FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Roman emperor
rmn-military-header.png

Roman Kingdom
753 BC510 BC
Roman Republic
510 BC27 BC
Roman Empire
27 BCAD 476 Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Rmn-military-header. ... The ancient quarters of Rome. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC - 750s BC - 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC Events and Trends 756 BC - Founding of Cyzicus. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC Events and Trends Establishment of the Roman Republic March 12, 515 BC - Construction is completed on the... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC Events and Trends Establishment of the Roman Republic March 12, 515 BC - Construction is completed on the... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22... Events Odoacer defeats an attempt by Julius Nepos to recapture Italy, and has Julius killed; Odoacer also captured Dalmatia. ...

Principate
Western Empire
The Principate is, according to its etymological derivation from the Latin word princeps, meaning chief or first, the political regime dominated by such a political leader, whether or not he is formally head of state and/or head of government. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ...

Dominate
Eastern Empire
The Dominate was the despotic last of the two phases of government in the ancient Roman Empire between its establishment in 27 BC and the formal date of the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...

Ordinary Magistrates

Consul
Praetor
Quaestor
Promagistrate This article is about the highest office of the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... See Roman Governor for the duties of a promagistrate as a governor of a province A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office. ...

Aedile
Tribune
Censor
Governor Aedile (Latin Aedilis, from aedes, aedis temple, building) was an office of the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law A Censor was a magistrate of high rank in the ancient Roman Republic. ... A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief adminstator of Roman law throughout one or more of Ancient Romes many provinces. ...

Extraordinary Magistrates

Dictator
Magister Equitum
Consular tribune Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, is) a historical position of varying importance in several European nations. ... The Tribuni militum consulari potestate, or Consular Tribunes were tribunes elected with consular power during the Conflict of the Orders in the Roman Republic, starting in 444 BCE and then continuiously from 408 BCE to 394 BCE, and again from 391 BCE to 367 BCE. According the the histories of...

Rex
Triumviri
Decemviri Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The King of Rome (Latin: rex, regis) was the chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom. ... The term triumvirate (Latin for rule by three men) or troika in Russian, is commonly used to describe an alliance between three equally powerful political or military leaders. ... Decemviri (singular decemvir) is a Latin term meaning Ten Men which designates any such commission in the Roman Republic (cf. ...

Titles and Honors
Emperor

Legatus
Dux
Officium
Praefectus
Vicarius
Vigintisexviri
Lictor A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ... The Misspeling of Ducks ... Officium (plural officia) is a Latin word with various meanings, including service, (sense of) duty, courtesy, ceremony and the likes. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Vigintisexviri (sing. ... The lictor, derived from the Latin ligare (to bind), was a member of a special class of Roman civil servant, with special tasks of attending magistrates of the Roman Republic and Empire who held imperium. ...

Magister Militum
Imperator
Princeps senatus
Pontifex Maximus
Augustus
Caesar
Tetrarch Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... The princeps senatus (plural principes senatus) was the leader of the Roman senate. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... A tetrarch is a Greek term that strictly identifies one of four governors of a divided province. ...

Politics and Law

Roman Senate
Cursus honorum
Roman assemblies
Collegiality This is a tentative list of topics regarding political institutions of Ancient Rome. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The cursus honorum (Latin: course of honour) was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Empire. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The Roman assemblies were the Comitia Calata, the Comitia Curiata, the Comitia Centuriata, and the Comitia Tributa. ... Collegiality is the relationship between colleagues. ...

Roman law
Roman citizenship
Auctoritas
Imperium Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome. ... It has been suggested that Civitas be merged into this article or section. ... Auctoritas is the Latin origin of English authority. According to Benveniste [citation?], auctor (which also gives us English author) is derived from Latin augeó (to augment): The auctor is is qui auget, the one who augments the act or the juridical situation of another. ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ...

The Roman Emperors were rulers of the Roman State during the imperial period (from about 27 BC onwards). The Romans had no single term for the office: Latin titles such as imperator (from which English Emperor derives), augustus, caesar and princeps were all associated with it. In practice, the Emperor was supreme ruler of Rome and supreme commander of the Roman legions. In theory, however, Rome remained a republic, the res publica, and the Emperor's status was merely that of primus inter pares—first among equals. This legal fiction became increasingly meaningless as the Emperors consolidated their power. However, it was maintained at least to a ceremonial degree until the very end of the Roman Empire—476 in the Western Roman Empire and 1453 in the East. The Imperial cult in Ancient Rome was the worship of the Roman Emperor as a god. ... This is a list of the Roman Emperors with the dates they ruled the Roman Empire. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... The Latin word Princeps (plural: principes) means the first. This article is devoted to a number of specific historical meanings the word took, by far the most important of which follows first. ... The Roman Legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) is a term that can apply both as a transliteration of legio (conscription or army) to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... Res publica is a Latin phrase, made of res + publica, literally meaning public thing or public matter. It is the origin of the word Republic. // The word publica is the feminine singular of the 1st- and 2nd-declension adjective publicus, publica, publicum, which is itself derived from an earlier form... First among equals is a phrase which indicates that a person is the most senior of a group of people sharing the same rank or office. ... In the common law tradition, legal fictions are suppositions of fact taken to be true by the courts of law, but which are not necessarily true. ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ...

Contents

Overview

There was no constitutional office of "Roman Emperor" (the first person actually to bear that title was Michael I Rhangabes in the early 9th Century,[citation needed] who was styled Basileus Rhomaiôn, "Emperor of the Romans"—if appreciating that by that time the meaning of "Basileus" had moved from "Sovereign" to "Emperor"), nor any title or rank directly analogous to the title of "Emperor"; all the titles traditionally associated with the Emperor had pre-existing, Republican meanings. "Roman Emperor" is a convenient shorthand used by historians to express the much more complicated nature of being the "First Citizen" in the Roman state, and as a result there are many differing opinions as to precisely who was Emperor when, and how many Emperors there were. Michael I on a contemporary coin Michael I Rhangabes, an obscure nobleman who had married Procopia, the daughter of Nicephorus I, and been made master of the palace. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... A silver coin of the Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... The Latin word Princeps (plural: principes) means the first. This article is devoted to a number of specific historical meanings the word took, by far the most important of which follows first. ...


The emperor's legal authority derived from the extraordinary concentration of individual powers and offices extant in the Republic rather than from a new political office (emperors regularly had themselves elected to the consulship and the censorate); the emperor actually held the non-"imperial" offices of princeps senatus (parliamentary leader of the Senate) and pontifex maximus (chief priest of the Roman state religion, literally "greatest bridge-maker"), both of which had existed for hundreds of years before the Empire. (Gratian was the last emperor to be pontifex maximus;[citation needed] he surrendered the pontificate maximus in 382 to St. Siricius and it permanently became an auxiliary honour of the Bishop of Rome.) Consul (abbrev. ... Censor was the title of two magistrates of high rank in the Roman Republic. ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... The princeps senatus (plural principes senatus) was the leader of the Roman senate. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... A coin of Gratian. ... Events October 3 - Theodosius I commands his general Saturninus to conclude a peace treaty with the Visigoths, allowing them to settle south of the Danube. ... St. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin...


However, these offices only provided great dignitas (personal prestige); the emperor's powers derived from the fact that he held auctoritas: he had, ad personam (i.e. without holding office), both imperium maius (greater power or command) and tribunicia potestas (tribunician power).[citation needed] As a result, he formally outranked the provincial governors and the ordinary magistrates (magistratus ordinarii), had the right to enact capital punishment, could command obedience of private citizens (privati), enjoyed personal inviolability (sacrosanctitas), could rescue any plebeian from the hands of any patrician magistrate (ius auxiliandi), and interpose his veto on any act or proposal of any magistrate, including the tribunes of the people (ius intercessio).[citation needed] For other uses, see Dignitas (disambiguation). ... Auctoritas is the Latin origin of English authority. According to Benveniste [citation?], auctor (which also gives us English author) is derived from Latin augeó (to augment): The auctor is is qui auget, the one who augments the act or the juridical situation of another. ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... In Ancient Rome, the plebs was the general body of Roman citizens, distinct from the privileged class of the patricians. ... This article is about the social and political class in ancient Rome. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ...


"Emperor" was not a magistracy or office of state (note that there was no formally prescribed "uniform" such as those of curule magistrates, senators, and knights; later emperors were distinguished by wearing togae purpurae, purple togas[citation needed] — hence the phrase "to don the purple" for the assumption of imperial dignity), nor was there even a regular title until the 3rd century. The titles customarily associated with the imperial dignity are imperator ("commander", lit. "one who prepares against"[citation needed]), which emphasises the emperor's military supremacy and is the source of the English word emperor, caesar, which was originally a name but came to be used to refer to the designated heir (as Nobilissimus Caesar, "Most Noble Caesar") and was retained upon accession, and augustus ("majestic" or "venerable"), which was adopted upon accession (the three titles were rendered in Greek as autokratôr, kaisar, and augustos or sebastos respectively). After Diocletian established the Tetrarchy, caesar designated the two junior sub-emperors and augustus the two senior emperors. Macrinus on an aureus. ... Roman clad in toga The toga was a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... An autocrat is generally speaking any ruler with absolute power; the term is now usually used in a negative sense (cf. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ...


The Emperors of the first lineages are rather to be considered as quasi-head of state. As princeps senatus (lit., "first man of the senate"), the emperor could receive foreign embassies to Rome (but for example Tiberius saw that as a typical task for any group of senators not including himself).[citation needed] All in all, by analogy, in modern terms these early emperors would tend to be identified as chiefs of state. The office of princeps senatus, however, was not a magistracy and did not own imperium; in terms of the modern Westminster system, this is approximately comparable to diplomatic agents being accredited to the Leader of the House (the consuls functioned as a sort of hybrid between the Speaker of the House and the Prime Minister).[citation needed] At some points in the Empire's history, the Emperor's power was only nominal;[citation needed] powerful praetorian prefects and masters of the soldiers (and even at one point Imperial mothers and grandmothers) occasionally acted as the true source of power (also called "emperors who weren't"). Head of state or Chief of state is the generic term for the individual or collective office that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchic or republican nation-state, federation, commonwealth or any other political state. ... The princeps senatus (plural principes senatus) was the leader of the Roman senate. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ... Consul (abbrev. ... Praetorian prefect (Latin Praefectus praetorio) was the constant title of a high office in the Roman state that changed fundamentally in nature. ... Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ... The phrase power behind the throne refers to a person or group that informally exercises the real power of an office. ...


Imperator

The title imperator dates back to the Roman Republic. One of the most signal marks of distinction which a commander could receive under the republic was the laurel leaf, with which he was crowned when his soldiers, after a victory, saluted him as imperator. It was a generic title for Roman commanders. The commander then assumed the title after his name until the end of his magistry or until his triumph. Sometimes the Senate seems to have given or confirmed the title.[1] The first certainly attested imperator is Aemilius Paulus in 189 BC[1]. It was a title held with great pride: Pompey emphasised that he was hailed imperator more than once, as did Sulla, but it was Julius Caesar who first used it permanently. It is now thought doubtful that he received the title from the Senate or that he inherited it, as Cassius Dio[2] asserts. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... A Roman Triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly honour the military commander (dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaign and to display the glories of Roman victory. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus (229 BC-160 BC) was a Roman general and politician. ... Pompey, Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir [1] (Classical Latin abbreviation: CN·POMPEIVS·CN·F·SEX·N·MAGNVS[2], Gnaeus or Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus) (September 29, 106 BC–September 29, 48 BC), was a distinguished military and political leader of the late Roman republic. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX) ¹ (ca. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ...


In 38 BC Agrippa refused a triumph for his victories under Octavian's command and this precedent established the rule that the princeps should assume both the salutation and title of imperator. It seems that from then on Octavian (later first emperor Augustus) used imperator as a praenomen (Imperator Caesar not Caesar imperator). From this the title came to denote the supreme power and was commonly used in that sense. Otho was the first to imitate Augustus but only with Vespasian did imperator (emperor) become the official title by which the ruler of the Roman Empire was known. Agrippa may refer to: Menenius Agrippa, a Roman consul in 503 BC. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (63–12 BC), Roman statesman and general, friend of Augustus Caesar. ... For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... Emperor Otho. ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ...


Princeps

The word princeps (plu. Principes), meaning "first", was a republican term used to denote the leading citizen(s) of the state.[citation needed] It was a purely honorific title with no attached duties or powers.[citation needed] It was the title most preferred by Caesar Augustus as its use implies only primacy, as opposed to another of his titles, imperator which implies dominance. Princeps, because of its republican connotation, was most commonly used to refer to the emperor in Latin (although the emperor's actual constitutional position was essentially "pontifex maximus with tribunician power and imperium superseding all others") as it was in keeping with the facade of the restored republic; the Greek word basileus ("king") was modified to be synonymous with emperor (and primarily came into favour after the reign of Heraclius) as the Greeks had no republican sensibility and openly viewed the emperor as a monarch.[citation needed] In the era of Diocletian and beyond, princeps fell into disuse and was replaced with dominus ("lord");[citation needed] later emperors used the formula Imperator Caesar NN. Pius Felix (Invictus) Augustus. NN representing the individual's personal name, Pius Felix, meaning "Pious and Blest", and Invictus meaning "Undefeated". The use of princeps and dominus broadly symbolise the differences in the Empire's government, giving rise to the era designations "Principate" and "Dominate". The famous statue of Octavian at the Prima Porta Caesar Augustus (Latin:IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS) ¹ (23 September 63 BC–19 August AD 14), known to modern historians as Octavian for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, is considered the first and one of the most... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Heraclius or Herakleios or (Latin: ; Greek: , HÄ“rakleios), (c. ... The Principate is, according to its etymological derivation from the Latin word princeps, meaning chief or first, the political regime dominated by such a political leader, whether or not he is formally head of state and/or head of government. ... The Dominate was the despotic last of the two phases of government in the ancient Roman Empire between its establishment in 27 BC and the formal date of the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476. ...


First Roman emperor

A bust of Julius Caesar, who is sometimes considered the first Roman Emperor.

In the discussion of who was the first Roman Emperor one has to understand that at the end of the Roman Republic there was no new, and certainly not a single, title created with which to indicate the individual who had the supreme power as a monarch. Insofar as Emperor could be seen as the English translation of imperator, then Julius Caesar had been an emperor, like several Roman generals before him. Instead, by the end of the civil wars in which Julius Caesar had led his armies, it became clear on the one hand that there was certainly no consensus to return to the old-style monarchy, and that on the other hand the situation where several officials, bestowed with equal power by the senate, fought one another had to come to an end. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... There were several Roman civil wars, especially during the time of the late Republic. ... There were seven traditional Kings of Rome before the establishment of the Roman Republic. ...


Julius Caesar -- and a few years later Octavian in an even more subtle and gradual way -- worked towards several goals: accumulating offices and titles that were of the highest importance in the Republic; making the power attached to these offices permanent; and preventing anyone with similar aspirations from accumulating or maintaining power for themselves. However, Julius Caesar, unlike those after him, did so with the Senate's vote and approval.


Julius Caesar had gone a considerable part of the road: he held the Republican offices of consul (four times) and dictator (five times), was appointed perpetual dictator (dictator perpetuus) in 45 BC, had been "pontifex maximus" for several decades and had handsomely prepared for his deification (see Imperial cult); again he did not gain these positions without the majority of a vote by the people and senate.[citation needed] Technically, he was an "appointed" dictator (as was Sulla), and while he was the last dictator of the Republic that was appointed by the Senate (guidelines provided for such if the country was in disarray such as civil war), Julius Caesar died several years before the final collapse of the traditional Republican system, to be replaced by the system modern historians call the Principate. Many historians theorize that the fall of the Roman Republic began at the assassination of Julius Caesar,[citation needed] thereby putting in motion events that would forever change the operations of the Republic. Consul (abbrev. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC... An Imperial cult is a cult were an Emperor, or a dynasty of emperors, are worshipped as (semi-)gods or deities Ancient Rome In the Roman Empire the Imperial cult was the worship of the Roman emperor as a god. ...


By the time of his assassination in 44 BC Julius Caesar was the most powerful man in Rome. But if being "princeps" is seen as the determinating office he should have held in order for modern historians to call him emperor,[citation needed] then he was not emperor. Still, he realized something that only a monarch could achieve, but what would only become evident many decades after his death: he had made his high power in the republic hereditary, by his will, in which he had appointed Octavian as his only heir as his adopted son. But not until over a decade after Caesar's death did Octavian achieve supreme power, after the civil wars first avenging Caesar's murder, then the step-by-step process of neutralizing his fellow triumvirs, culminating in his victory over Mark Antony and Cleopatra. Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... ANT AV · III VIR RPC on this denarius minted by Mark Antony to pay his legions. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Cleopatra was a co-ruler of Egypt with her father (Ptolemy XII Auletes), her brothers/husbands Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, consummated a liaison with Gaius Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne, and, after Caesars assassination, aligned with Mark Antony, with whom she produced twins. ...

Statue of Caesar Augustus, c. 30 BC-20 BC; this statue is located in the Louvre
Statue of Caesar Augustus, c. 30 BC-20 BC; this statue is located in the Louvre

There was no single instant at which Octavian became Emperor. Was it when he became Pontifex Maximus? Was it when he was acclaimed Augustus (more a solemn and official nickname than a "title" when he got it)? Was it when he became princeps? Was it when the Senate ordained that he held the tribunicia potestas ("power of a tribune") without needing to be one of the tribunes? Was it when he started to use imperator as a praenomen? Note that all this time the organization of the state remained the same as during the res publica.[citation needed] In 27 BC, following the second triumvirate, Octavian appeared before the Senate and expressed a desire to retire. The Senate requested he remain and Octavian stayed in office till his death. Most more recent history books, however, noting that immediately after the assassination of Julius Caesar, the Roman State had in all respects returned to the republic and that the second Triumvirate could hardly be called a monarchy, see Augustus as the first "emperor" in the proper sense and (somewhat arbitrarily) say he became emperor when he "restored" power to the Senate and the people, an act which in itself was a demonstration of his auctoritas and was given the name Augustus in 27 BC by the Senate to refer to all things godly. Caesar Augustus - statue in the Louvre, Paris File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Caesar Augustus - statue in the Louvre, Paris File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... In the Roman naming convention used in ancient Rome, male names typically contain three proper nouns which are classified as praenomen (or given name), nomen gentile (or Gens name) and cognomen. ... Res publica is a Latin phrase, made of res + publica, literally meaning public thing or public matter. It is the origin of the word Republic. // The word publica is the feminine singular of the 1st- and 2nd-declension adjective publicus, publica, publicum, which is itself derived from an earlier form... Auctoritas is the Latin origin of English authority. According to Benveniste [citation?], auctor (which also gives us English author) is derived from Latin augeó (to augment): The auctor is is qui auget, the one who augments the act or the juridical situation of another. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22...


Even at Augustus' death, some later historians like Tacitus would say, it might have been possible to return to the republic properly, without even needing to change anything, if there had been a real will to accomplish that (that is, by not allowing Tiberius to accumulate the same powers, which he did, however, very quickly). Even Tiberius continued to go to great lengths to keep the forms of "republican" government untouched. Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ...


The historians of the first centuries saw the continuity in the first place: if a hereditary monarchy-not-by-kings existed after the republic, it had started with Julius Caesar. In this sense Suetonius wrote of The Twelve Caesars, meaning the emperors from Julius Caesar to the Flavians included (where, after Nero, the inherited name had turned into a title). The Twelve Caesars is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ...


Fall of the West

By the end of the Third century, taking a few steps, the Roman Empire was split in a Western and an Eastern part, each with their own augusti (and/or caesares). In the West, which included Rome, the succession of Emperors had ended in the year 476AD when the last Western Emperor Romulus Augustus was deposed by the Germanic King Odoacer, although many maintain that Julius Nepos was the last emperor and that the Eastern Emperor Zeno decided not to appoint a new Emperor in the West. This is generally accepted to be the end of Antiquity and the beginning the Early Middle Ages also known as the Dark Ages. However, Roman rule had disintegrated somewhat earlier in the century as a result of Germanic invasions which had overrun all of the territory that had belonged to the western half of the Roman Empire. In the east however, the Eastern Roman Empire survived until 1453AD. Although the Greek speaking inhabitants thought of themselves as Romaoi, many in Western Europe referred to the political entity as the "Greek Empire". Today it is known as the Byzantine Empire, as its capital was the city of Byzantium, later re-named Constantinople in honour of the Byzantine emperor Constantine, and now known as the Turkish city of Istanbul. (2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century - other centuries) Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Julius Nepos on a coin. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...


Eastern lineage

The line of Roman emperors in the Eastern Roman Empire continued unbroken until the fall of Constantinople in 1453 under Constantine XI Palaeologos. These emperors eventually normalized the imperial dignity into the modern conception of an emperor, incorporated it into the constitutions of the state, and adopted the aforementioned title Basileus Rhomaiôn ("Emperor of the Romans"; autocratoras ('autocrat', absolute ruler). These Emperors ceased to use Latin as the language of state after Heraclius). Historians have customarily treated the state of these later Eastern Emperors under the name "Byzantine Empire", though Byzantine is not a term that the Byzantines ever used to describe themselves. Map of Constantinople. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... Constantine XI: The last Byzantine emperor is considered a saint by the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Heraclius or Herakleios or (Latin: ; Greek: , HÄ“rakleios), (c. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...


New Western lineage

The concept of the Roman Empire was renewed in the West with the coronation of the king of the Franks, Charlemagne, as Roman emperor by the Pope on Christmas Day, 800. This line of Roman emperors was actually generally German rather than Roman, but maintained their Roman-ness as a matter of principle; it lasted until 1806 when Francis II dissolved the Empire during the Napoleonic Wars. These emperors used a variety of titles (most frequently "Imperator Augustus") before finally settling on Imperator Romanus Electus ("Elected Roman Emperor"). Historians customarily assign them the title "Holy Roman Emperor", which has a basis in actual historical usage, and treat their "Holy Roman Empire" as a separate institution. Charlemagne and Pippin the Hunchback. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... Christmas is an annual holiday that celebrates the birth of Jesus. ... Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Francis II Francis I Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who may also be referred to as Francis von Habsburg or Emperor Franz I of Austria (February 12, 1768 - March 2, 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until August 6, 1806, when the Empire was disbanded. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Duke of Brunswick â€  Prince of Hohenlohe... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1630, superimposed over modern European state borders Capital None Language(s) Latin, German, many others Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 962–967 Otto I  - 973–983 Otto II  - 996–1002 Otto III  - 1014– 1024 Henry II  - 1027–1039 Conrad II  - 1046...


Titles and positions

Although these are the most common offices, titles, and positions, one should note that not all Roman Emperors used them, nor were all of them used at the same time in history. The consular and censorial offices especially were not an integral part of the Imperial dignity, and were usually held by persons other than the reigning Emperor.

  • Augustus (also "Αὔγουστος" or "Σεβαστός"), "Majestic" or "Venerable"; an honorific cognomen exclusive to the emperor
  • Αὐτοκράτωρ, "Autocrat" (lit. "Self-ruler"); Greek title equivalent to imperator i.e. Commander-in-Chief
  • Βασιλεύς (Basileus) , Greek title meaning sovereign, popularly used in the east to refer to the emperor; a formal title of the Roman emperor beginning with Heraclius
  • Caesar (also "Καίσαρ" or "Nobilissimus Caesar"), "Caesar" or "Most Noble Caesar"; an honorific name later used to identify an Emperor-designate
  • Censor, a Republican office with a five year term and one coequal officeholder
  • Consul, the highest magistracy of the Roman republic with a one year term and one coequal officeholder
  • Dominus, "Lord" or "Master"; an honorific title popular in the Empire's middle history
  • Imperator, "Commander" or "Commander-in-Chief"; a victory title taken on accession to the purple and after a major military victory; the praenomen of most Roman emperors
  • Imperator Destinatus, "Destined to be Emperor"; heir apparent, used by Septimius Severus for Caracalla.
  • Imperium maius, "greater imperium"; absolute power to a degree greater than any other, including power of enacting capital punishment
  • Invictus, "Unconquered"; an honorific title
  • Pater Patriae, "Father of the Fatherland"; an honorific title
  • Pius Felix, "Pious and Blessed" (lit. "Dutiful and Happy"); an honorific title
  • Pontifex Maximus, "Supreme Pontiff" or "Chief Priest" (lit. "Greatest Bridgemaker"); a title and office of Republican origin—could not be used by "Catholic" Emperors, while by that time only the pope had a claim on the title of highest religious authority.
  • Princeps, "First Citizen" or "Leading Citizen"; an honorific title denoting the status of the emperor as first among equals
  • Princeps Iuventutis, "Prince of Youth"; an honorific title awarded to a presumptive Emperor-designate
  • Princeps Senatus, "First Man of the Senate" a Republican office with a five year term
  • Tribunitia potestas, "tribunician power"; the powers of a tribune of the people including sacrosanctity and the veto

For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... The cognomen (name known by in English) was originally the third name of a Roman in the Roman naming convention. ... An autocrat is generally speaking any ruler with absolute power; the term is now usually used in a negative sense (cf. ... A silver coin of the Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... Heraclius or Herakleios or (Latin: ; Greek: , HÄ“rakleios), (c. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... Censor was the title of two magistrates of high rank in the Roman Republic. ... Consul (abbrev. ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... A victory title is an honorific title adopted by a successful military commander to commemorate his defeat of an enemy nation. ... In the Roman naming convention used in ancient Rome, male names typically contain three proper nouns which are classified as praenomen (or given name), nomen gentile (or Gens name) and cognomen. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (b. ... Caracalla (April 4, 186 – April 8, 217) was Roman Emperor from 211 – 217. ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... The Latin word Princeps (plural: principes) means the first. This article is devoted to a number of specific historical meanings the word took, by far the most important of which follows first. ... First among equals is a phrase which indicates that a person is the most senior of a group of people sharing the same rank or office. ... The princeps senatus (plural principes senatus) was the leader of the Roman senate. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ...

Powers

When Augustus established the Princeps, he turned down supreme authority in exchange for a collection of various powers and offices, which in itself was a demonstration of his auctoritas ("authority"). As holding Princeps Senatus, the Emperor declared the opening and closure of each Senate session, declared the Senate's agenda, imposed rules and regulation for the Senate to follow, and met with foreign ambassadors in the name of the Senate. Pontifex Maximus made the Emperor the chief administrator of religious affairs, granting him the power to conduct all religious ceremonies, consecrate temples, control the Roman calendar (adding or removing days as needed), appoint the Vestal Virgins and some Flamens, lead the Collegium Pontificum, and summarize the dogma of the Roman religion. Auctoritas is the Latin origin of English authority. According to Benveniste [citation?], auctor (which also gives us English author) is derived from Latin augeó (to augment): The auctor is is qui auget, the one who augments the act or the juridical situation of another. ... The princeps senatus (plural principes senatus) was the leader of the Roman senate. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... Image of a Roman Vestal Virgin In Ancient Rome, the Vestal Virgins (sacerdos Vestalis), were the virgin holy priestesses of Vesta, the goddess of the hearth. ... Bust of a flamen, 3rd century, Louvre A flamen was a name given to a priest assigned to a state supported god or goddess in Roman religion. ... In ancient Rome, the College of Pontiffs or Collegium Pontificum was a body whose members were the highest-ranking priests of the polytheistic state religion. ... For other senses of this word, see dogma (disambiguation). ... The term Roman religion may refer to: Ancient Roman religion Imperial cult (Ancient Rome), Sol Invictus Mithraism Roman Christianity Category: ...


While these powers granted the emperor a great deal of personal pride and influence, they did not include legal authority. In 23 BC, Augustus gave the Emperorship its legal power. The first was Tribunitia Potestas, or the power of the Tribune without actually holding the office. This gave the Emperor the ability of personal inviolability (sacrosanctity) and the ability to pardon any civilian for any act, criminal or otherwise. By holding the powers of the Tribune, the Emperor could enact capital punishment without a trial to anyone who interfered with the performance of his duties. The Emperor's Tribuneship granted him the right to convene the Senate at his will and lay proposals before it, as well as the ability to veto any act or proposal by any magistrate, including the Tribune of the Plebs. Also, as holder of the Tribune's power, the Emperor would convoke the Council of the People, lay legislation before it, and served as the council's President. But his Tribuneship only granted him power within Rome itself. He would need another power to veto the act of governors and that of the Consuls while in the provinces. Events Imperator Caesar Augustus becomes Roman Consul for the eleventh time. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ancient Roman Official. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The Roman assemblies were the Comitia Calata, the Comitia Curiata, the Comitia Centuriata, and the Comitia Tributa. ...


To solve this problem, Augustus managed to have the emperor be given the right to hold two types of imperium. The first being Consular Imperium while he was in Rome, and Imperium Maius outside of Rome. While inside the walls of Rome, the reigning Consuls and the Emperor held equal authority, each being able to veto each other's proposals and acts, with the Emperor holding all of the Consul's powers. But outside of Rome, the Emperor outranked the Consuls and could veto them without the same effects on himself. Imperium Maius also granted the Emperor authority over all the provincial governors, making him the ultimate authority in provincial matters and gave him the supreme command of all of Rome's legions. With Imperium Maius, the Emperor was also granted the power to appoint governors of Imperial provinces without the interference of the Senate. Also, Imperium Maius granted the Emperor the right to veto the governors of the provinces and even the reigning Consul while in the provinces. Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... Consul (abbrev. ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief adminstator of Roman law throughout one or more of Ancient Romes many provinces. ... The Roman Legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) is a term that can apply both as a transliteration of legio (conscription or army) to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of... An imperial province was a Roman province where the Emperor had the sole right to appoint governors. ...


Lineages and epochs

In the listings of Roman Emperors below, the common name is given first, followed by the more formal name adopted upon accession to the purple, the name given at birth, and the years of his reign. So-called victory titles and other titles not forming an integral part of the name (Pontifex Maximus, Princeps Senatus, Pater Patriae, &c.) are not listed. Co-Emperors are listed in inferior text, along with notes identifying senior Emperors who had hitherto served as co-Emperors. Following abbreviations are used: A victory title is an honorific title adopted by a successful military commander to commemorate his defeat of an enemy nation. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

  • A.: Aulus
  • Aug.: Augustus (as a title)
  • C.: Gaius
  • Germ.: Germanicus
  • Imp.: Imperator
  • L.: Lucius
  • M.: Marcus
  • Max.: Maximus
  • Nob.: Nobilissimus
  • P.: Publius
  • P.F.: Pius Felix
  • Princ. Iuv.: Princeps Iuventutis
  • Q.: Quintus
  • Ser.: Servius
  • T.: Titus
  • Ti.: Tiberius

Principate

The nature of the Imperial office and the Principate was established under Julius Caesar's heir and posthumously adopted son, Caesar Augustus, and his own heirs, the descendants of his wife Livia from her first marriage to a scion of the distinguished Claudian clan. This Julio-Claudian dynasty came to an end when the emperor Nero—a great-great-grandson of Augustus through his daughter and of Livia through her son—was deposed in 68. The office of Roman Emperor went through a complex evolution over the centuries of its existence. ... The Principate is, according to its etymological derivation from the Latin word princeps, meaning chief or first, the political regime dominated by such a political leader, whether or not he is formally head of state and/or head of government. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... The famous statue of Octavian at the Prima Porta Caesar Augustus (Latin:IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS) ¹ (23 September 63 BC–19 August AD 14), known to modern historians as Octavian for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, is considered the first and one of the most... Livia Drusilla, after 14 AD called Livia Augusta (Classical Latin: LIVIA•DRVSILLA, later LIVIA•AVGVSTA[1]) (58 BC-AD 29) was the wife of Caesar Augustus (also known as Octavian) and the most powerful woman in the early Roman Empire, acting several times as regent and being Augustus faithful advisor. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... Template:Julio-Claudian Dynasty The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. ... Nero[1] Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (December 15, 37 – June 9, 68)[2], born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, also called Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was the fifth and last Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. ... Centuries: 1st century BCE - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 63 64 65 66 67 - 68 - 69 70 71 72 73 Events June 9 - Roman Emperor Nero commits suicide. ...


Nero was followed by a succession of usurpers throughout 69, commonly called the "Year of the Four Emperors". The last of these, Vespasian, established his own Flavian dynasty. Nerva, who replaced the last Flavian emperor, Vespasian's son Domitian, in 96, was elderly and childless, and chose therefore to adopt an heir, Trajan, from outside his family. When Trajan acceded to the purple he chose to follow his predecessor's example, adopting Hadrian as his own heir, and the practise then became the customary manner of imperial succession for the next century, producing the "Five Good Emperors" and the Empire's period of greatest stability. Look up Usurper in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see 69 (disambiguation). ... The Year of the Four Emperors was a year in the history of the Roman Empire, 69, in which four emperors ruled in a remarkable succession. ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... The Flavian dynasty was a series of three Roman Emperors who ruled from 69, the Year of the Four Emperors, to 96, when the last member was assassinated. ... For other uses, see Nerva (disambiguation). ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... For other uses, see number 96. ... For other uses, see Adoption (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... The Five Good Emperors is a term coined by the 18th century historian, Edward Gibbon, in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. ...


The last of the Good Emperors, Marcus Aurelius, chose his natural son Commodus as his successor rather than adopting an heir. Commodus's misrule led to his murder on 31 December 192, following which a brief period of instability quickly gave way to Septimius Severus, who established the Severan dynasty which, except for an interruption in 217-218, held the purple until 235. Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (April 26, 121[1] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death. ... Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus (August 31, 161 – December 31, 192) was a Roman Emperor who ruled from 180 to 192. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Commodus assassinated by a wrestler named Narcissus at the behest of Commodus concubine, chamberlain and Praetorian prefect. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (b. ... The Severan dynasty is a lineage of Roman Emperors, reigning several decades from the late 2nd century to the early 3rd century. ... Events Macrinus becomes Roman Emperor on the death of Caracalla. ... May 16 - Elagabalus is declared Roman Emperor. ... Events Maximinus Thrax becomes Roman Emperor. ...


Crisis of the Third Century

The accession of Maximinus Thrax marks both the close and the opening of an era. It was one of the last attempts by the increasingly impotent Roman Senate to influence the succession. Yet it was the first time that a man had achieved the purple while owing his advancement purely to his military career; both Vespasian and Septimius Severus had come from noble or middle class families, while Thrax was a born commoner. He never visited the city of Rome during his reign, which marks the beginning of a series of "Barracks Emperors" who came from the army. Between 235 and 285 over a dozen emperors achieved the purple, but only Valerian and Carus managed to secure their own sons' succession to the throne; both dynasties died out within two generations. The Crisis of the Third Century marked the end of the Principate, the early phase of Imperial Roman government. ... Gaius Iulius Verus Maximinus (c. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (b. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... A Reign is a period of time a person serves as a monarch or pope. ... Barraks Emperor is the way Roman Emperors who ruled during 235–268 are collectively known. ... Events Maximinus Thrax becomes Roman Emperor. ... This article is about the year. ... Publius Licinius Valerianus[1] (c. ... Marcus Aurelius Carus (c. ...


Dominate

The accession to the purple on November 20, 284, of Diocletian, the lower-class, Greek-speaking Dalmatian commander of Carus's and Numerian's household cavalry (protectores domestici), marked a major departure from traditional Roman constitutional theory regarding the Emperor, who was nominally first among equals; Diocletian introduced Oriental despotism into the Imperial dignity. Whereas before Emperors had worn only a purple toga (toga purpura) and been greeted with deference, Diocletian wore jewelled robes and shoes, and required those who greeted him to kneel and kiss the hem of his robe (adoratio). In many ways, Diocletianus was the first monarchical Emperor, and this is symbolised by the fact that the word dominus ("Lord") rapidly replaced princeps as the favoured word for referring to the Emperor. Significantly, neither Diocletian nor his co-Emperor Maximian spent much time in Rome after 286, establishing their Imperial capitals at Nicomedia and Mediolanum (modern Milan), respectively. The accession to the purple on November 20, 284, of Diocletian, the lower-class, Greek-speaking Dalmatian commander of Caruss and Numerians household cavalry (protectores domestici), marked a major departure from traditional Roman constitutional theory regarding the Emperor, who was nominally first among equals; Diocletian introduced Oriental despotism... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see number 284. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Maximian Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (c. ... This article is about the year 286. ... Nicomedia (modern Ä°zmit, also known as Iznik) was founded by Nicomedes I of Bithynia at the head of the Gulf of Astacus (which opens on the Propontis) in 264 BC. The city has ever since been one of the chief towns in this part of Asia Minor. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ...


Diocletian established the Tetrarchy, a system by which the Roman Empire was divided into East and West, with each having an Augustus to rule over it and a Caesar to assist him. The Tetrarchy ultimately degenerated into civil war, but the eventual victor, Constantine I, restored Diocletian's system of dividing the Empire into East and West. He kept the East for himself and founded his city of Constantinople as its new capital. The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... Map of Constantinople. ...


The dynasty Constantine established also was soon swallowed up in civil war and court intrigue until it was replaced, briefly, by Julian the Apostate's general Jovian and then, more permanently, by Valentinian I and the dynasty he founded in 364. Though he was a soldier from a low middle class background, Valentinian was not a Barracks Emperor; he was elevated to the purple by a conclave of senior generals and civil officials. // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... This siliqua of Jovian, ca 363, celebrates his fifth year of reign, as a good omen. ... Flavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman Emperor (364-375). ... Events February 28 - Valentinian I is elected Roman emperor by the army. ... Barraks Emperor is the way Roman Emperors who ruled during 235–268 are collectively known. ...


Late empire

Theodosius I acceded to the purple in the East in 379 and in the West in 394. He outlawed paganism and made Christianity the Empire's official religion. He was the last Emperor to rule over a united empire; the distribution of the East to his son Arcadius and the West to his son Honorius after his death in 395 represented a permanent division. The office of Roman Emperor underwent significant turbulence in the fourth and fifth centuries, after assuming the trappings of Eastern despotism during the Dominate. ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... January 19 - Theodosius I is elevated as Roman Emperor at Sirmium. ... Events September 6 - Battle of the Frigidus: The christian Roman Emperor Theodosius I defeats and kills the pagan usurper Eugenius and his Frankish magister militum Arbogast. ... Look up pagan, heathen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Idealising bust of Arcadius in the Theodosian style combines elements of classicism with the new hieratic style (Istanbul Archaeology Museum) Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Arcadius For the Greek grammarian, see Arcadius of Antioch. ... Flavius Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Roman Emperor (393- 395) and then Western Roman Emperor from 395 until his death. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ...


In the West, the office of Emperor soon degenerated into being little more than a puppet of a succession of Germanic tribal kings, until finally the Heruli Odoacer simply overthrew the child-Emperor Romulus Augustulus in 476, shipped the imperial regalia to the Emperor Zeno in Constantinople and assumed the title "King of Italy". Though during his own lifetime Odoacer maintained the legal fiction that he was actually ruling Italy as the viceroy of Zeno, historians mark 476 as the traditional date of the fall of the Roman Empire in the West. In the East, the Empire continued as the Byzantine Empire until the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... The Heruli (spelled variously in Latin and Greek) were a nomadic Germanic people, who were subjugated by the Ostrogoths, Huns, and Byzantines in the 3rd to 5th centuries. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Romulus Augustus (460s/470s - after 511) was the last of the Western Roman Emperors. ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... Flavius Zeno (c. ... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... Flavius Zeno (c. ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Map of Constantinople. ... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ...

For rulers of Italy after Romulus "Augustulus" and Julius Nepos, see list of barbarian kings.
For Roman Emperors in the West after Romulus "Augustulus" and Julius Nepos, see Holy Roman Emperor.
For the Roman Emperors who ruled in the East after The Fall in the West, see List of Byzantine Emperors.

The following is a list of barbarian kings of Italy: Maximinus Thrax (235-238) Odoacer (476-493) Ostrogothic Kings of Italy Theoderic (493-526) Athalaric (526-534) Theodahad (534-536) Witiges (536-540) Heldebadus (540-541) Totila (541-552) Teias (552) Teias was killed by the Byzantine general Narses, and... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, called Byzantine by modern historians. ...

See also

The Julio-Claudian dynasty of the early Roman Empire has a family tree complicated by multiple marriages between the members of the gens Julia and the gens Claudia. ... This is a family tree of the Severan dynasty of the Roman Empire. ... This document is a list of victory titles assumed by Roman Emperors, not including assumption of the title Imperator (is itself a victory title); note that the Roman Emperors were not the only persons to assume victory titles (Maximinus Thrax acquired his victory title during the reign of a previous... Usurpers were a common feature of the late Roman Empire, especially from the so-called crisis of the third century onwards, when political instability became the rule. ... The following is an attempted list of usurpers in the Roman Empire. ... The knights of the Fourth Crusade set up a Crusader kingdom known as the Latin Empire or Romania based on Constantinople after sacking the city in 1204. ... An interregnum is a period between monarchs, between popes of the Roman Catholic Church, emperors of Holy Roman Empire, polish kings (elective monarchy) or between consuls of the Roman Republic. ... Justitium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b The Oxford Classical Dictionary, entry 'Imperator', Third Edition, Oxford University Press., 1996.
  2. ^ Cass. Dio 43.44.2

Further reading

  • Scarre, Chris. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London: Thames & Hudson Ltd, October 1, 1995. ISBN 0-500-05077-5. (hardcover)

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Roman Emperor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3358 words)
The concept of the Roman Empire was renewed in the West with the coronation of the king of the Franks, Charlemagne, as Roman emperor by the Pope on Christmas Day, 800.
This line of Roman emperors was actually generally German rather than Roman, but maintained their Romanness as a matter of principle; it lasted until 1806 when Francis II dissolved the Empire during the Napoleonic Wars.
He was the last Emperor to rule over a united empire; the distribution of the East to his son Arcadius and the West to his son Honorius after his death in 395 represented a permanent division.
EAWC Quiz: Roman Emperors (375 words)
The first emperor to embrace Christianity, he moved the capital of the empire from Rome to what is today known as Istanbul.
This lover of Greek culture was the adopted son of Emperor Trajan.
This emperor, who ruled from 249 to 251 CE, was known for his systematic and intense persecution of Christians.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m