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Encyclopedia > Roman Navy
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This article is part of the series on: Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Rmn-military-header. ...


Military of ancient Rome (portal)
800 BC–AD 476 For the military of the East Roman Empire after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, see Byzantine military. ...

Structural history
Roman army (unit types and ranks,
legions, auxiliaries, generals)
Roman navy (fleets, admirals)
Campaign history
Lists of wars and battles
Decorations and punishments
Technological history
Military engineering (castra,
siege engines, arches, roads)
Personal equipment
Political history
Strategy and tactics
Infantry tactics
Frontiers and fortifications (limes,
Hadrian's Wall)

The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis, lit. "fleet") comprised the naval forces of the Roman state. Unlike modern naval forces, it never existed as an autonomous service, but operated as an adjunct to the Roman army. Founded in ca. 311 BC, and massively expanded during the course of the First Punic War, the Roman navy played a vital role in the early stages of the Roman Republic's ascension to hegemony in the Mediterranean Sea, especially in the wars against Carthage. However, it was gradually reduced in size and significance, undertaking mainly policing duties, under the Empire. In the 4th century, the bulk of the Roman fleet was moved to the Eastern Roman Empire, and continued to serve as the Byzantine navy. The branches of the Roman military at the highest level were the Roman army and the Roman navy. ... The Roman army was a set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... This is a list of both unit types and ranks of the Roman army from the Roman Republic to the fall of the Roman Empire. ... This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion. ... Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = supports) formed the standing non-citizen corps of the Roman army of the Principate (30 BC - 284 AD), alongside the citizen legions. ... // Manius Acilius Glabrio -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 191 BC) -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 91) -- Titus Aebutius Helva -- Aegidius -- Lucius Aemilius Barbula -- Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir) -- Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus -- Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (praetor 56 BC) -- Flavius Aëtius -- Lucius Afranius (consul) -- Sextus Calpurnius Agricola -- Gnaeus Julius Agricola -- Flavius Antoninus -- Marcus... The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis, lit. ... The history of ancient Rome—originally a city-state of Italy, and later an empire covering much of Eurasia and North Africa from the ninth century BC to the fifth century AD—was often closely entwined with its military history. ... The following is a List of Roman wars fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, organized by date. ... The following is a List of Roman battles (fought by the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire), organized by date. ... As with most other military forces the Roman military adopted a carrot and stick approach to military, with an extensive list of decorations for military gallantry and likewise a range of punishments for the punishment of military transgressions. ... The technology history of the Roman military covers the development of and application of technologies for use in the armies and navies of Rome from the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Roman military engineering is a type of Roman engineering carried out by the Roman Army - almost exclusively by the Roman legions for the furthering of military objectives. ... Basic ideal plan of a Roman castrum. ... Roman siege engines were, for the most part, adapted from Hellenistic siege technology. ... List of ancient Roman triumphal arches (By modern country) // France Orange Reims: Porte de Mars Saint Rémy de Provence: Roman site of Glanum Saintes: Arch of Germanicus Greece Arch of Galerius, Thessaloniki Hadrians Arch, Athens Italy It has been suggested that List of Roman arches in Rome be... Not to be confused with Romans road. ... Roman military personal equipment was produced in large numbers to established patterns and used in an established way. ... Root directory at Military history of ancient Rome Romes military was always tightly keyed to its political system. ... The strategy of the Roman Military encompasses its grand strategy (the arrangements made by the state to implement its political goals through a selection of military goals, a process of diplomacy backed by threat of military action, and a dedication to the military of part of its production and resources... Roman infantry tactics refers to the theoretical and historical deployment, formation and maneuvers of the Roman infantry from the start of the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Map of all the territories once occupied by the Roman Empire, along with locations of limes Roman military borders and fortifications were part of a grand strategy of territorial defense in the Roman Empire. ... The limes Germanicus, 2nd century. ... Hadrians Wall is a stone and turf fortification built by the Roman Empire across the width of modern-day England. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The Roman army was a set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... Osama was here and he doesnt enjoy this site???? the red sox won and i am one happy camper. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC.[1] They are known as the Punic Wars because the Latin term for Carthaginian was Punici (older Poenici, from their Phoenician ancestry). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... The Byzantine navy comprised the naval forces of the Byzantine Empire. ...

Contents

History

Early Republic

The first mention of a Roman fleet is in ca. 311 BC, after the conquest of Campania, when two new officials, the duumviri navales, were appointed on an ad hoc basis and tasked with the maintenance of a fleet.[1] As a result, the Republic acquired its first fleet, consisting of 20 ships, most likely triremes. Nevertheless, prior to the First Punic War the main task of this fleet was patrolling along the Italian coast and rivers, protecting seaborne trade from piracy. Whenever larger tasks had to be undertaken, such as the naval blockade of a besieged city, the Romans called on the allied Greek cities of southern Italy, the socii navales, to provide ships and men. For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ... A Greek trireme. ... Osama was here and he doesnt enjoy this site???? the red sox won and i am one happy camper. ...


With the outbreak of hostilities with Carthage however, the engagements at sea became decisive, and the Romans were at first rendered helpless against the nautically experienced Carthaginians, who were much better equipped and trained. According to Polybius, the Romans seized a shipwrecked Carthaginian warship, and used it as a blueprint for a massive naval build-up.[2] The new fleets were commanded by the annually elected Roman magistrates, but naval expertise was provided by the lower officers, who continued to be provided by the socii, mostly Greeks. This practice was continued until well into the Empire, something also attested by the direct adoption of numerous Greek naval terms.[3] For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... Polybius (c. ... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ...

The use of the corvus negated the superior Carthaginian naval expertise, and allowed the Romans to establish their naval superiority in the western Mediterranean.
The use of the corvus negated the superior Carthaginian naval expertise, and allowed the Romans to establish their naval superiority in the western Mediterranean.

Despite the buildup, the Roman crews remained inferior in naval experience to the Carthaginians, and could not hope to match them in naval tactics, which required great maneuverability. They therefore developed a novel weapon which transformed sea warfare to their advantage. They equipped their ships with the corvus, possibly developed earlier by the Syracusians against the Athenians. This was a long plank with a spike for hooking onto enemy ships. Using it as a boarding bridge, marines were able to board an enemy ship, transforming sea combat into a version of land combat, where they had the upper hand. However, it is believed that the corvus' weight made the ships unstable, and could capsize a ship in rough seas. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... An explanation of naval tactics in the age of galleys, from antiquity to the early 17th century when sailing ships replaced oared galleys. ... A corvus (meaning raven in Latin) was a Roman military boarding device used in naval warfare during the First Punic War against Carthage. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Although the first sea engagement, the Battle of the Lipari Islands in 260 BC, was a defeat for Rome, the forces involved were relatively small. The fledgling Roman navy won its first major engagement later that year at the Battle of Mylae. Through the course of the war, Rome continued to win victories at sea and gained naval experience, although it also suffered a number of catastrophic losses due to storms. Their string of successes allowed Rome to push the war further across the sea to Carthage itself. Combatants Carthage Roman Republic Commanders Boodes Hannibal Gisco Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Asina Strength About 20 ships About 17 ships Casualties Unknown Fleet captured {{{notes}}} The Battle of the Lipari Islands or Lipara (Lipara harbour, 260 BC) was the first encounter between the fleets of Carthage and the Roman Republic, fought... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Gaius Duilius Hannibal Gisco Strength About 120 ships About 130 ships The Battle of Mylae took place in 260 BC, during the First Punic War, off the coast of Mylae, Sicily, and was the first real naval battle between the fleets of Carthage and the...


At the beginning of the Second Punic War (218 BC - 202 BC), the balance of naval power in the Western Mediterranean had shifted from Carthage to Rome. This caused Hannibal, Carthage's great general, to shift the strategy, bringing the war to the Italian peninsula. Unlike the first war, the navy played little role on either side in this war or in the Third Punic War, except for carrying supplies and reinforcements. Long before Rome conquered Illyria in 168 BC and established the region as a province, the First Illyrian War in 229 BC marks the date which the Roman Navy first sailed across the Adriatic Sea and began her eastwards expansion.[4] As Rome became increasingly involved in the affairs of the Eastern Mediterranean, the Roman fleet played again an important role. By the end of the 2nd century BC, Roman control over all of what was later to be dubbed mare nostrum ("our sea") had been established. Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Publius Cornelius Scipio†, Tiberius Sempronius Longus Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Gaius Flaminius†, Fabius Maximus, Claudius Marcellus†, Lucius Aemilius Paullus†, Gaius Terentius Varro, Marcus Livius Salinator, Gaius Claudius Nero, Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus†, Masinissa, Minucius†, Servilius Geminus† Hannibal Barca, Hasdrubal Barca†, Mago Barca†, Hasdrubal Gisco†, Syphax... The Roman empire in 218 BC (in dark red) A Carthaginian army under Hannibal attacks Romes Spanish allies. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 3rd century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 207 BC 206 BC 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC - 202 BC - 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC 197 BC Events October... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For other uses, see Hannibal (disambiguation). ... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Scipio Aemilianus Hasdrubal the Boetarch Strength 40,000 90,000 Casualties 17,000 62,000 The Third Punic War (149 BC to 146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars fought between the former Phoenician colony of Carthage, and the Republic of... Location of Illyria Illyria (Albanian Iliria Land of the Free; Ancient Greek ; Latin Illyria [1] (see also Illyricum) was in Classical antiquity a region in the western part of todays Balkan Peninsula, founded by the tribes and clans of Illyrians, an ancient people who spoke the Illyrian languages. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... The First Illyrian War began with Romes concern with the trade routes running across the Adriatic Sea, especially after the First Punic War. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 234 BC 233 BC 232 BC 231 BC 230 BC - 229 BC - 228 BC 227 BC... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ...


Late Republic

Ballistae on a Roman ship.
Ballistae on a Roman ship.

After Rome's eventual victory over Carthage, there was no other sea power left to contend with Rome's marine might, and the Roman Navy was largely disbanded. In the absence of a strong naval presence, piracy flourished throughout the Mediterranean, especially from Cilicia, which posed a growing threat for the Roman economy. Periodically, expeditions would be organized to deal with the pirates, but they had only localised effects. Finally, in 67 BC the Senate authorised Pompey to move against them. In a massive and concerted campaign, Pompey cleared the seas from pirates. Afterwards, the fleet was reduced again to policing duties against intermittent piracy. The last major campaign of the Roman navy in the Mediterranean until the 3rd century would be in the civil wars that ended the Republic. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1523x828, 108 KB) Summary Ballistae on a Roman ship. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1523x828, 108 KB) Summary Ballistae on a Roman ship. ... The ballista (Latin, from Greek ballistēs, from ballein to throw, plural ballistae) was a powerful ancient crossbow, although employing several loops of twisted skeins to power it, it used torsion (instead of a prod). ... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... There were several Roman civil wars, especially during the time of the late Republic. ...


As the Roman Republic unraveled, competing Roman generals once again built up their naval might. Sextus Pompeius, in his conflict with Octavian, had been given command of the Italian fleet by the Senate in 43 BC, and controlled the politically crucial supply of grain from Sicily to Rome. After suffering a defeat from Sextus in 42 BC, Octavian initiated massive naval armaments, aided by his closest associate, Marcus Agrippa. Ships were built at Ravenna and Ostia, the new harbour of Portus Julius built, and soldiers and rowers levied, including over 20,000 manumitted slaves.[5]. Agrippa also introduced new naval armaments, such as a catapult-fired grappling hook (harpago) and towers at either end of the ships.[6] Finally, Octavian and Agrippa defeated Sextus in the Battle of Naulochus in 36 BC, finally putting an end to all Pompeian resistance. Octavian's power was further cemented against the combined fleets of Mark Antony and Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt, in the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, where Antony had assembled 230 ships against Octavian's 400 ships.[7] This last naval battle of the Roman Republic definitively established Octavian as the sole ruler over Rome and the Mediterranean world. After his victory, he formalised the Fleet's structure, establishing several key harbours in the Mediterranean (see below). The now fully professional navy had its main duties consist of protecting against piracy, escorting troops and patrolling the rivers frontiers of Europe. Sextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey, was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC). ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (63 BC-12 BC) was a Roman statesman and general, son-in-law and minister of the emperor Caesar Augustus. ... Model of a Roman bireme Portus Julius (alternately spelled in the Latin Iulius) was the home port for the Roman western imperial fleet, the classis Misenensis, named for nearby Cape Miseno. ... A soldier loading the hook. ... The naval Battle of Naulochus was fought on 3 September 36 BC between the fleets of Sextus Pompeius and Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, near Naulochus, Sicily. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt began following Alexander the Greats conquest in 332 BC and ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. It was founded when Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt, creating a powerful Hellenistic state from southern Syria... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC...


Operations under Augustus

An Augustan-era Roman quadrireme.
An Augustan-era Roman quadrireme.

Under Augustus and after the conquest of Egypt there were increasing demands from the Roman economy to extend the trade lanes to India. The Arabian control of all sea routes to India was an obstacle. One of the first naval operations under princeps Augustus was therefore the preparation for a campaign on the Arabian peninsula. Aelius Gallus, the prefect of Egypt ordered the construction of 130 transports and subsequently carried 10,000 soldiers to Arabia.[8] But the following march through the desert towards Yemen failed and the plans for control of the Arabian peninsula had to be abandoned. A quinquireme was a galley, a warship propelled by oars, developed from the earlier trireme. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Gaius Aelius Gallus was a Roman prefect of Egypt from 26 - 24 BC. He is primaly known for a disastrous expedition he undertook to Arabia Felix under orders of Augustus. ... Arabia redirects here. ...


At the other end of the Empire, in Germania, the navy played an important role in the supply and transport of the legions. In 15 BC an independent fleet was installed at the Lake Constance. Later, the generals Drusus and Tiberius used the Navy extensively, when they tried to extend the Roman frontier to the Elbe. In 12 BC Drusus ordered the construction of a fleet of 1,000 ships and sailed them along the Rhine into the North Sea.[9] The Frisians and Chauci had nothing to oppose the superior numbers, tactics and technology of the Romans. When these entered the river mouths of Weser and Ems, the local tribes had to surrender. Map of the Roman Empire and the free Germania, Magna Germania, in the early 2nd century For other uses, see Germania (disambiguation). ... Legion redirects here. ... Vienna becomes a frontier city guarding the Roman Empire against the German tribes to the north. ... For other uses, see Lake Constance, New Zealand. ... Bust of Nero Claudius Drusus, in the Musée du Cinquantinaire, Brussels Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, born Decimus Claudius Drusus and variously called Drusus, Drusus I, Drusus Claudius Nero, or Drusus the Elder (14 January 38 - 9 BC) was the youngest son of Livia, wife of Augustus, and her first... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 17 BC 16 BC 15 BC 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC... Bust of Nero Claudius Drusus, in the Musée du Cinquantinaire, Brussels Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, born Decimus Claudius Drusus and variously called Drusus, Drusus I, Drusus Claudius Nero, or Drusus the Elder (14 January 38 - 9 BC) was the youngest son of Livia, wife of Augustus, and her first... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... The Frisians are an ethnic group of northwestern Europe, inhabiting an area known as Frisia. ... The Chauci were a populous Germanic tribe inhabiting the extreme northwestern shore of Germany during Roman times - basically the stretch of coast between Frisia in the west to the Elbe estuary in the east. ... Weser watershed The Weser is a river of north-western Germany. ... // For the river in Hampshire, see River Ems. ...


In 5 BC the Roman knowledge concerning the North and Baltic Sea was fairly extended during a campaign by Tiberius, reaching as far as the Elbe: Plinius describes how Roman naval formations came past Heligoland and set sail to the north-eastern coast of Denmark, and Augustus himself boasts in his Res Gestae: "My fleet sailed from the mouth of the Rhine eastward as far as the lands of the Cimbri to which, up to that time, no Roman had ever penetrated either by land or by sea...".[10] The multiple naval operations north of Germania had to be abandoned after the battle of the Teutoburg Forest in the year 9 AD. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 Events Births... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... For the landscape in Norway, see Helgeland. ... Res Gestae Divi Augusti, (Latin: The Deeds of the Divine Augustus) is the funerary inscription of the first Roman emperor, Augustus, giving a first-person record of his life and accomplishments. ... Combatants Germanic tribes (Cherusci, Marsi, Chatti, Bructeri and Chauci) Roman Empire Commanders Arminius Publius Quinctilius Varus † Strength 10,000 to 18,000 3 Roman legions, 3 alae and 6 auxiliary cohorts, probably 20,000 - 25,000 Casualties Unknown; but far less than Roman losses 15,000-20,000 The Battle... This article is about the year 9. ...


Julio-Claudian dynasty

In the years 15 and 16, Germanicus carried out several fleet operations along the rivers Rhine and Ems, without permanent results due to grim Germanic resistance and a disastrous storm. By 28, the Romans lost further control of the Rhine mouth in a succession of Frisian insurgencies. From 37 to 85, the Roman navy played an important role in the Roman conquest of Britain. Especially the classis Germanica rendered outstanding services in multitudinous landing operations. In 46 a naval expedition made a push deep into the Black Sea region and even travelled on the Tanais. By 57 an expeditionary corps reached Chersonesos (see Charax, Crimea). For other uses, see 15 (disambiguation). ... Events A Roman army of 90,000 men commanded by Germanicus gains a victory at Idistaviso, defeating the German war chief Arminius and capturing his wife Thusnelda, and recovering the lost eagles of Varus legions. ... Germanicus Julius Caesar Claudianus (24 May 15 BC–October 10, 19) was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty of the early Roman Empire. ... This article is about the year 37. ... Events Roman Empire Dacians under Decebalus engaged in two wars against the Romans from this year to AD 88 or 89. ... Britain was the target of invasion by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire several times during its history. ... Events Rome The settlement at Celje gets municipal rights and is named municipium Claudia Celeia. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... For other uses, see number 57. ... The remains of the city of Chersonesos Chersonesos (Greek: , Latin: , Old East Slavic: Корсунь, Korsun, Russian/Ukrainian: Херсонес, Khersones; see also List of traditional Greek place names), also transliterated as Chersonese, Chersonesos, Cherson, was an ancient Greek colony founded approximately 2500 years ago in the southwestern part of Crimea, known then as... Charax is the largest Roman military settlement excavated in the Crimea. ...


It seems that under Nero the navy obtained strategically important positions for trading with India; but there was no known fleet in the Red Sea. Possibly, parts of the Alexandrian fleet were operating as escorts for the Indian trade. In the Jewish revolt, from 66 to 70, the Romans were forced to fight Jewish ships, operating from a harbour in the area of modern Tel Aviv, on Israel's Mediterranean coast. In the meantime several flotilla engagements on the Sea of Galilee took place. For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 1,100,000? Casualties Unknown 1,100,000? (majority Jewish civilian casualties) Jewish-Roman wars First War – Kitos War – Bar Kokhba revolt The first... This article is about the year 66. ... This article is about the year 70. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The Sea of Galilee or Lake Kinneret (Hebrew ים כנרת), is Israels largest freshwater lake. ...


Flavian, Antonine and Severan dynasties

During the Batavian rebellion of Gaius Julius Civilis (69-70), the rebels got hold of a squadron of the Rhine fleet by treachery, but could not employ it in a decisive strike against the rival fleet. The remaining ships returned to Imperial authority, when Civilis was defeated in open battle. This article, Batavian rebellion, includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Gaius Julius Civilis was the leader of the Batavian rebellion against the Romans in 69 AD. By his name, it can be told that he (or one of his male ancestors) was made a Roman citizen (and thus, the tribe a Roman vassal) by either Augustus Caesar or Caligula. ... For other uses, see 69 (disambiguation). ... This article is about the year 70. ...


In the years 82 to 85, the Romans launched a campaign against the Caledonians in modern Scotland. In this context the Roman navy significantly escalated activities on the eastern Scottish coast. Simultaneously multiple expeditions and reconnaissance trips were launched. During these the Romans would capture the Orkney Islands for a short period of time and obtained information about the Shetland Islands. Supposedly the Romans also landed on the Hebrides and in Ireland. Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 Events Roman emperor Domitian is also a Roman Consul. ... Events Roman Empire Dacians under Decebalus engaged in two wars against the Romans from this year to AD 88 or 89. ... // The Caledonians (Latin: Caledonii) or Caledonian Confederacy, is a name given by historians to a group of the indigenous Picts of Scotland during the Iron Age. ... This article is about the country. ... The Orkney Islands, usually called simply Orkney, are one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. ... The Shetland Islands, also called Shetland (archaically spelled Zetland) formerly called Hjaltland, comprise one of 32 council areas of Scotland. ... This article is about the Hebrides islands in Scotland. ...


Under the Five Good Emperors the navy operated mainly on the rivers; so it played an important role during Trajan's conquest of Dacia and temporarily an independent fleet for the Euphrates and Tigris rivers was founded. Also during the wars against the Marcomanni confederation under Marcus Aurelius several combats took place on the Danube and the Tisza. All of this is untrue The Five Good Emperors is a term used by the 18th century historian, Edward Gibbon, in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... For other uses, see Dacia (disambiguation). ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Combatants Roman Empire Marcomanni, Quadi, other Germanic peoples along the Danube Commanders Marcus Aurelius The Marcomannic Wars were a series of wars lasting over thirty years during the reign of Marcus Aurelius from about AD 166 until 180, which pitted the Roman Empire against the Marcomanni, Quadi and other Germanic... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (called the Wise) (April 26, 121[2] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... The Tisza or Tisa is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. ...


Under the aegis of the Severan dynasty, the only known military operations of the navy were carried out under Septimius Severus, using naval assistance on his campaigns along the Euphrates and Tigris, as well as in Scotland. Thereby Roman ships reached inter alia the Persian Gulf and the top of the British Isles. The Severan dynasty is a lineage of Roman Emperors, reigning several decades from the late 2nd century to the early 3rd century. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (or rarely Severus I) (b. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... This article is about the country. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... This article explains the archipelago in north-western Europe. ...


Third century crisis

Under the barracks emperors, the navy made it through a major crisis, when, during the rule of Trebonianus Gallus, for the first time Germanic tribes built up their own powerful fleet in the Black Sea. Via two surprise attacks (256) on Roman naval bases in the Caucasus and near the Danube, numerous ships fell into the hands of the Germans, whereupon the raids were extended as far as the Aegean Sea; Byzantium, Athens, Sparta and other towns were plundered and the responsible provincial fleets were heavily debilitated. It was not until the attackers made a tactical error, that their onrush could be stopped. In 268 another, much fiercer Germanic attack took place. Part of the invading fleet attacked the Mediterranean islands of Crete, Rhodes and Cyprus, while the other part targeted the Greek mainland. Once again the Romans had nothing to withstand against this attack. Only when the Germanic force set off for the interior could Claudius Gothicus defeat them. Barraks Emperor is the way Roman Emperors who ruled during 235–268 are collectively known. ... Trebonianus Gallus on a coin celebrating Aeternitas. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... This article is about the year 268. ... Marcus Aurelius Claudius Gothicus (May 10, 213/214 - January, 270) , more often referred to as Claudius II, ruled the Roman Empire for less than two years (268 - 270), but during that brief time, he was so successful and beloved by the people of Rome that he attained divine status. ...


In 286 the Roman Empire faced again a great danger when the commander of the British Fleet, Carausius, rose up and seceded with Britannia and parts of the northern Gallic coast. With a single blow Roman control of the channel and the North Sea was lost, and emperor Maximinus was forced to create a completely new Northern Fleet, but in lack of training it was almost immediately destroyed in a storm. Only under Caesar Constantius Chlorus was the navy again able to deliver troops to Britannia. By a concentric attack on Londinium the insurgent province was retaken. The 6th century administrator and writer John Lydus calculated the strength of the Roman fleets at 45,562 men under Diocletian and the tetrarchs. This article is about the year 286. ... The Classis Britannica (literally, British fleet, in the sense of the fleet in British waters or the fleet of the province of Britannia, rather than the fleet of the state of Britain) was a provincial naval fleet of the navy of ancient Rome. ... Carausius coin from Londinium mint. ... This article deals with 4th century Roman Emperor. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... On the reverse of this argenteus struck in Antioch under Constantius Chlorus, the tetrarcs are sacrificing to celebrate a victory against the Sarmatians. ... Londinium may refer to: An ancient Roman name for London (see History of London) Londinium (movie) A song by Catatonia A fictional planet in the TV show Firefly, (see moons and planets in Firefly) Londinivm, a free MMORPG. Londinium (album), an album by the band Archive This is a disambiguation... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204 CE, Treasury of St. ...


Late Antiquity

In 330 both main fleets were stationed in Constantinople. Classic naval battles were now a rare case. Documents tell of the victory of Crispus over the fleet of Licinius in 324, the destruction of the boats under Gainas in 400 and naval operations in the struggle with Geiseric in the 5th century. The Roman fleets suffered defeats against the powerful Vandal fleet in 460 and 468, under the emperors Majorian and Anthemius. When the Völkerwanderung struck with full force on the Roman borders, the endeavors of the navy could hardly change a thing. Until the breakdown of the Western Roman Empire in 476 the Roman warships were solely employed to evacuate Roman citizens out of troublespots. The navy stationed in the Eastern Empire became the cadre for the Byzantine navy. Under the rule of Justinian I triremes were still in use, although mainly dromons were employed, Constantinople was itself protected by a fleet of liburnians. Events May 11 - Constantine I refounds Byzantium, renames it New Rome, and moves the capital of the Roman Empire there from Rome. ... Crispus on a coin issued to celebrate Constantine I victory over Goths in 323. ... Aureus of Licinius, celebrating his tenth year of reign and the fifth year of his son Licinius (on the obverse). ... Events Constantine becomes the sole emperor of the Roman Empire. ... Indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) is a semiconductor composed of indium, gallium and arsenic. ... Events First invasion of Italy by Alaric (probable date). ... Geiseric the Lame (circa 389 – January 25, 477), also spelled as Gaiseric or Genseric the Lame, was the King of the Vandals and Alans (428–477) and was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. ... Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... Majorian on an bronze coin. ... Procopius Anthemius (c. ... The German term Völkerwanderung (the migration of peoples), is used in historiography as an alternate label for the Migration Period, of Germanic, Slavic and other tribes on the European continent during the period AD 300–900. ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... The Byzantine navy comprised the naval forces of the Byzantine Empire. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... A Byzantine fresco showing a dromon Byzantine dromon. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... A liburnian was a galley, a warship propelled by oars. ...


Timeline of major events

Roman warship on Mark Antony denarius.
Roman warship on Mark Antony denarius.
  • 461: Emperor Majorian assembles 300 ships to transport his army to north Africa.

Osama was here and he doesnt enjoy this site???? the red sox won and i am one happy camper. ... Combatants Carthage Roman Republic Commanders Boodes Hannibal Gisco Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Asina Strength About 20 ships About 17 ships Casualties Unknown Fleet captured {{{notes}}} The Battle of the Lipari Islands or Lipara (Lipara harbour, 260 BC) was the first encounter between the fleets of Carthage and the Roman Republic, fought... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC - 260s BC - 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC Years: 265 BC 264 BC 263 BC 262 BC 261 BC - 260 BC - 259 BC 258 BC... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Gaius Duilius Hannibal Gisco Strength About 120 ships About 130 ships The Battle of Mylae took place in 260 BC, during the First Punic War, off the coast of Mylae, Sicily, and was the first real naval battle between the fleets of Carthage and the... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Gaius Sulpicius Paterculus The Battle of Sulci was a naval battle fought in 258 BC between the Roman and Carthagenian navys of the coast near the town of Sulci, in Sardinia. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC - 250s BC - 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC Years: 263 BC 262 BC 261 BC 260 BC 259 BC - 258 BC - 257 BC 256 BC... Combatants Rome Carthage Commanders Marcus Atilius Regulus Unknown The Battle of Tyndaris is a naval battle of the First Punic War, which took place off Tyndaris (modern Tindari) in 257 BC. Tyndaris was a Sicilian town founded as a Greek colony in 396 BC located on the high ground overlooking... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC - 250s BC - 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC Years: 262 BC 261 BC 260 BC 259 BC 258 BC - 257 BC - 256 BC 255 BC... Battle of Cape Ecnomus Conflict First Punic War Date 256 BC Place Offshore Cape Ecnomus, in Sicily Result Roman victory The battle of Cape Ecnomus (offshore Cape Ecnomus, southern coast of Sicily, 256 BC) was a naval battle between the fleets of Carthage and the Roman Republic, fought during the... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC - 250s BC - 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC Years: 261 BC 260 BC 259 BC 258 BC 257 BC - 256 BC - 255 BC 254 BC... Combatants Carthage Roman Republic Commanders Ad Herbal Hamilcar Barca Publius Claudius Pulcher Strength About 120 ships About 120 ships Casualties None 93 ships captured or sunk The battle of Drepana or Drepanum (offshore modern Trapani, western coast of Sicily, 249 BC) was a naval battle between the fleets of Carthage... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 254 BC 253 BC 252 BC 251 BC 250 BC - 249 BC - 248 BC 247 BC... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Gaius Lutatius Catulus Hanno the Great Strength About 200 ships About 250 ships Casualties 30 ships sunk 50 ships sunk 70 ships captured The Battle of the Aegates Islands or Aegusa (Aegadian Islands, off the western coast of the island of Sicily, 10 March 241... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 246 BC 245 BC 244 BC 243 BC 242 BC - 241 BC - 240 BC 239 BC 238... The Second Macedonian War (200–196 BC) was fought between Macedon, led by Philip V of Macedon and Rome, allied with Pergamon and Rhodes. ... Silver coin of Antiochus III. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... The Battle of the Eurymedon was fought in 190 BC between Roman forces and a Seleucid fleet. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 195 BC 194 BC 193 BC 192 BC 191 BC - 190 BC - 189 BC 188 BC... Lucius Aemilius Regillus (fl. ... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... For other uses, see Hannibal (disambiguation). ... The Battle of Myonessus was fought in 190 BC between a Macedonian fleet and a Roman fleet. ... The First Mithridatic War was fought between the Roman Republic and Mithridates VI Eupator Dionysius, the king of Pontus. ... Combatants Rome Pontus Commanders Lucius Licinius Lucullus Unknown The Battle of Tenedos was fought in 86 BC between the fleets of Rome and Pontus. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 91 BC 90 BC 89 BC 88 BC 87 BC - 86 BC - 85 BC 84 BC 83... Mark Anthony. ... Mark Anthony. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... The naval Battle of Naulochus was fought on 3 September 36 BC between the fleets of Sextus Pompeius and Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, near Naulochus, Sicily. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (c. ... Sextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey, was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC). ... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Centuries: 1st century BCE - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s - 60s - 70s 80s 90s 100s 110s Years: 63 64 65 66 67 - 68 - 69 70 71 72 73 Events June 9 - Roman Emperor Nero commits suicide. ... Legio I Adiutrix (assistant), was a Roman legion formed in 68 AD, possibly by Galba under orders of Nero. ... The Year of the Four Emperors was a year in the history of the Roman Empire, 69, in which four emperors ruled in a remarkable succession. ... For other uses, see 69 (disambiguation). ... Emperor Otho. ... Aulus Vitellius (September 24, 15 – December 22, 69), also called Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Augustus, was Roman Emperor from April 17, 69 to December 22 of the same year, one of the emperors in the Year of the Four Emperors (the others being Galba, Otho, and Vespasian). ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... Legio II Adiutrix Pia Fidelis (supporter, faithful and loyal), was a Roman legion levied by emperor Vespasian on 70 AD, from Roman navy marines in Ravenna. ... The Battle of the Hellespont was fought in 324 between a Constantinian fleet led by Flavius Julius Crispus and a larger fleet loyal to Licinius. ... Events July 3 - Battle of Adrianople: Constantine defeats Licinius, forcing Licinius to retreat to Byzantium. ... Crispus on a coin issued to celebrate Constantine I victory over Goths in 323. ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... Aureus of Licinius, celebrating his tenth year of reign and the fifth year of his son Licinius (on the obverse). ... Events August 2 - Majorian resigns as Western Roman Emperor; shortly afterwards Libius Severus is declared western Roman emperor by Ricimer November 19 - Hilarius succeeds Leo as Pope Saint Patrick returns to Ireland as a Christian missionary. ... Majorian on an bronze coin. ... Events March 3 - Simplicius succeeds Hilarius as Pope The Vandal fleet overpowers the navy of Leo I of the Byzantine Empire Huns again invade Dacia but are once more repelled by the eastern emperor Leo I. Births Deaths February 29 - Pope Hilarius Gunabhadra Categories: 468 ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... For the genus of lizards, see Basiliscus (genus). ...

Admirals

Gaius Duilius (lived 3rd century BC) was a Roman politician involved in the First Punic War. ... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Gaius Duilius Hannibal Gisco Strength About 120 ships About 130 ships The Battle of Mylae took place in 260 BC, during the First Punic War, off the coast of Mylae, Sicily, and was the first real naval battle between the fleets of Carthage and the... Several notables of the Roman Republic were named Marcus Atilius Regulus. ... Battle of Cape Ecnomus Conflict First Punic War Date 256 BC Place Offshore Cape Ecnomus, in Sicily Result Roman victory The battle of Cape Ecnomus (offshore Cape Ecnomus, southern coast of Sicily, 256 BC) was a naval battle between the fleets of Carthage and the Roman Republic, fought during the... Temple to Juturna, built by Catulus to celebrate his victory at . ... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Gaius Lutatius Catulus Hanno the Great Strength About 200 ships About 250 ships Casualties 30 ships sunk 50 ships sunk 70 ships captured The Battle of the Aegates Islands or Aegusa (Aegadian Islands, off the western coast of the island of Sicily, 10 March 241... Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (c. ... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ...

Organisation

Recruitment and service

A ship's crew, regardless of its size, was organised as a centuria. Among the crew were usually also a number of principales (junior officers) and immunes (specialists exempt from certain duties), some of which were identical to those of the army auxiliaries and some of which (mostly of Greek provenance) were peculiar to the fleet. Each ship was commanded by a trierarchus, while squadrons were put under a nauarchus. These were professional officers, who had a status equal to an auxiliary centurion (and were thus sometimes called centuriones classiarii). Command of a fleet was given to an equestrian prefect (praefectus classis), with the fleets of Ravenna and Misenum being the most prestigious appointments. The prefects were political appointees, and although they were usually promoted from command of army auxiliary units, their experience in naval matters was minimal, forcing them to rely on their professional subordinates.[11] Centuria (Latin plural Centuriae) is a Latin substantive rooting in centum a hundred, denoting units consisting of (originally, approximatively) a 100 men. ... Immunes were those soldiers of the military of ancient Rome who were immune from combat duty and fatigues through having a more specialist role within the army. ... Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = supports) formed the standing non-citizen corps of the Roman army of the Principate (30 BC - 284 AD), alongside the citizen legions. ... Navarch is a Greek word meaning leader of the ships, which in some states became the title of an office equivalent to that of a modern admiral. ... Look up Centurion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites - also known as a vir egregius, lit. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ... Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... Misemen is the site of an ancient port in Campania, in southern Italy. ...


Crewmen could sign on as marines, rowers/seamen, craftsmen and various other jobs, though all personnel serving in the imperial fleet were classed as soldiers (milites), regardless of their function. Though the fleet had its own marines, these troops were used for boarding enemy vessels rather than amphibious assaults. The status and rank structure of the sailors and marines of the Roman navy were somewhat similar to that of the auxiliary soldiers serving in the army, and received a similar salary.[11] France Marines is the name of a commune in the département of Val dOise, France. ... It has been suggested that Landing operation be merged into this article or section. ... Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = supports) formed the standing non-citizen corps of the Roman army of the Principate (30 BC - 284 AD), alongside the citizen legions. ...


Despite popular perception, the Roman fleet relied throughout its existence on rowers of free status, and galley slaves were usually not put at the oars, except in times of pressing manpower demands or extreme emergency.[12] In Imperial times, non-citizen freeborn provincials (peregrini) and ex-slaves became the mainstay of the Roman rowing force.[13] Soldiers that did not possess Roman citizenship received this privilege after a minimum of 26 (later 28) years of service with all the attending benefits that this entailed, as well as a sizable cash payment.[11] A galley slave was a slave rowing in a galley. ... Peregrinus was the term used during the early Roman empire, from 30BC to 212AD, to denote a free provincial subject of the empire who was not a Roman citizen. ... The toga was the characteristic garment of the Roman citizen. ...


Ship types

Model of a Roman bireme
Model of a Roman bireme
Small single-oar-bank galleys 

Examples are penteconters and others Download high resolution version (2052x1629, 883 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2052x1629, 883 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ...

Triremes 

The classical trireme was the mainstay of most Mediterranean navies until the 3rd century BC, and continued to serve in large numbers as a smaller, faster vessel along quinquiremes and bigger vessels. The name can refer to several types of ships with three bans of oars throughout the Republican and Imperial periods. A Greek trireme. ...

Quinqueremes 

Along with quadriremes, they made up the bulk of the Roman navy during and after the Punic Wars. A quinquireme was a galley, a warship propelled by oars, developed from the earlier trireme. ... A quinquireme was a galley, a warship propelled by oars, developed from the earlier trireme. ... The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BC.[1] They are known as the Punic Wars because the Latin term for Carthaginian was Punici (older Poenici, from their Phoenician ancestry). ...

Liburnians 

They were small, swift galleys with a usual complement of three to four hundred men[14]


Roman ships were commonly named after gods (Mars, Iuppiter, Minerva, Isis), heroes (Hercules), and concepts such as Harmony, Loyalty, Victory (Concordia, Fides, Victoria) Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman goddess. ... This article discusses the ancient goddess Isis. ... For other uses, see Hercules (disambiguation). ...


Armament

The following weapons were used at various times by the Roman navy to fight their adversaries:

  • Ship hull, used to ride across and break the oars of an enemy ship, immobilising it.
  • Rams used to sink an enemy ship by holing its hull, when driven against its flank under oar power.
  • Grappling hooks used to clamp onto an enemy ship in order to allow the storming of its deck by embarked troops.
  • Corvus, a large boarding plank with a heavy spike on the bottom. The enemy ship was prior positioned via the help of grappling hooks. Afterwards the corvus swung down on the enemy deck with the spike mooring both ships to each other. This enabled large numbers of infantry in battle formation to fight the enemy marines. Actual use is only briefly reported from the First Punic War. Modern reconstruction suggests that it was probably discontinued because of the tendency to unbalance the quinqueremes in high seas. Two fleets armed with this device were reportedly lost in storms.
  • Arpax, a later successor in function to the corvus, an improved design reducing instability.
  • Deck-mounted ballista, like their land-based counterpart, used to bombard the enemy ships with missiles, such as arrows. Also used occasionally to launch incendiary devices.
  • Deck-mounted catapults, like their land-based counterpart, used to bombard the enemy ships with missiles, such as rocks. Also used occasionally to launch incendiary devices.
  • Light missiles included javelins and arrows[15]
  • Troops from the army, who could embark before battle and try and assault enemy ships
  • Sailors were lightly armed but could also fight in battle when necessary.

USS General Price, a Union ram and gunboat, near Baton Rouge, LA, 18 January 1864 A ram was a naval ship class in the 1860s. ... A soldier loading the hook. ... A corvus (meaning raven in Latin) was a Roman military boarding device used in naval warfare during the First Punic War against Carthage. ... A soldier loading the hook. ... Osama was here and he doesnt enjoy this site???? the red sox won and i am one happy camper. ... The ballista (Latin, from Greek ballistēs, from ballein to throw, plural ballistae) was a powerful ancient crossbow, although employing several loops of twisted skeins to power it, it used torsion (instead of a prod). ... Drawing of a Roman catapult For the handheld Y-shaped weapon, see slingshot. ...

Fleets

Principate period

After the end of the civil wars, Augustus reduced and reorganized the Roman armed forces, including the navy. A large part of the fleet of Mark Antony was burned, and the rest was withdrawn to a new base at Forum Iulii (modern Fréjus), which remained operative until the reign of Claudius.[16] However, the bulk of the fleet was subdivided into two praetorian fleets at Misenum and Ravenna, supplemented by a growing number of minor ones in the provinces, which were often created on an ad hoc basis for specific campaigns. This organizational structure was maintained almost unchanged until the 4th century. Roman ruins, aquaduct Fréjus is a coastal town and commune, in the Var département, in southern France. ... Misemen is the site of an ancient port in Campania, in southern Italy. ... Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ...


The two major fleets were stationed in Italy and acted as a central naval reserve, directly available to the Emperor (hence the designation "praetorian"). In the absence of any naval threat, their duties mostly involved patrolling and transport duties. These were:

  • The Classis Misenensis, established in 27 BC and based at Portus Julius. Later Classis praetoria Misenesis Pia Vindex.
  • The Classis Ravennatis, established in 27 BC and based at Ravenna. Later Classis praetoria Ravennatis Pia Vindex.

The various provincial fleets were smaller than the praetorian fleets and composed mostly of lighter vessels. Nevertheless, it was these fleets that saw action, in full campaigns or raids on the periphery of the Empire. The provincial fleets were: ojuooiuououoieerwerwerwerwerwwe Year 27 BC was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Model of a Roman bireme Portus Julius (alternately spelled in the Latin Iulius) was the home port for the Roman western imperial fleet, the classis Misenensis, named for nearby Cape Miseno. ... ojuooiuououoieerwerwerwerwerwwe Year 27 BC was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ...

This article is about the city in Egypt. ... The famous statue of Octavian at the Prima Porta Caesar Augustus (Latin:IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS) ¹ (23 September 63 BC–19 August AD 14), known to modern historians as Octavian for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, is considered the first and one of the most... Octavian becomes Roman Consul for the fourth time. ... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... The Year of the Four Emperors was a year in the history of the Roman Empire, 69, in which four emperors ruled in a remarkable succession. ... The cognomen (name known by in English) was originally the third name of a Roman in the Roman naming convention. ... The Classis Britannica (literally, British fleet, in the sense of the fleet in British waters or the fleet of the province of Britannia, rather than the fleet of the state of Britain) was a provincial naval fleet of the navy of ancient Rome. ... Events Aulus Plautius, with 4 legions, landed on Britain. ... Boulogne-sur-Mer is a city and commune in northern France, in the Pas-de-Calais département of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 17 BC 16 BC 15 BC 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC... Xanten (IPA: ) is a historic town in the North Rhine-Westphalia state of Germany, located in the district of Wesel. ... The Rhine canyon (Ruinaulta) in Graubünden in Switzerland Length 1. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... This article is about the year 50. ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC... Location of the city within the Roman Empire The ancient city of Aquincum was situated on the North-Eastern borders of the Pannonia Province within the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Pannonia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Danube River. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Regensburg (also Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 151. ... Singidunum was an ancient Roman city, first settled by the Scordisci in the 3rd century B.C., and later garrisoned and fortified by the Romans who romanized the name. ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... The Flavian dynasty was a series of three Roman Emperors who ruled from 69, the Year of the Four Emperors, to 96, when the last member was assassinated. ... Map of Romania showing Isaccea Isaccea (population: 5,614) is a small town in the Tulcea county, in Dobruja, Romania, on the right bank of the Danube, 35 km north-west of Tulcea. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 19 BC 18 BC 17 BC 16 BC 15 BC 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC... This article is about the year 54. ... Events Boudicca sacks London (approximate date). ... Traditional Trabzon country house Location within Turkey Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond or Τραπεζούντα (Trapezounda) in Greek, is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey (Lat (DMS) 41° 2 60N Long (DMS) 39° 43 37E). ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Perinthus (Turkish Eski Eregli, old Heraclea) was an ancient town of Thrace, on the Propontis, 22 miles west of Selymbria, strongly situated on a small peninsula on the bay of that name. ... The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara denizi, Modern Greek: Μαρμαρα̃ Θάλασσα or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that separates the Black Sea from the Aegean Sea (thus the Asian part of Turkey from its European part) by Bosporus and... Thrace is a historical and geographic area in south-east Europe spread over southern Bulgaria, north-eastern Greece, and European Turkey. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60... This article is about the year 70. ... Seleucia Pieria (Greek Σελεύκεια Πιερία, later Suedia ) was a town in antiquity, the capital of Seleucis, in Syria Prima. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ptolemais is the Ancient name for several cities in the Mediterranean region: Ptolemais (Cyrenaica), a city in the Pentapolis of Cyrenaica; Ptolemais Ace (modern Akko), a city in the province of Syria; Ptolemais Hermiou, a city in Egypt; and Ptolemais Theron, a city founded on the coast of the Red... The Roman Empire ca. ...

Dominate period

As the Empire faced increasing threats, a number of smaller squadrons were created during the 3rd century from the larger provincial fleets. Most of these were principally fluvial in nature, and set up to counter raids. Among these were:

  • The Classis Venetum, based at Aquileia and operating in the Adriatic Sea.
  • The Classis Scythiae, established from the Classis Moesica and operating in the Danube estuary (Scythia Minor) and the Black Sea.
  • The Classis Anderetianorum, based at Parisii (Paris) and operating in the Seine and Oise rivers.
  • The Classis Ararica, based at Caballodunum (Châlon-sur-Saône) and operating in the Saône River.
  • The Classis fluminis Rhodani, based at Arelate and operating in the Rhône River.
  • The Classis Sambrica, based at Locus Quartensis (unknown location) and operating in the Somme River and the Channel.
  • The Classis Carpathia, detached from the Classsis Syriaca in ca. 400 and based at the Aegean island of Karpathos.

Aquileia (Friulian Aquilee, Slovene Oglej) is an ancient Roman town of Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about 10 km from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Natisone), the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times. ... Major ancient towns and colonies in Schythia Minor Scythia Minor (Greek: Μικρά Σκυθία, Mikrá Scythia) was in ancient times the region surrounded by the Danube at the north and west and the Black Sea at the east, corresponding to todays Dobruja (a large part in Romania and a smaller part in... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the river in France. ... The Oise river is a tributary of the Seine River in France. ... Chalon-sur-Saône is a town, former bishopric and commune in central France, in the Saône-et-Loire département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... The Saône is a river of eastern France. ... Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (Subprefecture) Arrondissement Arles Canton Chief town of 2 cantons: Arles-Est and Arles-Ouest Intercommunality Agglomeration community of Arles-Crau-Camargue-Montagnette Mayor Hervé Schiavetti (PCF) (2001-2008) Statistics Altitude 0 m–57 m (avg. ... The Rhône River, or the Rhône (French Rhône, Arpitan Rôno, Occitan Ròse, standard German Rhone, Valais German Rotten), is one of the major rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. ... Somme river The Somme River (French Rivière Somme) is a river in Picardy, northern France. ... Karpathos (Greek: , Turkish: , Italian: , Latin: ; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the second largest of the Greek Dodecanese islands, in the southeastern Aegean Sea. ...

Ports

Major Roman ports were:

Misemen is the site of an ancient port in Campania, in southern Italy. ... Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Arch of Septimius Severus Market place Leptis Magna (or Lepcis Magna as it is sometimes spelled), also called Neapolis, was a prominent city of the Roman Empire. ... Ostia Antica was the harbor of ancient Rome and perhaps its first colonia. ...

See also

The hull of one of the two ships recovered from Lake Nemi. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... A modern reconstruction of a Roman centurion around 70 A modern reconstruction of a Roman miles, (10-240) The Roman legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) was the basic military unit of the ancient Roman army. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Caligulas Giant Ship, also known as the round ship, was a very large barge whose ruins were found during the construction of Romes Leonardo da Vinci International Airport in Fiumicino, Italy. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Livy, AUC IX.30; XL.18,26; XLI.1)
  2. ^ Polybius, The Histories, I.20-21
  3. ^ A Companion to the Roman Army, p. 201
  4. ^ Gruen, 359.
  5. ^ Cassius Dio, 48.49
  6. ^ Appian, The Civil Wars, V.118; 106
  7. ^ A Companion to the Roman Army, p. 207
  8. ^ A Companion to the Roman Army, p. 208
  9. ^ Tacitus, Annales II.6
  10. ^ Res Gestae, 26.4
  11. ^ a b c Age of the Galley, p. 80
  12. ^ Jan M. Libourel, “Galley Slaves in the Second Punic War”, Classical Philology, Vol. 68, No. 2 (Apr., 1973), pp. 116-119 (119)
  13. ^ Lionel Casson, “Galley Slaves”, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, Vol. 97 (1966), pp. 35-44 (41)
  14. ^ Tacitus, The Histories, Book V
  15. ^ Tacitus, The Histories, Book V
  16. ^ Age of the Galley, p. 78

A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... Penguin Classics 1976 edition of Livys Ab Urbe condita, books XXXI-XLV Ab Urbe condita (literally, from the city, having been founded) is a monumental history of Rome, from its founding (ab Urbe condita, dated to 753 BC by Varro and most modern scholars). ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ... Appian (c. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ...

References

  • Gruen, Erich S. (1984). The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome: Volume II. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-04569-6. 
  • Erdkamp, Paul (ed.) (2007). A Companion to the Roman Army. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.. ISBN 978-1-4051-2153-8. 
  • Gardiner, Robert (Ed.) (2004). AGE OF THE GALLEY: Mediterranean Oared Vessels since pre-Classical Times. Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 978-0851779553. 

University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. ... Blackwell Publishing was formed in 2001 from two Oxford-based academic publishing companies, Blackwell Science and Blackwell Publishers and is the worlds leading society publisher, partnering with 665 academic and professional societies. ...

External links

  • (Italian) List of Roman fleets
  • (Italian) The Imperial fleet of Misenum
  • The Classis Britannica
  • The Roman Fleet, Roman-Empire.net
  • Galleria Navale on Navigare Necesse Est
  • Port of Claudius, the museum of Roman merchant ships found in Fiumicino (Rome)
  • Diana Nemorensis, Caligula's ships in the lake of Nemi.
  • The Fleets and Roman Border Policy
Military of ancient Rome Portal
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Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... Aedile (Latin Aedilis, from aedes, aedis temple, building) was an office of the Roman Republic. ... 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According to Benveniste [citation?], auctor (which also gives us English author) is derived from Latin augeó (to augment): The auctor is is qui auget, the one who augments the act or the juridical situation of another. ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... The system for Roman litigation passed through three stages over the years: until around 150 BC, the Legis Actiones system; from around 150 BC until around 342 AD, the formulary system; and from 342 AD onwards, the cognito procedure. ... Map of all the territories once occupied by the Roman Empire. ... Main article: Military history of ancient Rome As the Roman kingdom successfully overcame opposition from the Italic hill tribes and became a larger state, the age of tyranny in the eastern Mediterranean began to pass away. ... The branches of the Roman military at the highest level were the Roman army and the Roman navy. ... The history of ancient Rome—originally a city-state of Italy, and later an empire covering much of Eurasia and North Africa from the ninth century BC to the fifth century AD—was often closely entwined with its military history. ... The technology history of the Roman military covers the development of and application of technologies for use in the armies and navies of Rome from the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Root directory at Military history of ancient Rome Romes military was always tightly keyed to its political system. ... Map of all the territories once occupied by the Roman Empire, along with locations of limes Roman military borders and fortifications were part of a grand strategy of territorial defense in the Roman Empire. ... Basic ideal plan of a Roman castrum. ... The strategy of the Roman Military encompasses its grand strategy (the arrangements made by the state to implement its political goals through a selection of military goals, a process of diplomacy backed by threat of military action, and a dedication to the military of part of its production and resources... Roman military engineering is a type of Roman engineering carried out by the Roman Army - almost exclusively by the Roman legions for the furthering of military objectives. ... The Roman army was a set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... Legion redirects here. ... Roman infantry tactics refers to the theoretical and historical deployment, formation and maneuvers of the Roman infantry from the start of the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... 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Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... Fresco from the Villa of the Mysteries. ... We know less about the music of ancient Rome than we do about the music of ancient Greece. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Roman Funerals and Burial Introduction In ancient Rome, important people had elaborate funerals. ... Within the wider stream of influences that contributed to the Christianization of the Roman Empire, followers of the Ancient Roman religion were persecuted by Christians during the period after the death of Constantine and the reign of Julian, only to enjoy a respite for a number of years before the... The Imperial cult in Ancient Rome was the worship of the Roman Emperor as a god. ... 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Roman holidays generally were celebrated to worship and celebrate a certain god or mythological occurrence, and consisted of religious observances, various festival traditions and usually a large feast. ... Circus Maximus, Rome The Roman Circus, the theatre and the amphitheatre were the most important buildings in the cities for public entertainment in the Roman Empire. ... The institution of slavery in ancient Rome made many people non-persons before their legal system. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For the Old Latin Bible used before the Vulgate, see Vetus Latina. ... Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ... 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The term Ecclesiastical Latin (sometimes called Church Latin) refers to the Latin language as used in documents of the Roman Catholic Church and in its Latin liturgies. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... The following is a List of Roman wars fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, organized by date. ... The following is a List of Roman battles (fought by the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire), organized by date. ... // Manius Acilius Glabrio -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 191 BC) -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 91) -- Titus Aebutius Helva -- Aegidius -- Lucius Aemilius Barbula -- Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir) -- Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus -- Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (praetor 56 BC) -- Flavius Aëtius -- Lucius Afranius (consul) -- Sextus Calpurnius Agricola -- Gnaeus Julius Agricola -- Flavius Antoninus -- Marcus... This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion. ... This is a list of the Roman Emperors with the dates they ruled the Roman Empire. ... List of ancient Roman triumphal arches (By modern country) // France Orange Reims: Porte de Mars Saint Rémy de Provence: Roman site of Glanum Saintes: Arch of Germanicus Greece Arch of Galerius, Thessaloniki Hadrians Arch, Athens Italy It has been suggested that List of Roman arches in Rome be... This is a tentative list of topics regarding political institutions of Ancient Rome. ... This is an attempted alphabetical List of Roman laws. ... Abbreviations: Imp. ...

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Ancient Roman Navy - Crystalinks (1203 words)
The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis) operated between the First Punic war and the end of the Western Roman Empire.
This allowed the Romans to send their army to sea to board the attached enemy ships, avoiding the traditional battle tactics of ramming, in which they were far less experienced.Although the first sea engagement, the Battle of the Lipari Islands in 260 BC, was a defeat for Rome, the forces involved were relatively small.
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The Romans were originally a land power based in the Italian mainland, and were wary of the sea.
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This allowed the Romans to send their army to sea to board the attached enemy ships, avoiding the traditional battle tactics of ramming, in which they were far less experienced.
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