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Encyclopedia > Roman embassies to China

Sino-Roman relations started first on an indirect basis with the opening of the Silk Road during the 2nd century BC. China and Rome progressively inched closer with the embassies of Zhang Qian in 130 BC and the military expeditions of China to Central Asia, until general Ban Chao attempted to send an envoy to Rome around 100. Several Roman embassies to China were recorded by a number of ancient Chinese historians, the first one on record came from the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius and arrived in AD 166. The Silk Road (Traditional Chinese: 絲綢之路; Simplified Chinese: 丝绸之路; pinyin: sī chóu zhī lù) was an interconnected series of routes through Southern Asia traversed by caravan and ocean vessel, and connecting Changan, China with Antioch, Syria, as well as other points. ... (3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events BC 168 Battle of Pydna -- Macedonian phalanx defeated by Romans BC 148 Rome conquers Macedonia BC 146 Rome destroys Carthage in the Third Punic War BC 146 Rome conquers... The Great Wall of China, stretching over 6,700 km, was erected beginning in the 3rd century BC to guard the north from raids by men on horses. ... The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). ... A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ... Zhang Qian (Chinese:張騫; died 113 BC) was a Chinese explorer and imperial envoy in the 2nd century BC, during the time of the Han Dynasty. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 135 BC 134 BC 133 BC 132 BC 131 BC - 130 BC - 129 BC 128 BC... Map of Central Asia outlined in orange showing one set of possible borders Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... -1... Generally speaking, a historian is a person who studies history. ... Roman Emperor is the title historians use to refer to the ruler of the Roman Empire. ... Emperor Antoninus Pius Titus Aurelius Fulvius Boionius Arrius Antoninus Pius (September 19, 86 - March 7, 161) was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. ... Events Pope Soter succeeds Pope Anicetus Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Laurence to Patriarch Alypius Dacia invaded by barbarians Conflict erupts on the Danube frontier between Rome and the Germanic tribe of the Marcomanni Roman envoy sent out by emperor Antoninus Pius. ...

Contents

Development of the Silk Road

Coin depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Euthydemus (230-200 BC)

The first major step in opening the Silk Road between the East and the West came with the expansion of Alexander the Great deep into Central Asia, as far as the Fergana Valley at the borders of the modern-day Xinjiang region of China, where he founded in 329 BC a Greek settlement in the city of Alexandria Eschate "Alexandria The Furthest", Khujand (also called Khozdent or Khojent - formely Leninabad), in the modern state of Tajikistan. The Greeks were to remain in Central Asia for the next three centuries, first through the administration of the Seleucid Empire, and then with the establishement of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom in Bactria. They kept expanding eastward, especially during the reign of Euthydemus (230-200 BC), who extended his control to Sogdiana, reaching and going beyond the city of Alexandria Eschate. There are indications that he may have led expeditions as far as Kashgar in Chinese Turkestan, leading to the first known contacts between China and the West around 200 BC. The Greek historian Strabo writes that "they extended their empire even as far as the Seres (China) and the Phryni" (Strabo XI.XI.I (http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Strab.+11.11.1)). File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... Coin depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Euthydemus (230-200 B.C.) Euthydemus was allegedly a native of Magnesia and possible Satrap of Sogdiana, who overturned the dynasty of Diodotus of Bactria and became a Greco-Bactrian king in about 230 BC according to Polybius. ... Bust of Alexander III in the British Museum. ... The Fergana Valley (also Ferghana Valley) is a region of Central Asia spreading across Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. ... Xinjiang (Chinese: 新疆; pinyin: Xīnjiāng; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: شينجاڭ) Uyghurs Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), sometimes known as Chinese Turkestan, Eastern Turkestan (Turkestan also spelt Turkistan) or Uyghuristan. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 334 BC 333 BC 332 BC 331 BC 330 BC - 329 BC - 328 BC 327 BC 326... Alexandria Eschate (Lit. ... Khujand (also Khozdent), formerly Leninabad is the northernmost region of the Republic of Tajikistan. ... National anthem Surudi milli Official language Tajiki-Persian Capital Dushanbe President Emomali Rahmonov Prime Minister Akil Akilov Area  – Total  – % water Ranked 92nd  143,100 km²  0. ... The Greeks are the people who have populated Greece from the 17th century BCE until the present day. ... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh). ... Coin depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Euthydemus (230-200 B.C.) Euthydemus was allegedly a native of Magnesia and possible Satrap of Sogdiana, who overturned the dynasty of Diodotus of Bactria and became a Greco-Bactrian king in about 230 BC according to Polybius. ... Sogdiana (Sugdiane, O. Pers. ... Kashgar is an oasis city located west of the Taklamakan desert, at the feet of the Tian Shan mountain range in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China (39°24’26” N. lat. ... Xinjiang (Chinese: 新疆; pinyin: Xīnjiāng; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: شينجاڭ) Uyghurs Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), sometimes known as Chinese Turkestan, Eastern Turkestan (Turkestan also spelt Turkistan) or Uyghuristan. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC 202 BC 201 BC - 200 BC - 199 BC 198 BC... Strabo (squinty) was a term employed by the Romans for anyone whose eyes were distorted or deformed. ... Seres (Σηρες) was the ancient Greek and Roman name for China and its inhabitants. ...


Zhang Qian's embassy

A horse of the Late Han Dynasty (1st-2nd century AD)

The next step came around 130 BC, with the embassies of the Han Dynasty to Central Asia, following the reports of the ambassador Zhang Qian (who was originally sent to obtain an alliance with the Yuezhi against the Xiong-Nu, in vain). The Chinese emperor Wudi became interested in developing commercial relationship with the sophisticated urban civilizations of Ferghana, Bactria and Parthia: “The Son of Heaven on hearing all this reasoned thus: Ferghana (Dayuan) and the possessions of Bactria (Daxia) and Parthia (Anxi) are large countries, full of rare things, with a population living in fixed homes and given to occupations somewhat identical with those of the Chinese people, but with weak armies, and placing great value on the rich produce of China” Hou Hanshu (Later Han History). Han dynasty horse (1st-2nd century C.E.). Personal photograph. ... Han dynasty horse (1st-2nd century C.E.). Personal photograph. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 135 BC 134 BC 133 BC 132 BC 131 BC - 130 BC - 129 BC 128 BC... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... Zhang Qian (Chinese:張騫; died 113 BC) was a Chinese explorer and imperial envoy in the 2nd century BC, during the time of the Han Dynasty. ... The migrations of the Yueh-Chih. ... Xiongnu (匈奴; meaning Xiongs slaves, Xiong being a Chinese transliteration of a national name but also meaning savage/raucous/ferocious, however some argued that the two words are both transliteration, in this case the sense of slaves does not exist) was the term given by the Chinese to nomadic... Emperor Wu of Han (156 BC*–March 29, 87 BC), personal name Liu Che, was the sixth emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. A military compaigner, Han China reached its greatest expansion under his reign, spanning from Kyrgyzstan in the west, Northern Korea... The Ta-Yuan (in Ferghana) was one of the three advanced civilizations of Central Asia around 130 BCE, together with Parthia and Greco-Bactria (Han Shu, Former Han Chinese Chronicles). ... Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh). ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ...


The Chinese subsequently sent numerous embassies, around ten every years, to these countries and as far as Seleucid Syria. “Thus more embassies were dispatched to Anxi (Parthia), Yancai (who later joined the Alans), Lijian (Syria under the Seleucids), Tiaozhi (Chaldea) and Tianzhu (northwestern India)… As a rule, rather more than ten such missions went forward in the course of a year, and at the least five or six.” Hou Hanshu (Later Han History). The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... The Syrian Arab Republic or Syria is a country in the Middle East, bordering (from south to north) on Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq and Turkey. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... The Alans or Alani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of mixed backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and shared, in a broad sense, a common culture. ... The Syrian Arab Republic or Syria is a country in the Middle East, bordering (from south to north) on Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq and Turkey. ... Seleucus I Nicator (Nicator, the Victor) (around 358–281 BC) was one of Alexander the Greats generals who, after Alexanders death in 323 BC, founded the Seleucid Empire. ... Chaldea was a nation in the southern portion of Babylonia, Lower Mesopotamia, lying chiefly on the right bank of the Euphrates, but commonly used to refer to the whole of the Mesopotamian plain. ...


The "Silk Road" essentially came into being from the 1st century BC, following these efforts by China to consolidate a road to the Western world and India, both through direct settlements in the area of the Tarim Basin and diplomatic relations with the countries of the Dayuan, Parthians and Bactrians further west. (2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century - other centuries) The 1st century BC starts on January 1, 100 BC and ends on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events The Roman... Categories: China geography stubs | Geography of China ...


Chinese silk in the Roman Empire

Menade in silk dress, Naples National Museum.

Intense trade with the Roman Empire followed soon, confirmed by the Roman craze for Chinese silk (supplied through the Parthians) from the 1st century BC, even though the Romans thought silk was obtained from trees: Download high resolution version (480x640, 154 KB)Menade in silk dress, Naples National Museum. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 154 KB)Menade in silk dress, Naples National Museum. ... Alternate uses: See Naples (disambiguation) Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα-Πόλις, latinised in Neapolis) is the largest town in southern Italy, capital of Campania region. ... Roman commerce was the engine that drove the growth of the Roman Empire. ... Roman or Romans has several meanings, primarily related to the Roman citizens, but also applicable to typography, math, and a commune. ... Silk (< OE sioloc probably < L. SERICVS / Gr. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... (2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century - other centuries) The 1st century BC starts on January 1, 100 BC and ends on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events The Roman...

"The Seres (Chinese), are famous for the woolen substance obtained from their forests; after a soaking in water they comb off the white down of the leaves... So manifold is the labour employed, and so distant is the region of the globe drawn upon, to enable the Roman maiden to flaunt transparent clothing in public" (Pliny the Elder (2379, The Natural History).

The Senate issued, in vain, several edicts to prohibit the wearing of silk, on economic and moral grounds: the importation of Chinese silk caused a huge outflow of gold, and silk clothes were considered to be decadent and immoral: Seres (Σηρες) was the ancient Greek and Roman name for China and its inhabitants. ... Gaius Plinius Secundus, (23–79) better known as Pliny the Elder, was an ancient author and scientist of some importance who wrote Naturalis Historia. ... For other uses, see number 23. ... For other uses, see number 79. ... The Roman Senate (Lat. ...

"I can see clothes of silk, if materials that do not hide the body, nor even one's decency, can be called clothes... Wretched flocks of maids labour so that the adulteress may be visible through her thin dress, so that her husband has no more acquaintance than any outsider or foreigner with his wife's body" (Seneca the Younger (c. 3 BCAD 65, Declamations Vol. I).

A maritime "Silk Route" opened up between Chinese-controlled Jiaozhi (centred in modern Vietnam, near Hanoi) probably by the 1st century AD. It extended, via ports on the coasts of India and Sri Lanka, all the way to Roman-controlled ports in Egypt and the Nabataean territories on the northeastern coast of the Red Sea. The Hou Hanshu records that the first Roman envoy arrived in China by this maritime route in AD 166. Lucius Annaeus Seneca (often known simply as Seneca, or Seneca the Younger) (c. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 3 Events Births Seneca, Roman... For other uses, see number 65. ... Hanoi opera house Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Nội; Chinese: 河内), estimated population 3,500,800 (1997), is the capital of Vietnam and was the capital of North Vietnam from 1954 to 1976. ... (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 99. ... The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා in Sinhala / இலங்கை in Tamil) (known as Ceylon before 1972) is a tropical island nation off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent. ... The Arab Republic of Egypt, commonly known as Egypt, (in Arabic: مصر, romanized Miṣr or Maṣr, in Egyptian dialect) is a republic mostly located in north-eastern Africa. ... Petra, the Nabataean capital The Nabataeans, a people of ancient Arabia, whose settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the border-land between Syria and Arabia from the Euphrates to the Red Sea. ... (Red Sea is also the name of a state in Sudan) Conshelf II in the Red Sea (Sudan) The Red Sea (Arabic البحر الأحمر Baḥr al-Aḥmar, al-Baḥru l-’Aḥmar; Hebrew ים סוף Yam Suf) is a gulf or basin of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... The Book of Later Han (Chinese: 後漢書; pinyin: ) is a history of the Chinese Empire which was compiled by Fan Yeh (范晔; 398-445), using a number of earlier histories as sources. ... Events Pope Soter succeeds Pope Anicetus Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Laurence to Patriarch Alypius Dacia invaded by barbarians Conflict erupts on the Danube frontier between Rome and the Germanic tribe of the Marcomanni Roman envoy sent out by emperor Antoninus Pius. ...


The expedition of Ban Chao

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Portrait of the Chinese general Ban Chao (32-102).

In 97, the Chinese general Ban Chao crossed the Tian Shan and Pamir mountains with an army of 70,000 men in a campaign against the Xiongnu (Huns). He went as far west as the Caspian Sea and the region of Ukraine, reaching the territory of Parthia, upon which event he reportedly also sent an envoy named Gan Ying to Daqin (Rome). Gan Ying left a detailed account of western countries, although he probably only reached the Black Sea before turning back. For alternate uses, see Number 32. ... For other uses, see number 102. ... For other uses, see number 97. ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... Located in Central Asia, the Pamir Mountains are formed by the junction of the worlds greatest mountain ranges, a geologic structural knot from which the great Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, and Hindu Kush mountain systems radiate. ... Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first Mongolian and Turkic people mentioned in European history. ... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea or Mazandaran Sea is a landlocked sea between Asia and Europe ( European Russia). ... Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and the Black Sea to the south. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Daqin refers to: Daqin Pagoda Memorial of the Propagation in China of the Luminous Religion from Daqin Daqin Hui Township (大秦回族乡), Kongtong District, Pingliang City (平涼市崆峒區), Gansu Province This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Roman Colosseum Rome (Italian and Latin Roma) is the capital city of Italy, and of its Lazio region. ... Satellite view of the Black Sea, taken by NASA MODIS Cities of the Black Sea The Black Sea (known as the Euxine Sea in the antiquity) is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Asia Minor. ...


Gan Ying left an account on Rome (Daqin in Chinese), which may have relied on second-hand sources. He locates it to the west of the sea: The Roman Colosseum Rome (Italian and Latin Roma) is the capital city of Italy, and of its Lazio region. ... Daqin refers to: Daqin Pagoda Memorial of the Propagation in China of the Luminous Religion from Daqin Daqin Hui Township (大秦回族乡), Kongtong District, Pingliang City (平涼市崆峒區), Gansu Province This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

"Its territory is covers several thousand li (a li is around half a kilometre), it has over 400 walled cities. Several tens of small states are subject to it. The outer walls of the cities are made of stones. They have established posting stations... There are pines and cypresses." (Hou Hanshu, cited in Leslie and Gardiner).

He also describes the Roman practice of democracy, their physical appearance and riches: Li: A Chinese unit of distance, 里(Lǐ), a li is equal to 500 metres, or about 1/3 mile, in ancient times, during the Chin and Han dynasties. ...

"As for the king, he is not a permanent figure but is chosen as the man most worthy... The people in this country are tall and regularly featured. They resemble the Chinese, and that is why the country is called Da Qin (The "Great" Qin)... The soil produced lots of gold, silver and rare jewels, including the jewel which shines at night.. they sew embroidered tissues with gold threads to form tapestries and damask of many colours, and make a gold-painted cloth, and a "cloth washed-in-the-fire" (asbestos)." (Hou Hanshu, cited in Leslie and Gardiner).

Finally Gan Ying determines Rome correctly as the main pole at the western end of the Silk Road: Qin, Qín or Chin (Wade-Giles) can refer to. ... Asbestos (Greek a-, not; sbestos, extinguishable) is a group of fibrous metamorphic minerals. ... The Silk Road (Traditional Chinese: 絲綢之路; Simplified Chinese: 丝绸之路; pinyin: sī chóu zhī lù) was an interconnected series of routes through Southern Asia traversed by caravan and ocean vessel, and connecting Changan, China with Antioch, Syria, as well as other points. ...

"It is from this country that all the various marvellous and rare objects of foreign states come." (Hou Hanshu, cited in Leslie and Gardiner).

The Chinese army made an alliance with the Parthians and established some forts at a distance of a few days march from the Parthian capital Ctesiphon, and were to hold the region for several years. In 116, the Roman Emperor Trajan advanced into Parthia to Ctesiphon and came within one day's march of the Chinese border garrisons, but direct contacts never took place. Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Taq-i-Kasra, Ctesiphon, today. ... Events Roman Emperor Trajan completes his invasion of Parthia by capturing the cities of Seleucia, Ctesiphon and Susa, marking the high-water mark of the Roman Empires eastern expansion. ... Emperor Trajan Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus (September 18, 53 - August 9, 117), Roman Emperor (98 - 117), commonly called Trajan, was the second of the so-called five good emperors of the Roman Empire. ...


First Roman embassy

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Ptolemy's world map, reconstituted from Ptolemy's Geographia (circa 150), indicating "Sinae" (China) at the extreme right, beyond the island of "Trapobane" (Sri Lanka, oversized) and the "Aurea Chersonesus" (Southeast Asian peninsula).

With the expansion of the Roman Empire in the middle-east during the 2nd century, the Romans gained the capability to develop shipping and trade in the Indian Ocean. Several Roman ports have been excavated on the coast of India. This article is about the geographer and astronomer Ptolemy. ... For other uses, see number 150. ... The Great Wall of China, stretching over 6,700 km, was erected beginning in the 3rd century BC to guard the north from raids by men on horses. ... The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා in Sinhala / இலங்கை in Tamil) (known as Ceylon before 1972) is a tropical island nation off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent. ... The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). ... (1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century - other centuries) Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors (96–180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ... The Indian Ocean is the third-largest body of water in the world, covering about 20% of the Earths water surface. ...


Several Romans probably travelled farther to the East, either on Roman, Indian or Chinese ships. The first embassy of Romans to China is recorded in 166, sixty years after the expeditions to the west of the Chinese general Ban Chao. It came to Emperor Huan of Han China, "from Antun (Emperor Antoninus Pius), king of Daqin (Rome)". Although, as Antoninus Pius died in 161, while the convoy arrived in 166, it may have been from Marcus Aurelius, who was emperor in 166. The confusion arises because, as a mark of respect, Marcus Aurelius took the names of his predecessor as additional names. Events Pope Soter succeeds Pope Anicetus Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Laurence to Patriarch Alypius Dacia invaded by barbarians Conflict erupts on the Danube frontier between Rome and the Germanic tribe of the Marcomanni Roman envoy sent out by emperor Antoninus Pius. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... Emperor Antoninus Pius Titus Aurelius Fulvius Boionius Arrius Antoninus Pius (September 19, 86 - March 7, 161) was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. ... Daqin refers to: Daqin Pagoda Memorial of the Propagation in China of the Luminous Religion from Daqin Daqin Hui Township (大秦回族乡), Kongtong District, Pingliang City (平涼市崆峒區), Gansu Province This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Events March 7 - Roman emperor Antoninus Pius dies and is succeeded by co-Emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. ... Events Pope Soter succeeds Pope Anicetus Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Laurence to Patriarch Alypius Dacia invaded by barbarians Conflict erupts on the Danube frontier between Rome and the Germanic tribe of the Marcomanni Roman envoy sent out by emperor Antoninus Pius. ... Marcus Aurelius Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (April 26, 121 – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ... Events Pope Soter succeeds Pope Anicetus Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Laurence to Patriarch Alypius Dacia invaded by barbarians Conflict erupts on the Danube frontier between Rome and the Germanic tribe of the Marcomanni Roman envoy sent out by emperor Antoninus Pius. ...


The mission came from the South, and therefore probably by sea, entering China by the frontier of Jinan or Tonkin. It brought presents of rhinoceros horns, ivory, and tortoise shell, which had probably been acquired in Southern Asia. About the same time, and possibly through this embassy, the Chinese acquired a treatise of astronomy from Daqin (Chinese name of the Roman Empire). Sunset at sea A sea is a large expanse of saline water connected with an ocean, or a large, usually saline, lake that lacks a natural outlet such as the Caspian Sea and the Dead Sea. ... Jinan (Simplified Chinese: 济南; Traditional Chinese: 濟南; pinyin: Jìnán; Wade-Giles: Chi-nan) is the capital and a sub-provincial city of Shandong province in China. ... Tonkin, also spelled Tongkin or Tongking, is the northernmost part of Vietnam, south of Chinas Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces, east of northern Laos, and west of the Gulf of Tonkin. ... Species Ceratotherium simum Dicerorhinus sumatrensis Diceros bicornis Rhinoceros unicornis A rhinoceros is any of five surviving species of odd-toed ungulate in the family Rhinocerotidae. ... Horn may refer to: horn (anatomy), a hollow, pointed projection of the skin of various animals Horn, Austria horn (diacritic), a diacritic mark used to indicate that a normally rounded vowel such as o or u is to be pronounced unrounded horn (instrument) horn, a slang term for any wind... Ivory is a hard, white, opaque substance that is the bulk of the teeth and tusks of animals such as the elephant, hippopotamus, walrus, mammoth, etc. ... For the band, see Tortoise (band). ... The hard, rigid outer calcium carbonate covering of certain animals is called a shell. ... This is a region of the continent of Asia that can have the following interpretations: The Indian Subcontinent and nearby islands in the Indian Ocean; see South Asia India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Maldives, Sri Lanka All of Asia that is considered to be Southwest, South and Southeast Asia. ... A treatise is a systematic analysis of a certain subject. ... Astronomy, which etymologically means law of the stars, (from Greek: αστρονομία = άστρον + νόμος) is a science involving the observation and explanation of events occurring outside Earth and its atmosphere. ... Daqin refers to: Daqin Pagoda Memorial of the Propagation in China of the Luminous Religion from Daqin Daqin Hui Township (大秦回族乡), Kongtong District, Pingliang City (平涼市崆峒區), Gansu Province This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


China was clearly known to Roman cartographers of the time, since its name and position is depicted in Ptolemy's Geographia, which is dated to c. 150. It is located beyond the Aurea Chersonesus ("Golden Peninsula") and refers to the Southeast Asian peninsula. It is shown as being on the Magnus Sinus ("Great Gulf"), which corresponds to the known areas of the China Sea at the time. Trade throughout the Indian Ocean was extensive from the 2nd century, and many Roman trading ports have been identified in India, through which the Roman embassy passed. Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ... This article is about the geographer and astronomer Ptolemy. ... For other uses, see number 150. ... A peninsula is a geographical formation consisting of an extension of land from a larger body that is surrounded by water on three sides. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The China Sea can refer to the: South China Sea, or East China Sea This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Indian Ocean is the third-largest body of water in the world, covering about 20% of the Earths water surface. ... (1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century - other centuries) Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors (96–180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ... The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. ...


Other Roman embassies

Enlarge
Detail of Asia in Ptolemy's world map. Gulf of the Ganges left, Southeast Asian peninsula in the center, China Sea right, with "Sinae" (China).

Other embassies may have been sent after this first encounter, but were not recorded, until an account appears about presents sent in the early 3rd century by the Roman Emperor to the Emperor Taitsu of the Kingdom of Wei (reigned 227239), which reigned in Northern China. The presents consisted in articles of glass of a variety of colours. The embassy might have been sent by any of several Roman Emperors who ruled during this time: This article is about the geographer and astronomer Ptolemy. ... The River Ganges (Ganga in Indian languages) is a major river in northern India. ... (2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century - other centuries) Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. ... Cao Rui, ch. ... The Kingdom of Wei (ch. ... Events Ireland - Rule of High King Cormac mac Airt begins (approximate) Cao Rui becomes emperor of the American television situation comedy that was originally broadcast from 1985 until 1990. ... Events In the Chinese Kingdom of Wei, Wei Qi Wang succeeds Wei Ming Di Births Deaths Cao Rui (Wei Ming Di), emperor of the Kingdom of Wei Categories: 239 ... Roman Emperor is the title historians use to refer to the ruler of the Roman Empire. ...

Another embassy from Daqin is also recorded in the year 284, which allegedly brought "tribute" to the Chinese empire. This embassy must have been sent by the Emperor Carus (282283), whose short reign was occupied with war with Persia. Alexander Severus Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander (October 1, 208- March 18?, 235), commonly called Alexander Severus, Roman emperor from AD 222 to 235, was born at Arca Caesarea in Palestine. ... Emperor Maximinus Thrax Caius Julius Verus Maximinus (c. ... Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (around 159 - April 12, 238), known in English as Gordian I, was Roman Emperor during the year of 238. ... Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus (around 192 - April 12, 238), known in English as Gordian II, was Roman emperor during the year of 238. ... Pupienus Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus and Decius Caelius Calvinus Balbinus (both died on July 29, 238) were elected co-emperors by the Roman senate on April 22, 238 after the failure of Gordian I and Gordian II to defeat the usurper Maximinus Thrax. ... Gordian III Marcus Antonius Gordianus Pius (January 20, 225-244), known in English as Gordian III, was Roman emperor from 238 to 244. ... For other uses, see number 284. ... Marcus Aurelius Carus (c. ... Events Carus becomes Roman emperor A new city was constructed in Fuzhou slightly south of the original city Ye. ... Events December 17 - Pope Gaius succeeds Pope Eutychian December - Numerian was proclaimed Roman emperor by his soldiers. ... Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. ...


See also

Imperial China has had a long tradition of foreign relations. ... The Book of Later Han (Chinese: 後漢書; pinyin: ) is a history of the Chinese Empire which was compiled by Fan Yeh (范晔; 398-445), using a number of earlier histories as sources. ...

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