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Encyclopedia > Roman Empire
Res publica Romana[1]
Roman Empire

27 BC – 395
 

Motto
Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR)  (Latin)
"The Senate and People of Rome"
Location of Roman Empire
The Roman Empire at its greatest extent under Trajan in 117 AD
Capital Rome
(44 BC – AD 286)

Constantinople
(From 330)

Language(s) Latin (imperial), Greek (administrative; Byzantine period)
Religion Roman paganism, later Christianity
Government Monarchy
Emperor
 - 27 BC – AD 14 Augustus
 - 379 – 375 Theodosius I
 - 475 — 476 Romulus Augustus (titular emperor in West)
 - 1448 — 1453 Constantine XI
Consul
 - 27 — 23 BC Augustus
 - 476 Basiliscus
Legislature Roman Senate
Historical era Classical antiquity
 - Augustus Caesar proclaimed princeps 27 BC
 - Battle of Actium September 2 31 BC
 - Octavian proclaimed Augustus 16 January 27 BC
 - Diocletian splits imperial administration between east and west 285
 - Constantine I declares Constantinople new imperial capital 330
 - Death of Theodosius the Great, followed by permanent division of the Empire into eastern and western halves 395
 - Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks (Separate imperium in the West ended with deposition of Romulus Augustus in 476) 1453
Area
 - 25 BC[2][3] 2,750,000 km² (1,061,781 sq mi)
 - 50[2] 4,200,000 km² (1,621,629 sq mi)
 - 117[2] 5,000,000 km² (1,930,511 sq mi)
 - 390 [2] 4,400,000 km² (1,698,849 sq mi)
Population
 - 25 BC[2][3] est. 56,800,000 
     Density 20.7 /km²  (53.5 /sq mi)
 - 117[2] est. 88,000,000 
     Density 17.6 /km²  (45.6 /sq mi)
Currency Solidus, Aureus, Denarius, Sestertius, As

The Roman Empire is the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and the Mediterranean. Usually, "Roman Empire" is the term used to describe the Roman state after the establishment of rule by emperors, but is sometimes in non-specialist contexts used more generally to refer to the expansionary Roman state both after and before the time of the first emperor, Augustus. The 500-year-old Roman Republic (510 BC – 1st century BC), which precedes it conceptually, had been weakened by the civil wars of the Late Republic. Losing most of the territory it had acquired at its height between the 4th and 8th century, it continued through major changes until the end of the European Middle Ages, when in 1453 its capital fell to the Ottoman Turks. [4] In its medieval form, it is usually referred to as the Byzantine Empire. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... The term Roman Empire can be used to denote any of a series of different entities, usually referring to one of the following: The government at Rome and its subject territory in the period immediately following the Roman Republic. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palaeologus_Emperor. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... For the series of murder mystery novels, see SPQR series. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Roman polytheism was the religion of the Etruscans, Romans, and most of their subjects. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Constantine XI: The last Byzantine emperor is considered a saint by the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... This article is about the highest office of the Roman Republic. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... For the genus of lizards, see Basiliscus (genus). ... A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... Augustus Caesar Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius or Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was the first Roman Emperor and is traditionally considered the greatest. ... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... This article is about the year. ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Events May 11 - Constantine I refounds Byzantium, renames it New Rome, and moves the capital of the Roman Empire there from Rome. ... Flavius Theodosius (Cauca [Coca-Segovia], Spain, January 11, 347 - Milan, January 17, 395), also called Theodosius I and Theodosius the Great, was a Roman emperor. ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Julian solidus, ca. ... Aureus minted in 193 by Septimius Severus to celebrate XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix, the legion that proclamed him emperor. ... First row : c. ... The sestertius was an ancient Roman coin. ... The As (plural Asses) was a bronze, and later copper, coin used during the Roman Republic and Roman Empire, named after the homonymous weight unit (12 unciae = ounces), but not immune to weight depreciation. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... After 30 BC, the Republic was unified under leadership of Octavian. ... “European History” redirects here. ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... Byzantine redirects here. ...


Several dates are commonly proposed to mark the transition from Republic to Empire, including the date of Julius Caesar's appointment as perpetual dictator (44 BC), the victory of Caesar's heir Octavian at the Battle of Actium (September 2 31 BC), and the Roman Senate's granting to Octavian the honorific Augustus. (January 16 27 BC).[5] Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An honorific is a word or expression that conveys esteem or respect and is used in addressing or referring to a person. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Latin term Imperium Romanum (Roman Empire), probably the best-known Latin expression where the word imperium denotes a territory, indicates the part of the world under Roman rule. Roman expansion began in the days of the Republic, but reached its zenith under Emperor Trajan. At this territorial peak, the Roman Empire controlled approximately 5,900,000 km² (2,300,000 sq mi) of land surface. Because of the Empire's vast extent and long endurance, Roman influence upon the language, religion, architecture, philosophy, law and government of nations around the world lasts to this day. Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ...

Contents

Development of Imperial Rome

The extent of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in 218 BC (dark red), 133 BC (light red), 44 BC (orange), AD 14 (yellow), after AD 14 (green), and maximum extension under Trajan, AD 117 (light green).
The extent of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in 218 BC (dark red), 133 BC (light red), 44 BC (orange), AD 14 (yellow), after AD 14 (green), and maximum extension under Trajan, AD 117 (light green).

Traditionally, historians make a distinction between the Principate, the period following Augustus until the Crisis of the Third Century, and the Dominate, the period from Diocletian until the end of the empire in the west. According to this distinction, during the Principate (from the Latin word princeps, meaning "first citizen") the realities of absolutism were formally concealed behind republican forms; while during the Dominate (from the word dominus, meaning "master" or "owner") imperial power was clearly shown, with golden crowns and ornate imperial ritual. More recently, historians have established that the situation was far more nuanced: certain historical forms continued until the Byzantine period, more than one thousand years after they were created, and displays of imperial majesty were common from the earliest days of the Empire. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2850x1500, 3079 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Roman Empire Talk:Roman Empire History of West Eurasia ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2850x1500, 3079 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Roman Empire Talk:Roman Empire History of West Eurasia ... The Principate is, according to its etymological derivation from the Latin word princeps, meaning chief or first, the political regime dominated by such a political leader, whether or not he is formally head of state and/or head of government. ... Emperor Maximinus Thrax, ruled 235-238, was the first of the emperors during the Crisis of the Third Century. ... The Dominate was the despotic last of the two phases of government in the ancient Roman Empire between its establishment in 27 BC and the formal date of the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


Augustus (27 BC – AD 14)

Further information: Praetorian GuardRoman triumphBattle of the Teutoburg ForestArminius, and Publius Quinctilius Varus
The Battle of Actium, by Lorenzo A. Castro, 1672.
The Battle of Actium, by Lorenzo A. Castro, 1672.

The Battle of Actium resulted in the defeat and subsequent suicides of Mark Antony and Cleopatra. Octavian had also executed Cleopatra's young son and co-ruler, Caesarion. Caesarion may have been the (only) son of Julius Caesar. Therefore, by killing Caesarion, Octavian removed any possibility of a male rival emerging with closer blood ties to Julius Caesar. Octavian, now sole ruler of Rome, began a full-scale reformation of military, fiscal and political matters. These were intended to stabilize and pacify the Roman world and also to cement acceptance of the new regime. The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... A Roman Triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly honour the military commander (dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaign and to display the glories of Roman victory. ... Combatants Germanic tribes (Cherusci, Marsi, Chatti, Bructeri and Chauci) Roman Empire Commanders Arminius Publius Quinctilius Varus † Strength 10,000 to 18,000 3 Roman legions, 3 alae and 6 auxiliary cohorts, probably 20,000 - 25,000 Casualties Unknown; but far less than Roman losses 15,000-20,000 The Battle... The Hermannsdenkmal Arminius (also Armin, 18 BC/17 BC - 21 AD) was a chieftain of the Cherusci who defeated a Roman army in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. ... The Defeated Varus (2003), a sculpture by Wilfried Koch in Haltern am See, Germany. ... The Battle of Actium, 2 September 31 BC, by Lorenzo A. Castro, painted 1672 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The Battle of Actium, 2 September 31 BC, by Lorenzo A. Castro, painted 1672 The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Cleopatra was a co-ruler of Egypt with her father (Ptolemy XII Auletes), her brothers/husbands Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, consummated a liaison with Gaius Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne, and, after Caesars assassination, aligned with Mark Antony, with whom she produced twins. ... A relief of Cleopatra and Caesarion at the temple of Dendera, Egypt Ptolemy XV[1] Philopator Philometor Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion (little Caesar) Greek: Πτολεμαίος ΙΕ Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλομήτωρ Καίσαρ, Καισαρίων (June 23, 47 BC – August, 30 BC) was the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, who reigned, as a child, jointly with his mother, Cleopatra...


Upon Octavian's accession as ruler of the Roman world, the Roman Senate gave Octavian the name Augustus. He had already adopted the title imperator, "commander-in-chief", as his first name. It was a term that dated back to the days of the Republic and later evolved into emperor. In the Roman naming convention used in ancient Rome, male names typically contain three proper nouns which are classified as praenomen (or given name), nomen gentile (or Gens name) and cognomen. ...


As adopted heir of Caesar, Augustus preferred to be called by this name. Caesar was a component of his family name. Julio-Claudian rule lasted for almost a century (from Julius Caesar in the mid-1st century BC to the emperor Nero in the mid-1st century AD). By the time of the Flavian Dynasty, and the reign of Vespasian, and that of his two sons, Titus and Domitian, the term Caesar had evolved, almost de facto, from a family name into a formal title. Derivatives of this title (such as czar and kaiser) endure to this day. For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ...


The Roman legions, which had reached an unprecedented number (around 50) because of the civil wars, were reduced to 28. Several legions, particularly those with members of doubtful loyalties, were simply disbanded. Other legions were amalgamated, a fact hinted by the title Gemina (Twin).[6] Augustus also created nine special cohorts, ostensibly to maintain the peace in Italy, keeping at least three of them stationed at Rome. These cohorts became known as the Praetorian Guard. A cohort (from the Latin cohors, plural cohortes) is a fairly large military unit, generally consisting of one type of soldier. ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ...


Octavian realized that autocracy and kingship were things that Romans had not experienced for centuries, and were wary of. Octavian did not want to be viewed as a tyrant and sought to retain the illusion of the constitutional republic. He attempted to make it seem as though the constitution of the Roman Republic was still functional. Even Rome's past dictators, such as the brutal Lucius Cornelius Sulla, had only ruled Rome for short spans of time, never more than a year or two (with the exception of Julius Caesar). In 27 BC, Octavian officially tried to relinquish all his extraordinary powers to the Roman Senate. In a carefully staged way, the senators, who by this time were mostly his partisans, refused and begged him to keep them for the sake of the republic and the people of Rome. Reportedly, the suggestion of Octavian stepping down as consul led to rioting amongst the Plebeians in Rome. A compromise was reached between the Senate and Octavian, known as the First Settlement. This agreement gave Augustus legitimacy as an autocrat of the people, and ensured that he would not be considered a tyrant, starting the long period that would be known as Pax Romana. Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honours Emperor Institutions and Law Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Under the Constitution of the Roman Republic, the Senate was the chief foreign policy-making branch of Roman government. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX)[1] (ca. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Roman Empire at its greatest extent with the conquests of Trajan Pax Romana, Latin for the Roman peace (sometimes Pax Augusta), was the long period of relative peace and minimal expansion by military force experienced by the Roman Empire between 27 BC and 180 AD. Augustus Caesar led Rome into...


Octavian split with the Senate the governorships of the provinces. The unruly provinces at the borders, where the vast majority of the legions were stationed, were administrated by imperial legates, chosen by the emperor himself. These provinces were classified as imperial provinces. The governors of the peaceful senatorial provinces were chosen by the Senate. These provinces were usually peaceful and only a single legion was stationed in the senatorial province of Africa. An imperial province was a Roman province where the Emperor had the sole right to appoint governors. ... A senatorial province was a Roman province where the Roman Senate had the right to appoint governors. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Ancient Roman provinces ...

Before the Senate controlled the treasury, Augustus had mandated that the taxes of the Imperial provinces be destined to the Fiscus, which was administrated by persons chosen by, and answerable only to, Augustus. The revenue of the senatorial provinces continued to be sent to the Aerarium, under the supervision of the Senate. This effectively made Augustus richer than the Senate, and more than able to pay the salarium (salary) of the legionaries, ensuring their continued loyalty. This was ensured by the Imperial province of Roman Egypt, which was incredibly wealthy and also the most important grain supplier for the whole empire. Senators were forbidden to even visit this province, as it was largely considered the personal fiefdom of the emperor himself. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1090x1646, 1850 KB) Description: Die Statue Kaiser Augustus in den Vatikanischen Museen, Rom Fotografiert von Andreas Wahra am 17. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1090x1646, 1850 KB) Description: Die Statue Kaiser Augustus in den Vatikanischen Museen, Rom Fotografiert von Andreas Wahra am 17. ... Augustus of Prima Porta is a 2. ... Fiscus was the name of the personal treasury of the emperors of Rome. ... Aerarium (from Latin aes, in its derived sense of money) was the name (in full, aerarium stabulum - treasure-house) given in Ancient Rome to the public treasury, and in a secondary sense to the public finances. ... Roman legionaries, 1st century. ... The conquests of Alexander the Great brought Egypt within the orbit of the Greek world for the next 900 years. ...


Augustus renounced his consulship in 23 BC, but retained his consular imperium, leading to a second compromise between Augustus and the Senate known as the Second Settlement. Augustus was granted the authority of a tribune (tribunicia potestas), though not the title, which allowed him to convene the Senate and people at will and lay business before it, veto the actions of either the Assembly or the Senate, preside over elections, and gave him the right to speak first at any meeting. Also included in Augustus's tribunician authority were powers usually reserved for the Roman censor; these included the right to supervise public morals and scrutinize laws to ensure they were in the public interest, as well as the ability to hold a census and determine the membership of the Senate. No tribune of Rome ever had these powers, and there was no precedent within the Roman system for consolidating the powers of the tribune and the censor into a single position, nor was Augustus ever elected to the office of Censor. Whether censorial powers were granted to Augustus as part of his tribunician authority, or he simply assumed these responsibilities, is still a matter of debate. Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ...


In addition to tribunician authority, Augustus was granted sole imperium within the city of Rome itself; all armed forces in the city, formerly under the control of the praefects, were now under the sole authority of Augustus. Additionally, Augustus was granted imperium proconsulare maius (power over all proconsuls), the right to interfere in any province and override the decisions of any governor. With maius imperium, Augustus was the only individual able to grant a triumph to a successful general as he was ostensibly the leader of the entire Roman army. A Roman Triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly honour the military commander (dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaign and to display the glories of Roman victory. ...


All of these reforms were highly unusual in the eyes of Roman republican tradition, but the Senate was no longer composed of the republican patricians who had the courage to murder Caesar. Most of these senators had died in the Civil Wars, and the leaders of the conservative Republicans in the senate, such as Cato and Cicero, had long since died. Octavian had purged the Senate of any remaining suspect elements and planted the body with his own partisans. How free a hand the Senate had in all these transactions, and what backroom deals were made, remains unknown. Marcus Porcius Catō Uticensis (95 BC–46 BC), known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather Cato the Elder), was a politician and statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ...


Attempting to secure the borders of the empire upon the rivers Danube and Elbe, Octavian ordered the invasions of Illyria, Moesia, and Pannonia (south of the Danube), and Germania (west of the Elbe). At first everything went as planned, but then disaster struck. The Illyrian tribes revolted and had to be crushed, and three full legions under the command of Publius Quinctilius Varus were ambushed and destroyed at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in AD 9 by Germanic tribes led by Arminius. Being cautious, Augustus secured all territories west of Rhine and contented himself with retaliatory raids. The rivers Rhine and Danube became the permanent borders of the Roman empire in the North. This article is about the Danube River. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... For other uses, see Pannonia (disambiguation). ... Map of the Roman Empire and the free Germania, Magna Germania, in the early 2nd century For other uses, see Germania (disambiguation). ... The Defeated Varus (2003), a sculpture by Wilfried Koch in Haltern am See, Germany. ... Combatants Germanic tribes (Cherusci, Marsi, Chatti, Bructeri and Chauci) Roman Empire Commanders Arminius Publius Quinctilius Varus † Strength 10,000 to 18,000 3 Roman legions, 3 alae and 6 auxiliary cohorts, probably 20,000 - 25,000 Casualties Unknown; but far less than Roman losses 15,000-20,000 The Battle... The Hermannsdenkmal Arminius (also Armin, 18 BC/17 BC - 21 AD) was a chieftain of the Cherusci who defeated a Roman army in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ...


Sources

The age of Augustus is far more poorly documented than the late Republican period that preceded it. While Livy wrote his magisterial history during Augustus's reign and his work covered all of Roman history through 9 BC, only epitomes survive of his coverage of the late Republican and Augustan periods. Important primary sources for this period include: A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... An epitome (Greek epitemnein—to cut short) is a summary or miniature form, also used as a synonym for embodiment. ...

Though primary accounts of this period are few, works of poetry, legislation and engineering from this period provide important insights into Roman life. Archaeology, including maritime archaeology, aerial surveys, epigraphic inscriptions on buildings, and Augustan coinage, has also provided valuable evidence about economic, social and military conditions. Res Gestae Divi Augusti, (Latin: The Deeds of the Divine Augustus) is the funerary inscription of the first Roman emperor, Augustus, giving a first-person record of his life and accomplishments. ... Marcus Velleius Paterculus (c. ... Annals (Latin Annales, from annus, a year) are a concise form of historical writing which record events chronologically, year by year. ... Lucius, or Marcus, Annaeus Seneca, known as Seneca the Elder and Seneca the Rhetorician (c. ... Maritime archaeology (also known as marine archaeology) is a discipline that studies human interaction with the sea, lakes and rivers through the study of vessels, shore side facilities, cargoes, human remains and submerged landscapes. ... An aerial survey is a chart or a map made by analyzing a region from the air. ... The Rosetta Stone in the British Museum. ... The main Roman currency during most of the Roman Republic and the western half of the Roman Empire consisted of coins including the aureus (gold), the denarius (silver), the sestertius (bronze), the dupondius (bronze), and the as (copper). ...


Secondary sources on the Augustan Age include Tacitus, Dio Cassius, Plutarch and Lives of the Twelve Caesars by Suetonius. Josephus's Jewish Antiquities is the important source for Judea in this period, which became a province during Augustus's reign. For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... Dio Cassius Cocceianus (c. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... The Twelve Caesars is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ... Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Antiquities of the Jews was a work published by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in the year A.D. 93. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ...


Julio-Claudian Dynasty (14–68)

Main article: Julio-Claudian dynasty

Augustus had three grandsons by his daughter Julia. None of the three lived long enough to succeed him. He therefore was succeeded by his stepson Tiberius, the son of his wife Livia from her first marriage. Augustus was a scion of the gens Julia (the Julian family), one of the most ancient patrician clans of Rome, while Tiberius was a scion of the gens Claudia, only slightly less ancient than the Julians. Their three immediate successors were all descended both from the gens Claudia, through Tiberius's brother Nero Claudius Drusus, and from gens Julia, either through Julia the Elder, Augustus's daughter from his first marriage (Caligula and Nero), or through Augustus's sister Octavia Minor (Claudius). Historians thus refer to their dynasty as "Julasio-Claudide". Template:Julio-Claudian Dynasty The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... Livia Drusilla, after 14 AD called Livia Augusta (Classical Latin: LIVIA•DRVSILLA, later LIVIA•AVGVSTA[1]) (58 BC-AD 29) was the wife of Caesar Augustus (also known as Octavian) and the most powerful woman in the early Roman Empire, acting several times as regent and being Augustus faithful advisor. ... GENS is an open source emulator for the Sega Genesis (Sega Megadrive). ... Julius (fem. ... This article is about the social and political class in ancient Rome. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The gens Claudia was one of the oldest families in ancient Rome, and for centuries its members were regularly leaders of the city and empire. ... Bust of Nero Claudius Drusus, in the Musée du Cinquantinaire, Brussels Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, born Decimus Claudius Drusus and variously called Drusus, Drusus I, Drusus Claudius Nero, or Drusus the Elder (14 January 38 - 9 BC) was the youngest son of Livia, wife of Augustus, and her first... For other Roman women named Julia Caesaris, see Julia Caesaris. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Octavia Minor (69 - 11 BC), also known as Octavia the Younger or simply Octavia, was the sister of the first Roman Emperor, Augustus, and half sister of Octavia Thurina Major. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ...


Tiberius (14–37)

Main article: Tiberius

The early years of Tiberius's reign were peaceful and relatively benign. Tiberius secured the overall power of Rome and enriched its treasury. However, Tiberius's reign soon became characterized by paranoia and slander. In 19, he was widely blamed for the death of his nephew, the popular Germanicus. In 23 his own son Drusus died. More and more, Tiberius retreated into himself. He began a series of treason trials and executions. He left power in the hands of the commander of the guard, Lucius Aelius Sejanus. Tiberius himself retired to live at his villa on the island of Capri in 26, leaving administration in the hands of Sejanus, who carried on the persecutions with relish. Sejanus also began to consolidate his own power; in 31 he was named co-consul with Tiberius and married Livilla, the emperor's niece. At this point he was "hoisted by his own petard": the emperor's paranoia, which he had so ably exploited for his own gain, was turned against him. Sejanus was put to death, along with many of his associates, the same year. The persecutions continued until Tiberius's death in 37. For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... Germanicus Julius Caesar (24 May 16 BC or 15 BC–October 10, 19). ... Lucius Aelius Seianus (or Sejanus) (20 BC – October 18, 31 AD) was an ambitious soldier, friend and confidant of the Roman Emperor Tiberius. ... For other uses, see Capri (disambiguation). ... The petard by Francis Grose, 1812 A 19th-century British army petard A petard was a medieval small bomb used to blow up gates and walls when breaching fortifications. ...


Caligula (37–41)

Main article: Caligula

At the time of Tiberius's death most of the people who might have succeeded him had been brutally murdered. The logical successor (and Tiberius's own choice) was his grandnephew, Germanicus's son Gaius (better known as "Caligula" or "little boots"). Caligula started out well, by putting an end to the persecutions and burning his uncle's records. Unfortunately, he quickly lapsed into illness. The Caligula that emerged in late 37 demonstrated features of mental instability that led modern commentators to diagnose him with such illnesses as encephalitis, which can cause mental derangement, hyperthyroidism, or even a nervous breakdown (perhaps brought on by the stress of his position). Whatever the cause, there was an obvious shift in his reign from this point on, leading his biographers to think he was insane. This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. ... Hyperthyroidism (or overactive thyroid gland) is the clinical syndrome caused by an excess of circulating free thyroxine (T4) or free triiodothyronine (T3), or both. ...


Most of what history remembers of Caligula comes from Suetonius, in his book Lives of the Twelve Caesars. According to Seutonius, Caligula once planned to appoint his favorite horse Incitatus to the Roman Senate. He ordered his soldiers to invade Britain to fight the Sea God Neptune, but changed his mind at the last minute and had them pick sea shells on the northern end of France instead. It is believed he carried on incestuous relations with his sisters. He ordered a statue of himself to be erected in the Temple at Jerusalem, which would have undoubtedly led to revolt had he not been dissuaded from this plan by his friend king Herod. He ordered people to be secretly killed, and then called them to his palace. When they did not appear, he would jokingly remark that they must have committed suicide. In 41, Caligula was assassinated by the commander of the guard Cassius Chaerea. The only member of the imperial family left to take charge was his uncle, Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus. Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... The Twelve Caesars is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ... Incitatus was the name of Roman emperor Caligulas favored horse. ... In Britain, the Iron Age lasted from about the 7th century BC until the Roman conquest and until the 5th century AD in non-Romanised parts. ... Genoese admiral Andrea Doria as Neptune, by Agnolo Bronzino. ... Incest is defined as sexual relations between closely related persons (often within the immediate family) such that it is either illegal or socially taboo. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Front and back of a Judean coin from the reign of Agrippa I. // Agrippa I also called the Great (10 BC - 44 AD), King of the Jews, was the grandson of Herod the Great, and son of Aristobulus IV and Berenice. ... Cassius Chaerea (fl. ...


Claudius (41–54)

Main article: Claudius

Claudius had long been considered a weakling and a fool by the rest of his family. He was, however, neither paranoid like his uncle Tiberius, nor insane like his nephew Caligula, and was therefore able to administer the empire with reasonable ability. He improved the bureaucracy and streamlined the citizenship and senatorial rolls. He also proceeded with the conquest and colonization of Britain (in 43), and incorporated more Eastern provinces into the empire. He ordered the construction of a winter port for Rome, at Ostia, thereby providing a place for grain from other parts of the Empire to be brought in inclement weather. For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Roman invasion of Britain: Britain was the target of invasion by forces of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire several times during its history. ... The megalopolis of ancient Rome could never be fed entirely from its own surrounding countryside. ...


In his own family life, Claudius was less successful. His wife Messalina cuckolded him; when he found out, he had her executed and married his niece, Agrippina the Younger. She, along with several of his freedmen, held an inordinate amount of power over him, and although there are conflicting accounts about his death, she may very well have poisoned him in 54. Claudius was deified later that year. The death of Claudius paved the way for Agrippina's own son, the 17-year-old Lucius Domitius Nero. Valeria Messalina (PIR1 V 161) , sometimes spelled Messallina ( 20-48) was a Roman Empress and third wife to Roman Emperor Claudius. ... A cuckold is a married man whose wife has sex with other men. ... Julia Agrippina; known as Agrippina Minor (Latin for the ‘younger’, Classical Latin: IVLIA•AGRIPPINA; from the year 50, called IVLIA•AVGVSTA•AGRIPPINA[1], Greek: η Ιουλία Αγριππίνη, November 6, 15 - between 19 March-23 March 59), was a Roman Empress. ...


Nero (54–68)

Main article: Nero

Nero ruled from 54 to 68. During his rule, Nero focused much of his attention on diplomacy, trade, and increasing the cultural capital of the empire. He ordered the building of theatres and promoted athletic games. His reign included a successful war and negotiated peace with the Parthian Empire (58–63), the suppression of the Brython revolt (60–61) and improving cultural ties with Greece. Nero, though, is remembered as a tyrant and the emperor who "fiddled while Rome burned" in 64. A military coup drove Nero into hiding. Facing execution at the hands of the Roman Senate, he reportedly committed suicide in 68. His last words were, "What an artist dies in me." For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and... Brython and Brythonic are terms which refer to indigenous, pre-Roman, Celtic speaking inhabitants of most of the island of Great Britain, and their cultures and languages, the Brythonic languages. ...


Rebellions

In peacetime it was relatively easy to manage the empire from its capital city, Rome. Rebellions were expected to occur from time to time: a general or a governor would gain the loyalty of his officers through a mixture of personal charisma, promises and simple bribes. A conquered tribe would rebel, or a conquered city would revolt. This would be a bad, but not a catastrophic, event. The Roman legions were spread around the borders, and the rebel leader would—in normal circumstances—have only one or two legions under his command. Loyal legions would be detached from other points of the empire, and would eventually drown the rebellion in blood. This happened even more easily in cases of a small local native uprising, as the rebels would normally have no great military experience. Unless the emperor was weak, incompetent, hated, and/or universally despised, these rebellions would be a local and isolated event. Legion redirects here. ...


During real wartime however, which could develop from a rebellion or an uprising, like the massive Jewish rebellion, this was totally and dangerously different. In a full-blown military campaign, the legions under the command of the generals like Vespasian were of a much greater number. Therefore a paranoid or wise emperor would hold some members of the general's family as hostages, to make certain of the latter's loyalty. In effect, Nero held Domitian and Quintus Petillius Cerialis the governor of Ostia, who were respectively the younger son and the brother-in-law of Vespasian. In normal circumstances this would be quite enough. In fact, the rule of Nero ended with the revolt of the Praetorian Guard who had been bribed in the name of Galba. It became all too obvious that the Praetorian Guard was a sword of Damocles, whose loyalty was all too often bought and who became increasingly greedy. Following their example the legions at the borders would also increasingly participate in the civil wars. This was a dangerous development as this would weaken the whole Roman Army. The Great Jewish Revolt (66–73 CE), sometimes called The first Jewish-Roman War, was the first of two major rebellions by the Jews of Judea against the Roman Empire (the second was Bar Kokhbas revolt in 132-135). ... In the military sciences, a military campaign encompasses related military operations, usually conducted by a defense or fighting force, directed at gaining a particular desired state of affairs, usually within geographical and temporal limitations. ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... A hostage is an entity which is held by a captor in order to compel another party to act or refrain from acting in a particular way. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... Quintus Petilius Cerialis Caesius Rufus (born around 30 AD) was a Roman general of the 1st century. ... Ostia Antica was the harbor of ancient Rome and perhaps its first colonia. ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... Servius Sulpicius Galba (December 24, 3 BC – January 15, 69) was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 until his death. ... In Richard Westalls Sword of Damocles, 1812, the pretty boys of Ciceros anecdote have been changed to maidens for a neoclassical patron, Thomas Hope. ... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ...


The main enemy in the West were, arguably, the "barbarian tribes" beyond the Rhine and the Danube. Augustus had tried to conquer them, but ultimately failed and these "barbarians" were greatly feared. But by and large they were left in peace, in order to fight amongst themselves, and were simply too divided to pose a serious threat. For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Danube River. ...

The empire of Parthia, the arch-rival of Rome, at its greatest extent (c. 60 BC), superimposed over modern borders.
The empire of Parthia, the arch-rival of Rome, at its greatest extent (c. 60 BC), superimposed over modern borders.

In the East lay the empire of Parthia (Persia). Crassus, a member of the First Triumvirate during the late republic, attempted an invasion in 53 BC, but was defeated by Persian forces led by Surena in the Battle of Carrhae. Any Parthian invasion was confronted and usually defeated, but the threat itself was ultimately impossible to destroy. Parthia would eventually become Rome's greatest rival and foremost enemy. Image File history File links The location of ancient Parthia, an Iranian kingdom, c. ... Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BC) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Parthia, 247 BC]] History  - Established 247 BC  - Disestablished 220 AD Parthian votive relief. ... Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BC) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Parthia, 247 BC]] History  - Established 247 BC  - Disestablished 220 AD Parthian votive relief. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Marcus Licinius Crassus Dives (c. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Persia redirects here. ... Parthian-era bronze statue believed to represent General Surena. ... Combatants Roman Republic Parthia Commanders Marcus Licinius Crassus †, Publius Crassus † Surena Strength 35,000 Roman legionaries, 4,000 cavalry, 4,000 light infantry 10,000 cavalry Casualties 20,000 dead, 10,000 captured, 4,000 wounded Reportedly very light The Battle of Carrhae was a decisive battle fought in 53...


In the case of a Roman civil war these two enemies would seize the opportunity to invade Roman territory in order to raid and plunder. The two respective military frontiers became a matter of major political importance because of the high number of legions stationed there. All too often the local generals would rebel, starting a new civil war. To control the western border from Rome was easy, as it was relatively close. To control both frontiers, at the same time, during wartime, was somewhat more difficult. If the emperor was near the border in the East, chances were high that an ambitious general would rebel in the West and vice versa. It was no longer enough to be a good administrator; emperors were increasingly near the troops in order to control them and no single Emperor could be at the two frontiers at the same time. This problem would plague the ruling emperors time and time again and many future emperors would follow this path to power.


Year of the Four Emperors (68–69)

The forced suicide of emperor Nero, in 68, was followed by a brief period of civil war (the first Roman civil war since Antony's death in 31 BC) known as the "year of the four emperors". Between June 68 and December 69, Rome witnessed the successive rise and fall of Galba, Otho and Vitellius until the final accession of Vespasian, first ruler of the Flavian dynasty. This period of civil war has become emblematic of the cyclic political disturbances in the history of the Roman Empire. The military and political anarchy created by this civil war had serious implications, such as the outbreak of the Batavian rebellion. The Year of the Four Emperors was a year in the history of the Roman Empire, 69, in which four emperors ruled in a remarkable succession. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... There were several Roman civil wars, especially during the time of the late Republic. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Servius Sulpicius Galba (December 24, 3 BC – January 15, 69) was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 until his death. ... Emperor Otho. ... Aulus Vitellius (September 24, 15 – December 22, 69), also called Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Augustus, was Roman Emperor from April 17, 69 to December 22 of the same year, one of the emperors in the Year of the Four Emperors (the others being Galba, Otho, and Vespasian). ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... The Flavian dynasty was a series of three Roman Emperors who ruled from 69, the Year of the Four Emperors, to 96, when the last member was assassinated. ... This article, Batavian rebellion, includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Flavian dynasty (69–96)

Main article: Flavian Dynasty

The Flavians, although a relatively short-lived dynasty, helped restore stability to an empire on its knees. Although all three have been criticized, especially based on their more centralized style of rule, they issued reforms that created a stable enough empire to last well into the 3rd century. However, their background as a military dynasty led to further marginalization of the senate, and a conclusive move away from princeps, or first citizen, and toward imperator, or emperor. The Flavian dynasty was a series of three Roman Emperors who ruled from 69, the Year of the Four Emperors, to 96, when the last member was assassinated. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 439 pixelsFull resolution (3496 × 1918 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 439 pixelsFull resolution (3496 × 1918 pixel, file size: 1. ... Roman trade with India according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, 1st century CE. A Greco-Roman gladiator on a glass vessel, Begram, 2nd century AD Roman trade with India started around the beginning of the Common Era (CE) following the reign of Augustus and his conquest of Egypt... Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. ...


Vespasian (69–79)

Main article: Vespasian

Vespasian was a remarkably successful Roman general who had been given rule over much of the eastern part of the Roman Empire. He had supported the imperial claims of Galba, after whose death Vespasian became a major contender for the throne. Following the suicide of Otho, Vespasian was able to take control of Rome's winter grain supply in Egypt, placing him in a good position to defeat his remaining rival, Vitellius. On December 20 69, some of Vespasian's partisans were able to occupy Rome. Vitellius was murdered by his own troops and, the next day, Vespasian, then sixty years old, was confirmed as Emperor by the Senate. Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... Servius Sulpicius Galba (December 24, 3 BC – January 15, 69) was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 until his death. ... Emperor Otho. ... The megalopolis of ancient Rome could never be fed entirely from its own surrounding countryside. ...


Although Vespasian was considered an autocrat by the senate, he mostly continued the weakening of that body that had been going since the reign of Tiberius. The degree of the Senate's subservience can be seen from the post-dating of his accession to power, by the Senate, to July 1, when his troops proclaimed him emperor, instead of December 21, when the Senate confirmed his appointment. Another example was his assumption of the censorship in 73, giving him power over the make up the Senate. He used that power to expel dissident senators. At the same time, he increased the number of senators from 200, at that low level because of the actions of Nero and the year of crisis that followed, to 1,000; most of the new senators coming not from Rome but from Italy and the urban centers within the western provinces. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single self appointed ruler. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Vespasian was able to liberate Rome from the financial burdens placed upon it by Nero's excesses and the civil wars. To do this, he not only increased taxes, but created new forms of taxation. Also, through his power as censor, he was able to carefully examine the fiscal status of every city and province, many paying taxes based upon information and structures more than a century old. Through this sound fiscal policy, he was able to build up a surplus in the treasury and embark on public works projects. It was he who first commissioned the Amphitheatrum Flavium (Colosseum); he also built a forum whose centerpiece was a temple to Peace. In addition, he allotted sizable subsidies to the arts, creating a chair of rhetoric at Rome. The Colosseum by night: exterior view of the best-preserved section. ... Part of the Roman Forum. ...


Vespasian was also an effective emperor for the provinces in his decades of office, having posts all across the empire, both east and west. In the west he gave considerable favoritism to Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, comprising modern Spain and Portugal) in which he granted Latin rights to over three hundred towns and cities, promoting a new era of urbanization throughout the western (formerly barbarian) provinces. Through the additions he made to the Senate he allowed greater influence of the provinces in the Senate, helping to promote unity in the empire. He also extended the borders of the empire, mostly done to help strengthen the frontier defenses, one of Vespasian's main goals. The crisis of 69 had wrought havoc on the army. One of the most marked problems had been the support lent by provincial legions to men who supposedly represented the best will of their province. This was mostly caused by the placement of native auxiliary units in the areas they were recruited in, a practice Vespasian stopped. He mixed auxiliary units with men from other areas of the empire or moved the units away from where they were recruited to help stop this. Also, to reduce further the chances of another military coup, he broke up the legions and, instead of placing them in singular concentrations, broke them up along the border. Perhaps the most important military reform he undertook was the extension of legion recruitment from exclusively Italy to Gaul and Hispania, in line with the Romanization of those areas. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... The Latin Right (Latin ius Latii or Latinitas or Latium) was a status given to a Roman colony intermediate between full Roman citizenship and not being a citizen at all (peregrines or provincials). ...


Titus (79–81)

Main article: Titus

Titus, the eldest son of Vespasian, had been groomed to rule. He had served as an effective general under his father, helping to secure the east and eventually taking over the command of Roman armies in Syria and Iudaea, quelling the significant Jewish revolt going on at the time. He shared the consul for several years with his father and received the best tutelage. Although there was some trepidation when he took office because of his known dealings with some of the less respectable elements of Roman society, he quickly proved his merit, even recalling many exiled by his father as a show of good faith. For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... Iudaea was the name of a Roman province, which extended over Judaea (Palestine). ...


However, his short reign was marked by disaster: in 79, Mount Vesuvius erupted in Pompeii, and in 80, a fire destroyed much of Rome. His generosity in rebuilding after these tragedies made him very popular. Titus was very proud of his work on the vast amphitheater begun by his father. He held the opening ceremonies in the still unfinished edifice during the year 80, celebrating with a lavish show that featured 100 gladiators and lasted 100 days. Titus died in 81, at the age of 41 of what is presumed to be illness; it was rumored that his brother Domitian murdered him in order to become his successor, although these claims have little merit. Whatever the case, he was greatly mourned and missed. Mount Vesuvius (Italian: Monte Vesuvio) is a volcano east of Naples, Italy, located at 40°49′N 14°26′ E. It is the only active volcano on the European mainland, although it is not currently erupting. ... For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gladiator (disambiguation). ...


Domitian (81–96)

Main article: Domitian

All of the Flavians had rather poor relations with the Senate, because of their autocratic rule, however Domitian was the only one who encountered significant problems. His continuous control as consul and censor throughout his rule; the former his father having shared in much the same way as his Julio-Claudian forerunners, the latter presenting difficulty even to obtain, were unheard of. In addition, he often appeared in full military regalia as an imperator, an affront to the idea of what the Principate-era emperor's power was based upon: the emperor as the princeps. His reputation in the Senate aside, he kept the people of Rome happy through various measures, including donations to every resident of Rome, wild spectacles in the newly finished Colosseum, and continuing the public works projects of his father and brother. He also apparently had the good fiscal sense of his father, because although he spent lavishly his successors came to power with a well-endowed treasury. Titus Flavius Domitianus (24 October 51 – 18 September 96), commonly known as Domitian, was a Roman Emperor of the gens Flavia. ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... The Latin word Princeps (plural: principes) means the first. This article is devoted to a number of specific historical meanings the word took, by far the most important of which follows first. ...


However, towards the end of his reign Domitian became extremely paranoid, which probably had its initial roots in the treatment he received by his father: although given significant responsibility, he was never trusted with anything important without supervision. This flowered into the severe and perhaps pathological repercussions following the short-lived rebellion in 89 of Antonius Saturninus, a governor and commander in Germany. Domitian's paranoia led to a large number of arrests, executions, and seizure of property (which might help explain his ability to spend so lavishly). Eventually it got to the point where even his closest advisers and family members lived in fear, leading them to his murder in 96 orchestrated by his enemies in the Senate, Stephanus (the steward of the deceased Julia Flavia), members of the Praetorian Guard and empress Domitia Longina. Julia Flavia (17 September 64 - 91) was the only child to the Emperor Titus from his second marriage to the well-connected Marcia Furnilla. ... Domitia Longina was a Roman matrona that lived in the 1st century. ...


Antonine dynasty (96–180)

Main article: Antonines

The next century came to be known as the period of the "Five Good Emperors", in which the succession was peaceful though not dynastic and the Empire was prosperous. The emperors of this period were Nerva (96–98), Trajan (98–117), Hadrian (117–138), Antoninus Pius (138–161) and Marcus Aurelius (161–180), each being adopted by his predecessor as his successor during the former's lifetime. While their respective choices of successor were based upon the merits of the individual men they selected, it has been argued that the real reason for the lasting success of the adoptive scheme of succession lay more with the fact that none but the last had a natural heir. The Antonines most often referred to were two successive Roman Emperors who ruled between A.D. 138 and 180: Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, famous for their skilled leadership. ... All of this is untrue The Five Good Emperors is a term used by the 18th century historian, Edward Gibbon, in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nerva (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus Pius (September 19, 86–March 7, 161) was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (called the Wise) (April 26, 121[2] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ...


Nerva (96–98)

After his accession, Nerva set a new tone: he released those imprisoned for treason, banned future prosecutions for treason, restored much confiscated property, and involved the Roman Senate in his rule. He probably did so as a means to remain relatively popular (and therefore alive), but this did not completely aid him. Support for Domitian in the army remained strong, and in October 97 the Praetorian Guard laid siege to the Imperial Palace on the Palatine Hill and took Nerva hostage. He was forced to submit to their demands, agreeing to hand over those responsible for Domitian's death and even giving a speech thanking the rebellious Praetorians. Nerva then adopted Trajan, a commander of the armies on the German frontier, as his successor shortly thereafter in order to bolster his own rule. Casperius Aelianus, the Guard Prefect responsible for the mutiny against Nerva, was later executed under Trajan. For other uses, see Nerva (disambiguation). ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


Trajan (98–117)

Main article: Trajan
The extent of the Roman Empire under Trajan, AD 117
The extent of the Roman Empire under Trajan, AD 117

In 112, provoked by Parthia's decision to put an unacceptable king on the throne of Armenia, a kingdom over which the two great empires had shared hegemony since the time of Nero some fifty years earlier, Trajan marched first on Armenia. He deposed the king and annexed it to the Roman Empire. Then he turned south into Parthia itself, taking the cities of Babylon, Seleucia and finally the capital of Ctesiphon in 116. He continued southward to the Persian Gulf, whence he declared Mesopotamia a new province of the empire and lamented that he was too old to follow in the steps of Alexander the Great. But he did not stop there. Later in 116, he captured the great city of Susa. He deposed the Parthian King Osroes I and put his own puppet ruler Parthamaspates on the throne. Never again would the Roman Empire advance so far to the east. This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BC) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Parthia, 247 BC]] History  - Established 247 BC  - Disestablished 220 AD Parthian votive relief. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Seleucia (Greek: Σέλεύχεια) – also transliterated as Seleuceia, Seleukeia, or Seleukheia – may refer to many cities of the Seleucid Empire (Syria): Seleucia on the Tigris (first capital of the Seleucid Empire; currently in Iraq) Seleucia (Sittacene) – in antiquity, across the Tigris from the above city, currently in Iraq Seleucia above Zeugma – on... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian and Pahlavi: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun, Persian: ‎, also known as in Arabic Madain, Maden or Al-Madain: المدائن) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... For other uses, see Susa (disambiguation). ... Coin of Osroes I. The date ΗΚΥ is year 428 of the Seleucid era, corresponding to 116–117. ... Parthamaspates, the son of Osroes I, spent much of his life in Roman exile. ...


Hadrian (117–138)

Main article: Hadrian

Despite his own excellence as a military administrator, Hadrian's reign was marked by a general lack of major military conflicts but to defend the vast territories the empire had. He surrendered Trajan's conquests in Mesopotamia, considering them to be indefensible. There was almost a war with Parthia around 121, but the threat was averted when Hadrian succeeded in negotiating a peace. Hadrian's army crushed a massive Jewish uprising in Judea (132–135) led by Simon Bar Kokhba. Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... Bar Kokhba’s revolt (132-135 CE) against the Roman Empire, also known as The Second Jewish-Roman War or The Second Jewish Revolt, was a second major rebellion by the Jews of Iudaea. ... Simon bar Kokhba (Hebrew: שמעון בר כוכבא, also transliterated as Bar Kokhva or Bar Kochba) was the Jewish leader who led what is known as Bar Kokhbas revolt against the Roman Empire in 132 CE, establishing an independent Jewish state of Israel which he ruled for three years as Nasi (prince, or...


Hadrian was the first emperor to extensively tour the provinces, donating money for local construction projects as he went. In Britain, he ordered the construction of a wall, the famous Hadrian's Wall as well as various other such defenses in Germany and Northern Africa. His domestic policy was one of relative peace and prosperity. Hadrians Wall is a stone and turf fortification built by the Roman Empire across the width of modern-day England. ...


Antoninus Pius (138–161)

Antoninus Pius's reign was comparatively peaceful; there were several military disturbances throughout the Empire in his time, in Mauretania, Judaea, and amongst the Brigantes in Britain, but none of them are considered serious. The unrest in Britain is believed to have led to the construction of the Antonine Wall from the Firth of Forth to the Firth of Clyde, although it was soon abandoned. Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus Pius (September 19, 86–March 7, 161) was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. ... The Antonine Wall, looking east, from Barr Hill between Twechar and Croy The Antonine Wall, remains of Roman fortlet, Barr Hill, near Twechar Location of Hadrians Wall and the Antonine Wall in Scotland and Northern England. ...


Marcus Aurelius (161–180)

Main article: Marcus Aurelius

Germanic tribes and other people launched many raids along the long north European border, particularly into Gaul and across the Danube—Germans, in turn, may have been under attack from more warlike tribes farther east. His campaigns against them are commemorated on the Column of Marcus Aurelius. In Asia, a revitalized Parthian Empire renewed its assault. Marcus Aurelius sent his joint emperor Verus to command the legions in the East to face it. He was authoritative enough to command the full loyalty of the troops, but already powerful enough that he had little incentive to overthrow Marcus. The plan succeeded—Verus remained loyal until his death on campaign in 169. Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (called the Wise) (April 26, 121[2] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (739x1000, 178 KB) Summary Conventional, self-made 2D image by Photo-journalist replaces universal 3D image. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (739x1000, 178 KB) Summary Conventional, self-made 2D image by Photo-journalist replaces universal 3D image. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (called the Wise) (April 26, 121[2] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (739x1000, 180 KB)This is a 3D image which requires simple plastic or paper Red-Cyan glasses to view in 3D. Summary Self-made image donated to Wikipedia, all rights waived Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the... Image File history File links 3d_glasses_red_cyan. ... Verus (died 219) was a Roman Senator and usurper. ...


Commodus (180–192)

The period of the "Five Good Emperors" was brought to an end by the reign of Commodus from 180 to 192. Commodus was the son of Marcus Aurelius, making him the first direct successor in a century, breaking the scheme of adoptive successors that had turned out so well. He was co-emperor with his father from 177. When he became sole emperor upon the death of his father in 180, it was at first seen as a hopeful sign by the people of the Roman Empire. Nevertheless, as generous and magnanimous as his father was, Commodus turned out to be just the opposite. In The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon, it is noted that Commodus at first ruled the empire well. However, after an assassination attempt, involving a conspiracy by certain members of his family, Commodus became paranoid and slipped into insanity. The Pax Romana, or "Roman Peace", ended with the reign of Commodus. One could argue that the assassination attempt began the long decline of the Roman Empire. Lucius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus (August 31, 161 – December 31, 192) was a Roman Emperor who ruled from 180 to 192 (also with Marcus Aurelius from 177 until 180). ... The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, a major literary achievement of Eighteenth Century, was written by the British historian, Edward Gibbon. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... Roman Empire at its greatest extent with the conquests of Trajan Pax Romana, Latin for the Roman peace (sometimes Pax Augusta), was the long period of relative peace and minimal expansion by military force experienced by the Roman Empire between 27 BC and 180 AD. Augustus Caesar led Rome into...


Severan dynasty (193–235)

Main article: Severan Dynasty
Caracalla    
Caracalla

The Severan Dynasty includes the increasingly troubled reigns of Septimius Severus (193–211), Caracalla (211–217), Macrinus (217–218), Elagabalus (218–222), and Alexander Severus (222–235). The founder of the dynasty, Lucius Septimius Severus, belonged to a leading native family of Leptis Magna in Africa who allied himself with a prominent Syrian family by his marriage to Julia Domna. Their provincial background and cosmopolitan alliance, eventually giving rise to imperial rulers of Syrian background, Elagabalus and Alexander Severus, testifies to the broad political franchise and economic development of the Roman empire that had been achieved under the Antonines. A generally successful ruler, Septimius Severus cultivated the army's support with substantial remuneration in return for total loyalty to the emperor and substituted equestrian officers for senators in key administrative positions. In this way, he successfully broadened the power base of the imperial administration throughout the empire, also by abolishing the regular standing jury courts of Republican times. The Severan dynasty is a lineage of Roman Emperors, reigning several decades from the late 2nd century to the early 3rd century. ... Caracalla (roman emperor) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Caracalla (roman emperor) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Caracalla (roman emperor) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Image File history File links 3d_glasses_red_cyan. ... The Severan dynasty is a lineage of Roman Emperors, reigning several decades from the late 2nd century to the early 3rd century. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (or rarely Severus I) (b. ... Caracalla (April 4, 186 – April 8, 217) was Roman Emperor from 211 – 217. ... Macrinus on an aureus. ... Elagabalus Elagabalus (c. ... Alexander Severus Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexandrus (October 1, 208- March 18?, 235), commonly called Alexander Severus, Roman emperor from 222 to 235, was born at Arca Caesarea in Palestine. ... Arch of Septimius Severus Market place Leptis Magna (or Lepcis Magna as it is sometimes spelled), also called Neapolis, was a prominent city of the Roman Empire. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Julia Domna (170-217) was member of the Severan dynasty of the Roman Empire. ... The Antonines most often referred to were two successive Roman Emperors who ruled between A.D. 138 and 180: Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, famous for their skilled leadership. ... The Roman army was a set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ...

Reconstruction of the centre of Rome during the reign of Septimius Severus

Septimius Severus's son, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus—nicknamed "Caracalla"—removed all legal and political distinction between Italians and provincials, enacting the Constitutio Antoniniana in 212 which extended full Roman citizenship to all free inhabitants of the empire. Caracalla was also responsible for erecting the famous Baths of Caracalla in Rome, their design serving as an architectural model for many subsequent monumental public buildings. Increasingly unstable and autocratic, Caracalla was assassinated by the praetorian prefect Macrinus in 217, who succeeded him briefly as the first emperor not of senatorial rank. The imperial court, however, was dominated by formidable women who arranged the succession of Elagabalus in 218, and Alexander Severus, the last of the dynasty, in 222. In the last phase of the Severan principate, the power of the Senate was somewhat revived and a number of fiscal reforms were enacted. Despite early successes against the Sassanian Empire in the East, Alexander Severus's increasing inability to control the army led eventually to its mutiny and his assassination in 235. The death of Alexander Severus ushered in a subsequent period of soldier-emperors and almost a half-century of civil war and strife. Thus the Pax Romana, which had started at the death of Octavian, ended after about 200 years. Image File history File links Rome_rulez. ... Image File history File links Rome_rulez. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Lucius Septimius Severus (or rarely Severus I) (b. ... Caracalla (April 4, 186 – April 8, 217) was Roman Emperor from 211 – 217. ... The Constitutio Antoniniana (Latin: Constitution [or Edict] of Antoninus) was an edict issued in 212, by the Roman Emperor Caracalla. ... The Baths of Caracalla, in 2003 The Baths of Caracalla were Roman public baths, or thermae, built in Rome between 212 and 216 AD, during the reign of the Emperor Caracalla. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... Macrinus on an aureus. ... Elagabalus Elagabalus (c. ... Alexander Severus Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexandrus (October 1, 208- March 18?, 235), commonly called Alexander Severus, Roman emperor from 222 to 235, was born at Arca Caesarea in Palestine. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ...


Crisis of the Third Century (235–284)

The Crisis of the Third Century is a commonly applied name for the crumbling and near collapse of the Roman Empire between 235 and 284. It is also called the period of the "military anarchy". Emperor Maximinus Thrax, ruled 235-238, was the first of the emperors during the Crisis of the Third Century. ...


After Augustus declared an end to the Civil Wars of the 1st century BC, the Empire had enjoyed a period of limited external invasion, internal peace and economic prosperity (the Pax Romana). In the 3rd century, however, the Empire underwent military, political and economic crises and began to collapse. There was constant barbarian invasion, civil war, and hyperinflation. Part of the problem had its origins in the nature of the Augustan settlement. Augustus, intending to downplay his position, had not established rules for the succession of emperors. For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Roman Empire at its greatest extent with the conquests of Trajan Pax Romana, Latin for the Roman peace (sometimes Pax Augusta), was the long period of relative peace and minimal expansion by military force experienced by the Roman Empire between 27 BC and 180 AD. Augustus Caesar led Rome into... In economics, hyperinflation is inflation that is out of control, a condition in which prices increase rapidly as a currency loses its value. ... Succession is the act or process of pooing or of following in order or sequence. ...

The Roman Empire by 271 AD with the breakaway empires of Palmyra and Gallia

Already in the 1st and 2nd century, disputes about the succession had led to short civil wars, but in the 3rd century these civil wars became a constant factor, as no single candidate succeeded in quickly overcoming his opponents or holding on to the Imperial position for very long. Between 235 and 284 no fewer than 25 different emperors ruled Rome (the Soldier-Emperors). All but two of these emperors were either murdered or killed in battle. The organization of the Roman military, concentrated on the borders, could provide no remedy against foreign invasions once the invaders had broken through. A decline in citizens' participation in local administration forced the Emperors to step in, gradually increasing the central government's responsibility. Early morning panorama of Palmyra. ... Gallia may mean several things: Gallia was the Latin name for Gaul. ...


This period ended with the accession of Diocletian. Diocletian, either by skill or sheer luck, solved many of the acute problems experienced during this crisis. However, the core problems would remain and cause the eventual destruction of the western empire. The transitions of this period mark the beginnings of Late Antiquity and the end of Classical Antiquity. Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ...


Diocletian and the Tetrarchy (284-301)

Main articles: Diocletian and Tetrarchy

The transition from a single united empire to the later divided Western and Eastern empires was a gradual transformation. In July 285, Diocletian defeated rival Emperor Carinus and briefly became sole emperor of the Roman Empire. Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... Marcus Aurelius Carinus, Roman emperor, 283 - July, 285, was the elder son of the emperor Carus, on whose accession he was appointed governor of the western portion of the empire. ...

The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St Mark's, Venice
   

Diocletian saw that the vast Roman Empire was ungovernable by a single emperor in the face of internal pressures and military threats on two fronts. He therefore split the Empire in half along a northwest axis just east of Italy, and created two equal Emperors to rule under the title of Augustus. Diocletian himself was the Augustus of the eastern half, and he made his long-time friend Maximian Augustus of the western half. In doing so, he effectively created what would become the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. Statue of the Tetrarchs, St Marks Basilica, Venice (better quality image) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Statue of the Tetrarchs, St Marks Basilica, Venice (better quality image) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A piece of porphyry Porphyry is a variety of igneous rock consisting of large-grained crystals, such as feldspar or quartz, dispersed in a fine-grained feldspathic matrix or groundmass. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... The Palatine Chapel of the Norman Kings of Sicily. ... Mark the Evangelist (מרקוס, Greek: Μάρκος) (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark and a companion of Peter. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links 3d_glasses_red_cyan. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... Maximian Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (c. ...


In 293 authority was further divided, as each Augustus took a junior Emperor called a Caesar to aid him in administrative matters, and to provide a line of succession; Galerius became Caesar under Diocletian and Constantius Chlorus Caesar under Maximian. This constituted what is called the Tetrarchy (in Greek: "leadership of four") by modern scholars. After Rome had been plagued by bloody disputes about the supreme authority, this finally formalized a peaceful succession of the emperor: in each half a Caesar would rise up to replace the Augustus and select a new Caesar. On May 1, 305, Diocletian and Maximian abdicated in favor of their Caesars. Galerius named the two new Caesars: his nephew Maximinus for himself, and Flavius Valerius Severus for Constantius. The arrangement worked well under Diocletian and Maximian and shortly thereafter. The internal tensions within the Roman government were less acute than they had been. In The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Edward Gibbon notes that this arrangement worked well because of the affinity the four rulers had for each other. Gibbon says that this arrangement has been compared to a "chorus of music". With the withdrawal of Diocletian and Maximian, this harmony disappeared. Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... Galerius Maximianus (c. ... On the reverse of this argenteus struck in Antioch under Constantius Chlorus, the tetrarcs are sacrificing to celebrate a victory against the Sarmatians. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 1 - Diocletian and Maximian, emperors of Rome, retire from office. ... This article deals with 4th century Roman Emperor. ... Flavius Valerius Severus as caesar. ... The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, a major literary achievement of Eighteenth Century, was written by the British historian, Edward Gibbon. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ...


After an initial period of tolerance, Diocletian, who was a fervent pagan and was worried about the ever-increasing numbers of Christians in the Empire, persecuted them with zeal unknown since the time of Nero; this was to be one of the greatest persecutions the Christians endured in history.


Constantinian dynasty (305-363)

Main article: Constantinian dynasty

Category: ...

Constantine and his sons

A map of Rome in 350

The Tetrarchy would effectively collapse with the death of Constantius Chlorus on July 25, 306. Constantius's troops in Eboracum immediately proclaimed his son Constantine the Great as Augustus. In August 306, Galerius promoted Severus to the position of Augustus. A revolt in Rome supported another claimant to the same title: Maxentius, son of Maximian, who was proclaimed Augustus on October 28, 306. His election was supported by the Praetorian Guard. This left the Empire with five rulers: four Augusti (Galerius, Constantine, Severus and Maxentius) and one Caesar (Maximinus). Download high resolution version (1461x1054, 539 KB)A map of Imperial Rome in AD 350 superimposed on a map of 20th century Rome taken from William R Shepherds Historical Atlas. ... Download high resolution version (1461x1054, 539 KB)A map of Imperial Rome in AD 350 superimposed on a map of 20th century Rome taken from William R Shepherds Historical Atlas. ... On the reverse of this argenteus struck in Antioch under Constantius Chlorus, the tetrarcs are sacrificing to celebrate a victory against the Sarmatians. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July 25 - Constantine I proclaimed Roman Emperor by his troops. ... This article is about the English city. ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius ( 278-28 October 312) was Western Roman Emperor from 306 to 312. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events July 25 - Constantine I proclaimed Roman Emperor by his troops. ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ...


The year 307 saw the return of Maximian to the rank of Augustus alongside his son Maxentius, creating a total of six rulers of the Empire. Galerius and Severus campaigned against them in Italy. Severus was killed under command of Maxentius on September 16, 307. The two Augusti of Italy also managed to ally themselves with Constantine by having Constantine marry Fausta, the daughter of Maximian and sister of Maxentius. At the end of 307, the Empire had four Augusti (Maximian, Galerius, Constantine and Maxentius) and a sole Caesar. is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 31 — After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Emperor Maximian. ... Fausta, as Salus, holding her two sons, Constantine II and Constantius II. Fausta Flavia Maxima, Roman Empress, (289-326A.D.) She was the daughter of the Roman Emperor Maximianus. ...


In 311 Galerius officially put an end to the persecution of Christians, and Constantine legalized Christianity definitively in 313 as evidenced in the so-called Edict of Milan. The Edict of Milan was a letter that proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire. ...


The Empire was parted again among his three surviving sons. The Western Roman Empire was divided among the eldest son Constantine II and the youngest son Constans. The Eastern Roman Empire along with Constantinople were the share of middle son Constantius II. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Flavius Claudius Constantinus, known in English as Constantine II, (316 – 340) was Roman Emperor from 337 to 340. ... Flavius Julius Constans (320 - 350), was a Roman Emperor who ruled from 337 to 350. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... Flavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II, (7 August 317 - 3 November 361) was a Roman Emperor (337 - 361) of the Constantinian dynasty. ...


Constantine II was killed in conflict with his youngest brother in 340. Constans was himself killed in conflict with the army-proclaimed Augustus Magnentius on January 18, 350. Magnentius was at first opposed in the city of Rome by self-proclaimed Augustus Nepotianus, a paternal first cousin of Constans. Nepotianus was killed alongside his mother Eutropia. His other first cousin Constantia convinced Vetriano to proclaim himself Caesar in opposition to Magnentius. Vetriano served a brief term from March 1 to December 25, 350. He was then forced to abdicate by the legitimate Augustus Constantius. The usurper Magnentius would continue to rule the Western Roman Empire until 353 while in conflict with Constantius. His eventual defeat and suicide left Constantius as sole Emperor. Magnentius (303–August 11, 353) was a Roman usurper (January 18, 350 – August 11, 353). ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 18 - Magnentius proclaimed Emperor by the army in Autun. ... Nepotianus Flavius Iulius Popilius Nepotianus Constantinus was the son of Eutropia, the half-sister of emperor Constantine I, and grandson of emperor Constantius Chlorus and Flavia Maximiana Theodora. ... Eutropia was the name of two women on the Constantinian dynasty, which ruled over the Roman Empire at the beginning of the 4th century. ... On the reverse of this coin struck under Vetriano, the emperor is holding two labara, the ensigns introduced by his ancestor Constantine I (emperor). ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 18 - Magnentius proclaimed Emperor by the army in Autun. ... The following is an attempted list of usurpers in the Roman Empire. ...


Constantius's rule would however be opposed again in 360. He had named his paternal half-cousin and brother-in-law Julian as his Caesar of the Western Roman Empire in 355. During the following five years, Julian had a series of victories against invading Germanic tribes, including the Alamanni. This allowed him to secure the Rhine frontier. His victorious Gallic troops thus ceased campaigning. Constantius sent orders for the troops to be transferred to the east as reinforcements for his own currently unsuccessful campaign against Shapur II of Persia. This order led the Gallic troops to an insurrection. They proclaimed their commanding officer Julian to be an Augustus. Both Augusti were not ready to lead their troops to another Roman Civil War. Constantius's timely demise on November 3, 361 prevented this war from ever occurring. Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... Area settled by the Alamanni, and sites of Roman-Alamannic battles, 3rd to 6th century The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of west Germanic tribes located around the upper Main, a river that is one of the largest tributaries of the Rhine, on land that is today... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... Gallic, derived from the name for the ancient Roman province of Gaul, describes the cultural traditions and national characters of the French speaking nations and regions, as Hispanic does for the Hispanophone world, Anglo-Saxon for the Anglophone, and Lusitanic for the Lusophone. ... Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ... Insurrection could refer to: * in a general sense, it means Rebellion * it is also a title of a Star Trek film, see Star Trek: Insurrection ... There were several Roman civil wars, especially during the time of the late Republic. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Emperor Ai succeeds Emperor Mu as emperor of China. ...


Julian and Jovian (361–364)

Main articles: Julian the Apostate and Jovian

Julian would serve as the sole Emperor for two years. He had received his baptism as a Christian years before, but no longer considered himself one. His reign would see the ending of restriction and persecution of paganism introduced by his uncle and father-in-law Constantine I and his cousins and brothers-in-law Constantine II, Constans and Constantius II. He instead placed similar restrictions and unofficial persecution of Christianity. His edict of toleration in 362 ordered the reopening of pagan temples and the reinstitution of alienated temple properties, and, more problematically for the Christian Church, the recalling of previously exiled Christian bishops. Returning Orthodox and Arian bishops resumed their conflicts, thus further weakening the Church as a whole. Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... For other meanings see Jovian (disambiguation). ... Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... An edict is an announcement of a law, often associated with monarchism. ... The numbers and architecture of Roman temples reflect the citys receptivity to all the religions of the world. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box...


Julian himself was not a traditional pagan. His personal beliefs were largely influenced by Neoplatonism and Theurgy; he reputedly believed he was the reincarnation of Alexander the Great. He produced works of philosophy arguing his beliefs. His brief renaissance of paganism would, however, end with his death. Julian eventually resumed the war against Shapur II of Persia. He received a mortal wound in battle and died on June 26, 363. According to Gibbon in The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, upon being mortally wounded by a dart, he was carried back to his camp. He gave a farewell speech, in which he refused to name a successor. He then proceeded to debate the philosophical nature of the soul with his generals. He then requested a glass of water, and shortly after drinking it, died. He was considered a hero by pagan sources of his time and a villain by Christian ones. Gibbon wrote quite favorably about Julian. Contemporary historians have treated him as a controversial figure. Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... Theurgy (from Greek: θεουργία) describes the practice of rituals, sometimes seen as magical in nature, performed with the intention of invoking the action of one or more gods, especially with the goal of uniting with the divine, achieving henosis, and perfecting oneself. ... This article is about the theological concept. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Perisapora is destroyed by Emperor Julian. ...


Julian died childless and with no designated successor. The officers of his army elected the rather obscure officer Jovian emperor. He is remembered for signing an unfavorable peace treaty with Persia, ceding terrorities won from the Persians, dating back to Trajan. He restored the privileges of Christianity. He is considered a Christian himself, though little is known of his beliefs. Jovian himself died on February 17, 364. For other meanings see Jovian (disambiguation). ... A peace treaty is an agreement (a peace treaty) between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a war or armed conflict. ... Persia redirects here. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 28 - Valentinian I is elected Roman emperor by the army. ...


Valentinian dynasty (364–392)

Main article: Valentinian Dynasty

The Valentinian Dynasty, consisting of four emperors, ruled the West Roman Empire from 364 to 392 and the East Roman Empire from 364 to 378. ...

Valentinian and Valens

The role of choosing a new Augustus fell again to army officers. On February 28, 364, Pannonian officer Valentinian I was elected Augustus in Nicaea, Bithynia. However, the army had been left leaderless twice in less than a year, and the officers demanded Valentinian choose a co-ruler. On March 28 Valentinian chose his own younger brother Valens and the two new Augusti parted the Empire in the pattern established by Diocletian: Valentinian would administer the Western Roman Empire, while Valens took control over the Eastern Roman Empire. is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 28 - Valentinian I is elected Roman emperor by the army. ... For other uses, see Pannonia (disambiguation). ... Flavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman Emperor (364-375). ... Iznik ceramic pitcher with flower decoration from ca. ... Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Solidus minted by Valens in 376. ...


Valens's election would soon be disputed. Procopius, a Cilician maternal cousin of Julian, had been considered a likely heir to his cousin but was never designated as such. He had been in hiding since the election of Jovian. In 365, while Valentinian was at Paris and then at Rheims to direct the operations of his generals against the Alamanni, Procopius managed to bribe two legions assigned to Constantinople and take control of the Eastern Roman capital. He was proclaimed Augustus on September 28 and soon extended his control to both Thrace and Bithynia. War between the two rival Eastern Roman Emperors continued until Procopius was defeated. Valens had him executed on May 27, 366. Procopius (326 - May 27, 366), was a Roman usurper against Valentinian I, and member of the Constantinian dynasty. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... Area settled by the Alamanni, and sites of Roman-Alamannic battles, 3rd to 6th century The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of west Germanic tribes located around the upper Main, a river that is one of the largest tributaries of the Rhine, on land that is today... Bribery is a crime implying a sum or gift given alters the behaviour of the person in ways not consistent with the duties of that person. ... Legion redirects here. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 2, Alamanni cross frozen Rhine in large numbers, invading Roman Empire October 1 - Pope Damasus I becomes Bishop of Rome. ...


On August 4, 367, a third Augustus was proclaimed by the other two. His father Valentinian and uncle Valens chose the eight-year-old Gratian as a nominal co-ruler, obviously as a means to secure succession. is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events First Listing of the New Testament by St Athanasius of Alexandria. ... A coin of Gratian. ...


In April 375 Valentinian I led his army in a campaign against the Quadi, a Germanic tribe which had invaded his native province of Pannonia. During an audience with an embassy from the Quadi at Brigetio on the Danube, a town now part of modern-day Komárno, Slovak republic, Valentinian suffered a burst blood vessel in the skull while angrily yelling at the people gathered. This injury resulted in his death on November 17, 375. The Quadi were a smaller Germanic tribe, about which little definitive information is known. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... - Seal on the building of German Embassies. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Komárno (Hungarian: Komárom [today a separate town, also nonofficial Révkomárom], German: Komorn) is a town in Slovakia at the Danube and the Váh rivers. ... National motto: None Official language Slovak Capital Bratislava President Ivan Gašparovič Prime Minister Mikuláš Dzurinda Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 126th 49,035 km² Negligible Population  - Total (2004)  - Density Ranked 103rd 5,379,455 109/km² Independence January 1, 1993 (division of Czechoslovakia) Currency Slovak koruna Time zone  - in summer CET... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Events The Huns invade Europe. ...


Succession did not go as planned. Gratian was then a 16-year-old and arguably ready to act as Emperor, but the troops in Pannonia proclaimed his infant half-brother emperor under the title Valentinian II. A marble statue of Emperor Valentinian II, Aphrodisias Geyre (Aydin, Anatolia), 387–390. ...


Gratian acquiesced in their choice and administered the Gallic part of the Western Roman Empire. Italy, Illyria and Africa were officially administrated by his brother and his stepmother Justina. However the division was merely nominal as the actual authority still rested with Gratian. This article is about the ancient region in the south of Europe. ... Justina (d. ...


Battle of Adrianople (378)

Main article: Battle of Adrianople
Barbarian invasions of the Roman Empire, showing the Battle of Adrianople.
Barbarian invasions of the Roman Empire, showing the Battle of Adrianople.

Meanwhile, the Eastern Roman Empire faced its own problems with Germanic tribes. The Thervingi, an East Germanic tribe, fled their former lands following an invasion by the Huns. Their leaders Alavivus and Fritigern led them to seek refuge in the Eastern Roman Empire. Valens indeed let them settle as foederati on the southern bank of the Danube in 376. However, the newcomers faced problems from allegedly corrupted provincial commanders and a series of hardships. Their dissatisfaction led them to revolt against their Roman hosts. Combatants Eastern Roman Empire Goths Commanders Valens â€  Fritigern, Alatheus, Saphrax Strength 15,000–30,000 10,000–20,000 Casualties 10,000–20,000 Unknown The second Battle of Adrianople (August 9, 378), sometimes known as the Battle of Hadrianopolis, was fought between a Roman army led by the Roman... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3948x2827, 1311 KB) See also Image:Karte völkerwanderung. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3948x2827, 1311 KB) See also Image:Karte völkerwanderung. ... For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ... The Thervingi were a Gothic people of the Danubian plains west of the Dnestr River in the 3rd and 4th Centuries CE. They had close contacts with the Greuthungi, another Gothic people from east of the Dnestr River, as well as the Late Roman Empire (or early Byzantine Empire). ... The tribes referred to as East Germanic constitute a wave of migrants who moved from Scandinavia into the area between the Oder and Vistula rivers between 600 - 300 BC. In historical times these tribes were differentiated as Goths, Burgundians and Vandals among others. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... Frithugairns (Gothic for desiring peace) or Fritigern (died ca. ... Foederatus early in the history of the Roman Republic identified one of the tribes bound by treaty (foedus), who were neither Roman colonies nor had they been granted Roman citizenship (civitas) but were expected to provide a contingent of fighting men when trouble arose. ...


For the following two years conflicts continued. Valens personally led a campaign against them in 378. Gratian provided his uncle with reinforcements from the Western Roman army. However this campaign proved disastrous for the Romans. The two armies approached each other near Adrianople. Valens was apparently overconfident of the numerical superiority of his own forces over the Goths. Some of his officers advised caution and to await the arrival of Gratian, others urged an immediate attack and eventually prevailed over Valens, who, eager to have all of the glory for himself, rushed into battle. On August 9, 378, the Battle of Adrianople resulted in the crushing defeat of the Romans and the death of Valens. Contemporary historian Ammianus Marcellinus estimated that two thirds of the Roman army were lost in the battle. The last third managed to retreat. Edirne is a city in (Thrace), the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Mid-February: Lentienses cross frozen Rhine, invading Roman Empire. ... Combatants Eastern Roman Empire Goths Commanders Valens â€  Fritigern, Alatheus, Saphrax Strength 15,000–30,000 10,000–20,000 Casualties 10,000–20,000 Unknown The second Battle of Adrianople (August 9, 378), sometimes known as the Battle of Hadrianopolis, was fought between a Roman army led by the Roman... Ammianus Marcellinus (325/330-after 391) was a fourth-century Greek historian [1][2]. His is the last major historical account of the late Roman empire which survives today: his work chronicled the history of Rome from 96 to 378, although only the sections covering the period 353 - 378 are...


The battle had far-reaching consequences. Veteran soldiers and valuable administrators were among the heavy casualties. There were few available replacements at the time, leaving the Empire with the problems of finding suitable leadership. The Roman army would also start facing recruiting problems. In the following century much of the Roman army would consist of Germanic mercenaries.


For the moment however there was another concern. The death of Valens left Gratian and Valentinian II as the sole two Augusti. Gratian was now effectively responsible for the whole of the Empire. He sought however a replacement Augustus for the Eastern Roman Empire. His choice was Theodosius I, son of formerly distinguished general Count Theodosius. The elder Theodosius had been executed in early 375 for unclear reasons. The younger one was named Augustus of the Eastern Roman Empire on January 19, 379. His appointment would prove a deciding moment in the division of the Empire. An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... Flavius Theodosius was a senior military officer serving in the Western Roman Empire. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 19 - Theodosius I is elevated as Roman Emperor at Sirmium. ...


Theodosian dynasty (379-457)

Main article: Theodosian dynasty

The Theodosian dynasty was a Roman family that rose to eminence in the waning days of the Roman Empire. ...

Disturbed peace in the West (383)

Gratian governed the Western Roman Empire with energy and success for some years, but he gradually sank into indolence. He is considered to have become a figurehead while Frankish general Merobaudes and bishop Ambrose of Milan jointly acted as the power behind the throne. Gratian lost favor with factions of the Roman Senate by prohibiting traditional paganism at Rome and relinquishing his title of Pontifex Maximus. The senior Augustus also became unpopular with his own Roman troops because of his close association with so-called barbarians. He reportedly recruited Alans to his personal service and adopted the guise of a Scythian warrior for public appearances. Forecastle with figurehead Grand Turk Figurehead is a carved wooden decoration, often female or bestiary, found at the prow of ships of the 16th to the 19th century. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Merobaudes is the name of two Ancient Roman figures: Merobaudes, 4th century Frankish general and Roman consul Flavius Merobaudes, 5th century poet Category: ... For other uses, see Ambrose (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... The phrase power behind the throne refers to a person or group that informally exercises the real power of an office. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... For other uses, see Warrior (disambiguation). ...


Meanwhile Gratian, Valentinian II and Theodosius were joined by a fourth Augustus. Theodosius proclaimed his oldest son Arcadius an Augustus in January 383 in an obvious attempt to secure succession. The boy was still only five or six years old and held no actual authority. Nevertheless he was recognized as a co-ruler by all three Augusti. Idealising bust of Arcadius in the Theodosian style combines elements of classicism with the new hieratic style (Istanbul Archaeology Museum) Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Arcadius For the Greek grammarian, see Arcadius of Antioch. ...


The increasing unpopularity of Gratian would cause the four Augusti problems later that same year. Spanish Celt general Magnus Maximus, stationed in Roman Britain, was proclaimed Augustus by his troops in 383 and rebelling against Gratian he invaded Gaul. Gratian fled from Lutetia (Paris) to Lugdunum (Lyon), where he was assassinated on August 25, 383 at the age of 25. This article is about the European people. ... Magnus Maximus. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Lutetia (sometimes Lutetia Parisiorum or Lucotecia, in French Lutèce) was a town in pre-Roman and Roman Gaul. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum (modern: Lyon) was an important Roman city in Gaul. ... This article is about the French city. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events By Place Roman Empire January 19 - Arcadius is elevated to Emperor. ...


Maximus was a firm believer of the Nicene Creed and introduced state persecution on charges of heresy, which brought him into conflict with Pope Siricius who argued that the Augustus had no authority over church matters. But he was an Emperor with popular support, as is attested in Romano-British tradition, where he gained a place in the Mabinogion, compiled about a thousand years after his death. Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... St. ... Romano-British is a term used to refer to the Romanized Britons under the Roman Empire (and later the Western Roman Empire) and in the years after the Roman departure exposed to Roman culture and Christian religion. ... The Mabinogion is a collection of prose stories from medieval Welsh manuscripts. ...


Following Gratian's death, Maximus had to deal with Valentinian II, at the time only twelve years old, as the senior Augustus. The first few years the Alps would serve as the borders between the respective territories of the two rival Western Roman Emperors. Maximus controlled Britain, Gaul, Hispania and Africa. He chose Augusta Treverorum (Trier) as his capital. Alp redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Trier (French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier) is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. ...


Maximus soon entered negotiations with Valentinian II and Theodosius, attempting to gain their official recognition. By 384, negotiations were unfruitful and Maximus tried to press the matter by settling succession as only a legitimate Emperor could do: proclaiming his own infant son Flavius Victor an Augustus. The end of the year found the Empire having five Augusti (Valentinian II, Theodosius I, Arcadius, Magnus Maximus and Flavius Victor) with relations between them yet to be determined. Flavius Victor was the infant son of Magnus Maximus by his wife Helen, allegedly the daughter of Octavius. ...


Theodosius was left a widower in 385, following the sudden death of Aelia Flaccilla, his Augusta. He was remarried, to the sister of Valentinean II, Galla, and the marriage secured closer relations between the two legitimate Augusti. Aelia Flaccilla. ...


In 386 Maximus and Victor finally received official recognition by Theodosius but not by Valentinian. In 387, Maximus apparently decided to rid himself of his Italian rival. He crossed the Alps into the valley of the Po and threatened Milan. Valentinian and his mother fled to Thessaloniki from where they sought the support of Theodosius. Theodosius indeed campaigned west in 388 and was victorious against Maximus. Maximus himself was captured and executed in Aquileia on July 28, 388. Magister militum Arbogast was sent to Trier with orders to also kill Flavius Victor. Theodosius restored Valentinian to power and through his influence had him converted to Orthodox Catholicism. Theodosius continued supporting Valentinian and protecting him from a variety of usurpations. PO may stand for: Pareto optimality Parole Officer Per os, Latin for by mouth or orally Perfect Orange a third wave ska based in Knoxville, TN from 2002-2005 Petty Officer, a Non-Commissioned Officer Rank in many Navies Pilkington Optronics, now Thales Optronics Pilot Officer, a junior commissioned rank... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... Aquileia (Friulian Aquilee, Slovene Oglej) is an ancient Roman town of Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about 10 km from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Natisone), the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Bahram IV becomes king of Persia. ... Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ... Flavius Arbogastes (d. ...


Final partition of the Empire

The division of the empire after the death of Theodosius I, c. 395, superimposed on modern borders.      Western Roman Empire      Eastern Roman Empire
The division of the empire after the death of Theodosius I, c. 395, superimposed on modern borders.      Western Roman Empire      Eastern Roman Empire

In 392 Valentinian II was murdered in Vienne. Arbogast arranged for the appointment of Eugenius as emperor. However, the eastern emperor Theodosius refused to recognise Eugenius as emperor and invaded the West, defeating and killing Arbogast and Eugenius at the Battle of the Frigidus. He thus reunited the entire Roman Empire under his rule. Image File history File links Theodosius_I's_empire. ... Image File history File links Theodosius_I's_empire. ... A marble statue of Emperor Valentinian II, Aphrodisias Geyre (Aydin, Anatolia), 387–390. ... This article is about the French département. ... Eugenius wearing imperial insigna, on a coin celebrateing the VIRTVS ROMANORVM, the (military) value of the Romans. Flavius Eugenius (d. ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... Combatants Eastern Roman Empire Western Roman Empire Commanders Theodosius I, Stilicho, Alaric Eugenius†, Arbogast† Strength unknown, but included 20,000 Goths[1] Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of the Frigidus, also called the Battle of the Frigid River, was fought between September 5-6 394, between the army of the...


Theodosius had two sons and a daughter, Pulcheria, from his first wife, Aelia Flacilla. His daughter and wife died in 385. By his second wife, Galla, he had a daughter, Galla Placidia, the mother of Valentinian III, who would be Emperor of the West. Aelia Flaccilla. ... Portrait of Galla Placidia, from her mausoleum in Ravenna. ... Solidus minted in Thessalonica to celebrate the marriage of Valentinian III to Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II. On the reverse, the three of them in wedding dresses. ...


Theodosius was the last Emperor who ruled over the whole Empire. After his death in 395, he gave the two halves of the Empire to his two sons Arcadius and Honorius; Arcadius became ruler in the East, with his capital in Constantinople, and Honorius became ruler in the West, with his capital in Milan and later Ravenna. The Roman state would continue to have two different emperors with different seats of power throughout the 5th century, though the Eastern Romans considered themselves Roman in full. Latin was used in official writings as much as, if not more than, Greek. The two halves were nominally, culturally and historically, if not politically, the same state. Idealising bust of Arcadius in the Theodosian style combines elements of classicism with the new hieratic style (Istanbul Archaeology Museum) Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Arcadius For the Greek grammarian, see Arcadius of Antioch. ... Flavius Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Roman Emperor (393- 395) and then Western Roman Emperor from 395 until his death. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ...


Decline and fall of the Empire in the West (395–476)

The Roman Empire by 476
The Roman Empire by 476

After 395, the emperors in the Western Roman Empire were usually figureheads. For most of the time, the actual rulers were military strongmen who took the title of magister militum, patrician or both—Stilicho from 395 to 408, Constantius from about 411 to 421, Aëtius from 433 to 454 and Ricimer from about 457 to 472. The year 476 is generally accepted as the formal end of the Western Roman Empire. That year, Orestes refused the request of Germanic mercenaries in his service for lands in Italy. The dissatisfied mercenaries, including the Heruli, revolted. The revolt was led by the Germanic chieftain Odoacer. Odoacer and his men captured and executed Orestes. Within weeks, Ravenna was captured and Romulus Augustus was deposed, the event that has been traditionally considered the fall of the Roman Empire, at least in the West. Odoacer quickly conquered the remaining provinces of Italy. This article is about the historiography of the decline of the Roman Empire. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... Image File history File links 628px-Western_and_Eastern_Roman_Empires_476AD(3). ... Image File history File links 628px-Western_and_Eastern_Roman_Empires_476AD(3). ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ... This article is about the social and political class in ancient Rome. ... Stilicho (right) with his wife Serena and son Eucherius Flavius Stilicho (occasionally written as Stilico) (ca. ... Costantius on a solidus. ... Flavius Aëtius or simply Aetius, ( 396–454), was a Roman general of the closing period of the Western Roman Empire. ... Ricimers monogram is struck on the reverse of this coin by Libius Severus. ... The Heruli (spelled variously in Latin and Greek) were a nomadic Germanic people, who were subjugated by the Ostrogoths, Huns, and Byzantines in the 3rd to 5th centuries. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Odoacer then sent the Imperial Regalia back to the emperor Zeno. Zeno soon received two deputations. One was from Odoacer requesting that his control of Italy be formally recognized by the Empire, in which case he would acknowledge Zeno's supremacy. The other deputation was from Nepos, asking for support to regain the throne. Zeno granted Odoacer the title Patrician. Zeno told Odoacer and the Roman Senate to take Nepos back; however, Nepos never returned from Dalmatia, even though Odoacer issued coins in his name. Upon Nepos's death in 480, Zeno claimed Dalmatia for the East; J. B. Bury considers this the real end of the Western Roman Empire. Odoacer attacked Dalmatia, and the ensuing war ended with Theodoric the Great, King of the Ostrogoths, conquering Italy under Zeno's authority. This article is about the social and political class in ancient Rome. ... John Bagnell Bury (16 October 1861 – 1 June 1927) was an eminent British historian, classical scholar, and philologist. ... Theodoric the Great (454 - August 30, 526), known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (488-526), ruler of Italy (493-526), and regent of the Visigoths (511-526). ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ...

Eastern Roman Empire and Barbarian Kingdoms in 480

Survival in the East: the Roman or "Byzantine" Empire in the Middle Ages (395–1453)

Main article: Byzantine Empire

As the Western Roman Empire declined during the 5th century, the richer Eastern Roman Empire would be relieved of much destruction, and in the mid 6th century the Eastern Roman Empire (known also as the Byzantine Empire) under the emperor Justinian I reconquered Italy and parts of Illyria from the Ostrogoths, North Africa from the Vandals, and southern Hispania from the Visigoths. The reconquest of southern Hispania was somewhat ephemeral, but North Africa served the Byzantines for another century, Italy for another 5 centuries, and Illyria almost a millennium. Byzantine redirects here. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... This article is about the ancient region in the south of Europe. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... Byzantine redirects here. ...

Near East in 565 AD, showing the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire at its height.
Near East in 565 AD, showing the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire at its height.

Of the many accepted dates for the end of the classical Roman state, the latest is 610. This is when the Emperor Heraclius made sweeping reforms, forever changing the face of the empire. Greek was readopted as the language of government and Latin influence waned. By 610, the Eastern Roman Empire had come under Greek influence and became what many modern historians now call the Byzantine Empire, although the Empire was never called thus by its inhabitants (rather it was called Romania, Basileia Romaion or Pragmata Romaion, meaning "Land of the Romans", "Kingdom of the Romans"), who still saw themselves as Romans, and their state as the rightful successor to the ancient empire of Rome. The sack of Constantinople at the hands of the Fourth Crusade in 1204 is sometimes used to date the end of Eastern Roman Empire: the destruction of Constantinople and most of its ancient treasures, total discontinuity of leadership, and the division of its lands into rival states with a Catholic-controlled "Emperor" in Constantinople itself (see Latin Empire) was a blow from which the Empire never fully recovered. Nevertheless, the Byzantines continued to call themselves Romans until their fall to Ottoman Turks in 1453. That year the eastern part of the Roman Empire was ultimately ended by the Fall of Constantinople. Even though Mehmed II, the conqueror of Constantinople, declared himself the Emperor of the Roman Empire (Caesar of Rome / Kayser-i Rum) in 1453, Constantine XI is usually considered the last Roman Emperor. The Greek ethnic self-descriptive name Roman survives to this day. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,389 × 929 pixels, file size: 449 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Thomas A. Lessman. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 535 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,389 × 929 pixels, file size: 449 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Author: Thomas A. Lessman. ... For the Patriarch of Jerusalem, see Patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Belligerents Crusaders Holy Roman Empire Republic of Venice Montferret Champagne Blois Amiens ÃŽle-de-France Saint-Pol Burgundy Flanders Balkans Byzantine Empire Kingdom of Hungary Croatia Dalmatia Commanders Otto IV Boniface I Theobald I Lois I Alexios V Doukas Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Emeric I The Fourth Crusade... Arms of the Latin Empire of Constantinople The Latin Empire with its vassals and the Greek successor states after the partition of the Byzantine Empire, c. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... Constantine XI: The last Byzantine emperor is considered a saint by the Eastern Orthodox Church. ...


The Carolingians and the Holy Roman Empire (800–1806)

Main articles: Carolingian Empire and Holy Roman Empire

On the Christmas Day of year 800 Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish monarch Charlemagne "Emperor of the Romans" and Imperator Augustus, a direct challenge to the Roman throne in Constantinople. This led to a conscious attempt to replace the Byzantine Empire, with papal authority, as the legitimate Roman state. Although land divisions due to inheritance and rivalry between Charlemagne's successors soon fragmented this medieval state, which historians call the Carolingian Empire, it did have considerable cultural influence. Map of Carolingian Empire The term Carolingian Empire is sometimes used to refer to the realm of the Franks under the dynasty of the Carolingians. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Infobox Pope| English name=Leo III| image= | birth_name=Unknown| term_start=December 27, 795 | term_end=June 12, 816| predecessor=Adrian I| successor=Stephen IV| birth_date=Date of birth unknown| birthplace=Rome, Italy| dead=dead|death_date=June 12, 816| deathplace=Place of death unknown| other=Leo}} Pope Leo III (died June 12... Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ... For other uses, see Charlemagne (disambiguation). ... Coats of arms of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 to 1576. ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... This solidus struck under Irene reports the legend bASILISSH, Basilissa. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Sample of Carolingian minuscule, one of the products of the Carolingian Renaissance. ...


More than 150 years later the title of Emperor of the Romans passed to the German monarch Otto I, who founded the Holy Roman Empire, consisting of some of the territories of Charlemagne's ancient empire, along with all of modern-day Germany, Austria, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and some of modern-day Poland. Although most of the emperors were Germanic, the Holy Roman Emperors thought of themselves as being successors to those of the Roman Empire and called themselves Augusti. For others with the same name, see Otto I (disambiguation). ...


The Empire was formally dissolved on August 6, 1806 when the last Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II abdicated, following a military defeat by the French under Napoleon, thus removing the last claim to the Roman throne in western Europe. is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Francis I in Austrian coronation regalia, 1832 Austrian thaler of Francis II, dated 1821. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...


Language

The language of Rome before its expansion was Latin and this became the Empire's official language. By the time of the imperial period Latin could be thought of as at least two languages: the written Classical Latin and the spoken Vulgar Latin. While Classical Latin remained relatively stable, even through the Middle Ages, Vulgar Latin as with any spoken language was fluid and evolving. Vulgar Latin became the lingua franca in the western provinces later evolving into the modern Romance languages: Italian, French,Portuguese, Istriot, Romanian, etc. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ... Not to be confused with Latin profanity. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ...


Although Latin remained the official and most widely spoken language through to the fall of Rome and for some centuries after in the East, the Greek language was the lingua franca in the eastern provinces.[7] With the exception of Carthage, the Romans generally did not attempt to supplant local cultures and languages. It is to their credit that they generally left established customs in place and only gradually supplemented with the typical Roman-style improvements.[8] Greek was already widely spoken in many cities in the east, and as such, the Romans were quite content to retain it as an administrative language there rather than disrupt tax collection efficiency. As such, it is interesting to note that in the eastern provinces public notices were typically posted in three languages; Latin, Greek, and the local tongue.[citation needed] Moreover, the process of hellenization continued more extensiveley, well beyond city boundaries, during the Roman period, for the Romans perpetuated "Greek" culture,[9] but with all the trappings of Roman improvements.[10] This further spreading of Hellenistic culture was largely due to the extensive infrastructure (in the form of entertainment, health, and education amenities, and extensive transportation networks, etc.) put in place by the Romans and their tolerance, and inclusion, of other cultures, a characteristic which set them apart from the xenophobic nature of the Greeks preceding them.[11] The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, a major literary achievement of Eighteenth Century, was written by the English historian, Edward Gibbon. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single natural language in the Indo-European language family. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... The Greco-Roman period of history refers to the culture of the peoples who were incorporated into the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ...


During the 7th century AD Greek became the most widely spoken language in the Empire due to the contraction of the Imperial borders to the eastern regions where the Greek language was most dominant; the administrative language was actually changed to Greek during the reign of Heraclius (610-641AD).[12] Since the Roman annexation of Greece in 146BC the Greek language gradually obtained a unique place in the Roman world, owing initially to the large number of Greeks slaves in Roman households.[13] In the city of Rome itself Greek gradually became second language of the educated and the elite.[14] Greek became the common language in early the Church (as it's major centers in the early Christian period were in the East), and the language of scholarship and the arts. However, due to the presence of other widely spoken languages in the densily populated east, such as Coptic, Syriac, Armenian, Aramaic and Phoenician (which was also extensively spoken in North Africa), Greek never became as imbedded as Latin eventually did in the west. This is directly evident in the extent to which the derivative languages are spoken today. Like Latin, the language gained a dual nature with the literary language, an Attic Greek variant, existing alongside spoken language, Koine Greek, which evolved into Medieval or Byzantine Greek (Romaic).[15] Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single natural language in the Indo-European language family. ... For the Patriarch of Jerusalem, see Patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ... Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region of what is now Lebanon. ... Look up Diglossia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Attic Greek is the ancient dialect of the Greek language that was spoken in Attica, which includes Athens. ... Koine redirects here. ... Medieval Greek (Μεσαιωνική Ελληνική) is a linguistic term that describes the fourth period in the history of the Greek language. ...


By the 4th century AD Greek no longer held such dominance over Latin in the Church, Arts and Sciences as it had previously, resulting to a great extent from the growth of the western provinces (reflected in the publication in the early 5th century AD of the Vulgate Bible, the first officially accepted Latin Bible; before this only Greek translations were accepted). As the Western Empire declined, the number of people who spoke both Greek and Latin declined as well, contributing greatly to the future EastWest / OrthodoxCatholic cultural divide in Europe. Important as both languages were, today the descendants of Latin are widely spoken in many parts of the world, while the Greek dialects are limited mostly to Greece, Cyprus, and small enclaves in Turkey and southern Italy. To some degree this can be attributed to the fact that the western provinces fell mainly to "Latinized", Christian tribes, whereas the eastern provinces fell to Muslim Arabs and Turks for whom Greek held less cultural significance. The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... This article is about the historiography of the decline of the Roman Empire. ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... By Germanic Christianity is that phase in the history of Northern Europe understood, when the Germanic peoples of the Migration period and Viking Age adopted Christianity. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


As alluded to earlier, many other languages existed in the multi-ethnic Empire as well, and some of these were given limited official status in their provinces at various times. These languages were well established before the arrival of Greek, and Latin relatively shortly thereafter. Whilst they have been ignored in many historical texts it should be noted that they did not simply disappear with the arrival of the two mainstream classical languages - they remained firmly established within the respective geographic regions where they were spoken for centuries to millennia before. Also widely unacknowledged is the direct cultural influence of the peoples that spoke these languages on Greek civilization (an later, indirectly, Roman civilzation) itself. To name just one example, the Phoenicians gave the Greeks (and Etruscans and Romans) their alphabet. Notably, by the beginning of the Middle Ages, Syriac and Aramaic had become more widely used by the educated classes in the far eastern provinces, in addition to Greek and Latin.[16] Similarly Coptic and Armenian became significant among the educated in Egypt and Armenia, respectively. Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ...


Legacy

The enduring Roman influence is reflected pervasively in contemporay language, literature, legal codes, government, architecture, engineering, medicine, sports, arts, etc. Much of it is so deepley imbedded that we barely notice our debt to ancient Rome. Consider language, for example. Fewer and fewer people today claim to know Latin - and yet, go back to the first sentence in this paragraph. If we removed all the words drawn directly from Latin, that sentence would read; "The."[17]


Several states claimed to be the Roman Empire's successor after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. First was the Byzantine Empire, the modern historiographical term used for later period of the Eastern Roman Empire. Then the Holy Roman Empire, an attempt to resurrect the Empire in the West, was established in 800 when Pope Leo III crowned Frankish King Charlemagne as Roman Emperor on Christmas Day, though the empire and the imperial office did not become formalized for some decades. After the fall of Constantinople, the Russian Tsardom, as inheritor of the Byzantine Empire's Orthodox Christian tradition, counted itself the third Rome (with Constantinople having been the second). And when the Ottomans, who based their state on the Byzantine model, took Constantinople in 1453, Mehmed II established his capital there and claimed to sit on the throne of the Roman Empire, and he even went so far as to launch an invasion of Italy with the purpose of "re-uniting the Empire", although Papal and Neapolitan armies stopped his march on Rome at Otranto in 1480. Constantinople was not officially renamed Istanbul until March 28, 1930. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Infobox Pope| English name=Leo III| image= | birth_name=Unknown| term_start=December 27, 795 | term_end=June 12, 816| predecessor=Adrian I| successor=Stephen IV| birth_date=Date of birth unknown| birthplace=Rome, Italy| dead=dead|death_date=June 12, 816| deathplace=Place of death unknown| other=Leo}} Pope Leo III (died June 12... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... For other uses, see Charlemagne (disambiguation). ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... Joseph and Mary with baby Jesus, at the first Christmas Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ) is a holiday in the Christian calendar, usually observed on December 25, which celebrates the birth of Jesus. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... Neapolitan may refer to: Neapolitan, a resident of Naples, Italy Neapolitan language, a language of Naples and environs in southern Italy Neapolitan ice cream, a mixture of chocolate, vanilla, and strawberry ice cream side-by-side in the same container Neapolitan chord, in music, is the first inversion of a... Otranto is a town and commune in the province of Lecce (Apulia, Italy), in a fertile region, and once famous for its breed of horses. ... Location of Istanbul on the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey Coordinates: , Country Turkey Region Province Istanbul Founded 667 BC as Byzantium Roman/Byzantine period AD 330 as Constantinople Ottoman period 1453 as Constantinople (internationally) and various other names in local languages Turkish Republic period 1923 as Constantinople, officially renamed as Istanbul in... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Excluding these states claiming its heritage, if the traditional date for the founding of Rome is accepted as fact, the Roman state can be said to have lasted in some form from 753 BC to the fall in 1461 of the Empire of Trebizond (a successor state and fragment of the Byzantine Empire which escaped conquest by the Ottomans in 1453), for a total of 2,214 years. The Roman impact on Western and Eastern civilizations lives on. In time most of the Roman achievements were duplicated by later civilizations. For example, the technology for cement was rediscovered 1755–1759 by John Smeaton. The Empire of Trebizond and other states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The Empire of Trebizond (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Τραπεζούντας) was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople by... For other uses, see Cement (disambiguation). ... Portrait of John Smeaton, with the Eddystone Lighthouse in the background John Smeaton, FRS, (June 8, 1724 – October 28, 1792) was a civil engineer – often regarded as the father of civil engineering – responsible for the design of bridges, canals, harbours and lighthouses. ...


The Empire contributed many things to the world, such as a calendar with leap years, the institutions of Christianity and aspects of modern neo-classicistic and Byzantine architecture. The extensive system of roads that was constructed by the Roman Army lasts to this day. Because of this network of roads, the time necessary to travel between destinations in Europe did not decrease until the 19th century, when steam power was invented. Even modern Astrology comes to us directly from the Romans. For the 1921 film starring Fatty Arbuckle, see Leap Year (film). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas Gucevičius. ... The Palatine Chapel of the Norman Kings of Sicily. ... The Roman army was a set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


The Roman Empire also contributed its form of government, which influences various constitutions including those of most European countries and many former European colonies. In the United States, for example, the framers of the Constitution remarked, in creating the Presidency, that they wanted to inaugurate an "Augustan Age". The modern world also inherited legal thinking from Roman law, codified in Late Antiquity. Governing a vast territory, the Romans developed the science of public administration to an extent never before conceived or necessary, creating an extensive civil service and formalized methods of tax collection. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The word Presidency is often used to describe the collective administrative and governmental entity that exists around an office of president of a state or nation. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... Late Antiquity is a rough periodization (c. ... Public Administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of government policy. ...


While in the West the term Roman acquired a new meaning in connection with the church and the Pope of Rome the Greek form Romaioi remained attached to the Greeks of the Eastern Roman Empire who still call themselves by that name today.[18] For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ...


The Roman Empire's territorial legacy of controlling the Italian peninsula would serve as an influence to Italian nationalism and the unification (Risorgimento) of Italy in 1861. Italian unification, also known as Risorgimento (resurrection), was a historical process by which the Kingdom of Sardinia (ruled by the Savoy dynasty with Turin as its capital) gradually conquered the Italian peninsula, including the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Duchy of Modena, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy...


See also

Ancient redirects here. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Map of all the territories once occupied by the Roman Empire. ... Julius Caesar, from the bust in the British Museum, in Cassells History of England (1902). ... During the time from 500BC to 400AD, a dramatic increase in engineering and technology overwhelmed a region to the point that it could no longer sustain population growth and urbanization. ... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of topics related to ancient Rome that aims to include aspects of both the ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... Sino-Roman relations started first on an indirect basis during the 2nd century BCE. China and Rome progressively inched closer with the embassies of Zhang Qian in 130 BCE and the military expeditions of China to Central Asia, until general Ban Chao attempted to send an envoy to Rome around... The institution of slavery in ancient Rome made many people non-persons before their legal system. ... The branches of the Roman military at the highest level were the Roman army and the Roman navy. ...

Ancient historians of the Empire

In Latin: Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...

In Greek: A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... The Twelve Caesars is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius or Gaius Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... Ammianus Marcellinus (325/330-after 391) was a fourth-century Greek historian [1][2]. His is the last major historical account of the late Roman empire which survives today: his work chronicled the history of Rome from 96 to 378, although only the sections covering the period 353 - 378 are... Eutropius was an Ancient Roman Pagan historian who flourished in the latter half of the 4th century. ...

Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ... Salminius Hermias Sozomen (c. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Dio Cassius Cocceianus (c. ... Polybius (c. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ...

Literature of the Empire

In Latin: Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...

In Greek: Lucius Apuleius (c. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... For other people named Horace, see Horace (disambiguation). ... Frontispiece depicting Juvenal and Persius, from a volume translated by John Dryden in 1711. ... Marcus Valerius Martialis, known in English as Martial, was a Latin poet from Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman author Petronius. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ...

In Syriac: Alciphron, Greek rhetorician, was probably a contemporary of Lucian (2nd century A.D.). He was the author of a collection of fictitious letters, of which 124 (118 complete and 6 fragments) have been published; they are written in the purest Attic dialect and are considered models of style. ... Athenaeus (ca. ... Dio Chrysostom, Dion of Prusa or Dio Cocceianus (ca. ... For other uses, see Lucian (disambiguation). ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (called the Wise) (April 26, 121[2] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... Philo (20 BC - 50 AD), known also as Philo of Alexandria and as Philo Judaeus And as Yedidia, was a Hellenized Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ...

Aphrahat ( 270–345; Syriac: — ; also Greek , and Latin Aphraates) was a Syriac-Christian author of the fourth century from Persia, , who composed a series of twenty-three expositions or homilies on points of Christian doctrine and practice. ... Ephrem the Syrian (Syriac: , ;Greek: ; Latin: Ephraem Syrus; 306–373) was a deacon, prolific Syriac language hymn writer and theologian of the 4th century. ... Jacob of Sërugh (451 - November 521), one of the best Syriac authors, named by one of his biographers the flute of the Holy Spirit and the harp of the believing church, was born at Kurtam, a village on the Euphrates to the west of Ijarran, and was probably educated... Narsai was the Parthian client king of Adiabene in the last quarter of the second century CE. Categories: | | ...

Notes

  1. ^ Other possibilities are Imperium Romanum and Romania. Res publica, as a term denoting the Roman "commonwealth" in general, can refer to both the Republican and the Imperial era, while Imperium Romanum is used to denote the territorial extent of Roman authority. The later term Romania, which was eventually carried over to Byzantium, appears in Greek and Latin sources from the fourth century onward. (See Wolff, R.L. "Romania: The Latin Empire of Constantinople". In: Speculum, 23 (1948), pp. 1-34 (pp. 2-3).)
  2. ^ a b c d Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D.". Social Science History 3 (3/4): 125. doi:10.2307/1170959. 
  3. ^ John D. Durand, Historical Estimates of World Population: An Evaluation, 1977, pp. 253-296.
  4. ^ During the struggles of the Late Republic hundreds of senators were killed or died, and the Roman Senate had been refilled with loyalists of the First Triumvirate and later those of the Second Triumvirate.
  5. ^ Octavian/Augustus officially proclaimed that he had saved the Roman Republic and carefully disguised his power under republican forms; consuls continued to be elected, tribunes of the plebeians continued to offer legislation, and senators still debated in the Roman Curia. However, it was Octavian, and every effective emperor thereafter, who influenced everything and controlled the final decisions, and in final analysis, had the legions to back him up, if it ever became necessary.
  6. ^ Birley, E.B.. "A Note on the Title 'Gemina'". Journal of Roman Studies (18): pp. 56-60. 
  7. ^ Fergus Millar, A Greek Roman Empire: Power and Belief under Theodosius II (408-450). Sather Classical Lectures, Vol. 64. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006. Pp. 279. ISBN 0-520-24703-5; Warren Treadgold "A Concise History of Byzantium" (New York: St Martin's Press, 2001); Warren Treadgold "A History of the Byzantine State and Society" (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997)
  8. ^ Charles Freeman "The Greek Achievement: The Foundation of the Western World" (New York: Penguin, 1999)
  9. ^ This is somewhat simplistic as the Romans did not simply adopt/copy Greek or other cultures. See, for example, 'Freeman, C. "The Greek Achievement: The Foundation of the Western World" (New York: Penguin, 1999)' for a more detailed description of how the Romans interacted with Greek (and other) cultures.
  10. ^ http://www.religiousstudies.uncc.edu/jdtabor/overview-roman-world.html; http://www.jstor.org/pss/3155063; http://www.scriptureinhistory.org.au/Articles/Syria%20article.htm
  11. ^ Charles Freeman "The Greek Achievement: The Foundation of the Western World" (New York: Penguin, 1999)
  12. ^ Warren Treadgold "A Concise History of Byzantium" (New York: St Martin's Press, 2001); Warren Treadgold "A History of the Byzantine State and Society" (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997)
  13. ^ Charles Freeman "The Greek Achievement: The Foundation of the Western World" (New York: Penguin, 1999)
  14. ^ McDonnell/MacDonnell, Roman Manliness: Virtus and the Roman Republic; Charles Freeman "The Greek Achievement: The Foundation of the Western World" (New York: Penguin, 1999)
  15. ^ Greek Language, Encyclopedia Britannica
  16. ^ Versteegh, Cornelis H. M., Greek Elements in Arabic Linguistic Thinking, E. J. Brill, 1977, Chapter 1.
  17. ^ T.R. Reid "The World According to Rome" National Geographic Vol. 2 No. 2 1997 p. 54
  18. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica,History of Europe, The Romans, 2008, O.Ed.

Byzantine redirects here. ... Rein Taagepera (born 28 February 1933) is an Estonian-American political scientist and politician. ... Rein Taagepera (born 28 February 1933) is an Estonian-American political scientist and politician. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Second Triumvirate (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman rank. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... A Curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people, i. ... See also Legion software and Legion forummer. ...

References

  • John Bagnell Bury, A History of the Roman Empire from its Foundation to the death of Marcus Aurelius, 1913
  • J. A. Crook, Law and Life of Rome, 90 BC–AD 212, 1967, ISBN 0-8014-9273-4
  • Suzanne Dixon, The Roman Family, 1992, ISBN 0-8018-4200-X
  • Donald R. Dudley, The Civilization of Rome, 2nd ed., 1985, ISBN 0-452-01016-0
  • Charles Freeman, The Greek Achievement: The Foundation of the Western World, 1999, ISBN 0-670-88515-0
  • Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 1776–1788
  • Adrian Goldsworthy, Roman Warfare, 2000 ISBN 0-304-35265-9
  • Peter Heather The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians, 2005, ISBN 0-330-49136-9
  • A.H.M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire, 284–602, 1964, ISBN 0-8018-3285-3
  • Andrew Lintott, Imperium Romanum: Politics and administration, 1993, ISBN 0-415-09375-9
  • Ramsay Macmullen, Roman Social Relations, 50 BC to AD 284, 1981, ISBN 0-300-02702-8
  • Michael Rostovtzeff, The Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire 2nd ed., 1957
  • Santo Mazzarino. The end of the ancient world. New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1966, (West Hanover : Halliday Lithograph corp.) English translation by George Holmes
  • Ronald Syme, The Roman Revolution, 1939, ISBN 0-19-280320-4
  • Colin Wells, The Roman Empire, 2nd ed., 1992, ISBN 0-00-686252-7
  • Fergus Millar, A Greek Roman Empire: Power and Belief under Theodosius II (408-450). Sather Classical Lectures, Vol. 64. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006. Pp. 279. ISBN 0-520-24703-5
  • McDonnell/MacDonnell, Roman Manliness: Virtus and the Roman Republic
  • Warren Treadgold, A History of the Byzantine State and Society, 1997 ISBN-10: 0-804-72421-0
  • Warren Treadgold, A Concise History of Byzantium, 2001 ISBN 0-333-71829-1

John Bagnell Bury (16 October 1861 – 1 June 1927) was an eminent British historian, classical scholar, and philologist. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the year. ... Charles Freeman of Houstin Texas is a muslim lawyer, only known of by the editor for his role in the post 9/11 prosecution of Al Qaeda terrorist Zacarias Moussaoui. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... Adrian Goldsworthy (born 1969) is a British historian and military writer. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Peter Heather is a teacher at Worcester College, University of Oxford who is considered a leading authority on the barbarians of the Roman era. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arnold Hugh Martin (A.H.M.) Jones (1904-1970) was a prominent 20th century historian of classical antiquity, particularly of the later Roman Empire. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Mikhail Ivanovich Rostovtzeff, or Rostovtsev (October 29, 1870-October 20, 1952) was one of the 20th centurys foremost authorities on ancient Greek and Roman history. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Colophon of the publisher Alfred A. Knopf. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... George Holmes is Chichele Professor of Medieval History Emeritus at the University of Oxford. ... Ronald Syme Sir Ronald Syme (11 March 1903 – 4 September 1989), New Zealand-born historian, was the preeminent classicist of the 20th century. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cricketer Colin Wells was a solid county all-rounder, who played for Derbyshire and Sussex, who played two ODIs in 1984-85. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Fergus Millar FBA is Camden Professor of Ancient History Emeritus Oxford University. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... This article is about the year. ...

External links

Ancient Rome Portal
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Roman Emperors by Epoch
see also: List of Roman Emperors · Concise list of Roman Emperors · Roman Empire
Principate Crisis of the 3rd century Dominate Division Successors




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For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Roman province of Assyria, 120 CE Assyria was a province of the Roman Empire, roughly situated in modern-day northern Iraq. ... Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... For other uses, see Cappadocia (disambiguation). ... 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Roman province of Hispania Baetica, 120 CE In Hispania, which in Greek is called Iberia, there were three Imperial Roman provinces, Hispania Baetica in the south, Lusitania, corresponding to modern Portugal, in the west, and Hispania Tarraconensis in the north and northeast. ... Roman Imperial province of Hispania Tarraconensis, 120 AD Hispania Tarraconensis was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania. ... A portion of the Tabula Peutingeriana, a Roman map of the 4th century, depicting the southern part of Italia. ... Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea (Hebrew: יהודה, Standard Yehuda Tiberian , praise God; Greek: Ιουδαία; Latin: Iudaea) was a Roman province that extended over the region of Judea proper, later Palestine. ... In red is the province of Lusitania within the Roman Empire, AD 117 Lusitania was an ancient Roman province including approximately all of modern Portugal south of the Douro river, and part of modern Spain (the present autonomous community of Extremadura and a small part of the province of Salamanca). ... Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycia (in Lycian, Trm̃misa (see List of Lycian place names); in ancient Greek, Λυκία and in modern Turkish, Likya) is a region in the modern-day provinces of Antalya and MuÄŸla on the southern coast of Turkey. ... Pamphylia, in ancient geography, was the region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mount Taurus. ... In the first century A.D., the Emperor Claudius divided the Roman province of Mauretania into Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Tingitana. ... In the first century A.D., the Emperor Claudius divided the Roman province of Mauretania into Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Tingitana. ... Moesia is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Moesia is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Noricum in ancient geography was a celtic kingdom in Austria and later a province of the Roman Empire. ... Lower Pannonia (Pannonia Inferior) map The Lower Pannonia or Pannonia Inferior was an ancient Roman province. ... Upper Pannonia (Pannonia Superior) map The Upper Pannonia or Pannonia Superior was ancient Roman province. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Sicilia (Latin) was the name given to the first province acquired by the Roman Republic in its rise to Empire, organised in 241 BCE as a proconsular governed territory in the aftermath of the First Punic War with Carthage. ... The Chersonesus Tauricus of Antiquity, shown on a map printed in London, ca 1770 Taurica (Greek: , Latin: ) also known as Tauris, Taurida, Tauric Chersonese, and Chersonesus Taurica was the name of Crimea in Antiquity. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Image File history File links RomanEmpire_117. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This is a list of topics related to ancient Rome that aims to include aspects of both the ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... This is a Timeline of events concerning ancient Rome, from the city foundation until the last attempt of the Roman Empire of the East to conquer Rome. ... For other uses, see History of Rome (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The ancient quarters of Rome. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... The Principate is, according to its etymological derivation from the Latin word princeps, meaning chief or first, the political regime dominated by such a political leader, whether or not he is formally head of state and/or head of government. ... The Dominate was the despotic last of the two phases of government in the ancient Roman Empire between its establishment in 27 BC and the formal date of the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476. ... This article is about the historiography of the decline of the Roman Empire. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... A Curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people, i. ... The Forum of Jerash, in Jordan. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The cursus honorum (Latin: course of honours) was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Empire. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honours Emperor Institutions and Law Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Roman assemblies were the Comitia Calata, the Comitia Curiata, the Comitia Centuriata, and the Comitia Tributa. ... Collegiality is the relationship between colleagues. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ... The Misspeling of Ducks ... Officium (plural officia) is a Latin word with various meanings, including service, (sense of) duty, courtesy, ceremony and the likes. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Vigintisexviri (sing. ... The lictor, derived from the Latin ligare (to bind), was a member of a special class of Roman civil servant, with special tasks of attending magistrates of the Roman Republic and Empire who held imperium. ... Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... The princeps senatus (plural principes senatus) was the leader of the Roman senate. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... Aedile (Latin Aedilis, from aedes, aedis temple, building) was an office of the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... This article is about the highest office of the Roman Republic. ... Censor was the title of two magistrates of high rank in the Roman Republic. ... See Roman Governor for the duties of a promagistrate as a governor of a province A promagistrate is a person who acts in and with the authority and capacity of a magistrate, but without holding a magisterial office. ... A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief adminstator of Roman law throughout one or more of Ancient Romes many provinces. ... Magistratus ordinarii (ordinary magistrates) and Magistratus extraordinarii (extraordinary magistrates) were two categories of officials who held political, military, and, in some cases, religious power in the Roman Republic. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, is) a historical position of varying importance in several European nations. ... Decemviri (singular decemvir) is a Latin term meaning Ten Men which designates any such commission in the Roman Republic (cf. ... Military tribunes elected with consular power during the Conflict of the Orders in the Roman Republic on and off starting in 444 BCE and then continuiously from 408 BCE - 394 BCE and from 391 BCE - 367 BCE The practice of electing consular tribunes ended in 366 BCE when the Lex... The term triumvirate is commonly used to describe a political regime dominated by three powerful political and/or military leaders. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The King of Rome (Latin: rex, regis) was the chief magistrate of the Roman Kingdom. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law The Law of the Twelve Tables (Lex Duodecim Tabularum, more informally simply Duodecim Tabulae) was the ancient legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law. ... The toga was the characteristic garment of the Roman citizen. ... Auctoritas is the Latin origin of English authority. According to Benveniste [citation?], auctor (which also gives us English author) is derived from Latin augeó (to augment): The auctor is is qui auget, the one who augments the act or the juridical situation of another. ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... The system for Roman litigation passed through three stages over the years: until around 150 BC, the Legis Actiones system; from around 150 BC until around 342 AD, the formulary system; and from 342 AD onwards, the cognito procedure. ... Map of all the territories once occupied by the Roman Empire. ... Main article: Military history of ancient Rome As the Roman kingdom successfully overcame opposition from the Italic hill tribes and became a larger state, the age of tyranny in the eastern Mediterranean began to pass away. ... The branches of the Roman military at the highest level were the Roman army and the Roman navy. ... The history of ancient Rome—originally a city-state of Italy, and later an empire covering much of Eurasia and North Africa from the ninth century BC to the fifth century AD—was often closely entwined with its military history. ... The technology history of the Roman military covers the development of and application of technologies for use in the armies and navies of Rome from the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Root directory at Military history of ancient Rome Romes military was always tightly keyed to its political system. ... Map of all the territories once occupied by the Roman Empire, along with locations of limes Roman military borders and fortifications were part of a grand strategy of territorial defense in the Roman Empire. ... Basic ideal plan of a Roman castrum. ... The strategy of the Roman Military encompasses its grand strategy (the arrangements made by the state to implement its political goals through a selection of military goals, a process of diplomacy backed by threat of military action, and a dedication to the military of part of its production and resources... Roman military engineering is a type of Roman engineering carried out by the Roman Army - almost exclusively by the Roman legions for the furthering of military objectives. ... The Roman army was a set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... Legion redirects here. ... Roman infantry tactics refers to the theoretical and historical deployment, formation and maneuvers of the Roman infantry from the start of the Roman Republic to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. ... Roman military personal equipment was produced in large numbers to established patterns and used in an established way. ... Roman siege engines were, for the most part, adapted from Hellenistic siege technology. ... The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis, lit. ... The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis, lit. ... Auxiliaries (from Latin: auxilia = supports) formed the standing non-citizen corps of the Roman army of the Principate (30 BC - 284 AD), alongside the citizen legions. ... As with most other military forces the Roman military adopted a carrot and stick approach to military, with an extensive list of decorations for military gallantry and likewise a range of punishments for military transgressions. ... Julius Caesar, from the bust in the British Museum, in Cassells History of England (1902). ... This article is about theatrical performances in ancient Rome. ... The toga was the distinctive garb of Romen men, while women wore stolas. ... Still life with fruit basket and vases (Pompeii, ca. ... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... Fresco from the Villa of the Mysteries. ... We know less about the music of ancient Rome than we do about the music of ancient Greece. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Roman Funerals and Burial Introduction In ancient Rome, important people had elaborate funerals. ... Within the wider stream of influences that contributed to the Christianization of the Roman Empire, followers of the Ancient Roman religion were persecuted by Christians during the period after the death of Constantine and the reign of Julian, only to enjoy a respite for a number of years before the... The Imperial cult in Ancient Rome was the worship of the Roman Emperor as a god. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... The Forum of Jerash, in Jordan. ... For the series of murder mystery novels, see SPQR series. ... The Pont du Gard in France is a Roman aqueduct built in ca. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For centuries the monetary affairs of the Roman Republic had rested in the hands of the Senate, which was steady and fiscally conservative. ... Roman commerce was the engine that drove the growth of the Roman Empire. ... The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. ... Clothing in Ancient Rome consisted generally of the toga, the stola, brooches for them, and breeches. ... Roman holidays generally were celebrated to worship and celebrate a certain god or mythological occurrence, and consisted of religious observances, various festival traditions and usually a large feast. ... Circus Maximus, Rome The Roman Circus, the theatre and the amphitheatre were the most important buildings in the cities for public entertainment in the Roman Empire. ... The institution of slavery in ancient Rome made many people non-persons before their legal system. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For the Old Latin Bible used before the Vulgate, see Vetus Latina. ... Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ... Not to be confused with Latin profanity. ... Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. ... Renaissance Latin is a name given to the distinctive form of Latin style developed during the European Renaissance of the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries, particularly by the humanist movement. ... New Latin (or Neo-Latin) is a post-medieval version of Latin, now used primarily in International Scientific Vocabulary cladistics and systematics. ... Recent Latin is the form of Latin used from the late nineteenth century down to the present. ... The Duenos inscription, from the 6th century BC, is the second-earliest known Latin text. ... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... The term Ecclesiastical Latin (sometimes called Church Latin) refers to the Latin language as used in documents of the Roman Catholic Church and in its Latin liturgies. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... This is a list of topics related to ancient Rome that aims to include aspects of both the ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... The following is a List of Roman wars fought by the ancient Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, organized by date. ... The following is a List of Roman battles (fought by the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire), organized by date. ... // Manius Acilius Glabrio -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 191 BC) -- Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 91) -- Titus Aebutius Helva -- Aegidius -- Lucius Aemilius Barbula -- Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir) -- Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus -- Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (praetor 56 BC) -- Flavius Aëtius -- Lucius Afranius (consul) -- Sextus Calpurnius Agricola -- Gnaeus Julius Agricola -- Flavius Antoninus -- Marcus... This is a list of Roman legions, including key facts about each legion. ... This is a list of the Roman Emperors with the dates they ruled the Roman Empire. ... List of ancient Roman triumphal arches (By modern country) // France Orange Reims: Porte de Mars Saint Rémy de Provence: Roman site of Glanum Saintes: Arch of Germanicus Greece Arch of Galerius, Thessaloniki Hadrians Arch, Athens Italy It has been suggested that List of Roman arches in Rome be... This is a tentative list of topics regarding political institutions of Ancient Rome. ... This is an attempted alphabetical List of Roman laws. ... Abbreviations: Imp. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... This is a list of the Roman Emperors with the dates they ruled the Roman Empire. ... This is the short overview of Roman Emperors: for more detail and explanation, see: list of Roman Emperors and Roman Emperor. ... The office of Roman Emperor went through a complex evolution over the centuries of its existence. ... The Crisis of the Third Century marked the end of the Principate, the early phase of Imperial Roman government. ... The accession to the purple on November 20, 284, of Diocletian, the lower-class, Greek-speaking Dalmatian commander of Caruss and Numerians household cavalry (protectores domestici), marked a major departure from traditional Roman constitutional theory regarding the Emperor, who was nominally first among equals; Diocletian introduced Oriental despotism... The office of Roman Emperor underwent significant turbulence in the fourth and fifth centuries, after assuming the trappings of Eastern despotism during the Dominate. ... The office of Roman Emperor underwent significant turbulence in the fourth and fifth centuries, after assuming the trappings of Eastern despotism during the Dominate. ... Template:Julio-Claudian Dynasty The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. ... The Year of the Four Emperors was a year in the history of the Roman Empire, 69, in which four emperors ruled in a remarkable succession. ... The Flavian dynasty was a series of three Roman Emperors who ruled from 69, the Year of the Four Emperors, to 96, when the last member was assassinated. ... The Five Good Emperors. ... The Year of the Five Emperors refers to 193, in which there were five claimants for the title of Roman Emperor. ... The Severan dynasty is a lineage of Roman Emperors, reigning several decades from the late 2nd century to the early 3rd century. ... Barraks Emperor is the way Roman Emperors who ruled during 235–268 are collectively known. ... Several emperors of the Roman Empire were of Illyrian origin. ... The Gallic Empire (in Latin, imperium Galliarum) is the modern name for the independent realm that lived a brief existence during the Roman Empires Crisis of the Third Century, from 260 to 274. ... This is a list of the Roman Emperors with the dates they ruled the Roman Empire. ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Category: ... The Valentinian Dynasty, consisting of four emperors, ruled the West Roman Empire from 364 to 392 and the East Roman Empire from 364 to 378. ... The House of Theodosius was a Roman family that rose to eminence in the waning days of the Roman Empire. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, called Byzantine by modern historians. ... The following is a list of barbarian kings of Italy: Maximinus Thrax (235-238) Odoacer (476-493) Ostrogothic Kings of Italy Theoderic (493-526) Athalaric (526-534) Theodahad (534-536) Witiges (536-540) Heldebadus (540-541) Totila (541-552) Teias (552) Teias was killed by the Byzantine general Narses, and... Coats of arms of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 to 1576. ... This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, called Byzantine by modern historians. ...


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Roman Empire - MSN Encarta (2607 words)
The Roman Empire is the phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and the Mediterranean
Roman imperialism introduced extremes of wealth and poverty that sharpened social and economic conflict within the Roman state.
Some Romans complained that the loss of liberty was too great a price to pay for peace, but most recognized that under the so-called liberty of the Roman Republic, a few hundred men had divided the spoils of empire while the workers and the provincials suffered.
Roman Empire 1 - Crystalinks (10241 words)
Roman citizens did not have to pay the individual or head tax required of each subject of the empire, and the empire exempted Italian land from tribute.
Internal peace revived Roman patriotism and economic prosperity, and Augustus improved the defense of the frontiers and the administration of the provinces.
Roman roads and cities appeared everywhere, and southern Gaul was so strongly influenced by the Romans that its residents called it "The Province," and it is today still known as Provence.
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