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Encyclopedia > Roman Republic (19th century)
Military flag of the Roman Republic. The state flag had no double R's. A flag of the Republic presently at the Museo del Risorgimento has "DIO E POPOLO" in red on the white stripe.
Military flag of the Roman Republic. The state flag had no double R's. A flag of the Republic presently at the Museo del Risorgimento has "DIO E POPOLO" in red on the white stripe.

The Roman Republic was a short-lived (four months) state established in February 1849 when the theocratic Papal States were temporarily overthrown by Carlo Armellini, Giuseppe Mazzini and Aurelio Saffi. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Look up February in Wiktionary, the free dictionary February is the second month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The term theocracy is commonly used to describe a form of government in which a religion or faith plays the dominant role. ... The Papal States (Gli Stati della Chiesa or Stati Pontificii, States of the Church) was one of the major historical states of Italy before the boot-shaped peninsula was unified under the Piedmontese crown of Savoy (later a republic). ... Giuseppe Mazzini Giuseppe Mazzini (Genoa, June 22, 1805 – Pisa, March 10, 1872) was an Italian politician and writer with extraordinary organizational skills that put him into collision course with the biggest Powers of his time, including Austria whose Chancellor Metternich famously despised Mazzini as one of the biggest source of... Aurelio Saffi. ...


One of the major innovations the Republic hoped to achieve was enshrined in its constitution; all religions could be practiced freely and the pope was guaranteed the right to govern the Catholic Church. These religious freedoms were quite different than those under the preceding government. Under the regulations of the Papal States at that time, Judaism could be practiced freely by those who were born Jewish and not baptized, although Jews were still in many respects discriminated against; all other religions besides Catholicism and Judaism were forbidden except to visiting foreigners. Additionally, the Constitution of the Roman Republic was the first in the world to abolish capital punishment in its constitutional law.[citation needed] Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people with around 14 million followers (as of 2005 [1]). It is one of the first recorded monotheistic faiths and one of the oldest religious traditions still practiced today. ... // Capital punishment, also called the death penalty, is the execution of a legally imposed sentence of death upon an individual as punishment for a crime often called a capital offence or a capital crime. ...

Contents


History

Birth of the Republic

On 15 November 1848, Pellegrino Rossi, Minister of Justice of the Papal Government was assassinated. The following day the residents of Rome filled the streets, where various groups demanded a democratic government, social reforms and a declaration of war against the Empire of Austria. Pope Pius IX left Rome disguised as an ordinary priest, and went to Gaeta, a papal fortress in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, where he allowed the formation of a government led by archibishop Carlo Emanuele Muzzarelli. The government issued some liberal reforms which Pius IX rejected and designed a new government, established in Gaeta. November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 46 days remaining. ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pellegrino Rossi was the Ministry of Justice in the government of the Papal States, under Pope Pius IX. His assassination, on 15 November 1848 was the beginning of the series of events that led to the proclamation of the Roman Republic. ... The Justice Minister is a cabinet position in a government. ... The Papal States (Gli Stati della Chiesa or Stati Pontificii, States of the Church) was one of the major historical states of Italy before the boot-shaped peninsula was unified under the Piedmontese crown of Savoy (later a republic). ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,553,873 almost 4,300,000 1. ... Reform movement is a kind of social movement that aims to make a change in certain aspects of the society rather than fundamental changes. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy The Crown Austrian Emperor, formerly Crown Holy Roman Emperor The Austrian Empire is the name of Austria during the time from 1804 - 1867. ... Pius IX, born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), was Pope for a record pontificate (not counting the Apostle St. ... Roman Catholic priest LCDR Allen R. Kuss (USN) aboard USS Enterprise A priest or priestess is a holy man or woman who takes an officiating role in worship of any religion, with the distinguishing characteristic of offering sacrifices. ... Gaeta (ancient Latin name Caieta) is a city in Province of Latina, in Lazio, Italy. ... The Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was the new name that the Bourbon King Ferdinand IV of Naples bestowed upon his domain (including Southern Italy and the island of Sicily) after the end of the Napoleonic Era and the full restoration of his power in 1816. ...

3 baiocchi coin, 1849. The recto shows the Roman eagle, and the motto DIO E POPOLO, "God and people"
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3 baiocchi coin, 1849. The recto shows the Roman eagle, and the motto DIO E POPOLO, "God and people"

Without a local government in Rome, popular assemblies decided to issue universal elections on the following 21 January 1849. Since the pope had forbidden Catholics to vote at those elections, the resulting constitutional assembly had republican inclination (in each and every part of the Papal States more than 50% of the potential voters went to the polls)1. The Constitutional Assembly proclaimed the Roman Republic February 8. When news reached the city of the decisive defeat of Piedmontese forces at the battle of Novara, the Assembly proclaimed the Triumvirate, of Carlo Armellini (Roman), Mattia Montecchi (Roman) and Aurelio Saliceti (from Teramo, Papal States), and a government, led by Muzzarelli and composed also by Aurelio Saffi (from Forlì, Papal States). Among the first acts of the Republic, there was the proclamation of the right of the Pope to continue his role as head of the Roman Church. The Triumvirate passed popular legislation to eliminate burdensome taxes and give work to the unemployed. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1800x1808, 462 KB) Roman Republic, 3 baiocchi coin, 1849. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1800x1808, 462 KB) Roman Republic, 3 baiocchi coin, 1849. ... Local governments are administrative offices of an area smaller than a state. ... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the 1513 Battle of Novara, see Battle of Novara (1513). ... Teramo is a town in the central Italian region of Abruzzo, 42°39N 13°42E, at 432 m (1417 ft) above sea-level, with 51,000 inhabitants as of the 2003 census. ... Aurelio Saffi. ... Forlì, 44°13′N 12°02′E, is a comune and city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, famed as the birthplace of the great painter Melozzo da Forlì and of Fascist leader Benito Mussolini (at Predappio). ...


Giuseppe Garibaldi formed the "Italian Legion" with many recruits coming from Piedmont and the Austrian territories of Lombardy and Venetia and took up a station at the border town of Rieti on the border with the Kingdom of Two Sicilies. There the legion rose to about 1000 and gained discipline and organization. Garibaldi in 1866 Giuseppe Garibaldi (July 4, 1807 – June 2, 1882) was an Italian patriot and soldier of the Risorgimento. ... Rieti is a town in the Latium, Italy. ...


The Pope asked for military help from Catholic countries. Saliceti and Montecchi left the Triumvirate; their places were filled by Saffi and Giuseppe Mazzini, the Genoese founder of the journal La Giovine Italia, who had been the guiding spirit of the Republic from the start. Mazzini won friends among the poor by confiscating some of the Church's large landholdings and distributing them to peasants. He inaugurated prison and insane asylum reforms, freedom of the press, and secular education, but shied away from the "Right to Work," having seen this measure fail in France. Giuseppe Mazzini Giuseppe Mazzini (Genoa, June 22, 1805 – Pisa, March 10, 1872) was an Italian politician and writer with extraordinary organizational skills that put him into collision course with the biggest Powers of his time, including Austria whose Chancellor Metternich famously despised Mazzini as one of the biggest source of... La Giovine Italia was a political movement founded in 1831 by Giuseppe Mazzini. ...


However, the government's policies (lower taxes, increased spending) meant the government had trouble with its finances and had to resort to inflating the currency in order to pay its debts. Runaway inflation might have doomed the Republic entirely on its own, but it also faced military threats. The Piedmont was at risk of attack by Austrian forces, and the Republic's movement of troops in the area was a threat to Austria (which was certainly capable of attacking Rome itself). But the Roman Republic would fall to another, unexpected enemy. In France, President Louis Napoleon, who would soon declare himself emperor Napoleon III, was torn. He himself had participated in an insurrection in the Papal States against the Church in 1831, but at this point he needed the endorsement of the French Catholics. Though he hesitated to betray Italian liberals, he decided to send troops to restore the Pope. ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ...


French siege

On April 25, some eight to ten thousand French troops under General Charles Oudinot landed at Civitavecchia on the coast northwest of Rome, and sent a staff officer the next day to meet with Giuseppe Mazzini with a stiff assertion that the pope would be restored to power. The revolutionary Roman Assembly, amid thunderous shouts of "Guerra!, Guerra!", authorised Mazzini to resist the French by force of arms. Lieutenant-General Charles Nicolas Victor Oudinot (1791–June 7, 1863), 2nd duc de Reggio, the eldest son of Napoleon Is marshal General Nicolas Oudinot, also made a military career. ... Civitavecchia is a town and comune of the province of Rome in the central Italian region of Lazio, a sea port on the Tyrrhenian sea, 50 miles WNW of Rome, 42°06N 11°47E. According to the 2003 census, its population was 50,100. ...


The French expected little resistance from the "usurpers". But republican resolve was stiffened by the charismatic Giuseppe Garibaldi's triumphal entry into Rome at last, on April 27, and by the arrival on the 29th of the Lombard Bersaglieri, who had recently driven the Austrians from the streets of Milan in "modern" house-to-house fighting. Hasty defenses were erected on the Janiculum wall, and the villas on the city's outskirts were garrisoned. On April 30, Oudinot's out-of-date maps led him to march to a gate that had been walled up some time before. The first cannon-shot was mistaken for the noon-day gun, and the astonished French were beaten back by the fiercely anti-clerical Romans of Trastevere, Garibaldi's legionaries and citizen-soldiers, who sent them back to the sea. But despite Garibaldi's urging, Mazzini was loath to follow up their advantage, as he had not expected an attack by the French and hoped that the Roman Republic could befriend the French Republic. The French prisoners were treated as ospiti della guerra and sent back with republican tracts citing the Article V of the most recent French constitution: "France respects foreign nationalities. Her might will never be employed against the liberty of any people". Garibaldi in 1866 Giuseppe Garibaldi (July 4, 1807 – June 2, 1882) was an Italian patriot and soldier of the Risorgimento. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... The Bersaglieri are a corps of the Italian army created by General Alessandro Lamarmora in 1836. ... Janiculum (Gianicolo in Italian) is a hill in western Rome. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining, as the last day in April. ... Trastevere (from trans Tiberim meaning over the Tiber) is a neighborhood in Rome on the west bank of the Tiber, south of the Vatican City. ...


As a result Oudinot was able to regroup and await reinforcements; time proved to be on his side, and Mazzini's attempt at diplomacy proved fatal to the Roman Republic. A letter from Louis Napoleon encouraged Oudinot and assured him of French reinforcements. The French government sent Ferdinand de Lesseps to negotiate a more formal ceasefire. Neapolitan troops sympathetic to the Papacy entered Roman Republic territory, and de Lesseps suggested that Oudinot's forces in their current position might protect the city from the converging approach of an Austrian army with the Neapolitan force: the Roman Triumvirate agreed. Many Italians from outside the Papal States went to Rome to fight for the Republic: among them also Goffredo Mameli, who had tried to form a common state joining Roman Republic and Tuscany, and who died of a wound suffered in the defence of Rome. Ferdinand de Lesseps Ferdinand Marie Vicomte de Lesseps (November 19, 1805–December 7, 1894) was a French diplomat and maker of the Suez Canal; he was born at Versailles. ... Goffredo Mameli (Genoa, September 5, 1827 - Rome, July 7, 1849) was an Italian patriot, poet and writer, and a notable figure in the Italian Risorgimento. ... A poppy field in Tuscany Tuscany (Italian Toscana) is a region in central Italy, bordering on Latium to the south, Umbria and Marche to the east, Emilia-Romagna and Liguria to the north, and the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west. ...


The siege began in earnest on June 1, and despite the resistance of the Republican army, led by Garibaldi, the French army entered Rome June 29, reestablishing the Holy See's temporal power. In August Louis Napoleon issued a sort of manifesto in which he asked of Pius IX a general amnesty, a secularized administration, the establishment of the Code Napoléon, and in general a Liberal Government. Pius, from Gaeta, promised reforms that he declared motu proprio, that is, of his own volition, not in answer to the French. June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... June 29 is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 185 days remaining. ... First page of the 1804 original edition The original Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des français, or civil code of the French), was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It entered into force on March 21, 1804. ...


The Pope did not return to Rome itself until April 1850, since the French were considered liberals all the same, and the Pope would not return until assured of no French meddling in his affairs. French soldiers supported the Papal administration in Rome until the end of 1866. 1850 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


See also

It has been suggested that The Gathering Storm: Before the Revolutions of 1848 be merged into this article or section. ... // The Italian states in 1848 As with Germany, there was no Italy at the time of the Revolutions of 1848, but a hodge-podge of states. ...

Notes

1 Deotto, Paolo, "La Repubblica Romana: un'utopia del 1849 che farà l'Italia unita", Cronologia. (Italian)

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Roman Republic (18th century) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (175 words)
In 1799 the Tiberina Republic, with capital Perugia, was united to the Roman Republic.
The Roman Republic was short-lived, as the Papal States were restored in June of 1800.
The Roman Republic flag was a vertical tricolour fl-white-red, taken from the French tricolour, as granted by Napoleon.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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