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Encyclopedia > Roman army

This article is part of the series on:


Military of ancient Rome (portal)
800 BC – AD 476 For the military of the East Roman Empire after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, see Byzantine military. ...

Structural history
Roman army (unit types and ranks,
legions, auxiliaries, generals)
Roman navy (fleets, admirals)
Campaign history
Lists of wars and battles
Decorations and punishments
Technological history
Military engineering (castra,
siege engines, arches, roads)
Personal equipment
Political history
Strategy and tactics
Infantry tactics
Frontiers and fortifications (limes,
Hadrian's Wall)

The Roman army was a set of military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. For its main infantry constituent and for much of its history, see Roman legion; for a catalogue of individual legions, dates and deployments, see List of Roman legions. For the non-citizen auxiliary forces of the Roman Empire, see Roman auxiliaries. For Rome's naval forces, see Roman Navy. The size of the army in the late Roman Empire was about 128,000 - 179,200 men. It was very well organized hierarchically. The main Roman soldiers in the Empire were the legionaries. There were, of course, other soldiers in the army; these were known as the auxilia. Auxilia were non-citizens recruited mostly from the provinces. They were paid less than legionaries but at the end of their service they were granted Roman citizenship. The branches of the Roman military at the highest level were the Roman army and the Roman navy. ... This is a list of both unit types and ranks of the Roman army from the Roman Republic to the fall of the Roman Empire. ... This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion. ... Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = supports) formed the standing non-citizen corps of the Roman army of the Principate (30 BC - 284 AD), alongside the citizen legions. ... // Manius Acilius Glabrio -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 191 BC) -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 91) -- Titus Aebutius Helva -- Aegidius -- Lucius Aemilius Barbula -- Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir) -- Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus -- Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (praetor 56 BC) -- Flavius Aëtius -- Lucius Afranius (consul) -- Sextus Calpurnius Agricola -- Gnaeus Julius Agricola -- Flavius Antoninus -- Marcus... The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis, lit. ... The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis, lit. ... The history of ancient Rome—originally a city-state of Italy, and later an empire covering much of Eurasia and North Africa from the ninth century BC to the fifth century AD—was often closely entwined with its military history. ... The following is a List of Roman wars fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, organized by date. ... The following is a List of Roman battles (fought by the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire), organized by date. ... As with most other military forces the Roman military adopted a carrot and stick approach to military, with an extensive list of decorations for military gallantry and likewise a range of punishments for military transgressions. ... The technology history of the Roman military covers the development of and application of technologies for use in the armies and navies of Rome from the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Roman military engineering is a type of Roman engineering carried out by the Roman Army - almost exclusively by the Roman legions for the furthering of military objectives. ... Basic ideal plan of a Roman castrum. ... Roman siege engines were, for the most part, adapted from Hellenistic siege technology. ... List of ancient Roman triumphal arches (By modern country) // France Orange Reims: Porte de Mars Saint Rémy de Provence: Roman site of Glanum Saintes: Arch of Germanicus Greece Arch of Galerius, Thessaloniki Hadrians Arch, Athens Italy It has been suggested that List of Roman arches in Rome be... Not to be confused with Romans road. ... Roman military personal equipment was produced in large numbers to established patterns and used in an established way. ... Root directory at Military history of ancient Rome Romes military was always tightly keyed to its political system. ... The strategy of the Roman Military encompasses its grand strategy (the arrangements made by the state to implement its political goals through a selection of military goals, a process of diplomacy backed by threat of military action, and a dedication to the military of part of its production and resources... Roman infantry tactics refers to the theoretical and historical deployment, formation and maneuvers of the Roman infantry from the start of the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Map of all the territories once occupied by the Roman Empire, along with locations of limes Roman military borders and fortifications were part of a grand strategy of territorial defense in the Roman Empire. ... The limes Germanicus, 2nd century. ... Hadrians Wall is a stone and turf fortification built by the Roman Empire across the width of modern-day England. ... The ancient quarters of Rome. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... A modern reconstruction of a Roman centurion around 70 A modern reconstruction of a Roman miles, (10-240) The Roman legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) was the basic military unit of the ancient Roman army. ... Legion redirects here. ... This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion. ... Auxiliaries (Latin: auxilia, help) were troops in the Roman army of the late Republican and Imperial periods who provided specialist support to the legions. ... The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis, lit. ... A Legionary is a member of a legion. ... Auxiliaries (Latin - auxilia, help) were troops in the Roman army of the Imperial period who provided specialist support to the legions. ...


Among Roman soldiers, the smallest organization unit was called a "contubernium". This was a group of 8 soldiers (however originally it was made of 10), that shared a tent and ate together. There were 10 contubernia in a "century". A century was the next largest group of soldiers. A century was a group of originally 100 men in the Early Roman Republic but later reduced to 80 men during the Roman Empire. The next largest group of soldiers were called "maniples". Next were the "cohorts". These were made up of 6 centuries (480 men). A "prima cohors" was the first cohort in a legion; it was much larger than the other cohorts, containing about 5 double strength centuries (800-men). Finally, the largest group in the Roman Army was the legion.There were ten cohorts including the "prima cohors" in a legion. A full-strength legion contained 6,000 men though it was not uncommon for most legions to be undermanned due to previous battles. All of these numbers depended on the date (ex. Scipio Africanus reformation, Gaius Marius reformation). The republican army's strength, in peace, was four legions, but the number was increased during wartime. The highest number of legions was 70 after the civil war between Octavian (Augustus) and Mark Antony, due to having two whole Roman empires fighting when the remainder of Antony's forces joined with Octavian's. The number was decreased to 28 legions soon after, as the economically strained empire could not pay such huge numbers. After the Varus disaster, only 25 legions remained. Legion can refer to: Roman legion, a division of troops within the Roman army Legion (demon), a demon found in the Christian Bible in Mark 5:9 and Luke 8:30 The American Legion, A veterans organization in the United States A creature from Castlevania Category: ... Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major (Latin: P·CORNELIVS·P·F·L·N·SCIPIO·AFRICANVS¹) (235–183 BC) was a general in the Second Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic. ... So-called “Marius”, Munich Glyptothek (Inv. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Battle of Actium. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Battle of the Teutoburg Forest Conflict Roman-Germanic wars Date 9 Place Teutoburg Forest Result German victory In the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (AD 9) an alliance of Germanic tribes led by Arminius (also known in German as Hermann), the son of Segimerus of the Cherusci, ambushed and wiped...

Contents

Weapons and Equipment

In an early to mid-Republican era legionaries usually bought their own gear. Hastati, the first line, usually had breastplates and occasionally wore lorica hamata, or chainmail. The wealthier principes could afford lorica hamata but they were sometimes seen wearing the cheaper cuiriasses. Both hastati and principes were each armed with a gladius - a short, 60 centimeter sword - and each had two pila (javelins). The Triarii's primary weapon was the hasta, a 2 meter long spear. They were also armed with the gladius and had an early form of the lorica segmenta. All legionaries had a large rectangular shield (scutum) which had rounded corners. By the late Republican period, all legionaries carried a gladius, two pila, a new, larger version of the scutum, and wore chainmail. Lorica segmenta, or the iron band armor, was only commonly worn between the 2nd and 3rd century AD. Roman military personal equipment was produced in large numbers to established patterns and used in an established way. ...


A set of Roman armor would include one of a variety of body armor types (usually designed to be flexible but strong; a centurion's body armor differs from that of the legionary), a shielders and turtlesith a special design/decoration for each legion), leggings or greaves, an apron (for decoration and protecting the groin, mostly made of metal), marching sandals called Caligae (with studs on the sole), a coarse woolen tunic, a belt (showing a soldier's position/rank in the army), and lastly a helmet called Galea (with cheek, ear and neck protection). A helmet might have also held a crest if the Roman was an officer or of higher rank than a peer. Look up Centurion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Personal Armor

  • The lorica hamata is a type of chainmail crephole armor used during the Roman Republic and Roman Empire as a standard-issue armor for both the legionaries (higher quality version of the lorica hamata) and secondary troops (Auxilia).
  • The lorica segmentata was a type of armor used in the Roman Empire between the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The armor itself consisted of broad ferrous (iron) strips ('girth hoops') fastened to internal leather straps.
  • The lorica squamata was a type of scale armor used during the Republic and at later periods.
  • The Scutum, (Latin for shield), was the standard, rectangular, semi-cylindrical shield carried by Roman legionaries during the Principate. Republican-era scuta had the form of an oval, and in the late fourth century the Roman Army began to exchange their rectangular scuta for oval or large circular shields.
  • The cingulum was a military belt worn at all times, even without the rest of the armor.

Detail of metal links. ... A reenactor dressed as a Roman soldier in lorica segmentata The lōrīca segmentāta was a type of armour primarily used in the Roman Empire, but the Latin name was first used in the 16th century (the ancient form is unknown). ... Roman scale armour fragment. ... Praetorian Guardsmen with curved oval scuta. ... The cingulum is a collection of white matter fibers projecting from the cingulate gyrus to the entorhinal cortex in the brain, allowing for communication between components of the limbic system. ...

Personal Weapons

  • The pugio was a small dagger.
  • The gladius was the short sword, 18 to 24 inches long, used by Roman legionaries from the 3rd century BC until the late Roman Empire. It was primarily used for stabbing and thrusting. The gladius was made by Spaniards
  • The hasta was a spear used by triarii in the times of the Republic, and also as the primary weapon of the hastati and principes in the early Republic.
  • The pilum, was a specialized javelin that would bend after being thrown to prevent enemies from re-using it.

Additionally, in the army of the late empire, the gladius was often replaced by a spatha (longsword), up to 1 meter long, the rectangular scutum was dropped in favor of an oval shield, the earlier pilum had evolved into a differently shaped javelin - lighter and with a greater range - and new weapon types such as thrown darts (plumbatae) were introduced. (Santosuosso, A., Soldiers, Emperors and Civilians in the Roman Empire, Westview, 2001, p. 190) Pugio reconstruction: a Roman soldier from AD 70 Pugio reconstruction: a Roman soldier AD 175 from a northern province A pugio is a small dagger used by Roman soldiers. ... This article is about the sword. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Hasta is a Latin word meaning spear. ... Reconstruction of a post-Marian pilum A Roman coin showing Antoninianus of Carinus holding pilum and globe. ... Look up Javelin on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Javelin can refer to several things: For the spear-like object,used as a thrown weapon in ancient times see Javelin Ancient For the modern athletic discipline see Javelin throw. ... The spatha was a type of straight sword with a long point, measuring between 0. ... Praetorian Guardsmen with curved oval scuta. ... A javelin is a light spear designed primarily for casting as a ranged weapon. ... Plumbatae or Mattiobarbuli were lead-weighted darts carried by ancient Roman infantry. ...


Artillery weapons

The ballista (Latin, from Greek ballistēs, from ballein to throw, plural ballistae) was a powerful ancient crossbow, although employing several loops of twisted skeins to power it, it used torsion (instead of a prod). ... Sketch of an Onager, from Antique technology by Diels. ... A catapulta was an ancient military machine for throwing arrows and javelins, 12 or 15 feet long, at the enemy. ...

Ranks

Further information: Roman legion officers

Legion redirects here. ...

High level ranks

  • Legatus Legionis/legate: The overall Legionary commander. This post was generally appointed by the emperor, was a former Tribune and held command for 3 or 4 years, although could serve for a much longer period. In a province with only one legion, the Legatus was also the provincial governor and in provinces with multiple legions, each legion has a Legatus and the provincial governor has overall command of them all.
  • The Quaestor: Served as a type of quartermaster general, in charge of purchasing, finance, the collection and distribution of booty, etc. Again, these might perform similar functions on the civilian side.
  • The Legati: senior commanders under the supremo. Generally they were of senatorial rank and were commissioned by the Senate.
  • Tribunus Laticlavius: Named for the broad striped toga worn by men of senatorial rank. This tribune was appointed by the Emperor or the Senate. Though generally quite young and less experienced than the Tribuni Angusticlavii, he served as second in command of the legion, behind the Legate.
  • Praefectus Castrorum: The camp Prefect. Generally he was a long-serving veteran who had been promoted through the ranks of the centurions and was third in overall command.
  • Tribuni Angusticlavii: Each legion had 5 military tribunes of equestrian (knight) class citizens. They were in many cases career officers and served many of the important administrative tasks of the Legion, but still served in a full tactical command function during engagements.

Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ... The Roman Army, the Tribunus Laticlavius is one of the six military tribunes in a legion, and the highest rank of all of them. ... The Roman Army. ...

Mid Level ranks

  • Primus Pilus: The senior centurion of the legion and commander of the first cohort was called the primus pilus ("first spear"), a career soldier and advisor to the legate. While every normal cohort was composed of 5 to 8 centuries, the one that was led by the primus pilus (the first) had about 10 centuries, or 800 men.
  • Pilus Prior: Senior centurion in any cohort other than the first cohort. Commanded that cohort and served as an advisor to the legion's commander.
  • Centurions: They were the backbone of the professional army and were the career soldiers who ran the day to day life of the soldiers as well as issuing commands in the field. They were generally moved up from the ranks, but in some cases could be direct appointments from the Emperor or other higher ranking officials. There were 64 centurions in each legion (10 in the first cohort and 6 in the rest), one to command each centuria of the 10 cohorts. The ranking of centurions were: Pilus Prior, Pilus Posterior, Princepes Prior, Princepes Posterior, Hastatus Prior, and Hastatus Posterior. The Prior centurion of each pair commanded the maniple.
  • Aquilifer: A single position within the Legion. The aquilifer was the Legion's Standard or Eagle bearer and was an enormously important and prestigious position. The next step up would be a post as a centurion.
  • Optio: One for each centurion (therefore, there were 64 in a legion), they were appointed by the centurion from within the ranks to act as his second in command.
  • Tesserarius (Guard Commander): Again there were 64 of these, or one for each centuria. They acted in similar roles to the optiones.
  • Signifer: Each centuria had a signifer (therefore, there were 64 in a legion). He was responsible for the men's pay and savings, and the standard bearer for the Centurial Signum, a spear shaft decorated with medallions and often topped with an open hand to signify the oath of loyalty taken by the soldiers. It was this banner that the men from each individual centuria would rally around. A soldier could also gain the position of Discentes signiferorum, or standard bearer in training.
  • Cornicen (Horn blower): They worked hand in hand with the signifer drawing the attention of the men to the Centurial Signum and issuing the audible commands of the officers.
  • Imaginifer: Carried the standard bearing the image of the Emperor as a constant reminder of the troops' loyalty to him.

The Primus Pilus was a member of a Roman legion. ... A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ... Look up Centurion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Centurion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An aquilifer was the standard bearer of a Roman legion. ... An optio (from the Latin verb optare, to choose, because an optio was chosen by his centurion) was a soldier in the Roman army who held a position similar to that of a non-commissioned officer in modern armies. ... A tesserarius (from the Latin noun tessera, which means a small tile or block of wood on which these watch words were written), was a soldier in the Roman army who was responsible for getting the watch words from the commander and seeing that it was kept safe. ... A Scarsdale High School title to make kids who do good in school feel good about themselves. ... From The Roman Army, by John Wilkes. ... The imaginifer was a type of signiferi of the later Roman legions, of similar rank as an aquilifer, who carried a standard with an image of the emperor. ...

Low level ranks

  • Legionarii: The basic soldiers of a Legion, who were well trained fighters and received roughly the same pay as Immunes.
  • Immunes: These were trained specialists, such as surgeons, engineers, surveyors, and architects, as well as craftsmen. They were exempt from camp and hard labor duties due to the nature of their work, and would generally earn slightly more pay than the Milites. They also did not fight as much as the normal Milites.
  • Discentes: Milites in training for an immunis position.
  • Milites Gregarii: The basic private-level foot soldiers.
  • Tirones: The basic new private recruits. A tiro could take up to 6 months before becoming a full miles.

Immunes were those soldiers of the military of ancient Rome who were immune from combat duty and fatigues through having a more specialist role within the army. ... A milites or milites gregarius was a basic private/infantryman in the army of the Roman Empire, specifically in the Roman legions. ... A Private is a soldier of the lowest military rank (equivalent to Nato Rank Grades OR-1 to OR-3 depending on the force served in). ... Tirones were new recruits in the armies of the Roman Empire. ...

Training

Fitness

The main prerequisite for a member of the Roman Army was fitness, given the long distances they were expected to march around 32km in 5 hours. They also had to be fit to be able to fight well and cope with any injuries.


Group Training

Every day, the whole of the legion would practice running, jumping, fencing and javelin throwing. But, before that happened, newcomers would do two sessions of military drill and give their oath of loyalty to their Commander and Emperor.


Drill and weapons training

Both the legionary and auxilia troops also did drill training, from fundamentals such as learning military step and the exact formation of ranks, to practicing tactical maneuvers. Roman tactics also required the soldier to be able to respond instantly to commands to change the shape of his formation, not simply to fight as a brave individual, as in barbarian armies. This required extensive training and discipline. Weapons training covered how to handle a sword, both to become accustomed to the weight and balance, and also how to deliver injurious blows to an enemy without exposing the soldier's own body to enemy strikes. Roman sword-fighting as talk was in fact fairly restrained and measured - primarily, the sword was to be used to make short stabbing strokes from behind the protection of the scutum (shield) with minimal risk of the soldier receiving counter-strokes. This is in contrast to the rather looser style of slashing blows favored by many barbarian peoples. The soldier was taught not to engage in wild sword-fights with opponents and especially not to lay himself open to his antagonist while aiming his stroke at him. A favored tactic was to knock one's opponents off their feet with a ram of the scutum (shield), and then to dispatch him with one or more swift downward stabs whilst he was vulnerable on the ground, all the while remaining protected himself by the scutum, which was to remained raised and another one was, while being protected by the shield, they stabbed the enemy in the stomach, twisted the sword, brought it up and then pulled it out. They also trained in the use of the thrown javelin and pilum. The Queens Guard on parade outside Buckingham Palace Military step or march is a regular, ordered and synchronized walking of military formations. ... A formation is a high-level military organization, such as a Brigade, Division, Corps, Army or Army group. ... Praetorian Guardsmen with curved oval scuta. ... Praetorian Guardsmen with curved oval scuta. ...


Common skills

As a minimum, it was expected that all troops would be at least minimally competent at swimming, so as to be able to ford any rivers where it was necessary to cross without the aid of a bridge and also some of them would have to swim in their armour so they could continue fighting


Special skills

In an army as organizationally complex as the Roman army, physical conditioning, while stressed, was not sufficient. The most intelligent were trained in the special skills needed by the army, and would become officers or immunes in areas such as engineering. A blacksmith would be needed in the fort. Immunes were those soldiers of the military of ancient Rome who were immune from combat duty and fatigues through having a more specialist role within the army. ...


History of the Roman army

From a few score men defending a small hill town in Italy, through a citizen militia consisting of citizen-farmers raised annually for a short campaign before returning to harvest their fields, the Roman army grew to be a professional standing army of several hundred thousand men. Roman historian Edward Gibbon estimates in his book The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire that the peak size of the Roman army in the late imperial period was in the order of 375,000 men. The history of ancient Rome—originally a city-state of Italy, and later an empire covering much of Eurasia and North Africa from the ninth century BC to the fifth century AD—was often closely entwined with its military history. ... The branches of the Roman military at the highest level were the Roman army and the Roman navy. ... The technology history of the Roman military covers the development of and application of technologies for use in the armies and navies of Rome from the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Root directory at Military history of ancient Rome Romes military was always tightly keyed to its political system. ... Legion redirects here. ... This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, a major literary achievement of Eighteenth Century, was written by the British historian, Edward Gibbon. ...


Branches

Further information: Roman military structure

The Roman military had a very large and well organized structure. ...

References

Secondary Sources

  • Davies, Roy W. "Service in the Roman Army", Columbia University Press, New York, 1989
  • Goldsworth, Adrian. "Roman Warfare", "Cassell & Co", London, UK 1999
  • Additional Educational Information, http://www.jointheromanarmy.co.uk

See also

Military of ancient Rome Portal
Download high resolution version (1932x1288, 436 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion. ... This is a catalogue of Roman auxiliary regiments of the Principate period (30BC - 284 AD) for which inscriptions have been found. ... Auxiliaries (Latin: auxilia, help) were troops in the Roman army of the late Republican and Imperial periods who provided specialist support to the legions. ... Legion redirects here. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This is a list of topics related to ancient Rome that aims to include aspects of both the ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... This is a Timeline of events concerning ancient Rome, from the city foundation until the last attempt of the Roman Empire of the East to conquer Rome. ... For other uses, see History of Rome (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The ancient quarters of Rome. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Principate is, according to its etymological derivation from the Latin word princeps, meaning chief or first, the political regime dominated by such a political leader, whether or not he is formally head of state and/or head of government. ... The Dominate was the despotic last of the two phases of government in the ancient Roman Empire between its establishment in 27 BC and the formal date of the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476. ... This article is about the historiography of the decline of the Roman Empire. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... A Curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people, i. ... The Forum of Jerash, in Jordan. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The cursus honorum (Latin: course of honours) was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Empire. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honours Emperor Institutions and Law Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Roman assemblies were the Comitia Calata, the Comitia Curiata, the Comitia Centuriata, and the Comitia Tributa. ... Collegiality is the relationship between colleagues. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ... The Misspeling of Ducks ... Officium (plural officia) is a Latin word with various meanings, including service, (sense of) duty, courtesy, ceremony and the likes. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Vigintisexviri (sing. ... The lictor, derived from the Latin ligare (to bind), was a member of a special class of Roman civil servant, with special tasks of attending magistrates of the Roman Republic and Empire who held imperium. ... Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... The princeps senatus (plural principes senatus) was the leader of the Roman senate. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... Aedile (Latin Aedilis, from aedes, aedis temple, building) was an office of the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... This article is about the highest office of the Roman Republic. ... Censor was the title of two magistrates of high rank in the Roman Republic. ... See Roman Governor for the duties of a promagistrate as a governor of a province A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office. ... A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief adminstator of Roman law throughout one or more of Ancient Romes many provinces. ... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, is) a historical position of varying importance in several European nations. ... Decemviri (singular decemvir) is a Latin term meaning Ten Men which designates any such commission in the Roman Republic (cf. ... Military tribunes elected with consular power during the Conflict of the Orders in the Roman Republic on and off starting in 444 BCE and then continuiously from 408 BCE - 394 BCE and from 391 BCE - 367 BCE The practice of electing consular tribunes ended in 366 BCE when the Lex... The term triumvirate is commonly used to describe a political regime dominated by three powerful political and/or military leaders. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The King of Rome (Latin: rex, regis) was the chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The Law of the Twelve Tables (Lex Duodecim Tabularum, more informally simply Duodecim Tabulae) was the ancient legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law. ... The toga was the characteristic garment of the Roman citizen. ... Auctoritas is the Latin origin of English authority. According to Benveniste [citation?], auctor (which also gives us English author) is derived from Latin augeó (to augment): The auctor is is qui auget, the one who augments the act or the juridical situation of another. ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... The system for Roman litigation passed through three stages over the years: until around 150 BC, the Legis Actiones system; from around 150 BC until around 342 AD, the formulary system; and from 342 AD onwards, the cognito procedure. ... Map of all the territories once occupied by the Roman Empire. ... Main article: Military history of ancient Rome As the Roman kingdom successfully overcame opposition from the Italic hill tribes and became a larger state, the age of tyranny in the eastern Mediterranean began to pass away. ... The branches of the Roman military at the highest level were the Roman army and the Roman navy. ... The history of ancient Rome—originally a city-state of Italy, and later an empire covering much of Eurasia and North Africa from the ninth century BC to the fifth century AD—was often closely entwined with its military history. ... The technology history of the Roman military covers the development of and application of technologies for use in the armies and navies of Rome from the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Root directory at Military history of ancient Rome Romes military was always tightly keyed to its political system. ... Map of all the territories once occupied by the Roman Empire, along with locations of limes Roman military borders and fortifications were part of a grand strategy of territorial defense in the Roman Empire. ... Basic ideal plan of a Roman castrum. ... The strategy of the Roman Military encompasses its grand strategy (the arrangements made by the state to implement its political goals through a selection of military goals, a process of diplomacy backed by threat of military action, and a dedication to the military of part of its production and resources... Roman military engineering is a type of Roman engineering carried out by the Roman Army - almost exclusively by the Roman legions for the furthering of military objectives. ... Legion redirects here. ... Roman infantry tactics refers to the theoretical and historical deployment, formation and maneuvers of the Roman infantry from the start of the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Roman military personal equipment was produced in large numbers to established patterns and used in an established way. ... Roman siege engines were, for the most part, adapted from Hellenistic siege technology. ... The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis, lit. ... The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis, lit. ... Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = supports) formed the standing non-citizen corps of the Roman army of the Principate (30 BC - 284 AD), alongside the citizen legions. ... As with most other military forces the Roman military adopted a carrot and stick approach to military, with an extensive list of decorations for military gallantry and likewise a range of punishments for military transgressions. ... Julius Caesar, from the bust in the British Museum, in Cassells History of England (1902). ... This article is about theatrical performances in ancient Rome. ... The toga was the distinctive garb of Romen men, while women wore stolas. ... Still life with fruit basket and vases (Pompeii, ca. ... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... Fresco from the Villa of the Mysteries. ... We know less about the music of ancient Rome than we do about the music of ancient Greece. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Roman Funerals and Burial Introduction In ancient Rome, important people had elaborate funerals. ... Within the wider stream of influences that contributed to the Christianization of the Roman Empire, followers of the Ancient Roman religion were persecuted by Christians during the period after the death of Constantine and the reign of Julian, only to enjoy a respite for a number of years before the... The Imperial cult in Ancient Rome was the worship of the Roman Emperor as a god. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... The Forum of Jerash, in Jordan. ... For the series of murder mystery novels, see SPQR series. ... The Pont du Gard in France is a Roman aqueduct built in ca. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For centuries the monetary affairs of the Roman Republic had rested in the hands of the Senate, which was steady and fiscally conservative. ... Roman commerce was the engine that drove the growth of the Roman Empire. ... The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. ... Clothing in Ancient Rome consisted generally of the toga, the stola, brooches for them, and breeches. ... Roman holidays generally were celebrated to worship and celebrate a certain god or mythological occurrence, and consisted of religious observances, various festival traditions and usually a large feast. ... Circus Maximus, Rome The Roman Circus, the theatre and the amphitheatre were the most important buildings in the cities for public entertainment in the Roman Empire. ... The institution of slavery in ancient Rome made many people non-persons before their legal system. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For the Old Latin Bible used before the Vulgate, see Vetus Latina. ... Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ... Not to be confused with Latin profanity. ... Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. ... Renaissance Latin is a name given to the distinctive form of Latin style developed during the European Renaissance of the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries, particularly by the humanist movement. ... New Latin (or Neo-Latin) is a post-medieval version of Latin, now used primarily in International Scientific Vocabulary cladistics and systematics. ... Recent Latin is the form of Latin used from the late nineteenth century down to the present. ... The Duenos inscription, from the 6th century BC, is the second-earliest known Latin text. ... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... The term Ecclesiastical Latin (sometimes called Church Latin) refers to the Latin language as used in documents of the Roman Catholic Church and in its Latin liturgies. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... This is a list of topics related to ancient Rome that aims to include aspects of both the ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... The following is a List of Roman wars fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, organized by date. ... The following is a List of Roman battles (fought by the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire), organized by date. ... // Manius Acilius Glabrio -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 191 BC) -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 91) -- Titus Aebutius Helva -- Aegidius -- Lucius Aemilius Barbula -- Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir) -- Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus -- Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (praetor 56 BC) -- Flavius Aëtius -- Lucius Afranius (consul) -- Sextus Calpurnius Agricola -- Gnaeus Julius Agricola -- Flavius Antoninus -- Marcus... This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion. ... This is a list of the Roman Emperors with the dates they ruled the Roman Empire. ... List of ancient Roman triumphal arches (By modern country) // France Orange Reims: Porte de Mars Saint Rémy de Provence: Roman site of Glanum Saintes: Arch of Germanicus Greece Arch of Galerius, Thessaloniki Hadrians Arch, Athens Italy It has been suggested that List of Roman arches in Rome be... This is a tentative list of topics regarding political institutions of Ancient Rome. ... This is an attempted alphabetical List of Roman laws. ... Abbreviations: Imp. ...

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Roman Army - LoveToKnow 1911 (4301 words)
This became (3) the Imperial 'army of defence, which developed from a strictly citizen army into one which represented the provinces as well as Italy, and was a garrison rather than a field army.
The Roman army had been one of foot soldiers; in its latest phase it was marked by that predominance of the horseman which characterized the earlier centuries of the middle ages.
The early Roman Empire had not to face - as Britain or France or Germany might have to face to-day - the danger of a war with an equal enemy, needing the mobilization of all its national forces.
The Roman Army (13507 words)
All in all the Roman army consisted of 18 centuries of equites, 82 centuries of the first class (of which 2 centuries were engineers), 20 centuries each of the second, third and fourth classes and 32 centuries of the fifth class (of which 2 centuries were trumpeters).
If the Roman army had throughout most of the third and fourth century been undergoing a transition, gradually increasing the number of cavalry, then the end of this period of gradual change was brought about by a dreadful disaster.
Roman society was governed by class and so in effect there was three separate army careers possible, that of the common soldier in the ranks, that of the equestrians and that for those destined for command, the senatorial class.
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