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Encyclopedia > Roman legion
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This article is part of the series on: Look up Legion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Rmn-military-header. ...


Military of ancient Rome (portal)
800 BC–AD 476 For the military of the East Roman Empire after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, see Byzantine military. ...

Structural history
Roman army (unit types and ranks,
legions, auxiliaries, generals)
Roman navy (fleets, admirals)
Campaign history
Lists of wars and battles
Decorations and punishments
Technological history
Military engineering (castra,
siege engines, arches, roads)
Personal equipment
Political history
Strategy and tactics
Infantry tactics
Frontiers and fortifications (limes,
Hadrian's Wall)

The Roman Legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from lego — "to collect") is a term that can apply both as a transliteration of legio ("conscription" or "army") to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of the ancient Roman army in the period of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. In this latter meaning, it consisted of several cohorts of heavy infantry known as legionaries. It was almost always accompanied by one or more attached units of auxiliaries, who were not Roman citizens and provided cavalry, ranged troops and skirmishers to complement the legion's heavy infantry. The branches of the Roman military at the highest level were the Roman army and the Roman navy. ... The Roman army was a set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... This is a list of both unit types and ranks of the Roman army from the Roman Republic to the fall of the Roman Empire. ... This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion. ... Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = supports) formed the standing non-citizen corps of the Roman army of the Principate (30 BC - 284 AD), alongside the citizen legions. ... // Manius Acilius Glabrio -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 191 BC) -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 91) -- Titus Aebutius Helva -- Aegidius -- Lucius Aemilius Barbula -- Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir) -- Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus -- Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (praetor 56 BC) -- Flavius Aëtius -- Lucius Afranius (consul) -- Sextus Calpurnius Agricola -- Gnaeus Julius Agricola -- Flavius Antoninus -- Marcus... Roman trireme, a warship, 31 BC. Note the bank of oars (two on the hidden side), the square-rigged sails, the steering oars, the tower on deck, the ram at the prow, the ballistae and the Greek fire. ... Roman trireme, a warship, 31 BC. Note the bank of oars (two on the hidden side), the square-rigged sails, the steering oars, the tower on deck, the ram at the prow, the ballistae and the Greek fire. ... The history of ancient Rome - originally a city-state of Italy, and later an empire covering much of Eurasia and North Africa from the ninth century BC to the fifth century AD - was often closely entwined with its military history. ... The following is a List of Roman wars fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, organized by date. ... The following is a List of Roman battles (fought by the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire), organized by date. ... As with most other military forces the Roman military adopted a carrot and stick approach to military, with an extensive list of decorations for military gallantry and likewise a range of punishments for the punishment of military transgressions. ... The technology history of the Roman military covers the development of and application of technologies for use in the armies and navies of Rome from the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Roman military engineering is a type of Roman engineering carried out by the Roman Army - almost exclusively by the Roman legions for the furthering of military objectives. ... Basic ideal plan of a Roman castrum. ... Roman siege engines were, for the most part, adapted from Hellenistic siege technology. ... List of ancient Roman triumphal arches (By modern country) // France Orange Reims: Porte de Mars Saint Rémy de Provence: Roman site of Glanum Saintes: Arch of Germanicus Greece Arch of Galerius, Thessaloniki Hadrians Arch, Athens Italy It has been suggested that List of Roman arches in Rome be... Not to be confused with Romans road. ... Roman military personal equipment was produced in large numbers to established patterns and used in an established way. ... Root directory at Military history of ancient Rome Romes military was always tightly keyed to its political system. ... The strategy of the Roman Military encompasses its grand strategy (the arrangements made by the state to implement its political goals through a selection of military goals, a process of diplomacy backed by threat of military action, and a dedication to the military of part of its production and resources... Roman infantry tactics refers to the theoretical and historical deployment, formation and maneuvers of the Roman infantry from the start of the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Map of all the territories once occupied by the Roman Empire, along with locations of limes Roman military borders and fortifications were part of a grand strategy of territorial defense in the Roman Empire. ... The limes Germanicus, 2nd century. ... Hadrians Wall is a stone and turf fortification built by the Roman Empire across the width of modern-day England. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Army (disambiguation). ... Heavy infantry refers to heavily armed and armoured ground troops, as opposed to medium or light infantry, in which the warriors are relatively lightly-armoured. ... The Roman army was a set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... A cohort (from the Latin cohors, plural cohortes) is a fairly large military unit, generally consisting of one type of soldier. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... A Legionary is a member of a legion. ... Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = supports) formed the standing non-citizen corps of the Roman army of the Principate (30 BC - 284 AD), alongside the citizen legions. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Traditionally light infantry (or skirmishers) were soldiers whose job was to provide a skirmishing screen ahead of the main body of infantry, harassing and delaying the enemy advance. ...


The size of a typical legion varied widely throughout the history of ancient Rome, with complements of 4,200 legionaries in the republican period of Rome (split into 35 maniples of 120 legionaries each), to 5,200 plus auxilaries in the imperial period (split into 10 cohorts, 9 of 480 men each, plus the first cohort holding 800 men). Maniple (Latin: manipulus) was a tactical unit of the Roman Legion, consisting of two centuriae within a single cohort. ... A cohort (from the Latin cohors, plural cohortes) is a fairly large military unit, generally consisting of one type of soldier. ...


As legions were not standing armies until the Marian reforms (c. 107 BC), and were instead created, used, and disbanded again, several hundred legions were named and numbered throughout Roman history. To date, about 50 have been identified. In the time of the Early Roman Empire, there were usually about 25-35 standing legions plus their Auxiliaries, with more raised as needed. See List of Roman legions for a catalogue of known late republic, early Empire and late Empire legions, with dates in existence, emblem and locations of deployment. The Marian reforms of 107 BC were a group of military reforms initiated by Gaius Marius, a statesman and general of the Roman republic. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 112 BC 111 BC 110 BC 109 BC 108 BC - 107 BC - 106 BC 105 BC... This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion. ...


Due to the enormous military successes of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire the legion has long been regarded as the prime ancient model for military efficiency and ability. This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

See: Structural history of the Roman military The branches of the Roman military at the highest level were the Roman army and the Roman navy. ... Root directory at Military history of ancient Rome The branches of the Roman military at the highest level were the Roman army and the Roman navy. ...

Roman kings (to c.500 BC)

In the early years of the Roman Kingdom and the Roman Republic, they did not use legions and instead used centuries of one hundred men which were banded together in random formats and only served the one who had hired them. In the Roman Empire the legions became, although the largest, only one part of the army (predominantly heavy infantry). But in the Roman Kingdom and Roman Republic up until the 2nd century BC, the centuries could be made of light troops and cavalry whose roles would later be taken on by allied troops. During this period, the massive Greek phalanx was the mode of battle. Roman soldiers would have thus looked much like Greek hoplites. Macedonian phalanx formation showing the employment of Macedonian spear or sarissas making the formation nearly impregnable from the front but cumbersome, tactically unwieldy and vulnerable from side or rear A phalanx (plural phalanxes or phalanges) is a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears... The hoplite was a heavy infantryman that was the central focus of warfare in Ancient Greece. ...


Much of Roman history of this era is founded on legends, but it is believed that during the reign of Servius Tullius, the census (the counting of the people) was introduced. With this, all Roman able-bodied, property-owning male citizens were divided into five classes for military service based on wealth, soldiers having to acquire their own weapons and equipment. These classes were further organized into units of 100 called centuries (who also had a centurion, a second in command and a standard bearer). Servius Tullius was the sixth legendary king of ancient Rome, and the second king of the Etruscan dynasty. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... Centuria (Latin plural Centuriae) is a Latin substantive rooting in centum a hundred, denoting units consisting of (originally, approximatively) a 100 men. ...


Joining the army was both a duty and a distinguishing mark of Roman citizenship: during the entire pre-Marian period the wealthiest land owners performed the most years of military service, since these would have had the most to lose should the state have fallen.


The first class was armed in the fashion of the hoplite with spear, sword, helmet, breast plate and round shield (called clipeus in Latin, similar to the Greek aspis, also called hoplon); there were 82 centuries of these. The second and third class also acted as spearmen, but with reduced armour, and the larger oval or rectangular shield. The fourth class could afford no armour, perhaps a small shield, and was armed with spear and javelin. All three of the latter classes made up about 26 centuries. The fifth and final class was composed only of slingers. The army officers as well as the cavalry were drawn from leading citizens who enrolled as equestrians (equites). (The equites were later put in smaller groups of 30 and were commanded by decurions (which strangely means commander of ten). 32 of the fifth class were foot soldiers of which 2 were engineers and 18 centuries of equites. In the military of classical antiquity, a clipeus (ἀσπίς) was a large shield worn by the Greeks and Romans as a piece of defensive armor, which they carried upon the arm, to secure them from the blows of their enemies. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... An aspis (Ancient Greek Ασπις, IPA [aspis]) is the generic term for the word shield. ... A Hoplon is the circular shield carried by Greek infantry of the Hellenistic period. ... For the breakfast dish, see Slingers (food). ...


Tactics were no different from those of the early Greeks and battles were joined on a plain. Spearmen would then deploy themselves in tightly packed rows. The members of each row closed to form a shield wall, their spears pointed forwards, and charged the enemy supported by their javelin throwers and slingers: the cavalry pursued the enemy, and sometimes dismounted to support the infantry in dire situations. It was a cumbersome military unit to manoeuvre, and easily defeated by mountain tribes such as Volsci or Samnites in rough terrains. The formation of Shield walls is a military tactic common to many cultures. ...


Early civilian authorities, called praetors, doubled as military leaders during the war season; lasting from spring to autumn. A formal war declaration included a religious ceremony that ended in the throwing of a ceremonial javelin into the enemy's territory to mark the start of hostilities.


Roman Republic (509-107 BC)

At some point, possibly in the beginning of the Roman Republic after the kings were overthrown, the legio was subdivided into two separate legions, each one ascribed to one of the two consuls. In the first years of the Republic, when warfare was mostly concentrated on raiding, it is uncertain if the full manpower of the legions was summoned at any one time. Legions became more formally organized in the 4th century BC, as Roman warfare evolved to more frequent and planned operations, and the consular army was raised to two legions. This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... This article is about the Roman rank. ...


In the Republic, legions had an ephemeral existence. Except for Legio I to IV, which were the consular armies (two per consul), other units were levied by campaign. Rome's Italian allies were required to provide a legion to support each Roman Legion.

Re-enactor showing Roman military equestrian
Re-enactor showing Roman military equestrian

The military tribunes appeared after 331 BC (at first these tribunes took turns as the legion's commanding officer). The internal organization of the legion became more sophisticated, from the classic phalanx to the manipular system, and allowed important tactical innovations. For the first time, the classes of soldiers who comprised the legions were based on experience and age rather than wealth, with standard weapons and equipment issued by the state. (The exception was the Equites, who comprised the cavalry elements and still provided their own horses). Image File history File links Roman_cavalry_lg. ... Image File history File links Roman_cavalry_lg. ... Military tribunes were officers of the Roman Legions. ... Macedonian phalanx formation showing the employment of Macedonian spear or sarissas making the formation nearly impregnable from the front but cumbersome, tactically unwieldy and vulnerable from side or rear A phalanx (plural phalanxes or phalanges) is a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears... Maniple (Latin: manipulus) was a tactical unit of the Roman Legion, consisting of two centuriae within a single cohort. ...


In the middle of the Republic, legions were composed of the following units:

  • Equites (cavalry): The cavalry was originally the most prestigious unit, where wealthy young Roman men displayed their skill and prowess, laying the foundation for an eventual political career. Cavalry equipment was purchased by each of the cavalrymen and consisted of a round shield, helmet, body armour, sword and one or more lances. The cavalry was outnumbered in the legion. In a total of circa 3000 men, (plus the velites that normally enlarged the number to about 4200), the legion had only around 300 horsemen, divided into 10 units of 30 men. These men were commanded by decurions. In addition to heavy cavalry, there would be the light cavalry levied from poor citizens and wealthy young citizens not old enough to be in the hastati or the equites. In battle, they were used to disrupt and outflank enemy infantry formations and to fight off enemy cavalry. In the latter type of engagement they would often (though not always) dismount some or all of the horsemen to fight a stationary battle on foot, an unusual tactic for the time, but one that offered significant advantages in stability and agility in a time before stirrups. [1]
  • Velites (light infantry): The velites were mainly poorer citizens who couldn't afford to equip themselves properly. Their primary function was to act as skirmishers - javelin-throwers who would engage the enemy early in order either to harass them or to cover the movement of troops behind them. After throwing their javelins they would retreat through the gaps between the maniples, screened from the attack of the enemy by the heavy infantry lines. With the shortage of cavalry in the army of the early to mid Republican army, the velites were also used as scouts. They did not have a precise formal organization or formation.
  • Heavy infantry: This was the principal unit of the legion. The heavy infantry was composed of citizen legionaries that could afford the equipment composed of an iron helmet, shield, armour and pilum, a heavy javelin whose range was about 30 meters. after 387 the preferred weapon for the hastati and principes was the gladius, a short sword. Their hobnailed sandals (caligae) were also an effective weapon against a fallen enemy. Prior to the Marian reforms (see below) the heavy infantry was subdivided, according to the legionaries' experience, into three separate lines:
    • The hastati (sing. hastatus) were the youngest, less reliable troops.
    • The principes (sing. princeps), men in their prime ages (late twenties to early thirties).
    • The triarii (sing. triarius) were the veteran soldiers; only in extreme situations would they be used in battle and rested one knee down when unengaged. They were equipped with spears rather than the pilum and gladius (the hastati and pricipes stopped using them during 387 bc), so they fought in a phalanx, and the sight of an advanced shield wall in front of them discouraged exultant enemies pursuing hastati and principes. To fall upon the triarii was a Roman idiom meaning to use ones last resort.

Each of these three lines was subdivided into maniples, each consisting of two centuries of 60 men commanded by the senior of the two centurions. Centuries were normally 60 soldiers each at this time in the hastati and principes (no longer 100 men), with 120 strong maniples. There were generally 10 maniples of hastati 10 maniples of principes and 10 triarii, plus about 1200 velites and 300 cavalry which wre as mentioned many times before made of 10 units 30 men strong, giving the mid republican legion a nominal strength of about 4200. Later on when the legions undertook the marian reforms and was made up of 80 strong centuries each century had its standard and was made up of ten units called contubernia. In a contubernium, there would be eight soldiers who shared a tent, millstone, a mule and cooking pot (depending on duration of tour). Because maniples were their main tactical elements, the legions of the early Republic are sometimes referred to as Manipular legions. An Equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites) was a member of one of the two upper social classes in the Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... The term lance has become a catchall for a variety of different pole weapons based on the spear. ... A decurion was a cavalry officer in command of a troop or turma of thirty soldiers in the army of the Roman Empire. ... “Flanking” redirects here. ... Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period, Japan. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Traditionally light infantry (or skirmishers) were soldiers whose job was to provide a skirmishing screen ahead of the main body of infantry, harassing and delaying the enemy advance. ... Traditionally light infantry (or skirmishers) were soldiers whose job was to provide a skirmishing screen ahead of the main body of infantry, harassing and delaying the enemy advance. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Heavy infantry refers to heavily armed and armoured ground troops, as opposed to medium or light infantry, in which the warriors are relatively lightly-armoured. ... Reconstruction of a post-Marian pilum A Roman coin showing Antoninianus of Carinus holding pilum and globe. ... This article is about the sword. ... Caligae (Latin; singular Caliga) are heavy military sandals as worn in ancient Rome. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The plural of the Latin word princeps. ... The Triarii (Latin singular triarius) was the third standard line of infantry of the Roman Republics army. ... An idiom is an expression (i. ... Maniple (Latin: manipulus) was a tactical unit of the Roman Legion, consisting of two centuriae within a single cohort. ... Centuria (Latin plural Centuriae) is a Latin substantive rooting in centum a hundred, denoting units consisting of (originally, approximatively) a 100 men. ... Centurion can mean: In the military: Centurion (Roman army), a professional officer of the Roman army who commanded a large amount of men. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Cookware and bakeware. ...


Late Republic (107-30BC)

Main article: Marian reforms
See also List of Roman legions for details of notable late Republican legions

Following the Marian reforms of the 2nd century BC, the legions took on the second, narrower meaning that is familiar in the popular imagination as close-order citizen heavy infantry. The Marian reforms of 107 BC were a group of military reforms initiated by Gaius Marius, a statesman and general of the Roman republic. ... This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion. ...


At the end of the 2nd century BC Gaius Marius reformed the previously ephemeral legions as a professional force drawing from the poorest classes, enabling Rome to field larger armies and providing employment for jobless citizens of the city of Rome. However, this put the loyalty of the soldiers in the hands of their general rather than Rome itself. In this period all Italian regions obtained full Roman citizenship and provided a larger basis for the army, supplemented by poor urban Romans. So-called “Marius”, Munich Glyptothek (Inv. ...


The legions of the Late Republic and Early Empire are often called Marian legions. Following the Battle of Vercellae in 101 BC, Marius granted all Italian soldiers Roman citizenship. He justified this action to the Senate by saying that in the din of battle he could not distinguish Roman from ally. This effectively eliminated the notion of allied legions; henceforth all Italian legions would be regarded as Roman Legions, and full Roman citizenship was open to all the regions of Italy. Thus the three different types of heavy infantry were replaced by a single, standard type based on the Principes: armed with two heavy javelins called pila, the short sword called gladius, chain mail (lorica hamata) or banded armour (lorica segmentata), helmet and rectangular shield (scutum). Combatants Cimbri Roman Republic Commanders King Boiorix † Marius Lutatius Catulus Sulla Strength 160,000 - over 200,000 50,000 (8 legions with cavalry and auxillaries) Casualties 100,000 - 140,000 killed 60,000 captured Insignificant, probably under 1,000 The Battle of Vercellae, also called The Battle of the Raudine... Detail of metal links. ... A reenactor dressed as a Roman soldier in lorica segmentata The lōrīca segmentāta was a type of armour primarily used in the Roman Empire, but the Latin name was first used in the 16th century (the ancient form is unknown). ... Praetorian Guardsmen with curved oval scuta. ...


The role of allied legions would eventually be taken up by contingents of allied auxiliary troops, called Auxilia. Each legion had an auxilia of similar size, which contained specialist units, engineers and pioneers, artillerymen and craftsmen, service and support personnel and irregular units made up of non-citizens, mercenaries and local militia. These were usually formed into complete units such as light cavalry, light infantry or velites, and labourers. There was also a reconnaissance squad of 10 or more light mounted infantry called speculatores who could also serve as messengers or even as an early form of military intelligence service. Traditionally light infantry (or skirmishers) were soldiers whose job was to provide a skirmishing screen ahead of the main body of infantry, harassing and delaying the enemy advance. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... In the fire service a Squad is a Engine Company with a compliment of rescue tools. ... Mounted infantry were soldiers who rode horses instead of marching, but actually fought on foot with muskets or rifles. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ...


As part of the Marian reforms, the legions' internal organization was standardized. Each legion was divided into cohorts. Prior to this, cohorts had been temporary administrative units or tactical task forces of several maniples, even more transitory than that of the legions of the early republic themselves. Now the cohorts were ten permanent units, composed of 6 and in the case of the first cohort 8 centuries each led by a centurion assisted by an optio, a soldier who could read and write. These came to form the basic tactical unit of the legions. The senior centurion of the legion was called the primus pilus, a career soldier and advisor to the legate that sometimes was promoted to the higher rank. A cohort (from the Latin cohors, plural cohortes) is a fairly large military unit, generally consisting of one type of soldier. ... An optio (from the Latin verb optare, to choose, because an optio was chosen by his centurion) was a soldier in the Roman army who held a position similar to that of a non-commissioned officer in modern armies. ... The Primus Pilus was a member of a Roman legion. ...


Every legion had a baggage train of 640 mules or about 1 mule for every 8 legionaries. To keep these baggage trains from becoming too large and slow, Marius had each infantryman carry as much of his own equipment as he could, including his own armour, weapons and 15 days' rations, for about 25-30 kg (50–60 pounds) of load total. To make this easier, he issued each legionary a forked stick to carry their loads on their shoulders. The soldiers were nicknamed Marius' Mules due to the amount of gear they had to carry themselves. This arrangement allowed for the supply train to become detached from the main body of the legion, thus greatly increasing the army's speed while on the march.


A typical legion of this period had 5,120 legionaries as well as a large number of camp followers, servants and slaves. Legions could contain as many as 6,000 fighting men when including the auxiliaries, although much later in Roman history the number was reduced to 1,040 to allow for greater mobility. Numbers would also vary depending on casualties suffered during a campaign; Julius Caesar's legions during his campaign in Gaul often only had around 3,500 men. For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ...


Tactics were slightly different from the past, but largely improved due to the professional training of the soldiers.

A re-enactor as a Roman centurion, c. 70.
A re-enactor as a Roman centurion, c. 70.
A re-enactor, showing a Roman miles, (2nd century).
A re-enactor, showing a Roman miles, (2nd century).

After the Marian reforms, and throughout the history of Rome's Late Republic, the legions played an important political role. By the 1st century BC the threat of the legions under a demagogue was recognized. Governors were not allowed to leave their provinces with their legions. When Julius Caesar broke this rule, leaving his province of Gaul and crossing the Rubicon into Italy, he precipitated a constitutional crisis. This crisis and the civil wars which followed brought an end to the Republic and led to the foundation of the Empire under Augustus in 27 BC. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (801x1827, 269 KB) Roman Centurio 70 a. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (801x1827, 269 KB) Roman Centurio 70 a. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s - 110s - 120s 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 Note: Sometimes the 70s is used as shorthand for the 1970s, the 1870s, or other such decades in other centuries... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (552x945, 230 KB) Other versions Originally from en. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (552x945, 230 KB) Other versions Originally from en. ... Roman legionaries, 1st century. ... A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief adminstator of Roman law throughout one or more of Ancient Romes many provinces. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Presumed course of the Rubicon For other uses, see Rubicon (disambiguation). ... A constitutional crisis is a severe breakdown in the smooth operation of government. ... There were several Roman civil wars, especially during the time of the late Republic. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... ojuooiuououoieerwerwerwerwerwwe Year 27 BC was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...

Roman Legions camps (80 AD)
Roman Legions camps (80 AD)

Image File history File links Roman_Legions_camps_-_AD_80. ... Image File history File links Roman_Legions_camps_-_AD_80. ...

Early Empire (30 BC-284 AD)

See Directory of Roman legions of the early Empire This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion. ...


For political and economic reasons, Augustus reduced the number of legions from nearly 50 at the end of his war against Mark Antony to only 28 which decomposed to 25 after the battle of teutorburg forest in which 3 legions were slaughtered. Generals during the recent Republican civil wars had formed their own legions and numbered them as they wished. When these wars ended, Augustus was left with around fifty legions, with several double counts (multiple Legio X's for instance). Beside streamlining the army, and regulating the soldiers' pay, he corrected these numbering anomalies. During this time, there was a high incidence of Gemina (twin) legions, where two legions were consolidated into a single organization (and was later made official and put under a dux and six duces. Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ...


At the same time, he greatly increased the number of auxiliaries to the point where they were equal in number to the legionaries. He also created the Praetorian Guard along with a permanent navy where served the liberti, or freed slaves. The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... Roman trireme, a warship, 31 BC. Note the bank of oars (two on the hidden side), the square-rigged sails, the steering oars, the tower on deck, the ram at the prow, the ballistae and the Greek fire. ...


Augustus' military policies proved sound and cost effective, and were generally followed by his successors. These emperors would carefully add new legions, as circumstances required or permitted, until the strength of the standing army stood at around 30 legions. With each legion having 5,120 legionaries usually supported by an equal number of auxiliary troops, the total force available to a legion commander during the Pax Romana probably ranged from 153,600 downwards, with the more prestigious legions and those stationed on hostile borders or in restive provinces tending to have greater auxilarys. Some legions may have even been reinforced at times with units making the associated force near 15,000–16,000 or about the size of a modern division. Roman Empire at its greatest extent with the conquests of Trajan Pax Romana, Latin for the Roman peace (sometimes Pax Augusta), was the long period of relative peace and minimal expansion by military force experienced by the Roman Empire between 27 BC and 180 AD. Augustus Caesar led Rome into... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ...


Throughout the imperial era, the legions played an important political role. Their actions could secure the empire for a usurper or take it away. For example, the defeat of Vitellius in the Year of the Four Emperors was decided when the Danubian legions chose to support Vespasian. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Usurpers were a common feature of the late Roman Empire, especially from the so-called crisis of the third century onwards, when political instability became the rule. ... Aulus Vitellius (September 24, 15 – December 22, 69), also called Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Augustus, was Roman Emperor from April 17, 69 to December 22 of the same year, one of the emperors in the Year of the Four Emperors (the others being Galba, Otho, and Vespasian). ... The Year of the Four Emperors was a year in the history of the Roman Empire, 69, in which four emperors ruled in a remarkable succession. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ...


In the empire, the legion was standardized, with symbols and an individual history where men were proud to serve. The legion was commanded by a legatus or legate. Aged around thirty, he would usually be a senator on a three year appointment. Immediately subordinate to the legate would be six elected military tribunes — five would be staff officers and the remaining one would be a noble heading for the Senate (originally this tribune commanded the legion). There would also be a group of officers for the medical staff, the engineers, record-keepers, the praefectus castrorum (commander of the camp) and other specialists such as priests and musicians. A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ...


Late Empire (from 284)

A re-enactor, portraying a legionary at the end of the 3rd century
A re-enactor, portraying a legionary at the end of the 3rd century
See List of Roman legions for catalogue of late Empire legions

In the Later Roman Empire, the number of legions was increased and the Roman Army expanded. There is no evidence to suggest that legions changed in form before the Tetrarchy, although there is evidence that they were smaller than the paper strengths usually quoted. The final form of the legion originated with the elite legiones palatinae created by Diocletian and the Tetrarchs. These were infantry units of around 1,000 men rather than the 5,000, including cavalry, of the old Legions. The earliest legiones palatinae were the Lanciarii, Joviani, Herculiani and Divitenses. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x3456, 1552 KB) Roman soldier end of third Century from a northern province. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x3456, 1552 KB) Roman soldier end of third Century from a northern province. ... This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion. ... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... The principate of the Roman empire had no use for the republican army with its intense loyalties to competing generals. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... Imperial guard of the Emperors of the Roman Empire from 284 until 988 The Praetorian Guard were based at Castra Praetoria just outside Rome, and during the reign of the Emperor Diocletian were in league with the Roman Senate. ...


The 4th century saw a very large number of new, small legions created, a process which began under Constantine II. In addition to the elite palatinae, other legions called comitatenses and pseudocomitatenses, along with the auxilia palatina, provided the infantry of late Roman armies. The Notitia Dignitatum lists 25 legiones palatinae, 70 legiones comitatenses, 47 legiones pseudocomitatenses and 111 auxilia palatina in the field armies, and a further 47 legiones in the frontier armies.[2] Legion names such as Honoriani and Gratianenses found in the Notitia suggest that the process of creating new legions continued through the 4th century rather than being a single event. The names also suggest that many new legions were formed from vexillationes or from old legions. Flavius Claudius Constantinus, known in English as Constantine II, (316 – 340) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 340. ... Comitatenses is the Latin plural of comitatensis, originally the adjective derived from comitatus (company, party, suite; in this military context it came to the novel meaning of the field army), itself rooting in Comes (companion, but hence specific historical meanings, military and civilian). ... Auxilia palatina is the technical name in Roman history for infantry units first raised by Constantine the Great as part of the new field army he created in about 325 AD. Some of the senior and probably oldest of these units had special names such as Cornuti or Brachiati; others... The Notitia Dignitatum is a unique document of the Roman imperial chanceries. ... Flavius Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Roman Emperor (393- 395) and then Western Roman Emperor from 395 until his death. ... A coin of Gratian. ... A Vexillatio was a detachment of a Roman legion usually consisting of about 1000 infantry and/or 500 cavalry. ...


According to the late Roman writer Vegetius' De Re Militari, each century had a ballista and each cohort had an onager, giving the legion a formidable siege train of 59 Ballistae and 10 Onagers each manned by 10 libritors (artillerymen) and mounted on wagons drawn by oxen or mules. In addition to attacking cities and fortifications, these would be used to help defend Roman forts and fortified camps (castra) as well. They would even be employed on occasion, especially in the later Empire, as field artillery during battles or in support of river crossings. Vegetius (Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus) was a celebrated military writer of the 4th century. ... De Re Militari (Latin On military matters) was a treatise of late Roman warfare that became a military guide in the middle ages. ... The ballista (Latin, from Greek ballistēs, from ballein to throw, plural ballistae) was a powerful ancient crossbow, although employing several loops of twisted skeins to power it, it used torsion (instead of a prod). ... Sketch of an Onager, from Antique technology by Diels. ... Basic ideal plan of a Roman castrum. ... Union Army gun squad at drill, c. ...


Legionary officers

Aside from the rank and file legionary (who received the base wage of 10 asses a day or 225 denarii a year), the following list describes the system of officers which developed within the legions from the Marian reforms (104 BC) until the military reforms of Diocletian (circa 290). The As (plural Asses) was a bronze, and later copper, coin used during the Roman Republic and Roman Empire, named after the homonymous weight unit (12 unciae = ounces), but not immune to weight depreciation. ... First row : c. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ...


Senior officers

  • Dux: A title of the later empire, or dominate, referring to a general in charge of two or more provincial military units. While the title of dux could refer to a Consul or Imperator, it usually referred to the commander-in-chief of the limitaneii garrisoned within a province.
  • Legatus legionis: The overall legionary commander. The post was usually filled by a senator, appointed by the emperor, who held command for 3 or 4 years, although he could serve for a much longer period. In a Roman province with only one legion, the legatus was also the provincial governor and in provinces with multiple legions, each legion had a legatus and the provincial governor had overall command of them all.[citations needed]
  • Tribunus laticlavius: Named for the broad striped toga worn by men of senatorial rank, this tribune was appointed by the emperor or the Senate. Though generally quite young and less experienced than the tribuni angusticlavii, he served as second in command of the legion, behind the legate. Due to his age and inexperience he was not the actual second in command in battle, but if the legate died he would take command of the legion. This tribunate was often a first, but optional, step in a young man's senatorial career (see cursus honorum). [3]
  • Praefectus castrorum: The camp prefect. Generally he was a long serving veteran who previously had served as primus pilus and finished his 25 years with the legions. He was the battle commander and actual second in command of the legion, although he was of lower social status than the tribunii.
  • Tribuni angusticlavii: Each legion had five military tribunes of equestrian (knight) class citizens. They served as staff officers of the legion, but also performed duties such as commander of a detachment from the legion.[citations needed]
  • Primus pilus: The "first spear" (literal translation) was the commanding centurion of the first cohort and the senior centurion of the entire legion. This was the highest rank that a career officer could achieve in the 25 years he served. When the primus pilus retired he would most likely gain entry into the equestrian class. He was paid 60 times the base wage.

The Misspeling of Ducks ... The Dominate was the despotic last of the two phases of government in the ancient Roman Empire between its establishment in 27 BC and the formal date of the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476. ... This article is about the Roman rank. ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief adminstator of Roman law throughout one or more of Ancient Romes many provinces. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The cursus honorum (Latin: course of honours) was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Empire. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ... The Primus Pilus was a member of a Roman legion. ...

Mid-level officers

  • Pilus prior: The first centurions of each of the ten Cohorts were called pilus prior and were the most senior centurion within their respective cohort. While the legion was in battle formation, the Pilus Prior was given command of the entire cohort, with each of the centurions as his lieutenants. The Primus Pilus was also a Pilus Prior, and the most senior of all the centurions within the legion. These positions were usually held by experienced veteran soldiers who had been moved up within the ranks. This rank is subordinate to the Primus Pilus.
  • Primi ordines: The five centurions of the first cohort, and included the primus pilus. They, excluding the primus pilus, were paid 30 times the base wage. This rank is senior to all other centurions, save the primus pilus and pilus prior.
  • Centuriones: Each legion had 59 or 60 centurions, one to command each century of the 10 cohorts. They were the backbone of the professional army and were the career soldiers who ran the day to day life of the soldiers and issued commands in the field. They were generally moved up from the ranks, but in some cases could be direct appointments from the Emperor or other higher ranking officials. The cohorts were ranked from the first to the tenth and the century within each cohort ranked from 1 to 6, with only 5 centuries in the first cohort (for a total of 59 centurions and the primus pilus). The century that each centurion commanded was a direct reflection of his rank: command of the first century of the first cohort was the highest, and the 6th century of the 10th cohort was the lowest. Comparing the centurion to modern military ranks is problematic, as the century falls somewhere between modern platoon size (30-40 soldiers, depending on nationality), and modern company size (100-200 soldiers, depending on nationality). This would make a centurion the approximate equivalent of a British Army Second Lieutenant or Major, or in the United States Army a Second Lieutenant or Captain. Paid ten times the basic wage.
  • Optio: One for each centurion (59-60), they were appointed by the centurion from within the ranks to act as his second in command. Paid twice the basic wage.

Centuria (Latin plural Centuriae) is a Latin substantive rooting in centum a hundred, denoting units consisting of (originally, approximatively) a 100 men. ... Platoon of the German Bundeswehr. ... Standard NATO code for a friendly infantry company. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... For other uses, see Captain (disambiguation). ... An optio (from the Latin verb optare, to choose, because an optio was chosen by his centurion) was a soldier in the Roman army who held a position similar to that of a non-commissioned officer in modern armies. ...

Low-level officers

  • Duplicarius: An officer paid double the basic pay.
  • Tesserarius: (Guard commander) Again there were 59 of these, or one for each century. They acted seconds to the Optios. Paid one and a half times the basic wage.
  • Decurion: Commanded a cavalry unit of 10 to 30 Eques legionis.
  • Decanus: Commanded a contubernium or eight man tent party.

A duplicarius was an officer of the Roman legions receiving double the basic pay Categories: | | ... The Contubernium was smallest group of soilders in the Roman Army. ...

Special duty posts

  • Aquilifer: A single position within the legion. The aquilifer was the legion's Standard or Aquila (eagle) bearer and was an enormously important and prestigious position. Losing the aquila was considered a great dishonour. This post therefore had to be filled with steady veteran soldiers, with an excellent understanding of the tactics of the legion. He was paid twice the basic wage.
  • Signifer: Each century had a signifer (59). He was responsible for the men's pay and savings, and the standard bearer for the centurial signum, a spear shaft decorated with medallions and often topped with an open hand to signify the oath of loyalty taken by the soldiers. It was this banner that the men from each individual century would rally around. A soldier could also gain the position of discentes signiferorum, or standard bearer in training. He was paid twice the basic wage.
  • Cornicen (Horn blower): Worked hand in hand with the signifer drawing the attention of the men to the centurial signum and issuing the audible commands of the officers.
  • Imaginifer: Carried the standard bearing the image of the Emperor as a constant reminder of the troops' loyalty to him.

An aquilifer was the standard bearer of a Roman legion. ... Denarius minted by Mark Antony to pay his legions. ... A Scarsdale High School title to make kids who do good in school feel good about themselves. ... From The Roman Army, by John Wilkes. ... The imaginifer was a type of signiferi of the later Roman legions, of similar rank as an aquilifer, who carried a standard with an image of the emperor. ...

Pay

From the time of Gaius Marius onwards, legionaries received 225 denarii a year; this basic rate remained unchanged until Domitian, who increased it to 300 denarii. In spite of the steady inflation during the 2nd century, there was no further rise until the time of Septimius Severus, who increased it to 500 denarii a year. This salary would be supplemented by the booty taken in a campaign. So-called “Marius”, Munich Glyptothek (Inv. ... First row : c. ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (b. ...


All legionary soldiers would also receive a sizeable sum of money on the completion of their term of service: 3000 denarii from the time of Augustus and/or a plot of good farmland (good land was in much demand). Later, under Caracalla, the praemia increased to 5000 denarii. For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Caracalla (April 4, 186 – April 8, 217) was Roman Emperor from 211 – 217. ...


Symbols

From 104 BC onwards, each legion used an aquila (eagle) as its standard symbol. The symbol was carried by an officer known as aquilifer, and its loss was considered to be a very serious embarrassment, and often led to the disbanding of the legion itself. Normally this was due to the fact that any legion incapable of regaining its eagle in battle was so severely mauled it was no longer a workable fighting force.[citation needed] Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 109 BC 108 BC 107 BC 106 BC 105 BC - 104 BC - 103 BC 102 BC... Denarius minted by Mark Antony to pay his legions. ... An aquilifer was the standard bearer of a Roman legion. ...


In Gallic War (Bk IV, Para. 25), Julius Caesar describes an incident at the start of his first invasion of Britain in 55BC that illustrated how fear for the safety of the eagle could drive Roman soldiers. When Caesar's troops hesitated to leave their ships for fear of the Britons, the aquilifer of the tenth legion threw himself overboard and, carrying the eagle, advanced alone against the enemy. His comrades, fearing disgrace, 'with one accord, leapt down from the ship' and were followed by troops from the other ships. Legio X Gemina, the twin legion, was levied by Julius Caesar on 58 BC, for his invasion of Gaul. ...


With the birth of the Roman Empire, the legions created a bond with their leader, the emperor himself. Each legion had another officer, called imaginifer, whose role was to carry a pike with the imago (image, sculpture) of the emperor as pontifex maximus. The imaginifer was a type of signiferi of the later Roman legions, of similar rank as an aquilifer, who carried a standard with an image of the emperor. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ...


Each legion, furthermore, had a vexillifer who carried a vexillum or signum, with the legion name and emblem depicted on it, unique to the legion. It was common for a legion to detach some sub-units from the main camp to strengthen other corps. In these cases, the detached subunits carried only the vexillum, and not the aquila, and were called, therefore, vexillationes. A miniature vexillum, mounted on a silver base, was sometimes awarded to officers as a recognition of their service upon retirement or reassignment. A Vexillatio was a detachment of a Roman legion usually consisting of about 1000 infantry and/or 500 cavalry. ...


Civilians could also be rewarded for their assistance to the Roman Legions. In return for outstanding service, a citizen was given an arrow without a head. The Arrow without a head was a Roman award for civilians . ...


Life in the legions

Discipline

The military discipline of the legions was quite harsh. Regulations were strictly enforced, and a broad array of punishments could be inflicted upon a legionary who broke them. Many legionaries became devotees in the cult of the minor goddess Disciplina, whose virtues of frugality, severity and loyalty were central to their code of conduct and way of life. As with most other military forces the Roman military adopted a carrot and stick approach to military, with an extensive list of decorations for military gallantry and likewise a range of punishments for the punishment of military transgressions. ... In Roman mythology, Disciplina was the personification of discipline. ...


Minor punishments

  • Castigatio - being hit by the centurion with his staff or animadversio fustium(Tac. Annals I, 23)
  • - Reduction of rations or to be forced to eat barley instead of the usual grain ration
  • Pecunaria multa - Reduction in pay, fines or deductions from the pay allowance
  • - Flogging in front of the century, cohort or legion
  • - Whipping with the flagrum (flagellum, flagella), or "short whip" — a much more brutal punishment than simple flogging. The "short whip" was used for slave volunteers, volones, who comprised the majority of the army in the later years of the Roman Empire.
  • Gradus deiectio - Reduction in rank
  • Missio ignominiosa - Dishonourable discharge
  • - Loss of time in service advantages
  • Militiae mutatio - Relegation to inferior service or duties.
  • Munerum indictio - Additional duties

A scourge (from the Italian scoriada, ultimately from the Latin excoriare = to flay and corium = skin) is a whip or lash, especially a multi-tong type used in order to inflict severe corporal punishment or self-mortification on the back. ...

Major punishments

  • Fustuarium — a sentence for desertion or dereliction of duty. The legionary would be stoned or beaten to death by cudgels, in front of the assembled troops, by his fellow soldiers, whose lives had been put in danger. Soldiers under sentence of fustuarium who escaped were not pursued, but lived under sentence of banishment from Rome.
  • Decimation — a sentence carried out against an entire unit which had mutinied, deserted, or shown dereliction of duty. One out of every ten men would be put to death, and the rest of the men would be forced to live outside the camp and in some instances obliged to renew the military oath, the sacramentum.

The fustuarium (an abstraction from the Latin fustis, a branch or rod) was a Roman military form of execution by cudgeling, which was copied by later armies. ... Decimation (Latin: decimatio) was a form of extreme military discipline used by officers in the Roman Army to punish mutinous or cowardly soldiers. ... BIOGRAPHY SACRAMENTUM was formed by Nisse Karlén (vocals/guitar) in the summer of 1990 under the name of Tumulus. ...

Factors in the legion's success

  • As Montesquieu wrote, "[I]t should be noted that the main reason for the Romans becoming masters of the world was that, having fought successively against all peoples, they always gave up their own practices as soon as they found better ones."[4]
    Examples of ideas that were copied and adapted include weapons like the gladius (Spanish Iberians) and warship design (Carthaginians), as well as military units such as heavy mounted cavalry and mounted archers (Persians).
  • Roman organization was more flexible than those of many opponents. Over time, the legions effectively handled challenges ranging from cavalry, to guerrillas, to siege warfare.
  • Roman discipline, organization and systematization sustained combat effectiveness over a longer period. These elements appear throughout the legion in training, logistics, field fortification etc.
  • The Romans were more persistent and more willing to absorb and replace losses over time than their opponents. Wars with Carthage, the Parthians and barbarian forces illustrate this.
  • Roman leadership was mixed, but over time it was often effective in securing Roman military success.
  • The influence of Roman military and civic culture, as embodied particularly in the heavy infantry legion, gave the Roman military consistent motivation and cohesion.
  • Strict, and more importantly, uniform discipline made commanding, maintaining, and replacing Roman legionaries a much more consistent exercise. Roman opponents tended to be tribal peoples without military science.
  • Roman military equipment, particularly armour, was far more ubiquitous and heavy, especially in the late Republican / Early Imperial era, than that of most of their opponents. Soldiers equipped with shields, helmets and highly effective body armor had a major advantage over warriors protected, in many cases, with nothing other than their shields, particularly in a prolonged engagement.
  • Roman Engineering skills were second to none in the ancient world, and their mastery of both offensive and defensive siege warfare, specifically the construction and investiture of fortifications, was another major advantage for the Roman Legions.

Montesquieu can refer to: Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu Several communes of France: Montesquieu, in the Hérault département Montesquieu, in the Lot-et-Garonne département Montesquieu, in the Tarn-et-Garonne département This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... This article is about the sword. ... Military science concerns itself with the study of the diverse technical, psychological, and practical phenomena that encompass the events that make up warfare, especially armed combat. ...

See also

Military of ancient Rome Portal

Download high resolution version (1932x1288, 436 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Roman infantry tactics refers to the theoretical and historical deployment, formation and maneuvers of the Roman infantry from the start of the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Roman military personal equipment was produced in large numbers to established patterns and used in an established way. ... Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = supports) formed the standing non-citizen corps of the Roman army of the Principate (30 BC - 284 AD), alongside the citizen legions. ... The following is a List of Roman wars fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, organized by date. ... The following is a List of Roman battles (fought by the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire), organized by date. ... This is a list of topics related to ancient Rome that aims to include aspects of both the ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion. ... This is a catalogue of Roman auxiliary regiments of the Principate period (30BC - 284 AD) for which inscriptions have been found. ... See: Structural history of the Roman military The branches of the Roman military at the highest level were the Roman army and the Roman navy. ... The branches of the Roman military at the highest level were the Roman army and the Roman navy. ...

References

  • History of the Art of War. Vol 1. Ancient Warfare, Hans Delbrück
  • Roman Warfare, Adrian Goldsworthy
  • History of Warfare, John Keegan
  • The Roman Army and Greece and Rome at War, Peter Connolly
  • The Encyclopedia Of Military History: From 3500 B.C. To The Present. (2nd Revised Edition 1986), R. Ernest Dupuy, and Trevor N. Dupuy.
  • War, Gwynne Dyer.
  • The Evolution of Weapons and Warfare, Trevor N. Dupuy.
  • Flavius Vegetius Renatus, De Re Militari (with English translation on-line)
  • Julius Caesar, The Gallic War
  • William Smith, D.C.L., LL.D.: A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, John Murray, London, 1875.
  • The Punic Wars, Adrian Goldsworthy.
  • Carnage and Culture, Victor Davis Hanson
  • The Fall of the Roman Empire: The Military Explanation, by Arther Ferrill, 1988
  • The Complete Roman Army, by Adrian Goldsworthy
  • The Military System Of The Romans, by Albert Harkness
  • From the Rise of the Republic and the Might of the Empire to the Fall of the West, by Nigel Rodgers

Hans Delbrück, 1848-1929 Hans Delbrück (November 11, 1848 - July 14, 1929), German historian, was born at Bergen on the island of Rügen, and studied at the universities of Heidelberg and Bonn. ... Adrian Goldsworthy (born 1969) is a British historian and military writer. ... Sir John Keegan OBE (born 1934) is a British military historian, lecturer and journalist. ... Peter Connolly (born 1935) is a renowned British scholar of the ancient world, Greek and Roman military equipment historian and artist. ... Vegetius (Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus) was a celebrated military writer of the 4th century. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Arther Ferrill, now a professor emeritus of history at the University of Washington at Seattle[1], is also a respected expert on Ancient Rome and military history. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Mccall, Jeremiah B. The Cavalry of the Roman Republic: Cavalry Combat and Elite Reputations in the Middle and Late Republic. (New York, Routledge, 2002) pp. 53ff
  2. ^ Totals from summary of Notitia Dignitatum in Richardot, Philippe, La fin de l'armée romaine 284-476 [3rd ed.] Economica, 2005. ISBN 2-7178-4861-4 .
  3. ^ Birley, Anthony R. Septimius Severus: The African Emperor. (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1989) p. 40
  4. ^ Montesquieu C., Considerations on the Causes of the Greatness of the Romans and Their Decline, Hacket, 1999, p.24

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Roman Legion

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Reenactors of the American Civil War Historical reenactment is an activity in which participants recreate some aspects of a historical event or period. ... This article is about the term as used among historical reenactors. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Roman legion Summary (7856 words)
Much of Roman history of this era is founded on legends, but it is believed that during the reign of Servius Tullius, all Roman able-bodied, property-owning male citizens were first divided into five classes for military service based on wealth, since soldiers provided their own weapons and equipment.
With each legion having 4,000–6000 legionaries usually supported by an equal number of auxiliary troops, the total force available to a legion commander during the Pax Romana probably ranged from 8,000–12,000 (With the more prestigious legions and those stationed on hostile borders or in restive provinces tending to be larger).
In a Roman province with only one legion, the Legatus was also the provincial governor and in provinces with multiple legions, each legion had a Legatus and the provincial governor had overall command of them all.
Roman legion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4914 words)
The size of a typical legion varied widely throughout the history of ancient Rome, with complements ranging from 5000-6000 men in the republican period of Rome, to the fairly standard number of around 5,400 in the early and middle imperial period and finally to on average 1000-2000 men in the very late imperial period.
Much of Roman history of this era is founded on legends, but it is believed that during the reign of Servius Tullius, all Roman able-bodied, property-owning male citizens were first divided into five classes for military service based on wealth, since soldiers provided their own weapons and equipment.
With each legion having 4,000–6000 legionaries usually supported by an equal number of auxiliary troops, the total force available to a legion commander during the Pax Romana probably ranged from 8,000–12,000, with the more prestigious legions and those stationed on hostile borders or in restive provinces tending to be larger.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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