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Encyclopedia > Roman Jakobson
Semiotics
General concepts

Biosemiotics · Code
Computational semiotics
Connotation · Decode · Denotation
Encode · Lexical · Modality
Salience · Sign · Sign relation
Sign relational complex · Semiosis
Semiosphere · Literary semiotics
Triadic relation · Umwelt · Value Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. ... Biosemiotics (bios=life & semion=sign) is a growing field that studies the production, action and interpretation of signs in the physical and biologic realms in an attempt to integrate the findings of scientific biology and semiotics to form a new view of life and meaning as immanent features of the... In semiotics, the concept of a code is of fundamental importance. ... Computational semiotics is an interdisciplinary field that applies, conducts, and draws on research in logic, mathematics, the theory and practice of computation, formal and natural language studies, the cognitive sciences generally, and semiotics proper. ... This word has distinct meanings in logic, philosophy, and common usage. ... In semiotics, the process of interpreting a message sent by the addresser to the addressee is called decoding. ... In semiotics, denotation is the surface or literal meaning encoded to a signifier, and the definition most likely to appear in a dictionary. ... In semiotics, the process of creating a message for transmission by the addresser to the addressee is called encoding. ... In the lexicon of a language, lexical words or nouns refer to things. ... In semiotics, modality refers to the particular way in which the information is to be encoded for presentation to humans, i. ... In semiotics, salience refers to the relative importance or prominence of a piece of a sign. ... In semiotics, a sign is generally defined as, ...something that stands for something else, to someone in some capacity. ... A sign relation is the basic construct in the theory of signs, or semiotic theory, as developed by Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914). ... In semiotics, a sign relational complex is a generalization of a sign relation that allows for empty components in the elementary sign relations, or sign relational triples of the form (object, sign, interpretant). ... Semiosis is any form of activity, conduct, or process that involves signs, including the production of meaning. ... Semiosphere is the sphere of semiosis in which the sign processes operate in the set of all interconnected Umwelts. ... Semiotic literary criticism, also called literary semiotics, is the approach to literary criticism informed by the theory of signs or semiotics. ... In logic, mathematics, and semiotics, a triadic relation or a ternary relation is an important special case of a polyadic or finitary relation, one in which the number of places in the relation is three. ... Umwelt (from the German umwelt, environment) according to Jakob von Uexküll and Thomas A. Sebeok is the biological foundations that lie at the very epicenter of the study of both communication and signification in the human [and non-human] animal. ... In semiotics, the value of a sign depends on its position and relations in the system of signification and upon the particular codes being used. ...

Methods

Commutation test
Paradigmatic analysis
Syntagmatic analysis In semiotics, the commutation test is used to identify the value or signficance of any of the signifiers used in the material to be analysed. ... In semiotics paradigmatic analysis is analysis of paradigms rather than surface structure (syntax) as in syntagmatic analysis, often made through commutation tests, comparisons of words chosen with absent words, words of the same type or class but not chosen. ... In semiotics syntagmatic analysis is analysis of syntax or surface structure (Syntagmatic structure), rather than paradigms as in paradigmatic analysis. ...

Semioticians

Roland Barthes · Marcel Danesi
Ferdinand de Saussure
Umberto Eco · Louis Hjelmslev
Roman Jakobson · Roberta Kevelson
Charles Peirce · Thomas Sebeok
John Deely Roland Barthes Roland Barthes (November 12, 1915 – March 25, 1980) (pronounced ) was a French literary critic, literary and social theorist, philosopher, and semiotician. ... Marcel Danesi is known for his work in language, communications, and semiotics, being Professor of Semiotics and Communication Theory at the University of Toronto, Canada. ... Saussure Ferdinand de Saussure (pronounced ) (November 26, 1857 – February 22, 1913) was a Geneva-born Swiss linguist whose ideas laid the foundation for many of the significant developments in linguistics in the 20th century. ... Umberto Eco (born January 5, 1932) is an Italian medievalist, semiotician, philosopher and novelist, best known for his novel The Name of the Rose (Il nome della rosa) and his many essays. ... Louis Hjelmslev (October 3, 1899 - May 30, 1965) was a Danish linguist whose ideas formed the basis of the Danish School in linguistics. ... Roberta Kevelson was the #1 authority on the pragmatism theories of Charles Sanders Peirce, and an authority on Semiotics in general. ... Charles Sanders Peirce (IPA: /pɝs/), (September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American polymath, physicist, and philosopher, born in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Thomas Albert Sebeok (born in Budapest, Hungary, on November 9, 1920, died December 21, 2001 in Bloomington, Indiana) was one of the most prolific and wide-ranging of US semioticians. ... John Deely John Deely (born 1942) is Professor of Philosophy at the Center for Thomistic Studies of the University of St. ...

Related topics

Aestheticization as propaganda
Aestheticization of violence
Semiotics of Ideal Beauty Aesthetics is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature of beauty and the moral value of art, so aestheticization as propaganda is the process of presenting any form of behaviour considered dangerous or threatening as an acceptable means of promoting a political aim, for example violence that may involve... The aestheticization of violence in high culture art or mass media is the depiction of violence in a manner that is stylistically excessive in a significant and sustained way so that audience members are able to connect references from the play of images and signs to artworks, genre conventions, cultural... The Semiotics of Ideal Beauty examines whether there can ever be an objective measurement of beauty or whether the concept and appreciation of beauty will always remain in flux as cultures evolve and establish new standards of physical attractiveness. ...

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Roman Osipovich Jakobson, (Russian, Роман Осипович Якобсон), (October 11, 1896July 18, 1982) was a Russian thinker who became one of the most influential linguists of the 20th century by pioneering the development of structural analysis of language, poetry, and art. is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... This article is about the art form. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ...

Contents

Life and work

Jakobson was born to a well-to-do family in Russia of Jewish descent, and he developed a fascination with language at a very young age. As a student he was a leading figure of the Moscow Linguistic Circle and took part in Moscow's active world of avant-garde art and poetry. The linguistics of the time was overwhelmingly neogrammarian and insisted that the only scientific study of language was to study the history and development of words across time (the diachronic approach, in Saussure's terms). Jakobson, on the other hand, had come into contact with the work of Ferdinand de Saussure, and developed an approach focused on the way in which language's structure served its basic function (synchronic approach) - to communicate information between speakers. The Moscow linguistic circle was a group of important thinkers in semiotics, literary theory, and linguistics active in Moscow from 1915 to ca. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... The Neogrammarians (also Young Grammarians, German Junggrammatiker) were a German school of linguists, originally at the University of Leipzig, in the late 19th century who proposed the Neogrammarian hypothesis of the regularity of sound change. ... Ferdinand de Saussures Cours de linguistique générale was published posthumously in 1916 by Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye based on lecture notes. ... Saussure Ferdinand de Saussure (pronounced ) (November 26, 1857 – February 22, 1913) was a Geneva-born Swiss linguist whose ideas laid the foundation for many of the significant developments in linguistics in the 20th century. ...


1920 was a year of political upheaval in Russia, and Jakobson relocated to Prague as a member of the Soviet diplomatic mission to continue his doctoral studies. He immersed himself both into the academic and cultural life of pre-war Czechoslovakia and established close relationships with a number of Czech poets and literary figures. He also made an impression on Czech academics with his studies of Czech verse. In 1926, together with Vilém Mathesius and others he became one of the founders of the "Prague school" of linguistic theory (other members included Nikolai Trubetzkoi, René Wellek, Jan Mukařovský). There his numerous works on phonetics helped continue to develop his concerns with the structure and function of language. Jakobson's universalizing structural-functional theory of phonology, based on a markedness hierarchy of distinctive features, was the first successful solution of a plane of linguistic analysis according to the Saussurean hypotheses. (This theory achieved its most canonical exposition in a book co-authored with Morris Halle.) This mode of analysis has been since applied to the plane of Saussurean sense by his protegé Michael Silverstein in a series of foundational articles in functionalist linguistic typology. Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Vilém Mathesius (August 3, 1882–April 12, 1945) was a Czech linguist and literary historian, a scholar of English and Czech literature. ... The Prague Linguistic Circle founded as Cercle Linguistique de Prague (in Czech Pražský lingvistický kroužek) in Prague, became known around the world as the Prague School. ... Prince Nikolai Sergeyevich Trubetzkoy (Moscow, April 15, 1890 - Vienna, June 25, 1938) was a Russian linguist whose teachings formed a nucleus of the Prague School of structural linguistics. ... René Wellek (1903-1995) was a Czech-German comparative literary critic. ... Jan MukaÅ™ovský (11 November 1891 Písek- 8 February 1975Prague) was a Czech literary critic and aesthetician. ... Phonology (Greek phonÄ“ = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... Markedness is a linguistics concept that developed out of the Prague School (also known as the Prague linguistic circle). ... In linguistics, distinctive features are the descriptive quality by which sounds are distinguished from one another. ... Morris Halle, né Pinkowitz, is an American linguist. ... Michael Silverstein is a professor of anthropology, linguistics, and psychology at the University of Chicago. ...


Jakobson left Prague at the start of WWII for Scandinavia, where he was associated with the Copenhagen linguistic circle, and such thinkers as Louis Hjelmslev. As the war advanced west, he fled to New York City to become part of the wider community of intellectual emigrés who fled there. He was also closely associated with the Czech emigree community during that period. At the École libre des hautes études, a sort of Francophone university-in-exile, he met and collaborated with Claude Lévi-Strauss, who would also become a key exponent of structuralism. He also made the acquaintance of many American linguists and anthropologists, such as Franz Boas, Benjamin Whorf, and Leonard Bloomfield. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Louis Hjelmslev (October 3, 1899 - May 30, 1965) was a Danish linguist whose ideas formed the basis of the Danish School in linguistics. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The École Libre des Hautes Études was a sort of university-in-exile for French academics in New York during the Second World War. ... This article is about the anthropologist. ... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... Franz Boas Franz Boas (July 9, 1858 – December 21, 1942[1]) was one of the pioneers of modern anthropology and is often called the Father of American Anthropology. Born in Germany, Boas worked for most of his life in North America. ... Photo of Benjamin Lee Whorf as a young man. ... Leonard Bloomfield (April 1, 1887 - April 18, 1949) was an American linguist, whose influence dominated the development of structural linguistics in America between the 1930s and the 1950s. ...


In 1949 Jakobson moved to Harvard University, where he remained until retirement. In his last decade he maintained an office at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he was an honorary Professor Emeritus. In the early 1960s Jakobson shifted his emphasis to a more comprehensive view of language and began writing about communication sciences as whole. Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Harvard redirects here. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ...


The communication functions

Jakobson distinguishes six communication functions, each associated with a dimension of the communication process: Dimensions For the Bobby Womack album, see Communication (1972 album). ...

 1 context 2 message 3 sender --------------- 4 receiver 5 channel 6 code 
  • Functions
  • 1 referential (= contextual information)
  • 2 poetic (= autotelic)
  • 3 emotive (= self-expression)
  • 4 conative (= vocative or imperative addressing of receiver)
  • 5 phatic (= checking channel working)
  • 6 metalingual (= checking code working)
(Middleton 1990, p.241)

One of the six functions is always the dominant function in a text and usually related to the type of text. In poetry, the dominant function is the poetic function: the focus is on the message itself. The true hallmark of poetry is according to Jakobson "the projection of the principle of equivalence from the axis of selection to the axis of combination". [The exact and complete explanation of this principle is beyond the scope of this article.] Very broadly speaking, it implies that poetry successfully combines and integrates form and function, that poetry turns the poetry of grammar into the grammar of poetry, so to speak. An infamous example of this principle is the political slogan "I like Ike." Jakobson's theory of communicative functions was first published in "Closing Statements: Linguistics and Poetics" (in Thomas A. Sebeok, Style In Language, Cambridge Massachusetts, MIT Press, 1960, p. 350-377). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Autotelism is the belief that an entity or event has within itself its own meaning or purpose. ...


Legacy

Jakobson's three principal ideas in linguistics play a major role in the field to this day: linguistic typology, markedness, and linguistic universals. The three concepts are tightly intertwined: typology is the classification of languages in terms of shared grammatical features (as opposed to shared origin), markedness is (very roughly) a study of how certain forms of grammatical organization are more "natural" than others, and linguistic universals is the study of the general features of languages in the world. He also influenced Nicolas Ruwet's paradigmatic analysis. Linguistic typology is the typology that classifies languages by their features. ... Markedness is a linguistics concept that developed out of the Prague School (also known as the Prague linguistic circle). ... A linguistic universal is a statement that is true for all languages. ... Nicolas Ruwet (December 31, 1932 - November 15, 2001) was a linguist, literary critic and musical analyst. ... In semiotics paradigmatic analysis is analysis of paradigms rather than surface structure (syntax) as in syntagmatic analysis, often made through commutation tests, comparisons of words chosen with absent words, words of the same type or class but not chosen. ...


Bibliography

by Jakobson
  • Jakobson R., Remarques sur l'evolution phonologique du russe comparée à celle des autres langues slaves. Prague, 1929
  • Jakobson R., K charakteristike evrazijskogo jazykovogo sojuza. Prague, 1930
  • Jakobson R., Child Language, Aphasia and Phonological Universals, 1941
  • Jakobson R., Style in Language (ed. Thomas Sebeok), 1960
  • Jakobson R., Selected Writings, (ed. by Stephen Rudy). The Hague, Paris, Mouton in 6 volumes:

I. Phonological Studies, 1971 II. Word and Language, 1971 III. The Poetry of Grammar and the Grammar of Poetry, 1980 IV. Slavic Epic Studies, 1966 V. On Verse, Its Masters and Explores, 1978 VI. Early Slavic Paths and Crossroads, 1985

  • Jakobson R., Questions de poetique, 1973
  • Jakobson R., Verbal Art, Verbal Sign, Verbal Time (ed. Krystyna Pomorska and Stephen Rudy), 1985
  • Jakobson R., Six Lectures of Sound and Meaning, 1978
  • Jakobson R., The Framework of Language, 1980
  • Jakobson R., Halle M., Fundamentals of Language, 1956
  • Jakobson R., Waugh L., The Sound Shape of Language, 1979
  • Jakobson R., Pomorska K., Dialogues, 1983
on Jakobson
  • Roman Jakobson: Echoes of His Scholarship. Ed. by Daniel Armstrong and Cornelis H. van Schooneveld, 1977
  • Brooke-Rose C., A Structural Analysis of Pound's 'Usura Canto': Jakobson's Method Extended and Applied to Free Verse,1976
  • Caton, Steve C. "Contributions of Roman Jakobson" Annual Review of Anthropology, vol 16: p. 223-260, 1987.
  • Culler J., Structuralist Poetics: Structuralism, Linguistics, and the Study of Literature, 1975
  • Holenstein E., Roman Jakobson's Approach to Language, 1974
  • Ihwe J., Literaturwissenschaft und Linguistik. Ergebnisse und Perspektiven, 1971
  • Kerbrat-Orecchioni C., L'Enonciation: De la subjectivite dans le langage, 1980
  • Le Guern M., Semantique de la metaphore et de la metonymie, 1973
  • Lodge D., The Modes of Modern Writing: Metaphor, Metonymy, and the Typology of Modern Literature, 1977
  • Riffaterre M., Semiotics of Poetry, 1978
  • Steiner P., Russian Formalism: A Metapoetics, 1984
  • Todorov T., Poetique de la prose,1971
  • Waugh L., Roman Jakobson's Science of Language, 1976

Source

  • Middleton, Richard (1990/2002). Studying Popular Music. Philadelphia: Open University Press. ISBN 0-335-15275-9.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Roman Jakobson (356 words)
Roman was born in Moscow on October 11, 1896.
In 1941, Roman decided to move to the United States.
It is hard to sum up Roman Jakobson’s work in just a few words as he studied many areas and worked with wide variety of people throughout many years of his work.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Roman Jakobson (2539 words)
Roman Osipovich Jakobson (October 11, 1896 - July 18, 1982) was a Russian thinker who became one of the most influential linguists of the 20th century by pioneering the development of structural analysis of language, poetry, and art.
Jakobson was born to a well-to-do family in Russia of Jewish descent, where he developed a fascination with language at a very young age.
Jakobson's universalizing structural-functional theory of phonology, based on a markedness hierarchy of distinctive features, was the first successful solution of a plane of linguistic analysis according to the Saussurean hypotheses.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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