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Encyclopedia > Roman invasion of Britain

Roman invasion of Britain: Britain was the target of invasion by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire several times during its history. In common with other regions on the edge of the empire, Britain had long enjoyed trading links with the Romans and their economic and cultural influence was a significant part of the British late pre-Roman Iron Age, especially in the south. See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Roman Empire between AD 60 and 400 with major cities. ...

Contents

Julius Caesar: 55 BC

In 55 BC, Julius Caesar landed on the coast, perhaps in what was intended as a reconnaissance mission. During his campaigns in Gaul, as recorded in Gallic Wars, he had determined that the Gauls were receiving aid from Britain. Towards the end of the summer, he decided that it would be useful to get some reliable information about the people, localities and harbours of the island, since little useful information was available from the Gauls or the merchants who visited it. First he sent out Caius Volusenus in a ship of war to investigate the coast, while in the meantime assembling a fleet of ships and settling an uprising by the Morini tribe of Gaul. Within days he received ambassadors from British tribes, promising that they would give hostages and submit to the Romans. He received them favourably and sent them back with Commius of the Atrebates, whom he thought would be influentual in Britain. Volusenus reported back after five days. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52... Painting of Gaius Julius Caesar Bust of Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (Latin: C·IVLIVS·C·F·C·N·CAESAR¹) (July 12 or July 13, 100 BC – March 15, 44 BC) was a Roman military and political leader whose conquest of Gallia Comata extended the Roman world all the way... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The Gallic Wars were a series of wars fought between the Romans and the people of Gaul during the first century BC which ended with the expansion of the Roman Republic across Gaul. ... Caius Volusenus was a Roman tribune under Julius Caesar. ... Morini was a tribe of gauls-page not finished Categories: Articles to be expanded | Gauls ... The Atrebates (meaning settlers) were a Belgic tribe of Gaul and Britain before the Roman conquests. ...


Caesar's fleet comprised about 80 transport ships for two legions. He also had ships of war and 18 ships of burden for his cavalry. Caesar sailed for Britain with the legions, but did not land immediately, since the British forces had gathered on the hills overlooking the shore and his cavalry had been delayed. After waiting at anchor for several hours, he sailed about seven miles to a place with an open shore. However the British under the leadership of Cassivelaunus, using cavalry and chariots, were able to follow the progress of the fleet and attacked the Romans as they attempted to land. The Romans were disadvantaged by the need to disembark in deep water due to the size of the ships, while the British attacked from the shallows. However the British were eventually driven back with projectiles fired from the ships of war and the Romans managed to land and drive them off. The Romans established a camp and received ambassadors, and meeting again Commius who had been seized on arrival. Caesar demanded hostages: however a storm forced his still delayed cavalry back to the continent and many of his ships were damaged on the beach. With the Romans presumed to be disheartened and short of provisions, the British took the opportunity to renew the attack, ambushing one of the legions as it foraged near the Roman camp, making use of a form of cavalry attack that was novel to the Romans. However they were relieved by the remainder of the Roman force and the British were dispersed once again. After several days of storms, the British regrouped with larger forces. On attacking the Romans they were once again defeated, with a large number killed in retreat and the Romans laying waste to the surrounding area. Once again the British sent ambassadors, this time Caesar demanded double the number of hostages, to be delivered to Gaul (only two tribes eventually made good this promise). With the equinox drawing near, the Romans returned to Gaul. See also Legion software and Legion forummer. ... An army unit consisting of mounted soldiers are commonly known as cavalry. ... Cassivelaunus was a historical British chieftain who led the defence against Britain in 54 BC. He also appears in British legend as one of Geoffrey of Monmouths kings of Britain, and in the Mabinogion and Welsh Triads as Caswallawn, Caswallon or Kaswallawn, son of Beli. ... Chariot was the name of a WW2 naval weapon, the British manned torpedo. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox In astronomy, an equinox is defined as the moment when the sun reaches one of two intersections between the ecliptic and the celestial equator. ...


Julius Caesar: 54 BC

In 54 BC, Caesar returned with a larger force. According to some historians, this fleet included some 800 ships. Men of all ranks across the Roman Republic swarmed to join the expedition. This invasion was a greater success than the previous effort as new ships with shallower hulls were constructed to assist in the landing effort and the Romans were more familiar with the terrain and the combat tactics used by the natives. As this was not a territorial invasion the end of the summer saw the Roman troops embarked for the continent. Tribute and hostages were presented to Caesar, and the Roman conquest of Britain would not commence for almost another century. Note, the invasion could only last a season as Caesar was preparing for the emerging conflict amongst the First Triumvirate and growing unrest in his actual area of command, the conquest and submission of Gaul. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51...


Aulus Plautius: AD 43

The main (and most successful) invasion, occurred during the reign of the emperor Claudius. In 43, Aulus Plautius was appointed by Claudius as the general in charge of 4 Roman legions to invade Britain. The four legions were: Emperor Claudius Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar Drusus (August 1, 10 BC _ October 13, 54), originally known as Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus, was the fourth Roman Emperor of the Julio_Claudian dynasty, ruling from January 24th 41 to his death in 54. ... For alternate uses, see Number 43. ... Aulus Plautius (lived 1st century) was the first governor of Roman Britain, serving from 43 to 47. ... See also Legion software and Legion forummer. ...

These totalled about 20,000 men. In addition there were also about the same number of auxiliaries in the invasion force. Legio II Augusta was a Roman legion. ... Emperor Vespasian Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (November 18, CE 9 – June 23, 79), originally known as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and best known as Vespasian, was the emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... Legio IX Hispana was a Roman legion probably levied by Julius Caesar before 58 BC, for his Gallic wars. ... Legio XIV Gemina Martia Victrix was a legion of the Roman Empire created by Octavian. ... Legio XX Valeria Victrix was a Roman legion, probably raised by Augustus sometime after 31 BC. It served in Spain, Illyricum, and Germany before participating in the invasion of Britain in 43 AD, where it remained and was active until at least the beginning of the 4th century. ...


The main landing is thought to have been at Richborough, in modern Kent in south east England; Some archaeologists have questioned the evidence for this, and believe that at least part of the force may have come via another route, eg. the Solent. The evidence for Richborough is persuasive however; the huge Claudian period camp there indicates it was the invasion's bridgehead. Dio Cassius' description of the landscape also closely resembles the flat countryside of East Kent. A secondary force probably landed on the Hampshire coast to assist Verica however. Kent is a county in England, south-east of London. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Satellite image showing the Solent, separating the Isle of Wight from mainland Britain The Solent is a stretch of sea separating the Isle of Wight from the mainland of Great Britain. ... Dio Cassius Cocceianus ( 155–after 229), known in English as Dio Cassius or Cassius Dio, was a noted Roman historian and public servant. ... Hampshire is a county on the south coast of England. ... Verica (early 1st Century AD) was a British client king of the Roman Empire in the years preceding the Claudian invasion of 43AD. From his coinage, he appears to have been king of the Atrebates tribe and a descendant of Commius. ...


British resistance was led by the sons of King Cunobelinus (Cymbeline in Shakespeare's play), Togodumnus and Caratacus. A substantial British force met the Romans at a river crossing thought to be near Rochester on the River Medway. A two-day battle raged which resulted in the British being pushed back to the Thames. The Romans pursued them across the river causing them to lose men in the marshes of Essex. Whether the Romans made use of an existing bridge for this purpose or built a temporary one is uncertain. At least one division of auxiliary Batavian troops swam across the river as a separate force. Cunobelinus (also written Kynobellinus, Cunobelin) was a historical king of the Catuvellauni tribe of pre-Roman Britain. ... The Mythical British King Cymbeline is identified with Cunobelinus Cymbeline is a play by William Shakespeare. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Togodumnus was a historical king of the British Catuvellauni tribe at the time of the Roman conquest. ... Caratacus (also spelled Caractacus) was a historical British chieftain of the Catuvellauni tribe, who led the British resistance to the Roman conquest. ... In English literary history, the name Rochester refers to John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester. ... The River Medway in England flows for 112 km from Turners Hill, in West Sussex, through Tonbridge, Maidstone and Rochester in Kent, to the River Thames at Sheerness. ... For the battle of the Second Anglo-Dutch War, see raid on the Medway. ... Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames... This article is about the county of Essex in England. ...


Togodumnus died at this point which appears to have inspired the British sufficiently to turn on the Roman troops, causing consternation to Aulus Plautius who dug in and called for the emperor. After a standoff of around two months Emperor Claudius visited Britain briefly to take charge of the army personally. Claudius attacked and captured Cunobelinus's capital, Camulodunum (modern Colchester) although his strategic skills were probably less valuable to Plautius than his morale value. It is said he brought war elephants with him and heavy armaments which would have terrified and outclassed any native resistance. After this defeat, Caratacus fled to the Welsh mountains and continued the fight against the invaders. Eleven tribes of South East Britain surrendered to Claudius and the Romans prepared to move further west and north. The Romans established their new capital at Camulodunum and Claudius returned to Rome to revel in his victory. This article is about the town in England. ... This article is about the town in England. ... Indian war elephant, relief at Mathura, 2nd century BC War elephants were important, although not widespread, weapons in ancient military history. ... For alternate meanings, see Wales (disambiguation) National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Official languages: English and Welsh Capital: Cardiff First Minister: Rhodri Morgan AM Area  - Total:  - % water: Ranked 3rd UK 20,779 km² xx% Population  - Total (2001):  - Density: Ranked 3rd UK 2,903,085 140/km² NUTS...


The conquest continued

Vespasian took a force westwards subduing tribes and capturing oppida as he went, going as least as far as Exeter and probably reaching Bodmin. The Ninth Legion was sent north towards Lincoln and within four years of the invasion it is likely that an area south of a line from the Humber to the Severn Estuary was under Roman control. That this line is followed by the Roman road of the Fosse Way has led many historians to debate the route's role as a convenient frontier during the early occupation. It is more likely that the border between Roman and Iron Age Britain was less direct and more mutable during this period however. Emperor Vespasian Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (November 18, CE 9 – June 23, 79), originally known as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and best known as Vespasian, was the emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... To the Romans, an oppidum was the main settlement in any administrative area. ... A number of other places have taken their names from Exeter The city of Exeter is the county town of Devon, in England, UK. It is located at 50° 43 25 N, 3° 31 39 W. In the 2001 census its population was recorded at 111,066. ... The town of Bodmin lies in the centre of Cornwall, in the United Kingdom, along the western edge of Bodmin Moor. ... Lincoln (pronounced Lin-kun) is a cathedral city and county town of Lincolnshire, England, a bridging point over the River Witham that flows to Boston. ... Humber is also the name of one of the ranges of cars manufactured by the Rootes Group Humber is also the name of a river in Newfoundland, Canada, as well as a river and a college, both in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... The Severn is the name of a river in the United Kingdom. ... The Fosse Way was a Roman road in England which linked Exeter (Isca Dumnoniorum) in South West England, to Lincoln (Lindum) in the East Midlands, via Bath (Aquae Sulis), Cirencester (Corinium) and Leicester (Ratae Coritanorum). ...


Late in 47 the new governor of Britain, Ostorius Scapula began a campaign against the tribes of Cambria, modern day Wales, and the Cheshire Gap. The Silures of south east Wales causedc considerable problems to Ostorius and fiercely defended the Welsh border country. Caratacus himself was defeated in one encounter and fled to the Roman client tribe of the Brigantes who occupied the Pennines. Their queen, Cartimandua was unable or unwilling to protect him however given her own truce with the Romans and handed him over to the invaders. Ostorius died and was replaced by Aulus Gallus who brought the Welsh borders under control but did not move further north or west, probably because Claudius was keen to avoid what he considered a difficult and drawn-out war for little material gain in the mountainous terrain of upland Britain. When Nero became emperor in AD 54, he seems to have decided to continue the invasion and appointed Quintus Veranius as governor, a man experienced in dealing with the troublesome hill tribes of Asia Minor. Veranius and his successor Gaius Suetonius Paulinus mounted a successful campaign across Wales, famously destroying the druidical centre at Mona or Anglesey in AD 60. Final occupation of Wales was postponed however when the rebellion of Boudicca forced the Romans to return to the south east. The Silures were not finally conquered until c. 76 when Sextus Julius Frontinus' long campaign against them began to have success. Cambria is a latinised form of Cymru, which is the Welsh name for Wales. ... For alternate meanings, see Wales (disambiguation) National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Official languages: English and Welsh Capital: Cardiff First Minister: Rhodri Morgan AM Area  - Total:  - % water: Ranked 3rd UK 20,779 km² xx% Population  - Total (2001):  - Density: Ranked 3rd UK 2,903,085 140/km² NUTS... The Silures were a powerful and warlike tribe of ancient Britain, occupying approximately the counties of Monmouth, Brecon and Glamorgan. ... Typical Pennine scenery. ... Cartimandua (ruled ca. ... Aulus Didius Gallus was a Roman general and politician of the 1st century AD. He was consul in AD 36 and probably led the cavalry forces during Emperor Claudius invasion of Britain in AD 43. ... This article deals with the Roman emperor Nero. ... Quintus Veranius ( AD 12 - AD 57) was a Roman politician and general. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, also spelled Paullinus, (flourished 1st century CE) was a Roman general. ... In the Celtic religion, the modern words Druidry or Druidism denote the practices of the ancient druids, the priestly class in ancient Celtic societies through much of Western Europe north of the Alps and in the British Isles. ... Mona may mean: Mona, the Saxon moon deity Mona, a character from the cartoon The Simpsons the Roman name for the island of Anglesey the Isle of Man (in poetic language) Mona, a Shift-JIS art character in one of Japans BBSs, 2-channel Mona, Jamaica, a town... [The Isle of] Anglesey or Anglesea ( Welsh: [Ynys] Môn, pronounced as Uh-niss Mawn, in IPA), is an island and county at the Western extremity of North Wales. ... Boudicca (also written Boudica, Boadicea, Buduica, Bonduca), was a Celtic female chieftain who led the Iceni and a number of other Celtic tribes, including the neighbouring Trinovantes, in a major uprising against the occupying Roman forces in Britain in AD 60 or 61 during the reign of the emperor Nero. ... Sextus Julius Frontinus (c. ...


Following the successful suppression of Boudicca, a number of new Roman governors continued the conquest by edging north. Cartimandua was forced to ask for Roman aid following a rebellion by her husband Venutius. Quintus Petillius Cerialis took his legions from Lincoln as far as York and defeated Venutius near Stanwick around 70AD. This resulted in the already Romanised Brigantes and Parisii tribes being further assimilated into the empire proper. The new governor in 77AD was the famous Gnaeus Julius Agricola. He finished off the Ordovices in Wales and then took his troops north along the Pennines, building roads as he went. He built a fortress at Chester and employed tactics of terrorising each local tribe before offering terms. By 80 he had reached as far as the River Tay, building the fortress at Inchtuthil. From here, he continued further north into Moray where he won a crushing victory against the Caledonian Confederacy at Mons Graupius. He then ordered his fleet to sail around the north of Scotland to establish that Britain is an island and to receive the surrender of the Orcadians. Venutius was a 1st century king of the Brigantes in northern Britain at the time of the Roman conquest. ... Quintus Petilius Cerialis Caesius Rufus (born around 30 AD) was a Roman general of the 1st century. ... York is a city in Northern England, built at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss. ... The Parisii (or Quarisii) were a Celtic Iron Age people that lived on the banks of the river Seine (in Latin, Sequana) in Gaul from the middle of the third century B.C. until the Roman era. ... Gnaeus Julius Agricola (July 13, 40 - August 23, 93) was a Roman general responsible for much of the Roman conquest of Britain. ... The Ordovices were one of the Celtic tribes living in the British Islands, before the Roman invasion of Britain. ... This article is about Chester in England. ... The River Tay, in terms of flow (193 km or 120 miles), is the largest river in Scotland, and drains much of the southern Highlands. ... Inchtuthil is the name of a large, well-preserved Roman legionary fortress on the banks of the River Tay near Dunkeld in the Scottish county of Perthshire. ... Moray, one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland, lies in the north-east of the country and borders on the regions of Aberdeenshire and Highland. ... The Caledonian Confederacy is a name given by historians to a group of disparate tribes inhabiting the Scottish Highlands at the time of the Roman occupation of Britain. ... The Battle of Mons Graupius took place in AD 83 or 84. ... The Orkney Islands form one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland, and are a Lieutenancy Area. ...


Agricola was recalled to Rome by Domitian and seemingly replaced with a series of ineffectual successors who were unable or unwilling to further subdue the far north. It is equally likely that the costs of a drawn-out war outweighed any economic or political benefit and it was more profitable to leave the Caledonians alone and only under de jure submission. Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman emperor. ...


Roman occupation was withdrawn to the River Clyde-River Forth area in 142 when the Antonine Wall was contructed before retreating to the earlier and stronger Hadrian's Wall in the River Tyne-Solway Firth frontier area, this having been constructed around 122. Roman troops however penetrated far into the north of modern Scotland several more times, most notably in 209 when the emperor Septimus Severus defeated the Caledonian Confederacy and accepted their surrender. The degree to which the Romans interacted with the island of Hibernia is still unresolved amongst archaeologists in Ireland. Categories: UK geography stubs | Glasgow | Scottish rivers ... The River Forth meanders over fertile farmlands near Stirling The River Forth, 47 km (29 miles) long, is the major river draining the eastern part of the central belt of Scotland. ... Events Construction of the Antonine Wall began in Scotland. ... The Antonine Wall, looking east, from Barr Hill between Twechar and Croy The Antonine Wall is a stone and turf fortification, built by the Romans across lowland Scotland. ... Hadrians Wall (in Latin: Valens Hadriani) was a stone and turf fortification, built by the Romans across the width of Great Britain to prevent military raids by the Pictish tribes of Scotland to the north, to improve economic stability and provide peaceful conditions in the south, to define the... The Tyne in Newcastle The River Tyne is a river in England. ... The Solway Firth is a body of water that borders the most north westerly county of England (Cumbria) and the most south westerly county of Scotland (Dumfries and Galloway). ... For other uses, see number 122. ... Scotland (Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is a country or nation and former independent kingdom of northwest Europe, and one of the four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. ... Events Publius Septimius Geta receives the titles of Imperator and Augustus from his father, Roman emperor Septimius Severus. ... Emperor Septimius Severus Lucius Septimius Severus, (April 11, 146 - February 4, 211) was Roman emperor from April 9, 193 to 211. ... The Caledonian Confederacy is a name given by historians to a group of disparate tribes inhabiting the Scottish Highlands at the time of the Roman occupation of Britain. ... Hibernia has several different meanings, for further information see the Hibernia (disambiguation) page. ...


Further reading

This article is about the historian Tacitus. ... The Histories ( Latin: Historiae) is a book by Tacitus, written c. ... The Annals, or, in Latin, Annales, is a history book by Tacitus covering the reign of the 4 Roman Emperors succeeding to Caesar Augustus. ... The Agricola (Latin title: De vita et moribus Iulii Agricolae) is a book by Tacitus, written c. ... John Manley (born 1952) is a British archaeologist and author. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Roman conquest of Britain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2353 words)
Roman invasion of Britain: Britain was the target of invasion by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire several times during its history.
In response Claudius mounted an invasion of the island in 43.
Roman occupation was withdrawn to the River Clyde-River Forth area in 142 when the Antonine Wall was contructed before retreating to the earlier and stronger Hadrian's Wall in the River Tyne-Solway Firth frontier area, this having been constructed around 122.
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