FACTOID # 11: Oklahoma has the highest rate of women in State or Federal correctional facilities.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Roman calendar

The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. This article generally discusses the early Roman or 'pre-Julian' calendars. The calendar used after 46 BC is discussed under the Julian calendar. A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ...

An inscription containing the Roman calendar, which predates the Julian reform of the calendar. Observe ( enlarged) that it contains the months Quintilis and Sextilis, and allows for the insertion of an intercalary month.

Contents

The Roman calendar, based on a calendar found at Antium. ... The Roman calendar, based on a calendar found at Antium. ... The Roman calendar, based on a calendar found at Antium. ... Quintilis was the former Latin name for the fifth (later seventh) month in the Roman calendar that was after Junius and before Sextilis. ... Sextilis was the Latin name for the sixth month in the Roman calendar. ... Intercalation is the insertion of an extra day or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons. ...

History of the calendar

The original Roman calendar is believed to have been a lunar calendar, which may have been based on one of the Greek lunar calendars. Roman traditions claimed that it was invented by Romulus, the founder of Rome about 753 BC. The earliest known version contained ten months, and started at the vernal equinox; however, the months by this time were no longer 'lunar': A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... The Attic calendar is the name of the calendar used in Ancient Athens. ... This page describes the ancient heroes that founded the city of Rome. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC - 750s BC - 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC Events and Trends 756 BC - Founding of Cyzicus. ... Look up Month in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of equinox The vernal equinox (or spring equinox) marks the beginning of astronomical spring. ... It has been suggested that lunar year be merged into this article or section. ...

The calendar year lasted 304 days and there were about 61 days of winter that did not fall within the calendar. Junius was the Latin name for the fourth (later sixth) month in the Roman calendar that was before Quintilis. ... Quintilis was the former Latin name for the fifth (later seventh) month in the Roman calendar that was after Junius and before Sextilis. ... Sextilis was the Latin name for the sixth month in the Roman calendar. ... Look up September in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up October in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up November in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The first reform of the calendar was attributed to Numa Pompilius, the second of the seven traditional Kings of Rome. He is said to have reduced the 30-day months to 29 days and to have added January (29 days) and February (28 days) to the end of the calendar around 713 BC, and thus brought the length of the calendar year up to 355 days: Calendar reform is any proposed reform of a calendar. ... rome hotel According to legend, Numa Pompilius was the second of the Kings of Rome, succeeding Romulus. ... There were seven traditional Kings of Rome before the establishment of the Roman Republic. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC - 710s BC - 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC Events and Trends Judah, Tyre and Sidon revolt against Assyria 719 BC - Zhou Huan Wang of the...

  • Martius (31 days)
  • Aprilis (29 days)
  • Maius (31 days)
  • Junius (29 days)
  • Quintilis (31 days)
  • Sextilis (29 days)
  • September (29 days)
  • October (31 days)
  • November (29 days)
  • December (29 days)
  • Ianuarius (29 days)
  • Februarius (28 days)

Note that the later months are named based on their position in the original calendar — October comes from the prefix oct, meaning 'eight' (as in octagon). These names have been retained even though October is the 10th month of the modern calendar. Quintilis and Sextilis were later renamed July and August in honor of Julius Caesar and Augustus. Original Roman designation of the month January. ... February is the second month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC or 102 BC – March 15, 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in classical antiquity. ... For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ...


In order to keep the calendar year roughly aligned with the solar year, a leap month of 27 days, the Mensis Intercalaris, sometimes also known as Mercedonius or Mercedinus, was added from time to time at the end of February, which was shortened to 23 or 24 days. The resulting year was either 377 or 378 days long. The decision to insert the intercalary month, and its placement, was the responsibility of the pontifex maximus. On average, this happened roughly in alternate years. Intercalation is the insertioffn of an extra day, week or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons. ... Mercedonius was a month in the ancient Roman calendar. ... Intercalation is the insertioffn of an extra day, week or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ...


The system of aligning the year through intercalary months broke down at least twice. The first time was during and after the Second Punic War. It led to the reform of the Lex Acilia in 191 BC. The details of this reform are unclear, but it appears to have successfully regulated intercalation for over a century. The second breakdown was in the middle of the first century BC. This breakdown may have been related to the increasingly chaotic and adversarial nature of Roman politics at the time. The position of pontifex maximus was not a full-time job; it was held by a member of the Roman elite, who would almost invariably be involved in the machinations of Roman politics. Because a Roman calendar year defined the term of office of elected Roman magistrates, a pontifex maximus would have reason to lengthen a year in which he or his allies were in power, or to not lengthen a year in which his political opponents held office. It was while Julius Caesar was pontifex maximus that the calendar was overhauled, with the result being the Julian calendar. The calendar reforms were completed during the reign of his successor, Augustus Caesar. Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 196 BC 195 BC 194 BC 193 BC 192 BC - 191 BC - 190 BC 189 BC... Intercalation is the insertioffn of an extra day, week or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons. ... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistrarus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC or 102 BC – March 15, 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in classical antiquity. ... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Augustus Caesar Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius or Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was the first Roman Emperor and is traditionally considered the greatest. ...


Months

The Romans had special names for three specific days in each month. The system appears to originally have been based on phases of the Moon (Luna), and these days were probably declared publicly when the lunar conditions were observed. After the reforms of Numa Pompilius, they occurred on fixed days. The named days were: Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ... rome hotel According to legend, Numa Pompilius was the second of the Kings of Rome, succeeding Romulus. ...

  • Kalendae (Kalends) — first day of the month, from which the word "calendar" is derived; thought to have originally been the day of the new moon. Interest on debt was due on Kalends.
  • Nones — depending on the month, could be the 5th or the 7th day; thought to have originally been the day of the half moon.
  • Ides — depending on the month, could be the 13th or the 15th day; thought to have originally been the day of the full moon. The Romans considered this an auspicious day in their calendar.

Months with Nones on the 5th and Ides on the 13th days: January, February, April, June, August, September, November, December. A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... Lunar phase refers to the appearance of the illuminated portion of the Moon as seen by an observer, usually on Earth. ... Interest is the rent paid to borrow money. ... For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... Lunar phase refers to the appearance of the illuminated portion of the Moon as seen by an observer, usually on Earth. ... Lunar phase refers to the appearance of the illuminated portion of the Moon as seen by an observer, usually on Earth. ...


Months with Nones on the 7th and Ides on the 15th days: March, May, July, October.


These rules are summarised in the following mnemonic:

In March, July, October, May
The Ides fall on the fifteenth day
The Nones the seventh; all besides
Have two days less for Nones and Ides.

Other days in the month were normally unnamed, though some were sometimes known by the name of a festival that occurred on them (e.g. Feralia, Quirinalia). Days other than the Kalends, Nones and Ides were identified by counting down to the named days (sometimes to festival days), in a way that is quite different from the modern Western calendar. The Romans did not count the days of the month retrospectively, looking back to the first of the month (that is: 1st, 2nd day since the start of the month, 3rd day since the start of the month). They counted forward to their named days. Also, to the distress of moderns trying to work out dates in Roman calendar documents, they counted inclusively, so that 2 September is considered 4 days before 5 September, rather than 3 days before. Feralia was a Roman feast honoring the infernal powers. It typically fell on February 22 and was the last day of the Parentalia, a week-long festival that honored the dead. ... In Roman mythology, Quirinus was a mysterious god. ... Counting is the mathematical action of adding (or subtracting) one, usually to find out how many objects there are or to set aside a desired number of objects (starting with one for the first object and proceeding with a one-to-one correspondence); however, counting is also used (primarily by... September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 5 is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years). ...


The following example spells out how days were named for the pre-Julian September, which had only 29 days. It shows the Roman form of the date, the translation, and how we would say it today. The Romans used abbreviations: "a.d." = "ante diem" = "days before", "prid." = "pridie" = "the day before", "Kal" = "Kalends" etc.

Kal. Sept. = Kalends of September = 1 September
a.d. IV Non. Sept. = 4 days before the Nones of September = 2 September
a.d. III Non. Sept. = 3 days before the Nones of September = 3 September
prid. Non. Sept. = the day before the Nones of September = 4 September
Non. Sept. = Nones of September = 5 September
a.d. VIII Id. Sept. = 8 days before the Ides of September = 6 September
a.d. VII Id. Sept. = 7 days before the Ides of September = 7 September and so on till
a.d. III Id. Sept. = 3 days before the Ides of September = 11 September
prid. Id. Sept. = the day before the Ides of September = 12 September
Id. Sept. = Ides of September = 13 September
a.d. XVII Kal. Oct. = 17 days before the Kalends of October = 14 September
a.d. XVI Kal. Oct. = 16 days before the Kalends of October = 15 September and so on till
a.d. III Kal. Oct. = 3 days before the Kalends of October = 28 September
prid. Kal. Oct. = the day before the Kalends of October = 29 September
Kal. Oct. = Kalends of October = 1 October

Notice that by counting inclusively and by having a special name for the day before a named day the Roman calendar loses the possibility of saying: 2 days before a named day. Also, after the Ides, the date no longer mentions September, but is counting down towards October. September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... September 5 is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years). ... September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Counting is the mathematical action of adding (or subtracting) one, usually to find out how many objects there are or to set aside a desired number of objects (starting with one for the first object and proceeding with a one-to-one correspondence); however, counting is also used (primarily by...


When Julius Caesar added a day to September, he did not add it to the end of the month. Rather, the new day that got added was the day after the Ides: Gaius Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC or 102 BC – March 15, 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in classical antiquity. ...

a.d. XVIII Kal. Oct. = 18 days before the Kalends of October = 14 September

As a result, the position of all the following dates in September got bumped up by one day. This has some unexpected effects. For example, the emperor Augustus was born on 23 September 63 BC. In the pre-Julian calendar this is 8 days before the Kalends of October (or, in Roman style, a.d. VIII Kal. Oct.), but in the Julian calendar it is 9 days (a.d. IX Kal. Oct.). Because of this ambiguity, in some parts of the Empire his birthday was celebrated on both dates, i.e. (for us) on both 23 and 24 September. September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... For other uses, see Augustus (disambiguation). ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Nundinal cycle

The Roman Republic, like the Etruscans, used a "market week" of eight days, marked as A to H in the calendar. A market was held on the eighth day. For the Romans, who counted inclusively, this was every ninth day, hence the market became called "nundinae", and the market cycle is known as the "nundinal cycle". Since the length of the year was not a multiple of 8 days, the letter for the market day (known as a "nundinal letter") changed every year. For example, if the letter for market days in some year was A and the year was 355 days long, then the letter for the next year would be F. The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... Counting is the mathematical action of adding (or subtracting) one, usually to find out how many objects there are or to set aside a desired number of objects (starting with one for the first object and proceeding with a one-to-one correspondence); however, counting is also used (primarily by...


The nundinal cycle formed a basic rhythm of day-to-day Roman life; the market day was the day that country people would come to the city, and the day that city people would buy their groceries for the next 8 days. For this reason, a law was passed in 287 BC (the Lex Hortensia) that forbade the holding of meetings of the comitia (for example to hold elections) on market days, but permitted the holding of legal actions. In the late republic, a superstition arose that it was unlucky to start the year with a market day (i.e. for the market day to fall on 1 January, with a letter A), and the pontiffs, who regulated the calendar, took steps to avoid it. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC Years: 292 BC 291 BC 290 BC 289 BC 288 BC - 287 BC - 286 BC 285 BC... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ...


Because the nundinal cycle was absolutely fixed at 8 days under the Republic, information about the dates of market days is one of the most important tools we have for working out the Julian equivalent of a Roman date in the pre-Julian calendar. In the early Empire, the Roman market day was occasionally changed. The details of this are not clear, but one likely explanation is that it would be moved by one day if it fell on the same day as the festival of Regifugium, an event that could occur every other Julian leap year. When this happened the market day would be moved to the next day, which was the bissextile (leap) day. In the Roman religion, Regifugium or Fugalia was an annual observance that took place every February 24. ...


The nundinal cycle was eventually replaced by the modern seven-day week, which first came into use in Italy during the early imperial period, after the Julian calendar had come into effect. The system of nundinal letters was also adapted for the week, see dominical letter. For a while, the week and the nundinal cycle coexisted, but by the time the week was officially adopted by Constantine in AD 321 the nundinal cycle had fallen out of use. For further information on the week, see week and days of the week. For the TV station in the Peoria-Bloomington, Illinois market, see WEEK-TV. A week is a unit of time longer than a day and shorter than a month. ... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... The days of the year are sometimes designated letters A, B, C, D, E, F and G in a cycle of 7 as an aid for finding the day of week of a given calendar date and in calculating Easter. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on... Events Publication of the first blue law by Constantine I of the Roman Empire: trade is forbidden on Sundays; agriculture is allowed The Roman Catholic church is allowed to hold property Births Deaths Categories: 321 ... For the TV station in the Peoria-Bloomington, Illinois market, see WEEK-TV. A week is a unit of time longer than a day and shorter than a month. ... In English the days of the week are: Sunday; Monday; Tuesday; Wednesday; Thursday; Friday; Saturday. ...


Character of the day

Each day of the Roman calendar was associated with a "character", which was marked in the fasti. The most important of these were dies fasti, marked by an F, on which legal matters could normally be heard, dies nefasti, marked by an N, on which they could not, and dies comitiales, marked by a C, on which meetings of the public assemblies known as comitia were permitted, subject to other constraints such as the Lex Hortensia. A few days had a different character, e.g. EN (endotercissus or perhaps endoitio exitio nefas), a day in which legal actions were permitted on half of the day only, and NP, which were public holidays. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Years

In the Roman Republic, the years were not counted. Instead they were named after the consuls who were in power at the beginning of the year (see List of Republican Roman Consuls). For example, 205 BC was The year of the consulship of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus and Publius Licinius Crassus. Lists of consuls were maintained in the fasti. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... Consul (abbrev. ... This list of Republican Roman Consuls is based on the Varronian chronology, which intercalates four dictator years and has other peculiarities. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 210 BC 209 BC 208 BC 207 BC 206 BC - 205 BC - 204 BC 203 BC... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Fragment of an imperial-age consular fasti, Museo Epigrafico, Rome
Fragment of an imperial-age consular fasti, Museo Epigrafico, Rome

However, in the later Republic, historians and scholars began to count years from the founding of the city of Rome. Different scholars used different dates for this event. The date most widely used today is that calculated by Varro, 753 BC, but other systems varied by up to several decades. Dates given by this method are numbered ab urbe condita (meaning after the founding of the city, and abbreviated AUC). When reading ancient works using AUC dates, care must be taken to determine the epoch used by the author before translating the date into a Julian year. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1224x1496, 301 KB) Summary Fragment of a roman kalender, Museo Epigrafico, Rome (Foto: Kleuske) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Roman calendar ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1224x1496, 301 KB) Summary Fragment of a roman kalender, Museo Epigrafico, Rome (Foto: Kleuske) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Roman calendar ... Marcus Terentius Varro ([[116 BC]–27 BC), also known as Varro Reatinus to distinguish him from his contemporary Varro Atacinus, was a Roman scholar and writer, who the Romans came to call the most learned of all the Romans. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC - 750s BC - 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC Events and Trends 756 BC - Founding of Cyzicus. ... Ab urbe condita (related with Anno urbis conditae: AUC or a. ...


The first day of the consular term, which was effectively the first day of the year, changed several times during Roman history. It became 1 January in 153 BC. Before then it was 15 March. Earlier changes are a little less certain. There is good reason to believe it was 1 May for most of the third century BC, till 222 BC. Livy mentions consulates starting on 1 July before then, and arguments exist for other dates at earlier times. January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC - 150s BC - 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC Years: 158 BC 157 BC 156 BC 155 BC 154 BC - 153 BC - 152 BC 151 BC... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (75th in leap years). ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 227 BC 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC - 222 BC - 221 BC 220 BC... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 183 days remaining. ...


Converting pre-Julian dates

The fact that we use the same month names as the Romans encourages us to assume that a Roman date occurred on the same Julian date as its modern equivalent. This assumption is not correct. Even early Julian dates, before the leap year cycle was stabilised, are not quite what they appear to be. For example, it is well known that Julius Caesar was assassinated on the Ides of March in 44 BC, and this is usually converted to 15 March 44 BC. While he was indeed assassinated on the 15th day of the Roman month Martius, the equivalent date on the modern Julian calendar is probably 14 March 44 BC. Vincenzo Camuccini, Mort de César, 1798. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC... March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (75th in leap years). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC... For the Lebanese political coalition, see March 14 Alliance. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC...


Finding the exact Julian equivalent of a pre-Julian date can be very hard. Since we have an essentially complete list of the consuls, it is not difficult to find the Julian year that generally corresponds to a pre-Julian year. However, our sources very rarely tell us which years were regular, which were intercalary, and how long an intercalary year was. Nevertheless, we do know that the pre-Julian calendar could be substantially out of alignment with the Julian calendar. Two precise astronomical synchronisms given by Livy show that in 168 BC the two calendars were misaligned by more than 2 months, and in 190 BC they were 4 months out of alignment. Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 173 BC 172 BC 171 BC 170 BC 169 BC - 168 BC - 167 BC 166 BC 165... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 195 BC 194 BC 193 BC 192 BC 191 BC - 190 BC - 189 BC 188 BC...


We have a number of other clues to help us reconstruct the Julian equivalent of pre-Julian dates. First, we know the precise Julian date for the start of the Julian calendar (although there is some uncertainty even about that), and we have detailed sources for the previous decade or so, mostly in the letters and speeches of Cicero. Combining these with what we know about how the calendar worked, especially the nundinal cycle, we can accurately convert Roman dates after 58 BC relative to the start of the Julian calendar. Also, the histories of Livy give us exact Roman dates for two eclipses in 190 BC and 168 BC, and we have a few loose synchronisms to dates in other calendars which help to give rough (and sometimes exact) solutions for the intervening period. Before 190 BC the alignment between the Roman and Julian years is determined by clues such as the dates of harvests mentioned in the sources. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 195 BC 194 BC 193 BC 192 BC 191 BC - 190 BC - 189 BC 188 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 173 BC 172 BC 171 BC 170 BC 169 BC - 168 BC - 167 BC 166 BC 165... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 195 BC 194 BC 193 BC 192 BC 191 BC - 190 BC - 189 BC 188 BC...


Combining these sources of data, we are able to estimate approximate Julian equivalents of Roman dates back to the start of the First Punic War in 264 BC. However, while we have enough data to make such reconstructions, the number of years before 45 BC for which we can convert pre-Julian Roman dates to Julian dates with certainty is very small, and several reconstructions of the pre-Julian calendar are possible. One detailed reconstruction giving conversions from pre-Julian dates into Julian dates is available at [1]. Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Marcus Atilius Regulus Gaius Lutatius Catulus Gaius Duilius Hamilcar Barca Hanno the Great Hasdrubal Xanthippus The First Punic War (264 to 241 BC) was the first of three major wars fought between Carthage and the Roman Republic. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC - 260s BC - 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC Years: 269 BC 268 BC 267 BC 266 BC 265 BC - 264 BC - 263 BC 262 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC...


See also

A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...

References and further reading

  • Plutarch - Numa Pompilius
  • Ovid - Fasti
  • Bickerman, E.J. Chronology of the Ancient World. (London: Thames & Hudson, 1969, rev. ed. 1980).
  • Brind'Amour, P. Le Calendrier romain: Recherches chronologiques (Ottawa, 1983)
  • Feeney, Denis C. Caesar's Calendar: Ancient Times and the Beginnings of History. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007 (hardcover, ISBN 0520251199).
  • Michels, A.K. The Calendar of the Roman Republic (Princeton, 1967).
  • Richards, E.G. Mapping Time. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850413-6.

Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Engraved frontispiece of George Sandyss 1632 London edition of Publius Ovidius Naso (Sulmona, March 20, 43 BC – Tomis, now Constanţa AD 17), a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid, wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ancient Roman Calendars - Crystalinks (3818 words)
Because a Roman calendar year defined the term of office of elected Roman magistrates, a pontifex maximus would have reason to lengthen a year in which he or his allies were in power, or to not lengthen a year in which his political opponents held office.
Roman dates before 32 BC were typically a day or two before the day with the same Julian date, so 1 January in the Roman calendar of the first year of the Julian reform actually fell on 31 December 46 BC (Julian date).
A revised Julian calendar was proposed during a synod in Constantinople in May of 1923, consisting of a solar part which was and will be identical to the Gregorian calendar until the year 2800, and a lunar part which calculated Easter astronomically at Jerusalem.
Ides of March (442 words)
The term Ides comes from the earliest Roman calendar, which is said to have been devised by Romulus, the mythical founder of Rome.
Whether it was Romulus or not, the inventor of this calendar had a penchant for complexity.
Used in the first Roman calendar as well as in the Julian calendar (established by Julius Caesar in 45 B.C.E.) the confusing system of Kalends, Nones, and Ides continued to be used to varying degrees throughout the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m