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Encyclopedia > Roman alphabet
Latin alphabet
Type: Alphabet
Languages: Some variation exists for almost all existing languages
Time period: ~400 B.C. to the present
Parent writing systems: Greek alphabet
 Old Italic alphabet
  Latin alphabet
Sister writing systems: Cyrillic
Coptic
Runic/Futhark
ISO 15924 code: Latn
 
History of the Alphabet

Middle Bronze Age 19–15th c. BC
A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ...   The Coptic alphabet is an alphabet used for writing the Coptic language. ... Younger Futhark inscription on the Vaksala Runestone The Runic alphabets are a set of related alphabets using letters known as runes, formerly used to write Germanic languages, mainly in Scandinavia and the British Isles, but before Christianization also on the European Continent. ... Image File history File links Latin_alphabet. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... This is a concise version of the International Phonetic Alphabet for English sounds. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Middle Bronze Age alphabets. ... The Middle Bronze Age alphabets are two similar but undeciphered scripts, dated to be from the Middle Bronze Age (2000-1500 BCE), and believed to be ancestral to nearly all modern alphabets: the Proto-Sinaitic script discovered in the winter of 1904-1905 by William Flinders Petrie, and dated to...

Meroitic 3rd c. BC
Complete genealogy

The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. The basic alphabet comprises 26 letters[1] and is used, with some modification, for most of the languages of Europe (excluding some Eastern European countries), the Americas, Sub-Saharan Africa, and the islands of the Pacific. Languages that use the Latin alphabet include the descendants of the Latin language (i.e. the Romance languages: French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Catalan, Galician), Germanic languages (like English, German, Dutch), Western Slavic languages (e.g., Polish, Czech), Celtic languages (e.g., Irish, Welsh, Scots Gaelic, Manx) , non-Indo-European Finno-Ugric language (Finnish, Estonian, Hungarian) and other languages like Indonesian, Javanese, Vietnamese, Turkish, Hausa, Swahili, Filipino, and many others. In modern usage, the term Latin alphabet is used for any straightforward derivation of the alphabet used by the Romans. These variants may drop letters (e.g., Hawaiian) or add letters (e.g., Czech) to or from the classical Roman script, and of course many letter shapes have changed over the centuries — such as the lower-case letters which the Romans would not have recognized. Drawing of the 16 and 12 characters Wadi el-Hol inscriptions The Proto-Canaanite (also Proto-Sinaitic) alphabet is identified as the prototype of the Semitic alphabets that, mostly via the successful Phoenician alphabet became the ancestor of most scripts in use today. ... The Phoenician alphabet dates from around 1400 BC and is related to the Proto-Canaanite alphabet. ... The Aramaic alphabet is an abjad alphabet designed for writing the Aramaic language. ... BrāhmÄ« refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, and to an extent, Korea. ... Om Mani Padme Hum, the primary mantra of Tibetan Buddhism written in the Tibetan script, on a rock outside the Potala Palace in Lhasa, Tibet. ... This article or section uses Khmer characters which may be rendered as boxes or other nonsensical symbols. ... Javanese script is the script that Javanese is originally written in (not to be confused with Javascript, which is a programming language). ... This article is mainly about Hebrew letters. ... 11th century book in Syriac Serto. ... The Avestan alphabet was created in the 3rd century AD for writing the hymns of Zarathustra (a. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing in the Arabic language. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Younger Futhark inscription on the Vaksala Runestone The Runic alphabets are a set of related alphabets using letters known as runes, formerly used to write Germanic languages, mainly in Scandinavia and the British Isles, but before Christianization also on the European Continent. ... Representation of the Gothic alphabet surrounding its inventor Ulfilas The Gothic alphabet is an alphabetic writing system attributed to Wulfila used exclusively for writing the ancient Gothic language. ... Tablet inscribed with the Glagolitic alphabet The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavonic alphabet. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... The Samaritan alphabet is a direct descendant of the paleo-Hebrew variety of the Phoenician alphabet, the more commonly known Hebrew alphabet having been adapted from the Aramaic alphabet under the Persian Empire. ... photograph of Botorrita 1 (both sides), 1st century BC. The Iberian scripts (or Iberian alphabet) are two scripts (or two styles of the same script) found on the Iberian peninsula, the Northeast and South Iberian script. ... The ancient South Arabian alphabet (also known as musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in ca. ... The Geez language (or Giiz language) is an ancient language that developed in the Ethiopian Highlands of the Horn of Africa as the language of the peasantry. ... The Meroitic script is an alphabet of Egyptian (Hieroglyphic) origin used in Kingdom of Meroë. Some scholars, e. ... Nearly all the segmental scripts (alphabets, but see below for more precise terminology) used around the globe were apparently derived from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet. ... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Writing Systems of the World today A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ... The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Pacific Ocean has an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 islands; the exact number has not been precisely determined. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Romance languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, comprise all languages that descended from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Catalan in Europe Catalan IPA: (català ) is a Romance language, the official language of Andorra and co-official in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Valencia (under the name Valencian) and Catalonia. ... Galician (Galician: galego) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia. ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article or section should be merged with List of West Slavic languages The West Slavic languages is a subdivision of the Slavic language group (q. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Approximate geographical distribution of areas where indigenous Finno-Ugric languages are spoken. ... The Javanese language is the spoken language of the people in the central and eastern part of the island of Java, in Indonesia. ... Hausa is the Chadic language with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by about 24 million people, and as a second language by about 15 million more. ... This article is about the language. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Contents


Overview

The default Latin alphabet is the Roman, supplemented with G, J, U, W, Y, Z, and lower-case variants:

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z

Additional letters may be formed Look up A, a in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The letter B is the second letter of the modern Latin alphabet. ... C in Copyright mark The letter C is the third letter in the Latin alphabet. ... For other uses, see D (disambiguation). ... The letter E is the fifth letter in the Latin alphabet. ... The letter F is the sixth letter in the Latin alphabet. ... The letter G is the seventh letter in the Latin alphabet. ... H is also a multi a-side single by Japanese singer Ayumi Hamasaki. ... The lowercase i redirects here. ... The letter J is the tenth of the Latin alphabet; it was the last to be added to that alphabet. ... The letter K is the eleventh letter in the Latin alphabet. ... L is the twelfth letter of the Latin alphabet. ... The letter M is the thirteenth letter in the Latin alphabet. ... This article is about the letter N. For the Flash game, see N (game). ... This is for the letter O. For Oxygen, see here. ... P is the sixteenth letter of the Latin alphabet. ... Q is the seventeenth letter of the Latin alphabet. ... The letter R is the eighteenth letter in the Latin alphabet. ... S is the nineteenth letter in the Latin alphabet. ... T is the twentieth letter of the modern Latin alphabet. ... U is the twenty-first letter of the modern Latin alphabet. ... The letter V is the twenty-second letter in the Latin alphabet. ... W is the twenty-third letter of the modern Latin alphabet. ... The letter X is the twenty-fourth letter in the Latin alphabet. ... Y is the twenty-fifth letter of the Latin alphabet. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

However, these glyphs are not always considered independent letters of the alphabet. In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ... Ash (Æ, æ; pronounced ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet for English. ... Å’ Å“ This article is about the typographic ligature, for other uses, see Oe Ethel (Å’, Å“; pronounced ) is a letter used in medieval and early modern Latin, and in modern French, and also the vowel sound it represents. ... Å’ Å“ This article is about the ligature, not the simple combination of the letters O and E. For initialisms and the word Oe, see Oe. ... The ß — Eszett [] in German or scharfes Es (sharp es) if spelled out — is a letter used only in the German alphabet. ... The glyph ß is a ligature of Å¿ (long s) and s or z that has become a distinct letter in the German alphabet; its German name is Eszett (IPA ) or scharfes S (sharp S). ... The title of this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The velar nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... Eng can mean: Eng (letter), the Latin letter. ... The letter Ou () is a letter in the extended Latin alphabet. ... Ñ and ñ in Arial and Times New Roman, with an example word from Panare Ñ is a letter of the modern Roman alphabet formed by an N with a diacritical tilde. ... Ä, or ä, is a glyph which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter A with umlaut, or a letter A with diaeresis. ... A diacritical mark or diacritic, sometimes called an accent mark, is a mark added to a letter to alter a words pronunciation (ie. ... Ã…, or Ã¥, is a letter, representing a vowel, in the Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Walloon, Chamorro and Istro-Romanian language alphabets. ... ÄŒ in uper- and lowercase ÄŒ is the fourth letter of the Croatian, Czech, Serbian and Slovenian alphabet. ... Ogonek (Polish for little tail; In Lithuanian it is nosinÄ— which literally means nasal) is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in Polish (letters Ä…, Ä™), Lithuanian (Ä…, Ä™, į, ų), Navajo and Western Apache (Ä…, Ä…Ä…, Ä™, ęę, į, įį, , ), Chiricahua and Mescalero (Ä…, Ä…Ä…, Ä™, ęę, į, įį, ų, ųų) and Tutchone. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The words “ijsvrij” and “yoghurt” in various forms of handwriting. ... LL may stand for: LL is the IATA code for Lineas Aeras Allegro airline LL is the production code for the Doctor Who serial The Evil of the Daleks. ... Image:Latin letter O with The Ø (miniscule: ø) is a vowel and a letter used in the Danish, Faroese and Norwegian alphabets. ... Eth (Ð, ð), also spelled edh or eð, is a letter used in Old English (Anglo-Saxon) and present-day Icelandic, and in Faroese language which call the letter edd. ... The letter yogh (Èœ ȝ; Middle English: ogh) was used in Middle English and Middle Scots, representing y (IPA: ) and various velar phonemes. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Ezh (capital , lowercase ) is a character in the IPA. Also called the tailed z, it represents a voiced postalveolar fricative (SAMPA: [Z]), appearing in e. ... Þþ Thorn, or þorn (Þ, þ), is a letter in the Anglo-Saxon and Icelandic alphabets. ... Wynn () (also spelled Wen) is a letter of the old English alphabet. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...


Letters of the alphabet

As used in modern English, the Latin alphabet consists of the following characters (cf. English alphabet): The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The modern English alphabet consists of the 26 letters[1] of the Latin alphabet: // Old English The English language has been written using the Latin alphabet from ca. ...

Majuscule Forms
(also called uppercase or capital letters)
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Minuscule Forms
(also called lowercase or small letters)
a b c d e f g h i j k l m
n o p q r s t u v w x y z

Capital letters or majuscules (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... Look up A, a in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The letter B is the second letter of the modern Latin alphabet. ... C in Copyright mark The letter C is the third letter in the Latin alphabet. ... For other uses, see D (disambiguation). ... The letter E is the fifth letter in the Latin alphabet. ... The letter F is the sixth letter in the Latin alphabet. ... The letter G is the seventh letter in the Latin alphabet. ... H is also a multi a-side single by Japanese singer Ayumi Hamasaki. ... The lowercase i redirects here. ... The letter J is the tenth of the Latin alphabet; it was the last to be added to that alphabet. ... The letter K is the eleventh letter in the Latin alphabet. ... L is the twelfth letter of the Latin alphabet. ... The letter M is the thirteenth letter in the Latin alphabet. ... This article is about the letter N. For the Flash game, see N (game). ... This is for the letter O. For Oxygen, see here. ... P is the sixteenth letter of the Latin alphabet. ... Q is the seventeenth letter of the Latin alphabet. ... The letter R is the eighteenth letter in the Latin alphabet. ... S is the nineteenth letter in the Latin alphabet. ... T is the twentieth letter of the modern Latin alphabet. ... U is the twenty-first letter of the modern Latin alphabet. ... The letter V is the twenty-second letter in the Latin alphabet. ... W is the twenty-third letter of the modern Latin alphabet. ... The letter X is the twenty-fourth letter in the Latin alphabet. ... Y is the twenty-fifth letter of the Latin alphabet. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Minuscule, or lower case, is the smaller form (case) of letters (in the Roman alphabet: a, b, c, ...). Originally alphabets were written entirely in majuscule (capital) letters which were spaced between well-defined upper and lower bounds. ...

Extensions

In the course of its use, the Latin alphabet was adapted for use in new languages, some having phonemes not found in languages already written with the Roman characters. To represent these new sounds, extensions were therefore sometimes created. They were made by adding marks to create diacritics, by joining multiple letters together to make ligatures, or by creation of completely new forms. In human language, a phoneme is a set of phones (speech sounds or sign elements) that are cognitively equivalent. ... A diacritical mark or diacritic, sometimes called an accent mark, is a mark added to a letter to alter a words pronunciation (ie. ... In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ...


These new forms are given a place in the alphabet by defining a collating sequence. This is language-dependent, as shown below. This article needs cleanup. ...


New forms

Eth Ðð and the Runic letters thorn Þþ, and wynn Ƿƿ were added to the Old English alphabet. Eth and thorn were later replaced with 'th', and wynn with the new letter 'w'. Although these three letters are no longer part of the Latin alphabet as used for English, eth and thorn are still used in modern Icelandic. Ð (capital Ð, lower-case ð) (or eth, eð or edh, Faroese: edd) is a letter used in Old English (Anglo-Saxon) and present-day Icelandic and Faroese. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Þþ Thorn, or þorn (Þ, þ), is a letter in the Anglo-Saxon and Icelandic alphabets. ... Wynn () (also spelled Wen) is a letter of the old English alphabet. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ...


For a short time in Roman history, three new letters, called the Claudian letters, were added to the alphabet, but they were not widely received and were eventually removed. Claudian letters Claudian letters were developed by, and named after, the Roman Emperor Claudius (reigned AD 41–54). ...


Some West African languages use a few additional letters which have a similar sound value to their equivalents in the IPA. For example, Ga uses the letters Ɛɛ, Ŋŋ and Ɔɔ and Adangme uses Ɛɛ and Ɔɔ. Hausa uses Ɓɓ and Ɗɗ for implosives and Ƙƙ for an ejective. IPA may refer to: The International Phonetic Alphabet or India Pale Ale ... The Ga language is a Kwa language spoken in Ghana, in and around the capital Accra. ... Adangme (also Dangme, native name ) is a language that is spoken in Ghana by 825,000 people. ... Hausa is the Chadic language with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by about 24 million people, and as a second language by about 15 million more. ... Implosive consonants are plosives (rarely affricates) with a glottalic ingressive airstream mechanism. ... Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or tenuis consonants in a language. ...


Ligatures

A ligature is a fusion of two or more ordinary letters into a new glyph. Examples are Æ from AE, Œ from OE, ß (eszett) from ſʒ, Dutch ij from i and j, and & from et. The "ſs" pair is simply an archaic double s. The first glyph is the archaic medial form, and the second the final form. Note that ij is capitalised as IJ (never Ij). In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ... Ash (Æ, æ; pronounced ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet for English. ... Å’ Å“ This article is about the ligature, not the simple combination of the letters O and E. For initialisms and the word Oe, see Oe. ... The glyph ß is a ligature of Å¿ (long s) and s or z that has become a distinct letter in the German alphabet; its German name is Eszett (IPA ) or scharfes S (sharp S). ...


Diacritics

Diacritics are marks that are added to specific letters to modify their pronunciation. The effect is language dependent. A diacritical mark or diacritic, sometimes called an accent mark, is a mark added to a letter to alter a words pronunciation (ie. ...

  • the cedilla in ç, originally a small z written below the c (once symbolized /ts/ in Romance languages, now gives c a 'soft' sound before a, o, and u, for example, /s/ in French façade, Portuguese Caçar and in Catalan Barça). While in Albanian and Turkish the "ç" changes the quality of the sound " c " and is pronounced as the "ch" in the word "check" in English;
  • the caron (háček) in ě ř ť š ď ľ ž č ň (used in some Baltic and Slavic languages).
  • the tilde in Portuguese ã and õ, Estonian õ. In Portuguese, it was originally a small n written above the letter (once used to mark the elision of a former n, now marks nasalization of the base letter). In Estonian, õ is considered a separate letter of the alphabet. In Spanish ñ is considered a different letter from n and represents a palatal nasal /ɲ/;
  • the circumflex in the vowels â ê î ô û in French, Portuguese, Romanian (in Romanian, such vowels are considered completely distinct letters and appear in the alphabet), and other languages, the semi-vowels ŵ ŷ in Welsh and in the consonants ĉ ĝ ĥ ĵ ŝ in Esperanto;
  • the umlaut in ä ö ü in German and other languages, and ë in Albanian, French and Ladin, which changes the quality (sound) of the vowel. In German, this mark was formerly written as a small e over the affected vowel. Modern German spelling accepts ae oe and ue as variants when the umlaut is unavailable; in Turkish ö ü are used to represent front rounded vowels;
  • the diaeresis (same visual appearance as the umlaut above) in ä ë ï ö ü in several languages, indicates that the vowel is pronounced separately from the preceding one when it would otherwise be interpreted as a diphthong; for example in Portuguese (Brazilian), it is used only on ü to mark where it sounds a semi-vowel after G (as in "lingüiça", sausage).
  • the dot below in ạ ặ ậ ẹ ệ ị ọ ộ ợ ụ ự ỵ in Vietnamese to indicate constricted voice;
  • the ogonek in ą ę in Polish, į ǫ ų in Lithuanian, and several Native American languages to indicate vowel nasalization (although, in Lithuanian it indicates length);
  • the comma underneath, as used in ş and ţ in Romanian (often rendered less than optimally in fonts as a cedilla). Also used for ķ ļ ņ ŗ in Latvian;
  • the dotless i (a "negative diacritic") in ı (minuscule form of normal latin I, majuscule of i is İ) as used in Turkish to represent /ɯ/, (essentially a /u/ without lip rounding);
  • the hook used in ả ẳ ẩ ẻ ể ỉ ỏ ổ ở ủ ử ỷ in Vietnamese to indicate "Dipping rising" tone.

There are other diacritics and other uses for the ones described here. Please see Alphabets derived from the Latin for a more complete list. A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... Catalan in Europe Catalan IPA: (català ) is a Romance language, the official language of Andorra and co-official in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Valencia (under the name Valencian) and Catalonia. ... č ď Ä› Ǩ Ľ Å™ Å¡ ž A caron ( ˇ ), also known as wedge, inverted circumflex, inverted hat or by the Czech name háček (pronounced ), is a diacritic placed over certain letters to indicate present or historical palatalization or iotation in the orthography of Baltic languages and some Slavic languages, whereas some Finno-Lappic languages use it... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... A tilde. ... In music, see elision (music). ... The palatal nasal is a type of consonant, used in some spoken languages. ... The acute accent ( Â´ ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... In punctuation, the term ring is usually reserved for the ring above diacritic mark ˚ (looks similar to °). The ring may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets. ... The North Germanic languages (also Scandinavian languages or Nordic languages) is a branch of the Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the Faroe Islands and Iceland. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) (more commonly known as an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans, and other languages. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Esperanto flag Esperanto is a constructed international auxiliary language. ... In linguistics, the process of umlaut (from German um- around + Laut sound) is a modification of a vowel which causes it to be pronounced more similarly to a vowel or semivowel in a following syllable. ... Ladin (Ladino in Italian, Ladin in Ladin, Ladinisch in German) is a Rhaetian language spoken in the Dolomite mountains in Italy, between the regions of Trentino-Alto Adige and Veneto. ... In linguistics, a, diaeresis, or dieresis (AE) (from Greek (diaerein), to divide) is the modification of a syllable by distinctly pronouncing one of its vowels. ... When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the middle dot ·, or to the glyphs combining dot above ̇ and combining dot below ̣ which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Eastern European languages and Vietnamese. ... Irish orthography has a reputation as being very difficult to learn and bearing only a tenuous relationship to the pronunciation. ... Lenition is a kind of consonant mutation that appears in many languages. ... When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct (·), or to the glyphs combining dot above ( ) and combining dot below ( ) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Eastern European languages and Vietnamese. ... Ogonek (Polish for little tail; In Lithuanian it is nosinÄ— which literally means nasal) is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in Polish (letters Ä…, Ä™), Lithuanian (Ä…, Ä™, į, ų), Navajo and Western Apache (Ä…, Ä…Ä…, Ä™, ęę, į, įį, , ), Chiricahua and Mescalero (Ä…, Ä…Ä…, Ä™, ęę, į, įį, ų, ųų) and Tutchone. ... A macron (from Gr. ... Māori (or Maori) is a language spoken by the native peoples of New Zealand and the Cook Islands. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Romaji ローマ字 The title given to this article lacks diacritics because of certain technical limitations. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... The double acute accent ( ˝ ) is a diacritic mark of the latin script used primarily in written Hungarian. ... This article is about the breve breve in music, see double whole note. ... Look up Esperanto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Łacinka alphabet (лацінка) is the variant of the Latin alphabet which was used for writing the Belarusian language. ... The dotless I is a letter from the Turkish variant of the Latin alphabet, used to write the Turkish, Azerbaijani, Crimean Tatar and Tatar languages. ... For other meanings of hook, see hook (disambiguation). ... Variants of the Latin alphabet are used by the writing systems of many languages throughout the world. ...


Evolution

Original alphabet
A B C D E F G
H I L M N O P
Q R S T V X
See History of the alphabet for the history of alphabets leading up to the Roman alphabet.

It is generally held that the Latins adopted the western variant of the Greek alphabet in the 7th century BC from Cumae, a Greek colony in southern Italy. Roman legend credited the introduction to one Evander, son of the Sibyl, supposedly 60 years before the Trojan war, but there is no historically sound basis to this tale. From the Cumae alphabet, the Etruscan alphabet was derived and the Latins finally adopted 21 of the original 26 Etruscan letters. Look up A, a in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The letter B is the second letter of the modern Latin alphabet. ... C in Copyright mark The letter C is the third letter in the Latin alphabet. ... For other uses, see D (disambiguation). ... The letter E is the fifth letter in the Latin alphabet. ... The letter F is the sixth letter in the Latin alphabet. ... The letter G is the seventh letter in the Latin alphabet. ... H is also a multi a-side single by Japanese singer Ayumi Hamasaki. ... The lowercase i redirects here. ... L is the twelfth letter of the Latin alphabet. ... The letter M is the thirteenth letter in the Latin alphabet. ... This article is about the letter N. For the Flash game, see N (game). ... This is for the letter O. For Oxygen, see here. ... P is the sixteenth letter of the Latin alphabet. ... Q is the seventeenth letter of the Latin alphabet. ... The letter R is the eighteenth letter in the Latin alphabet. ... S is the nineteenth letter in the Latin alphabet. ... T is the twentieth letter of the modern Latin alphabet. ... The letter V is the twenty-second letter in the Latin alphabet. ... The letter X is the twenty-fourth letter in the Latin alphabet. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Middle Bronze Age alphabets. ... The Latins were an ancient Italic people of Latium Vetus (Old Latium). ... Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 7th century BC started on January 1, 700 BC and ended on December 31, 601 BC. // Overview Events Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria who created the the first systematically collected library at Nineveh A 16th century depiction of the Hanging Gardens of... Cumae (Cuma, in Italian) is an ancient Greek settlement lying to the northwest of Naples in the Italian region of Campania. ... Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city, not from a territory-at-large. ... Southern Italy, often referred to in Italian as the Mezzogiorno (a term first used in 19th century in comparison with French Midi ) encompasses six of the countrys 20 regions: Basilicata Campania Calabria Puglia Sicilia Sardinia Sicilia although it is geographically and administratively included in Insular Italy, it has a... In Roman mythology, Evander (or Euandros) was a deific culture hero who brought the Greek pantheon, laws and alphabet to Rome sixty years before the Trojan War. ... The word sibyl comes (via Latin) from the Greek word sibylla, meaning prophetess. ... The fall of Troy by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769) From the collections of the granddukes of Baden, Karlsruhe The Trojan War was a war waged, according to legend, against the city of Troy in Asia Minor (present-day Turkey), by the armies of the Achaeans, after Paris of Troy... The Cumae alphabet was a special Greek alphabet, considered to be a variation of the alphabet used in Chalkis. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...


The original Latin alphabet was:


Image:Older Latin glyphs.png

  • C stood for both g and k.
  • I stood for both i and j.
  • V stood for both u and v.

Later, probably during the 3rd century BC, the Z was dropped and a new letter G was placed in its position. An attempt by the emperor Claudius to introduce three additional letters was short-lived, but after the conquest of Greece in the first century BC the letters Y and Z were, respectively, adopted and readopted from the Greek alphabet and placed at the end. Now the new Latin alphabet contained 23 letters: (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 3rd century BC started on January 1, 300 BC and ended on December 31, 201 BC. // Events The Pyramid of the Moon, one of several monuments built in Teotihuacán Teotihuacán, Mexico begun The first two Punic Wars between Carthage... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The letter G is the seventh letter in the Latin alphabet. ... For other uses, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... Claudian letters Claudian letters were developed by, and named after, the Roman Emperor Claudius (reigned AD 41–54). ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ...

Letter A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T V X Y Z
Latin name ā ē ef ī el em en ō er es ū ex ī Graeca zēta
Latin pronunciation (IPA) /aː/ /beː/ /keː/ /deː/ /eː/ /ef/ /geː/ /haː/ /iː/ /kaː/ /el/ /em/ /en/ /oː/ /peː/ /kʷuː/ /er/ /es/ /teː/ /uː/ /eks/ /iː 'graika/ /'zeːta/
The Duenos inscription, dated to the 6th century BC, shows the earliest known forms of the Old Latin alphabet.
The Duenos inscription, dated to the 6th century BC, shows the earliest known forms of the Old Latin alphabet.

W is a letter made up from two Vs or Us. It was added in late Roman times to represent a Germanic sound. The letters U and J, similarly, were originally not distinguished from V and I, respectively. The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Duenos inscription, as recorded by Heinrich Dressel. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Overview Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a... The Forum inscription is one of the oldest known Latin inscriptions. ...


The Latin names of some of the letters are disputed. In general, however, the Romans did not use the traditional (Semitic-derived) names as in Greek: the names of the stop consonant letters were formed by adding /eː/ to the sound (except for C, K, and Q which needed different vowels to distinguish them) and the names of the continuants consisted either of the bare sound, or the sound preceded by /e/. The letter Y when introduced was probably called hy /hyː/ as in Greek (the name upsilon being not yet in use) but was changed to i Graeca ("Greek i") as Latin speakers had difficulty distinguishing /i/ and /y/ . Z was given its Greek name, zeta. For the Latin sounds represented by the various letters see Latin spelling and pronunciation; for the names of the letters in English see English alphabet. A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... A continuant is a sound produced with an incomplete closure of the vocal tract. ... Upsilon (upper case , lower case ) is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... Zeta (upper case Ζ, lower case ζ) is the sixth letter of the Greek alphabet. ... The Roman alphabet or Latin alphabet was adapted from an Etruscan alphabet, to represent the phonemes of the Latin language. ... The modern English alphabet consists of the 26 letters[1] of the Latin alphabet: // Old English The English language has been written using the Latin alphabet from ca. ...


Medieval and later developments

It was not until the Middle Ages that the letter J (representing non-syllabic I) and the letters U and W (to distinguish them from V) were added. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


The alphabet used by the Romans consisted only of capital (upper case or majuscule) letters. The lower case (minuscule) letters developed in the Middle Ages from cursive writing, first as the uncial script, and later as minuscule script. The old Roman letters were retained for formal inscriptions and for emphasis in written documents. The languages that use the Latin alphabet generally use capital letters to begin paragraphs and sentences and for proper nouns. The rules for capitalization have changed over time, and different languages have varied in their rules for capitalization. Old English, for example, was rarely written with even proper nouns capitalised; whereas Modern English of the 18th century had frequently all nouns capitalised, in the same way that Modern German is today, e.g. "All the Sisters of the old Town had seen the Birds". Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... Minuscule, or lower case, is the smaller form (case) of letters (in the Roman alphabet: a, b, c, ...). Originally alphabets were written entirely in majuscule (capital) letters which were spaced between well-defined upper and lower bounds. ... The Book of Kells, c. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ...


Spread of the Latin alphabet

The Latin alphabet spread from Italy, along with the Latin language, to the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea with the expansion of the Roman Empire. The eastern half of the Roman Empire, including Greece, Asia Minor, the Levant, and Egypt, continued to use Greek as a lingua franca, but Latin was widely spoken in the western half of the Empire, and as the western Romance languages, including Spanish, French, Catalan, Portuguese and Italian, evolved out of Latin they continued to use and adapt the Latin alphabet. With the spread of Western Christianity the Latin alphabet spread to the peoples of northern Europe who spoke Germanic languages, displacing their earlier Runic alphabets, as well as to the speakers of Baltic languages, such as Lithuanian and Latvian, and several (non-Indo-European) Finno-Ugric languages, most notably Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian. During the Middle Ages the Latin alphabet also came into use among the peoples speaking West Slavic languages, including the ancestors of modern Poles, Czechs, Croats, Slovenes, and Slovaks, as these peoples adopted Roman Catholicism; the speakers of East Slavic languages generally adopted both Orthodox Christianity and the Cyrillic alphabet. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language. ... Satellite image The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ... The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... The Levant Levant is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... The Romance languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, comprise all languages that descended from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Catalan in Europe Catalan IPA: (català ) is a Romance language, the official language of Andorra and co-official in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Valencia (under the name Valencian) and Catalonia. ... Western Christianity refers to Catholicism, Protestantism, and Anglicanism (which is also usually included in the Protestant category). ... Northern Europe is marked in dark blue Northern Europe is a name of the northern part of the European continent. ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ... Younger Futhark inscription on the Vaksala Runestone The Runic alphabets are a set of related alphabets using letters known as runes, formerly used to write Germanic languages, mainly in Scandinavia and the British Isles, but before Christianization also on the European Continent. ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many in Southwest Asia, Central Asia and South Asia. ... Approximate geographical distribution of areas where indigenous Finno-Ugric languages are spoken. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article or section should be merged with List of West Slavic languages The West Slavic languages is a subdivision of the Slavic language group (q. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... This article or section should be merged with List of East Slavic languages The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken in Eastern Europe. ... Orthodox Christianity is a generalized reference to the Eastern traditions of Christianity, as opposed to the Western traditions (which descend through, or alongside of, the Roman Catholic Church) or the Eastern Rite Catholic churches. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ...


As late as 1492, the Latin alphabet was limited primarily to the languages spoken in western, northern and central Europe. The Orthodox Christian Slavs of eastern and southern Europe mostly used the Cyrillic alphabet, and the Greek alphabet was still in use by Greek-speakers around the eastern Mediterranean. The Arabic alphabet was widespread within Islam, both among Arabs and non-Arab nations like the Iranians, Indonesians, Malays, and Turkic peoples. Most of the rest of Asia used a variety of Brahmic alphabets or the Chinese script. 1492 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing in the Arabic language. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Malays (Dutch, Malayo, ultimately from Malay: Melayu) are a diverse group of Austronesian peoples inhabiting the Malay archipelago and Malay peninsula in Southeast Asia. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, and to an extent, Korea. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...

Latin alphabet world distribution. The dark green areas shows the countries where this alphabet is the sole main script. The light green shows the countries where the alphabet co-exists with other scripts.
Latin alphabet world distribution. The dark green areas shows the countries where this alphabet is the sole main script. The light green shows the countries where the alphabet co-exists with other scripts.

Over the past 500 years, the Latin alphabet has spread around the world. It spread to the Americas, Australia, and parts of Asia, Africa, and the Pacific with European colonization, along with the Spanish, Portuguese, English, French, and Dutch languages. In the late eighteenth century, the Romanians adopted the Latin alphabet; although Romanian is a Romance language, the Romanians were predominantly Orthodox Christians, and until the nineteenth century the Church used the Cyrillic alphabet. Vietnam, under French rule, adapted the Latin alphabet for use with the Vietnamese language, which had previously used Chinese characters. The Latin alphabet is also used for many Austronesian languages, including Tagalog and the other languages of the Philippines, and the official Malaysian and Indonesian languages, replacing earlier Arabic and indigenous Brahmic alphabets. In 1928, as part of Kemal Atatürk's reforms, Turkey adopted the Latin alphabet for the Turkish language, replacing the Arabic alphabet. Most of Turkic-speaking peoples of the former USSR, including Tatars, Bashkirs, Azeri, Kazakh, Kyrgyz and others, used the Uniform Turkic alphabet in the 1930s. In the 1940s all those alphabets were replaced by Cyrillic. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, several of the newly-independent Turkic-speaking republics adopted the Latin alphabet, replacing Cyrillic. Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan have officially adopted the Latin alphabet for Azeri, Uzbek, and Turkmen, respectively. In the 1970s, the People's Republic of China developed an official transliteration of Mandarin Chinese into the Latin alphabet, called Pinyin, although use of Chinese characters is still predominant. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 53 KB) Summary This map shows the countries in the world that use the Latin alphabet as the official (or as de facto official) script in dark green. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 53 KB) Summary This map shows the countries in the world that use the Latin alphabet as the official (or as de facto official) script in dark green. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... For other uses, see Africa (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Vietnamese (tiếng Việt, or less commonly Việt ngữ[1]), formerly known under the French colonization as Annamese (see Annam) is the national and official language of Vietnam. ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific ( with a few members spoken on continental Asia). ... Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ... There are over 170 languages of the Philippines; almost all of them belong to the Austronesian language family. ... Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia. ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–10 November 1938), until 1934 Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Turkish army officer and revolutionist statesman, was the founder and the first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... Turkish (Türkçe) is a Turkic language spoken natively in Turkey, Cyprus, Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia and other countries of the former Ottoman Empire, as well as by several million emigrants in the European Union. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Azerbaijanis. ... The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazak or Qazaq), (in Kazakh: Қазақ []; in Russian: Казах; English term is the transliteration from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Russia and China). ... Kirghiz (also Kyrgyz) are a Turkic ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. ... Uniform Turkic Alphabet was a Latin based alphabet used by the most of non-Slavic peoples of USSR in 1930s, common for all peoples. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... // Events and trends World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrination, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atomic bomb. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ... Pinyin is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard Mandarin, where pin means spell(ing) and yin means sound(s)). This article describes the most common variant called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音; pinyin: HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n), also known as scheme...


West Slavic and most South Slavic languages use the Latin alphabet rather than the Cyrillic, a reflection of the dominant religion practiced among those peoples. Among these, Polish uses a variety of diacritics and digraphs to represent special phonetic values, as well as the l with stroke - ł - for a sound similar to w. Czech uses diacritics as in Dvořák — the term háček (caron) originates from Czech. Croatian and the Latin version of Serbian use carons in č, š, ž, an acute in ć and a bar in đ. The languages of Eastern Orthodox Slavs generally use Cyrillic instead which is much closer to the Greek alphabet. The Serbian language uses two alphabets. This article or section should be merged with List of West Slavic languages The West Slavic languages is a subdivision of the Slavic language group (q. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... . Ł or ł, described in English as L with stroke, is a letter of the Polish, Kashubian, Sorbian, and Łacinka (Latin Belarusian) alphabets. ... A diacritical mark or diacritic, sometimes called an accent mark, is a mark added to a letter to alter a words pronunciation (ie. ... č Å¡ ž A háček (ˇ, pronounced ), also known as a caron, is a diacritic placed over certain letters to indicate palatalization or iotation in the orthography of Baltic languages and some Slavic languages, whereas some Finno-Lappic languages use it to mark postalveolar fricatives (sh, zh, ch). ... The Serbian language is one of the standard versions of the Å tokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and by Serbs everywhere. ... Acute may refer to: An acute accent is a diacritic character. ... The bar or stroke can be a diacritic mark, when used with some letters in the Latin or Cyrillic alphabets. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The Serbian language is one of the standard versions of the Å tokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and by Serbs everywhere. ...


Collating sequence with extensions

Alphabets derived from the Latin have varying collating rules: Variants of the Latin alphabet are used by the writing systems of many languages throughout the world. ... This article needs cleanup. ...

  • In Azerbaijani, there are 7 additional letters. 4 of them are vowels: ı, ö, ü, ə and 3 are consonants: ç, ş, ğ. The alphabet is the same as the Turkish alphabet, with the same sounds written with the same letters, except for three additional letters: q, x and ə for sounds that do not exist in Turkish. Although all the "Turkish letters" are collated in their "normal" alphabetical order like in Turkish, the three extra letters are collated arbitrarly after letters whose sounds approach theirs. So, q is collated just after k, x (pronounced like a German ch) is collated just after h and ə (pronounced roughly like an English short a) is collated just after e.
  • In Breton, there is no "c" but there are the ligatures "ch" and "c'h", which are collated between "b" and "d". For example: « buzhugenn, chug, c'hoar, daeraouenn » (earthworm, juice, sister, teardrop).
  • In Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian and other related South Slavic languages, the five accented characters and three conjoined characters are sorted after the originals: ..., C, Č, Ć, D, DŽ, Đ, E, ..., L, LJ, M, N, NJ, O, ..., S, Š, T, ..., Z, Ž.
  • In Czech and Slovak, accented vowels have secondary collating weight - compared to other letters, they are treated as their unaccented forms (A-Á, E-É-Ě, I-Í, O-Ó-Ô, U-Ú-Ů, Y-Ý), but then they are sorted after the unaccented letters (for example, the correct lexicographic order is baa, baá, báa, bab, báb, bac, bác, bač, báč). Accented consonants (the ones with caron) have primary collating weight and are collocated immediately after their unaccented counterparts, with exception of Ď, Ň and Ť, which have again secondary weight. CH is considered to be a separate letter and goes between H and I. In Slovak, DZ and DŽ are also considered separate letters and are positioned between Ď and E (A-Á-Ä-B-C-Č-D-Ď-DZ-DŽ-E-É…).
  • In the Danish and Norwegian alphabets, the same extra vowels as in Swedish (see below) are also present but in a different order and with different glyphs (..., X, Y, Z, Æ, Ø, Å). Also, "Aa" collates as an equivalent to "Å". The Danish alphabet has traditionally seen "W" as a variant of "V", but nowadays "W" is considered a separate letter.
  • In Dutch the combination IJ (representing IJ) was formerly to be collated as Y (or sometimes, as a separate letter Y < IJ < Z), but is currently mostly collated as 2 letters (II < IJ < IK). Exceptions are phone directories; IJ is always collated as Y here because in many Dutch family names Y is used where modern spelling would require IJ. Note that a word starting with ij that is written with a capital I is also written with a capital J, for example, the town IJmuiden (mun. Velsen) and the river IJssel.
  • In Esperanto, consonants with circumflex accents (ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ), as well as ŭ (u with breve), are counted as separate letters and collated separately (c, ĉ, d, e, f, g, ĝ, h, ĥ, i, j, ĵ ... s, ŝ, t, u, ŭ, v, z).
  • In Estonian õ, ä, ö and ü are considered separate letters and collate after w. Letters š, z and ž appear in loanwords and foreign proper names only and follow the letter s in the Estonian alphabet, which otherwise does not differ from the basic Latin alphabet.
  • The Faroese alphabet also has some of the Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish extra letters, namely Æ and Ø. Furthermore, the Faroese alphabet uses the Icelandic eth, which follows the D. Five of the six vowels A, I, O, U and Y can get accents and are after that considered separate letters. The consonants C, Q, X, W and Z are not found. Therefore the first five letters are A, Á, B, D and Ð, and the last five are V, Y, Ý, Æ, Ø
  • In Filipino and other Philippine languages, the letter Ng is treated as a separate letter. It is pronounced as in sing, ping-pong, etc. By itself, it is pronounced nang, but in general Philippine orthography, it is spelled as if it were two separate letters (n and g). Also, letter derivatives (such as Ñ) immediately follow the base letter. Filipino also is written with accents and other marks, but the marks are not in very wide use (except the tilde). (Philippine orthography also includes spelling.)
  • The Finnish alphabet and collating rules are the same as in Swedish, except for the addition of the letters Š and Ž, which are considered variants of S and Z.
  • In French and English, characters with diaeresis (ä, ë, ï, ö, ü, ÿ) are usually treated just like their un-accented versions. If two letters differ only by an accent in French, the one with the accent is greater. (However, the Unicode 3.0 book specifies a more complex traditional French sorting rule for accented letters.)
  • In German letters with umlaut (Ä, Ö, Ü) are treated generally just like their non-umlauted versions; ß is always sorted as ss. This makes the alphabetic order Arg, Ärgerlich, Arm, Assistent, Aßlar, Assoziation. For phone directories and similar lists of names, the umlauts are to be collated like the letter combinations "ae", "oe", "ue". This makes the alphabetic order Udet, Übelacker, Uell, Ülle, Ueve, Üxküll, Uffenbach.
  • The Hungarian vowels have accents, umlauts, and double accents, while consonants are written with single or with double characters (digraphs). In collating, accented vowels always follow their non-accented counterparts and double characters follow their single originals. Hungarian alphabetic order is: A, Á, B, C, CS, D, DZ, DZS, E, É, F, G, GY, H, I, Í, J, K, L, LY, M, N, NY, O, Ó, Ö, Ő, P, Q, R, S, SZ, T, TY, U, Ú, Ü, Ű, V, W, X, Y, Z, ZS. (For example, the correct lexicographic order is baa, baá, bab, bac, bacs, ..., baz, bazs, báa, báá, báb, bác, bács).
  • In Icelandic, Þ is added, and D is followed by Ð. Each vowel (A, E, I, O, U, Y) is followed by its correspondent with acute: Á, É, Í, Ó, Ú, Ý. There is no Z, and after Ý, it goes like this: ... Þ, Æ, Ö.
    • Both letters were also used by Anglo-Saxon scribes who also used the Runic letter Wynn to represent /w/.
    • Þ (called thorn; lowercase þ) is also a Runic letter.
    • Ð (called eth; lowercase ð) is the letter D with an added stroke.
  • In Lithuanian, specifically Lithuanian letters go after their Latin originals. Another change is that Y comes just before J: ... G, H, I, Į, Y, J, K...
  • In Polish, specifically Polish letters derived from the Latin alphabet are collated after their originals: A, Ą, B, C, Ć, D, E, Ę, ..., L, Ł, M, N, Ń, O, Ó, P, ..., S, Ś, T, ..., Z, Ź, Ż.
  • In Romanian, special characters derived from the Latin alphabet are collated after their originals: A, Ă, Â, ..., I, Î, ..., S, Ş, T, Ţ, ..., Z.
  • In the Swedish alphabet, there are three extra vowels placed at its end (..., X, Y, Z, Å, Ä, Ö), similar to the Danish and Norwegian alphabet, but with different glyphs and a different collating order. The letter "W" has been treated as a variant of "V", but in the 13th edition of Svenska Akademiens ordlista (2006) "W" was considered a separate letter.
  • Some languages have more complex rules: for example, Spanish treated (until 1997) "CH" and "LL" as single letters, giving an ordering of CINCO, CREDO, CHISPA and LOMO, LUZ, LLAMA. This is not true anymore since in 1997 RAE adopted the more conventional usage, and now LL is collated between LK and LM, and CH between CG and CI. The only Spanish specific collating question is Ñ (eñe) as a different letter collated after N.
  • In Tatar and Turkish, there are 9 additional letters. 5 of them are vowels, paired with main alphabet vowels as hard-smooth: a-ä, o-ö, u-ü, í-i, ı-e. The four remaining are consonants: ş is sh, ç is ch, ñ is ng and ğ is gh.
  • In many Turkic languages (such as Azeri or the Jaŋalif orthography for Tatar), there used to be the letter Gha (Ƣƣ), which came between G and H. It is now come in disuse.
  • Welsh also has complex rules: the combinations CH, DD, FF, NG, LL, PH, RH and TH are all considered single letters, and each is listed after the letter which is the first character in the combination, with the exception of NG which is listed after G. However, the situation is further complicated by these combinations not always being single letters. An example ordering is LAWR, LWCUS, LLONG, LLOM, LLONGYFARCH: the last of these words is a juxtaposition of LLON and GYFARCH, and, unlike LLONG, does not contain the letter NG.

The Unicode Collation Algorithm can be used to get any of the collation sequences described above, by tailoring its default collation table. Several such tailorings are collected in Common Locale Data Repository. The current 29-letter Turkish alphabet, used for the Turkish language, was established by law in Turkey on November 1, 1928 (Yazım Kılavuzu). ... Breton (Breton: Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) and Loire-Atlantique (historically part of Brittany) in France. ... The Serbian language is one of the standard versions of the Å tokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and by Serbs everywhere. ... č ď Ä› Ǩ Ľ Å™ Å¡ ž A caron ( ˇ ), also known as wedge, inverted circumflex, inverted hat or by the Czech name háček (pronounced ), is a diacritic placed over certain letters to indicate present or historical palatalization or iotation in the orthography of Baltic languages and some Slavic languages, whereas some Finno-Lappic languages use it... CH can mean: The ch sound in English, called the Voiceless postalveolar affricate Ch (digraph), considered a single letter in several Latin-alphabet languages CH (television system) four CanWest Global TV stations in Canada Ch interpreter, an interpreted superset of the C programming language Bermidji Airlines (airline code Ch) Cluster... H is also a multi a-side single by Japanese singer Ayumi Hamasaki. ... The lowercase i redirects here. ... DZ or dz can mean: Algeria (ISO country code) Dzongkha language (ISO 639 alpha-2) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... DŽ (minuscule dž, titlecase Dž) is the seventh letter of the Croatian alphabet, after D and before Đ. It is pronounced as . ... ÄŽ is a letter used in the Romany alphabet. ... The letter E is the fifth letter in the Latin alphabet. ... The Danish and Norwegian alphabet is based upon the Latin alphabet and consists of 29 letters: In computing, several different coding standards have existed for this alphabet: DS 2089 (Danish) and NS 4551-1 (Norwegian), later established in international standard ISO 646 IBM PC code page 865 ISO 8859-1... These are the astrological glyphs as most commonly used in Western Astrology A glyph is a specific symbol representing a semantic or phonetic unit of definitive value in a writing system. ... Ash (Æ, æ; pronounced ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet for English. ... Image:Latin letter O with The Ø (miniscule: ø) is a vowel and a letter used in the Danish, Faroese and Norwegian alphabets. ... Ã…, or Ã¥, is a letter, representing a vowel, in the Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Walloon, Chamorro and Istro-Romanian language alphabets. ... The words “ijsvrij” and “yoghurt” in various forms of handwriting. ... Velsen (population: 67,642 in 2004) is a municipality in the north-western Netherlands, in the province of North Holland, on both sides of the North Sea Canal. ... Velsen (population: 67,642 in 2004) is a municipality in the north-western Netherlands, in the province of North Holland, on both sides of the North Sea Canal. ... Satellite image of the IJssel basin River IJssel, sometimes called Gelderse IJssel (Gelderland IJssel) to avoid confusion with its Holland counterpart, is a 120 km long branch of the Rhine in the Dutch provinces of Gelderland and Overijssel. ... Look up Esperanto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) (more commonly known as an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans, and other languages. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... This article is about the breve breve in music, see double whole note. ... Õ, or õ is a composition of the Latin letter O with the diacritic mark tilde. ... Ä, or ä, is a glyph which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter A with umlaut, or a letter A with diaeresis. ... Ö, or ö, is a glyph that represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter O with umlaut, or a letter O with diaeresis. ... Ãœ, or ü, is a glyph which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter U with umlaut, or a letter U with diaeresis. ... W is the twenty-third letter of the modern Latin alphabet. ... Caron redirects here, for the French actress, see Leslie Caron. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Caron redirects here, for the French actress, see Leslie Caron. ... S is the nineteenth letter in the Latin alphabet. ... The Estonian literary language is based on Latin alphabet. ... Faroese is a West Nordic or West Scandinavian language spoken by about 48,000 people in the Faroe Islands and about 25,000 in Denmark. ... Ash (Æ, æ; pronounced ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet for English. ... Image:Latin letter O with The Ø (miniscule: ø) is a vowel and a letter used in the Danish, Faroese and Norwegian alphabets. ... Faroese is a West Nordic or West Scandinavian language spoken by about 48,000 people in the Faroe Islands and about 25,000 in Denmark. ... For other uses, see D (disambiguation). ... Look up A, a in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The lowercase i redirects here. ... This is for the letter O. For Oxygen, see here. ... U is the twenty-first letter of the modern Latin alphabet. ... Y is the twenty-fifth letter of the Latin alphabet. ... C in Copyright mark The letter C is the third letter in the Latin alphabet. ... Q is the seventeenth letter of the Latin alphabet. ... The letter X is the twenty-fourth letter in the Latin alphabet. ... W is the twenty-third letter of the modern Latin alphabet. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Look up A, a in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The acute accent ( Â´ ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin script. ... The letter B is the second letter of the modern Latin alphabet. ... For other uses, see D (disambiguation). ... Ð (capital Ð, lower-case ð) (or eth, eð or edh, Faroese: edd) is a letter used in Old English (Anglo-Saxon) and present-day Icelandic and Faroese. ... The letter V is the twenty-second letter in the Latin alphabet. ... Y is the twenty-fifth letter of the Latin alphabet. ... The acute accent ( Â´ ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin script. ... Ash (Æ, æ; pronounced ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet for English. ... Image:Latin letter O with The Ø (miniscule: ø) is a vowel and a letter used in the Danish, Faroese and Norwegian alphabets. ... The orthography of a language is the set of symbols (glyphs and diacritics) used to write a language, as well as the set of rules describing how to write these glyphs correctly, including spelling, punctuation, and capitalization. ... Ñ and ñ in Arial and Times New Roman, with an example word from Panare Ñ is a letter of the modern Roman alphabet formed by an N with a diacritical tilde. ... A tilde. ... The Finnish alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet, and especially its German and Swedish extensions. ... Caron redirects here, for the French actress, see Leslie Caron. ... Caron redirects here, for the French actress, see Leslie Caron. ... The modern English alphabet consists of the 26 letters[1] of the Latin alphabet: // Old English The English language has been written using the Latin alphabet from ca. ... In linguistics, a, diaeresis, or dieresis (AE) (from Greek (diaerein), to divide) is the modification of a syllable by distinctly pronouncing one of its vowels. ... Ä, or ä, is a glyph which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter A with umlaut, or a letter A with diaeresis. ... In linguistics, a diaeresis or dieresis (AE) (from Greek diairein, to divide) is the modification of a syllable by distinctly pronouncing one of its vowels. ... In linguistics, a diaeresis or dieresis (AE) (from Greek diairein, to divide) is the modification of a syllable by distinctly pronouncing one of its vowels. ... Ö, or ö, is a glyph that represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter O with umlaut, or a letter O with diaeresis. ... Ãœ, or ü, is a glyph which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter U with umlaut, or a letter U with diaeresis. ... test ... Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Ä, or ä, is a glyph which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter A with umlaut, or a letter A with diaeresis. ... Ö, or ö, is a glyph that represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter O with umlaut, or a letter O with diaeresis. ... Ãœ, or ü, is a glyph which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter U with umlaut, or a letter U with diaeresis. ... The glyph ß is a ligature of Å¿ (long s) and s or z that has become a distinct letter in the German alphabet; its German name is Eszett (IPA ) or scharfes S (sharp S). ... Þþ The letter Þ (miniscule: þ), which is also known as thorn or þorn is a letter in the Anglo-Saxon and Icelandic alphabets. ... Ð (capital Ð, lower-case ð) (or eth, eð or edh, Faroese: edd) is a letter used in Old English (Anglo-Saxon) and present-day Icelandic and Faroese. ... Acute may refer to: An acute accent is a diacritic character. ... Þþ The letter Þ (miniscule: þ), which is also known as thorn or þorn is a letter in the Anglo-Saxon and Icelandic alphabets. ... Ash (Æ, æ; pronounced ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet for English. ... The famous parade helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging to King Raedwald of East Anglia circa 625. ... Wynn () (also spelled Wen) is a letter of the old English alphabet. ... Þþ Thorn, or þorn (Þ, þ), is a letter in the Anglo-Saxon and Icelandic alphabets. ... Ð (capital Ð, lower-case ð) (or eth, eð or edh, Faroese: edd) is a letter used in Old English (Anglo-Saxon) and present-day Icelandic and Faroese. ... For other uses, see D (disambiguation). ... Y is the twenty-fifth letter of the Latin alphabet. ... The letter J is the tenth of the Latin alphabet; it was the last to be added to that alphabet. ... The Swedish alphabet consists of the following 28 letters: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, X, Y, Z, Å, Ä, Ö The main feature separating it from the Latin alphabet are the three additional vowels, Å, Ä and Ö. The... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Ã…, or Ã¥, is a letter, representing a vowel, in the Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Walloon, Chamorro and Istro-Romanian language alphabets. ... Ä, or ä, is a glyph which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter A with umlaut, or a letter A with diaeresis. ... Ö, or ö, is a glyph that represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter O with umlaut, or a letter O with diaeresis. ... Svenska Akademiens Ordlista, or SAOL for short, is a dictionary published every few years by the Swedish Academy. ... The Real Academia Española (Spanish for Royal Spanish Academy; often RAE) is the institution responsible for regulating the Spanish language. ... Ñ and ñ in Arial and Times New Roman, with an example word from Panare Ñ is a letter of the modern Roman alphabet formed by an N with a diacritical tilde. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language belonging to the Altaic branch of the Ural-Altaic family of languages. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... JaÅ‹alif or Yañalif (Tatar: new alphabet - yaña älifba -> yañalif) was the first Latin writing system was used in the Soviet epoch Tatar language in 1930s. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language belonging to the Altaic branch of the Ural-Altaic family of languages. ... The letter (miniscule: ) is a letter that has been used in various Latin orthographies for Turkic languages, such as Azeri or the Janalif orthography for Tatar. ... The letter G is the seventh letter in the Latin alphabet. ... H is also a multi a-side single by Japanese singer Ayumi Hamasaki. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... The Unicode collation algorithm provides a standard way to put names, words or strings of text in sequence according to the needs of a particular situation. ... The Common Locale Data Repository Project, often abbreviated as CLDR, is a project of the Unicode Consortium to provide locale data in the XML format for use in computer applications. ...


See also

In textual criticism and bibliography, collation is the reading of two (or more) texts side-by-side in order to note their differences. ... The Arch of Titus, with an inscription in Roman square capitals Roman square capitals, also called elegant capitals and quadrata, are an ancient Roman form of writing, and the basis for modern capital letters. ... A modern example of ancient (or old) Roman cursive; hae sunt litterae Romanae (these are Roman letters) Roman cursive is a form of handwriting (or, a script) used in ancient Rome and to some extent into the Middle Ages. ... Variants of the Latin alphabet are used by the writing systems of many languages throughout the world. ... Many Roman letters, both capital and small, are used in mathematics, science and engineering to denote by convention specific or abstracted constants, variables of a certain type, units, multipliers, physical entities. ... It has been suggested that Calculator Spelling be merged into this article or section. ... Palaeography (British) or paleography (American) (from the Greek palaiós, old and graphein, to write) is the study of ancient and medieval manuscripts, independent of the language (Koine Greek, Classical Latin, Medieval Latin, Old English, etc. ... Unicode as of version 5. ...

References

  1. ^ Latin-Alphabet, Retrieved May 30, 2006.
  • Jensen, Hans (1970). Sign Symbol and Script. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd. ISBN 0-04-400021-9.. Transl. of Jensen, Hans (1958). Die Schrift in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart. VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften., as revised by the author
  • Rix, Helmut (1993). “La scrittura e la lingua”, Cristofani, Mauro (hrsg.) Gli etruschi - Una nuova immagine. Firenze: Giunti, S.199-227.
  • Sampson, Geoffrey (1985). Writing systems. London (etc.): Hutchinson.
  • Wachter, Rudolf (1987). Altlateinische Inschriften: sprachliche und epigraphische Untersuchungen zu den Dokumenten bis etwa 150 v.Chr. Bern (etc.).: Peter Lang.
  • W. Sidney Allen (1978). “The names of the letters of the Latin alphabet (Appendix C)”, Vox Latina — a guide to the pronunciation of classical Latin. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-22049-1 (Second edition).
  • Biktaş, Şamil (2003). Tuğan Tel.

May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Helmut Rix (1926-9 July 2004), professor emeritus in the Sprachwissenschaftliches Seminar of Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, Freiburg, Germany. ... Mauro Cristofani is a linguist and researcher in Etruscan studies Categories: People stubs ...

External links

  • Diacritics Project — All you need to design a font with correct accents
  • Lewis and Short Latin Dictionary on the letter G

  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Roman alphabet (8765 words)
In linguistics, a, diaeresis, or dieresis (AE) (from Greek (diaerein), to divide) is the modification of a syllable by distinctly pronouncing one of its vowels.
The Roman alphabet or Latin alphabet was adapted from an Etruscan alphabet, to represent the phonemes of the Latin language.
The Latin alphabet spread from Italy, along with the Latin language, to the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea with the expansion of the Roman Empire.
EDSITEment - Lesson Plan (1240 words)
The alphabet the Romans developed is everywhere in your classroom.
Since the Romans passed their language to the next generations, the laws and literature of the Middle Ages were also written in Latin.
The main difference between the Roman alphabet and our alphabet is that in the old Roman alphabet C and G were not distinguished, and neither were I and J, and neither were U, V and W.
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