauty, the rough equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite. ... The Forge of Vulcan by Diego Velasquez, (1630). ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Fortuna governs the circle of the four stages of life, the Wheel of Fortune, in a manuscript of Carmina Burana In Roman mythology, Fortuna (equivalent to the Greek goddess Tyche) goddess of fortune, was the personification of luck, hopefully of good luck, but she could be represented veiled and blind... Lares (pl. ... For other uses, see Pluto (disambiguation). ... In Roman mythology, Quirinus was an early god of the Roman state. ... Coin of Emperor Probus, circa 280, with Sol Invictus riding a quadriga, with legend SOLI INVICTO, to the Unconquered Sun. Note how the Emperor (on the left) wears a radiated solar crown, worn also by the god (to the right). ... Vesta was the virgin goddess of the hearth, home, and family in Roman mythology. ... Adranus or Adranos (Greek: ) was a fire god worshipped by the Sicels, the original inhabitants of the island of Sicily. ... The Averrunci, in antiquity, were an order of deities among the Romans, whose office was to avert dangers and evils. ... Averruncus is a minor god in Roman mythology. ... Bromius is the Roman god of wine. ... Caelus was the Latin name that the Romans used for the Greek sky god Uranus. ... In Roman mythology, Clitunno was a river god, an Oceanid. ... This article is about the Roman god. ... Dis Pater, or Dispater, was a Roman and Celtic god of the underworld, later subsumed by Pluto or Jupiter. ... Marble sculpture of Pan copulating with a goat, recovered from Herculaneum Pan (Greek Παν, genitive Πανος) is the Greek god who watches over shepherds and their flocks. ... Late second-century statue of Glycon. ... In Roman mythology, the god Inuus protected livestock. ... In Roman mythology, Lupercus was a name for the Greek god Pan. ... In Roman mythology, Orcus was a god of the underworld, punisher of broken oaths, more equivalent to Pluto than to the Greek Hades, and later identified with Dis Pater. ... Saturnus, Caravaggio, 16th c. ... Aius Locutius is a Roman legend. ... In Roman mythology, Angerona or Angeronia was an old Roman goddess, whose name and functions are variously explained. ... In Roman mythology, Concordia was the goddess of agreement, understanding, and marital harmony. ... Fortuna governs the circle of the four stages of life, the Wheel of Fortune, in a manuscript of Carmina Burana In Roman mythology, Fortuna (equivalent to the Greek goddess Tyche) goddess of fortune, was the personification of luck, hopefully of good luck, but she could be represented veiled and blind... In Roman mythology, Spes was the goddess of hope. ... This is a list of topics related to ancient Rome that aims to include aspects of both the ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see History of Rome (disambiguation). ... This is a Timeline of events concerning ancient Rome, from the city foundation until the last attempt of the Roman Empire of the East to conquer Rome. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The ancient quarters of Rome. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Principate is, according to its etymological derivation from the Latin word princeps, meaning chief or first, the political regime dominated by such a political leader, whether or not he is formally head of state and/or head of government. ... The Dominate was the despotic last of the two phases of government in the ancient Roman Empire between its establishment in 27 BC and the formal date of the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476. ... This article is about the historiography of the decline of the Roman Empire. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... A Curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people, i. ... The Forum of Jerash, in Jordan. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The cursus honorum (Latin: course of honours) was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Empire. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honours Emperor Institutions and Law Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Roman assemblies were the Comitia Calata, the Comitia Curiata, the Comitia Centuriata, and the Comitia Tributa. ... Collegiality is the relationship between colleagues. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ... The Misspeling of Ducks ... Officium (plural officia) is a Latin word with various meanings, including service, (sense of) duty, courtesy, ceremony and the likes. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Vigintisexviri (sing. ... The lictor, derived from the Latin ligare (to bind), was a member of a special class of Roman civil servant, with special tasks of attending magistrates of the Roman Republic and Empire who held imperium. ... Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... The princeps senatus (plural principes senatus) was the leader of the Roman senate. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... Aedile (Latin Aedilis, from aedes, aedis temple, building) was an office of the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... This article is about the highest office of the Roman Republic. ... Censor was the title of two magistrates of high rank in the Roman Republic. ... See Roman Governor for the duties of a promagistrate as a governor of a province A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office. ... A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief adminstator of Roman law throughout one or more of Ancient Romes many provinces. ... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, is) a historical position of varying importance in several European nations. ... Decemviri (singular decemvir) is a Latin term meaning Ten Men which designates any such commission in the Roman Republic (cf. ... Military tribunes elected with consular power during the Conflict of the Orders in the Roman Republic on and off starting in 444 BCE and then continuiously from 408 BCE - 394 BCE and from 391 BCE - 367 BCE The practice of electing consular tribunes ended in 366 BCE when the Lex... The term triumvirate (Latin for rule by three men) or troika in Russian, is commonly used to describe an alliance between three equally powerful political or military leaders. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The King of Rome (Latin: rex, regis) was the chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The Law of the Twelve Tables (Lex Duodecim Tabularum, more informally simply Duodecim Tabulae) was the ancient legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law. ... The toga was the characteristic garment of the Roman citizen. ... Auctoritas is the Latin origin of English authority. According to Benveniste [citation?], auctor (which also gives us English author) is derived from Latin augeó (to augment): The auctor is is qui auget, the one who augments the act or the juridical situation of another. ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... The system for Roman litigation passed through three stages over the years: until around 150 BC, the Legis Actiones system; from around 150 BC until around 342 AD, the formulary system; and from 342 AD onwards, the cognito procedure. ... Map of all the territories once occupied by the Roman Empire. ... Main article: Military history of ancient Rome As the Roman kingdom successfully overcame opposition from the Italic hill tribes and became a larger state, the age of tyranny in the eastern Mediterranean began to pass away. ... The branches of the Roman military at the highest level were the Roman army and the Roman navy. ... The history of ancient Rome—originally a city-state of Italy, and later an empire covering much of Eurasia and North Africa from the ninth century BC to the fifth century AD—was often closely entwined with its military history. ... The technology history of the Roman military covers the development of and application of technologies for use in the armies and navies of Rome from the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Root directory at Military history of ancient Rome Romes military was always tightly keyed to its political system. ... Map of all the territories once occupied by the Roman Empire, along with locations of limes Roman military borders and fortifications were part of a grand strategy of territorial defense in the Roman Empire. ... Basic ideal plan of a Roman castrum. ... The strategy of the Roman Military encompasses its grand strategy (the arrangements made by the state to implement its political goals through a selection of military goals, a process of diplomacy backed by threat of military action, and a dedication to the military of part of its production and resources... Roman military engineering is a type of Roman engineering carried out by the Roman Army - almost exclusively by the Roman legions for the furthering of military objectives. ... The Roman army was a set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... Legion redirects here. ... Roman infantry tactics refers to the theoretical and historical deployment, formation and maneuvers of the Roman infantry from the start of the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Roman military personal equipment was produced in large numbers to established patterns and used in an established way. ... Roman siege engines were, for the most part, adapted from Hellenistic siege technology. ... The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis, lit. ... The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis, lit. ... Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = supports) formed the standing non-citizen corps of the Roman army of the Principate (30 BC - 284 AD), alongside the citizen legions. ... As with most other military forces the Roman military adopted a carrot and stick approach to military, with an extensive list of decorations for military gallantry and likewise a range of punishments for military transgressions. ... Julius Caesar, from the bust in the British Museum, in Cassells History of England (1902). ... This article is about theatrical performances in ancient Rome. ... The toga was the distinctive garb of Romen men, while women wore stolas. ... Still life with fruit basket and vases (Pompeii, ca. ... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... Fresco from the Villa of the Mysteries. ... We know less about the music of ancient Rome than we do about the music of ancient Greece. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Roman Funerals and Burial Introduction In ancient Rome, important people had elaborate funerals. ... Within the wider stream of influences that contributed to the Christianization of the Roman Empire, followers of the Ancient Roman religion were persecuted by Christians during the period after the death of Constantine and the reign of Julian, only to enjoy a respite for a number of years before the... The Imperial cult in Ancient Rome was the worship of the Roman Emperor as a god. ... The Forum of Jerash, in Jordan. ... For the series of murder mystery novels, see SPQR series. ... The Pont du Gard in France is a Roman aqueduct built in ca. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For centuries the monetary affairs of the Roman Republic had rested in the hands of the Senate, which was steady and fiscally conservative. ... Roman commerce was the engine that drove the growth of the Roman Empire. ... The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. ... Clothing in Ancient Rome consisted generally of the toga, the stola, brooches for them, and breeches. ... Roman holidays generally were celebrated to worship and celebrate a certain god or mythological occurrence, and consisted of religious observances, various festival traditions and usually a large feast. ... Circus Maximus, Rome The Roman Circus, the theatre and the amphitheatre were the most important buildings in the cities for public entertainment in the Roman Empire. ... The institution of slavery in ancient Rome made many people non-persons before their legal system. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For the Old Latin Bible used before the Vulgate, see Vetus Latina. ... Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ... Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. ... Renaissance Latin is a name given to the distinctive form of Latin style developed during the European Renaissance of the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries, particularly by the humanist movement. ... New Latin (or Neo-Latin) is a post-medieval version of Latin, now used primarily in International Scientific Vocabulary cladistics and systematics. ... Recent Latin is the form of Latin used from the late nineteenth century down to the present. ... The Duenos inscription, from the 6th century BC, is the second-earliest known Latin text. ... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... Not to be confused with Latin profanity. ... The term Ecclesiastical Latin (sometimes called Church Latin) refers to the Latin language as used in documents of the Roman Catholic Church and in its Latin liturgies. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... This is a list of topics related to ancient Rome that aims to include aspects of both the ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... The following is a List of Roman wars fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, organized by date. ... The following is a List of Roman battles (fought by the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire), organized by date. ... // Manius Acilius Glabrio -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 191 BC) -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 91) -- Titus Aebutius Helva -- Aegidius -- Lucius Aemilius Barbula -- Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir) -- Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus -- Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (praetor 56 BC) -- Flavius Aëtius -- Lucius Afranius (consul) -- Sextus Calpurnius Agricola -- Gnaeus Julius Agricola -- Flavius Antoninus -- Marcus... This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion. ... This is a list of the Roman Emperors with the dates they ruled the Roman Empire. ... List of ancient Roman triumphal arches (By modern country) // France Orange Reims: Porte de Mars Saint Rémy de Provence: Roman site of Glanum Saintes: Arch of Germanicus Greece Arch of Galerius, Thessaloniki Hadrians Arch, Athens Italy It has been suggested that List of Roman arches in Rome be... This is a tentative list of topics regarding political institutions of Ancient Rome. ... This is an attempted alphabetical List of Roman laws. ... Abbreviations: Imp. ...

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Greek and Roman Mythology — Infoplease.com (3177 words)
Roman god of fruits and vegetables; husband of Pomona.
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Roman Mythology (4909 words)
ROMAN MYTHOLOGY, various beliefs, rituals, and other observances concerning the supernatural held or practiced by the ancient Romans from the legendary period until Christianity finally completely supplanted the native religions of the Roman Empire at the start of the Middle Ages.
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mulius, in Roman mythology was a descendant of the Trojan hero Aeneas.
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