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Encyclopedia > Roman Dmowski
Roman Dmowski
Roman Dmowski

Roman Dmowski (b. August 9, 1864, Warsaw - d. January 2, 1939, Drozdowo, Poland) was a Polish politician, statesman, and chief ideologue and co-founder of the National Democratic Party (Endecja). Roman Dmowski This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Roman Dmowski This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Drozdowo is a village located about 8 km to the east of Łomża, on the opposite side of the river Narew. ... A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... The term statesman is a respectful term used to refer to diplomats, politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... An ideology is a collection of ideas. ... The National Democratic Party was a pre-WWII Polish right-wing political party co-founded by Roman Dmowski. ...

Contents


Biography

Born in the partitioned Poland, as a student he became active in the "Zet" Polish Youth Association (Związek Młodzieży Polskiej "Zet"), organizing a student street demonstration on the 100th anniversary of the Polish Constitution of May 3, 1791. For this he was imprisoned by the Russian Tsarist authorities for six months in the Warsaw Citadel. The Partitions of Poland (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Padalijimas) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... A man holds up a street puppet designed to resemble George W. Bush at a demonstration against the World Bank and International Monetary Fund on April 16, 2005 in Washington, D.C.. American Civil Rights March on Washington, leaders marching from the Washington Monument to the Lincoln Memorial, August 28... May 3rd Constitution (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Cytadela ( Polish for Citadel) is a 19th-century fortress in Warsaw, Poland. ...


Later Dmowski headed the National League (Liga Narodowa). In 1895 he settled in Lemberg, Austria-Hungary (modern Lviv, Ukraine; known as Lwów to the Poles), and in 1897 co-founded the National-Democratic Party (Stronnictwo Narodowo-Demokratyczne or Endecja). The Endecja was to serve as a political party, a lobbying group and an underground organization that would unite Poles inclined to Dmowski’s views into highly disciplined and committed political group.[1] In 1899, Dmowski founded the Society for National Education as an ancillary group.[2] A brilliant biologist, he won much prestige within the Polish community with his scientific accomplishments. In 1898-1900 he resided in France and Britain. In the face of an ascendant Germany, he argued for tactical Polish cooperation with Tsarist Russia and brought about a pro-Russian reorientation within the National-Democratic Party. In 1901 he returned to Austrian partition of Poland, taking up residence in Kraków. This article refers to the American baseball league. ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Lviv ( Львів in Ukrainian; Львов, Lvov in Russian; Lwów in Polish; Leopolis in Latin; Lemberg in German—see also cities alternative names) is a city in western Ukraine with 830,000 inhabitants (an additional 200,000 commute daily from suburbs). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Lviv (Ukrainian: Львів, L’viv ; see Cities alternative names#L for other names) is a city in western Ukraine, the capital city of the Lviv Oblast (province) and one of the main cultural centres of Ukraine. ... Motto: Semper fidelis Oblast Lviv Oblast Municipal government City council (Львівська міська рада) Mayor City chairman Lyubomyr Bunyak Area 171,01 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 808,900 ? 4786/km² Founded City rights 13th century 1353 Latitude Longitude 49°51′ N 24°01′ E Area code +0322 Car plates  ? Twin towns Corning, Freiburg... The National Democratic Party was a pre-WWII Polish right-wing political party co-founded by Roman Dmowski. ... The National Democratic Party was a pre-WWII Polish right-wing political party co-founded by Roman Dmowski. ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... A biologist is a scientist devoted to and producing results in biology through the study of organisms. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Co-operation refers to the practice of people or greater entities working in common with commonly agreed-upon goals and possibly methods, instead of working separately in competition. ... Росси́йская Импе́рия, (also Imperial Russia) covers the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great into the Russian Empire stretching from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposition of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start of the Russian Revolution... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Tomb of Kazimierz the Great St. ...


Upon the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, Dmowski traveled to Japan in a successful effort to prevent her from providing Jozef Piłsudski with Japanese assistance for a planned insurrection in Poland, an insurrection which Dmowski felt would be doomed to failure.[3] Insert non-formatted text here Combatants Imperial Russia Empire of Japan Strength 500,000 Soldiers 400,000 Soldiers Casualties 25,331 Killed 146,032 Wounded 47,387 Killed 173,425 Wounded Greater Manchuria, Russian (outer) Manchuria is region to upper right in lighter Red; Liaodong Peninsula is the wedge extending... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In 1905 Dmowski moved to Warsaw, at the time part of the Russian partition of Poland. During the Russian Revolution of 1905, Dmowski favoured co-operation with the Imperial Russian authorities and welcomed Nicholas II's October Manifesto of 1905 as a step in the road towards renewed Polish autonomy.[4] During the revolt in Łódź in June 1905, the Endeks, acting under Dmowski's orders, opposed the uprising led by Piłsudski's Polish Socialist Party.[5] Indeed, over the course of the "June Days," as the Łódź uprising is known, a miniature civil war raged with Endek.[6] 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an empire-wide spasm of both anti-government and undirected violence. ... Nicholas II of Russia (18 May 1868 - 17 July 1918) (Russian: (Nikolai II)) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Łódź (pronunciation: ), Polands third-largest city (population 776,297 in 2004), lies in the center of the country. ...


Some sources says that Dmowski was an secret agent of Ochrana. Tsar’s secret police used information that Dmowski is homosexual to blackmail him and sandbag to cooperate. This information were never officially confirmed. The Okhrannoye otdeleniye (Russian: , meaning Security Section or Security Station), also the Okhrana or Tsarist Okhranka in Western sources, or diminutive Okhranka by those dissatisfied with the tsarist regime, was a secret police force of the Russian Empire and part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) in late 1800s...


For the elections of the First Duma -- boycotted by the PPS -- the Endeks won 34 out of the 55 seats allocated to Poland.[7] Dmowski himself was a deputy to the Second and Third Russian Dumas and president of the Polish club within it. Before 1914, Dmowski was prepared to settle for Polish autonomy within the Russian Empire, as he believed that an independent Poland would swiftly become dominated by Germany, as Germans (in his view) had a better developed state and stronger social organisation. In light of what he regarded as German superiority, Dmowski felt that a strong Russia was Poland's best protection, and best chance for reuniting all Polish territories under one rule. In Dmowski's view the Russian policy of Russification was impossible against Poles, while Germans would be far more successful in their Germanisation. Dmowski's great rival Józef Piłsudski argued that Russia was a greater threat to the Poles than either Germany or Austria-Hungary [e.g. "With the Germans, we lose our land. With the Russians, we lose our soul".] Chamber of Deputies is the name given to a legislative body, which may either be the lower house of a bicameral legislature, or the name of a unicameral one. ... A Duma (Ду́ма in Russian) is any of various representative assemblies in modern Russia and Russian history. ... Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Polish Leader Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania Date of death... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...


Throughout his life, Dmowski deeply disliked Piłsudski and everything he stood for.[8] Dmowski came from an impoverished urban background and had little fondness for Poland's traditional social structure.[9] Instead, Dmowski favored a modernizing program and felt Poles should stop looking back nostalgically at the old Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which Dmowski held in deep contempt and should instead embrace the "modern world."[10] In particular, Dmowski despised the old Commonwealth for its multi-national structure and religious tolerance.[11] He was especially critical of its failure to create a common identity for various ethnic groups, such as Ukrainians and Belarussians. Dmowski adored science and preferred logic and reason over emotion and passion.[12] Dmowski once told Ignacy Jan Paderewski that music was "mere noise".[13] Dmowski felt very strongly that Poles should abandon what he considered to be foolish romantic nationalism and useless gestures of defiance and should instead work hard at becoming businessmen and scientists.[14] Dmowski was very much influenced by Social Darwinist, then popular in the Western world and saw life as a merciless struggle between "strong" nations who dominated and "weak" nations who were dominated.[15] In his view nations could be classified in four categories : Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Ignacy Jan Paderewski Ignacy Jan Paderewski (November 6, 1860 – June 29, 1941) was a Polish pianist, composer, diplomat and politician, the third Prime Minister of Poland. ... Music is a form of expression in the medium of time using the structures of tones and silence. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

  • 1 Nations on the lowest scale of being able or desiring to become independent and self-governing for example in Dmowski's view the Belarussians.
  • 2 Nations capable of self-governing themselves with awakened nationalistic aspirations-for example Ukrainians
  • 3 Nations wishing to regain independence with centuries-old cultures and statehoods past (e.g. Poles).
  • 4 Nations on the highest ladder of social development and tradition, possessing a country currently (e.g. Germans).

In his 1902 book Mysli nowoczesnego Polaka (Thoughts of a Modern Pole), Dmowski denounced all forms of Polish Romantic nationalism and traditional Polish values.[16] He sharply criticized the idea of Poland as a spiritual concept and as a cultural idea.[17] Instead Dmowski argued that Poland was a merely a physical entity that needed to be brought into existence through pragmatic bargaining and negotiating, not via what Dmowski considered to be pointless revolts doomed to failure before they even began against the partitioning powers.[18] For Dmowski, what the Poles needed was a “healthy national egoism” that would not be guided by what Dmowski regarded as the unrealistic political principles of Christianity.[19] In the same book, Dmowski blamed the fall of the old Commonwealth in its tradition of tolerance.[20] While critical of Christianity, Dmowski viewed some sub-groups of Christianity (other than Catholicism) as beneficial to certain nations. This was particularly true of Anglicanism and German Protestantism. Later in 1927 he revised this earlier views and renounced his criticism of Catholicism, seeing it as an essential part of Polish identity. Dmowski saw all minorities as weakening agents within the nation that needed to be purged.[21] In regards to the Jewish minority, in Mysli nowoczesnego Polaka, Dmowski wrote "...in the character of this race [the Jews], so many different values strange to our moral constitution and harmful to our life have accumulated that assimilation with a larger number of Jews would destroy us, replacing us with decadent elements, rather than with those young creative foundations upon which we are building the future".[22] 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recounted in the Gospels. ...


In 1914 Dmowski praised the Grand Duke Nicholas's Proclamation of August 15, 1914 which vaguely assured the Czar's Polish subjects that there would be greater autonomy for "Congress Poland" after the war, and that the Austrian provinces of East and West Galicia together with Pomerania province of Prussia would be annexed to the Kingdom of Poland when the German Empire and Austria-Hungary were defeated.[23] However, subsequent attempts on the part of Dmowski to have the Russians make firmer commitments along the lines of the Grand Duke Nicholas’s Proclamation were met with elusive answers.[24] Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich Grand Duke Nikolai (Nicholas) Nikolayevich Romanov (Russian: Николай Николаевич Романов (младший - the younger)) (6 November 1856 - 5 January 1929) was a Russian general in World War I. A grandson of Nicholas I of Russia, he was commander in chief of the Russian armies on the main... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Coat-of-arms of Galicia Galicia is a historical region currently split between Poland and Ukraine. ... Historic Pomerania (outlined in yellow) on the background of modern country borders. ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... Flag of the German Empire, 1871–1918: black-white-red The German Empire is the name conventionally given in English to the German state from the time of the proclamation of Wilhelm I of Prussia as German Emperor (January 18, 1871) to the abdication of Wilhelm II (November 9, 1918). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...


In 1915 Dmowski went abroad to campaign on behalf of Poland in the capitals of the western Allies. During his lobbying efforts, his friends included such opinion makers as the British journalist Wickham Steed. In particular, Dmowski was very successful in France, where made a very favourable impression on public opinion.[25] In 1917, in Paris, he created a Polish National Committee aimed at rebuilding a Polish state. In September 1917, the Polish National Committee was recognized by the French as the legitimate government of Poland.[26] The British and the Americans were less enthusiastic about Dmowski's National Committee, but likewise recognized it as Poland's government in 1918.[27] However, the Americans refused to provide backing for what they regarded as Dmowski's excessive territorial claims. The American President Woodrow Wilson reported "I saw M. Dmowski and M. Paderewsi in Washington, and I asked them to define Poland for me, as they understood it, and they presented me with a map in which they claimed a large part of the earth".[28] 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... When spelt with a capital A, Allies usually denotes the countries supporting the Triple Entente who fought together against the Central Powers in World War I and against the Axis Powers in World War II. For more information, see the related articles: Allies of World War I and Allies of... H. Wickham Stickum Steed full name Henry Wickham Steed (October 10, 1871 - January 13, 1956) was a British journalist and historian and was also one of the first English speakers to sound the warning bells about the new German Chancellor Adolf HItler. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... The Eiffel Tower, the international symbol of the city, as viewed from the Trocadéro This article is about the capital and largest city in France. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was the 28th President of the United States (1913–1921). ...


In part, Wilson's objections stemmed from dislike of Dmowski personally. One British diplomat stated, "he was a clever man, and clever men are distrusted: he was logical in his political theories and we hate logic: and he was persistent with a tenacity which was calculated to drive everybody mad".[29] Another area of objection to Dmowski was to his anti-semitic remarks, as in a speech he delivered at a dinner organized by the writer G. K. Chesterton, that began with the words, "my religion came from Jesus Christ, who was murdered by the Jews".[30] A number of American and British Jewish organizations campaigned during the war against their governments recognizing the National Committee.[31] Another leading critic of Dmowski was the historian Sir Lewis Namier, who served as the British Foreign Office's resident expert on Poland during the war and who claimed to be personally offended by anti-semitic remarks made by Dmowski. Namier fought hard against British recognition of Dmowski and "his chauvinist gang".[32] G.K. Chesterton Gilbert Keith Chesterton (29 May 1874 – 14 June 1936) was a prolific English writer of the early 20th century. ... Sir Lewis Bernstein Namier (June 27, 1888 - August 19, 1960) was a significant British historian. ...


At the end of World War One, two governments claimed to be the legitimate governments of Poland: Dmowski's in Paris and Piłsudski's in Warsaw. To put an end to the rival claims of Piłsudski and Dmowski, the composer Ignacy Jan Paderewski met with both men and persuaded them to reluctantly join forces.[33]. Both men had something that the other needed. Piłsudski was in possession of Poland after the War, but as the Pole who fought with the Austrians for the Central Powers and against the Russians during the war, he was distrusted by the Allies. Piłsudski's newly reborn Polish Army needed arms from the Allies, something that only Dmowski could persuade the Allies to deliver upon[34]. Beyond that, the French were planning to send the Blue Army of General Józef Haller de Hallenburg -- loyal to Dmowski -- back to Poland. The fear was that if Piłsudski and Dmowski did not put aside their differences, a civil war might break out between the partisans of Piłsudski and Dmowski[35]. Paderewski was successful in working a compromise in which Dmowski and himself were to represent Poland at the Paris Peace Conference while Piłsudski was to serve as provisional president of Poland[36]. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The Eiffel Tower, the international symbol of the city, as viewed from the Trocadéro This article is about the capital and largest city in France. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Ignacy Jan Paderewski Ignacy Jan Paderewski (November 6, 1860 – June 29, 1941) was a Polish pianist, composer, diplomat and politician, the third Prime Minister of Poland. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Triple Alliance. ... Polish Army (Polish Wojsko Polskie) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland. ... General Józef Haller in front of the troops Blue Army or Hallers Army are informal names for the Polish Army formed in France during the later stages of World War I. The army was created in June of 1917 as part of the Polish units allied to the Entente. ... Józef Haller Józef Haller de Hallenburg (August 13, 1873 - June 4, 1960) was a Polish general and politician. ... The Paris Peace Conference was an international conference, organized by the victors of the World War I for negotiating the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and their former enemies. ...


As a Polish delegate at the Paris Peace Conference and a signer of the Versailles Treaty, Dmowski exerted a substantial influence on the Treaty's favorable decisions regarding Poland. On January 29, 1919, Dmowski met with the Supreme Council of the Allies for the first time. At the meeting, Dmowski stated that he had little interest in laying claim to areas of Ukraine and Lithuania that were formerly part of Poland, but no longer had a Polish majority. At the same time Dmowski strongly pressed for the return of Polish territories with Polish-speaking majorities taken by Prussia from Poland in 1790s. Dmowski himself admitted that from a purely historical point of view, the Polish claims to Silesia were not entirely strong, but he claimed it for Poland on economic grounds, especially the coal fields[37]. Moreover, Dmowski claimed that German statistics had lied about the number of ethnic Poles living in eastern Germany and that, "these Poles were some of the most educated and highly cultured in the nation, with a strong sense of nationality and men of progressive ideas"[38]. In addition, Dmowski, with the strong backing of the French, wanted to send the "Blue Army" to Poland via Danzig, Germany (modern Gdańsk, Poland); it was the intention of both Dmowski and the French that the Blue Army create a territorial fait accompli[39]. This proposal created much opposition from the Germans, the British and the Americans, and finally the Blue Army was sent to Poland in April 1919 via land [40]. Piłsudski was opposed to needlessly annoying the Allies, and it has been suggested that he did not care much about the Danzig issue[41]. A delegate is an individual (or a member of a group called a delegation) who represents the interests of a larger organization (e. ... The Paris Peace Conference was an international conference, organized by the victors of the World War I for negotiating the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and their former enemies. ... Woodrow Wilson with the American Peace Commissioners The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 is the peace treaty created as a result of six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 which put an official end to World War I between the Allies and Central Powers. ... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Coal (previously referred to as pitcoal or seacoal) is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by underground mining or open-pit mining (surface mining). ... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... GdaÅ„sk (Polish pronunciation: (?); German: ; Kashubian: GduÅ„sk; Latin: Gedania; older English Dantzig also other languages) is the sixth-largest city in Poland, and also its principal seaport and the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodship. ...


In regards to Lithuania, Dmowski didn't view Lithuanians as having a strong national identity, and viewed their social organisation as tribal. Those areas of Lithuania that had either Polish majorities or minorities were claimed by Dmowski on the grounds of self-determination. In the areas with Polish minorities, the Poles would act as a civilizing influence; only the northern part of Lithuania, which had a solid Lithuanian majority, was Dmowski willing to concede to the Lithuanians[42]. These claims caused Dmowski to have very acrimonious disputes with the Lithuanian delegation at Paris[43]. With regard to the former Austrian province of East Galicia, Dmowski claimed that the local Ukrainians were quite incapable of ruling themselves and also required the civilizing influence of Polish leadership[44]. In addition, Dmowski wished to acquire the oil-fields of Galica[45]. However, only the French supported Polish claims to Galica wholeheartedly. In the end, it was the actual fighting on the ground in Galica, and not the decisions of the diplomats in Paris, that decided that the region would be part of Poland[46]. The French did not back Dmowski's aspirations in the Teschen area, and instead supported the claims of Czechoslovak.[47] Coat-of-arms of Galicia Galicia is a historical region currently split between Poland and Ukraine. ... Teschen is the German name of a city at the Olza River that is currently divided into the separate towns of Cieszyn (Poland) and Český Těšín (Czech Republic). ... Czechoslovakia (Czech: Československo, Slovak: Česko-Slovensko/before 1990 Československo) was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1918 until early 1993 (with government-in-exile during the World War II period). ...


Dmowski himself was disappointed with the Treaty of Versailles, partly because he was strongly opposed to the Minorities Treaty imposed on Poland and partly because he wanted the German-Polish border to be somewhat farther to the west then what the Versailles had allowed. Both of these disappointments Dmowski blamed on what Dmowski claimed what the "international Jewish conspiracy". Throughout his life, Dmowski maintained that the British Prime Minister David Lloyd George had been bribed by a syndicate of German-Jewish financiers to give Poland what Dmowski considered to be an unfavourable frontier with Germany. Dmowski's relations with Lloyd George were very poor. Dmowski found Lloyd George to be arrogant, unscrupulous and a consistent advocate of ruling against Polish claims to the West and the East[48]. Dmowski was very offended by Lloyd George's ignorance of Polish affairs and in particular was enraged by Lloyd George's lack of knowledge about river traffic on the Vistula[49]. Dmowski called Lloyd George "the agent of the Jews"[50]. David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman and the last member of the Liberal Party to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The Vistula (Polish: Wisła) is the longest river in Poland. ...


A political opponent of Józef Piłsudski, Dmowski favored what he called a "national state," a state in which the citizens would speak Polish and be of the Roman Catholic faith. If Piłsudski's vision of Poland was Jagiellon, a multinational federation (Międzymorze federation), Dmowski's vision was the earlier Piast, ethnically and religiously homogeneous. Piłsudski believed in a wide definition of Polish citizenship in which peoples of different languages, cultures and faiths were to be united by a common loyalty to the reborn Polish state. Dmowski regarded Piłsudski's views as dangerous nonsense, and felt that the presence of large number of ethnic minorities would undermine the security of Polish state. At the Paris Peace Conference, he argued strenuously against the Minority Rights Treaty forced on Poland by the Allies. Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Polish Leader Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania Date of death... The Jagiellon Era 1385-1572, was dominated by the union of Poland with Lithuania under the Jagiellon Dynasty, founded by the Lithuanian grand duke Jagiello. ... The word multinational can refer to: A Multinational corporation A Multinational State This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... MiÄ™dzymorze (Myen-dzih-MOH-zheh): name for Józef PiÅ‚sudskis proposed federation of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. ... In the first centuries of its existence, the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christendom, created a strong Central European state, and integrated Poland into European culture. ... The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 was a conference, organized by the victors of World War I to negotiate the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and the defeated Central Powers. ...


Dmowski was an anti-Semitic, and Social Darwinist who saw life as a zero-sum game in which any gain made by one group came at the expense of another. Dmowski often stated his belief in a "international Jewish conspiracy" aimed against Poland. In his essay "Źydzi wobec wojny", which comprises pages 301-308 of his 1926 book Polityka Polska i odbudowanie państwa, Dmowski claimed that Zionism was only a cloak to disguise the Jewish ambition to rule the world. Dmowski asserted that once a Jewish state was established in Palestine, this would serve as a nucleus for the Jewish take-over of the world.[51] In the same essay, Dmowski accused the Jews of being Poland's most dangerous enemy and of working hand in hand with the Germans to dismember Poland.[52] The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Poster promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s: Toward a New Life (in Romanian),The Promised Land (in Hungarian), in small (down) text is written First Palestinian sound movie 1844 Discourse on the Restoration of the Jews by Mordecai Noah, page one. ... Palestine (Hebrew: Eretz Israel, Arabic: ‎ FilastÄ«n or FalastÄ«n, see also Land of Israel) is one of many historical names for the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the banks of the Jordan River, plus various adjoining lands to the east and south. ...


For Dmowski, one of Poland's principal problems was that not enough Polish-speaking Catholics were middle-class, while too many ethnic Germans and Jews were. To remedy this perceived problem, he favored a policy of confiscating the wealth of Jews and ethnic Germans and redistributing it to Polish Catholics. Dmowski was never able to have this program passed into law by the Sejm, but the National Democrats did frequently organize "Buy Polish" boycott campaigns against German and Jewish shops. The first of Dmowski's anti-Semitic boycotts had organized in 1912 when he attempted to organize a total boycott of Jewish businesses in Warsaw as "punishment" for the defeat of some Endek candidates in the elections for the Duma, which Dmowski blamed on the Warsaw's Jewish population[53]. Throughout his life, Dmowski associated Jews with Germans as Poland's principle enemies; the origins of this identification steams from Dmowski's deep anger over the forcible "Germanization" policies carried by the German government against its Polish minority during the Imperial period, and over the fact that most Jews living in the disputed German/Polish territories had chosen to assimilate into German culture, not Polish culture[54]. In Dmowski's opinion Jewish community was not attracted to the cause of Polish independence and was likely to ally itself with potential enemies of Polish state if it would benefit their status [55]. A boycott is an action undertaken to abstain from using, buying, or dealing with someone or some organisation as an expression of protest or as a means of coercion. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Flag of the German Empire, 1871–1918: black-white-red The German Empire is the name conventionally given in English to the German state from the time of the proclamation of Wilhelm I of Prussia as German Emperor (January 18, 1871) to the abdication of Wilhelm II (November 9, 1918). ...


Dmowski was a deputy to the 1919 Sejm and minister of foreign affairs from October to December 1923. When it came time to write a Polish constitution in the early 1920s, the National Democrats insisted upon a weak presidency and strong legislative branch. Dmowski was convinced that Piłsudski would become president, and saw a weak executive mandate as the best way of crippling his rival. The constitution of 1921 did indeed outline a government with a weak executive branch, and a disgusted Piłsudski refused to seek the presidency. Instead, Piłsudski persuaded a friend of his, Gabriel Narutowicz to run for President. When Narutowicz was elected President by the Sejm in 1922, Dmowski was outraged. Narutowicz was elected with the support of the parties representing the Jewish, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Lithuanian and German minorities. In Dmowski's view, only those parties representing those of the Roman Catholic faith and of Polish language and culture should have been allowed to elect the President. After Narutowicz's election, the National Democrats started a major campaign of vilification of the “Jewish president” elected by “foreigners”. Subsequently, a National Democrat named Eligiusz Niewiadomski assassinated Narutowicz. 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the lower chamber of Polish parliament. ... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a cabinet minister that helps to form foreign policy for sovereign nations. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Term of office from December 9, 1922, until December 16, 1922 Profession Engineer, university professor Political party nonpartisan Spouse Date of birth March 17, 1865 Place of birth Telsze (in todays Lithuania) Date of death December 16, 1922 Place of death Warsaw, Poland Gabriel Narutowicz, born on March 17... Eligiusz Niewiadomski (1869-1923) was a Polish modernist painter and art critic. ...


In 1926 Dmowski founded the Camp of Great Poland (Obóz Wielkiej Polski), and in 1928 the National Party (Stronnictwo Narodowe). In 1934, a section of the youth wing of the Endecja found Dmowski insufficiently anti-Semitic for their taste and broke away to found the more radical National Radical Camp (known by its Polish acronym as the ONR)[56]. Dmowski had long advocated emigration of the entire Jewish population of Poland as the solution to what Dmowski regarded as Poland's "Jewish problem"[57], came to argue for increasing harsh measures against the Jewish minority[58], though Dmowski never advocated killing Jews[59]. Dmowski's last major campaign was a series of attacks on the alleged "Judo-Masonic" associates of President Ignacy Mościcki [60]. 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Office Term of office from June 1, 1926, until September 30, 1939 Profession Professor of chemistry Political party none (until 1892, Proletariat) Spouse Maria, née DobrzaÅ„ska Date of birth December 1, 1867 Place of birth Mierzanów, Poland Date of death October 2, 1946 Place of death Versoix...


Dmowski died January 2, 1939, in Drozdowo, near Łomża, where he had spent the last few years of his life. He never married. January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Łomża is a town in north-eastern Poland, located approx. ...


Writings

  • Mysli nowoczesnego Polaka (Thoughts of a Modern Pole), 1902.
  • Niemcy, Rosja a sprawa polska (Germany, Russia and the Polish Cause), 1908.
  • Upadek mysli konserwatywnej w Polsce (The Decline of Conservative Thought in Poland), 1914.
  • Polityka polska i odbudowanie panstwa (Polish Politics and the Rebuilding of the State), 1925.

See also

Combatants Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Second Polish Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Joseph Stalin Józef Piłsudski Edward Rydz-Śmigły Strength 950,000 including reserves 5 million 360,000 including reserves 738,000 Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 100,000 - 150,000 Unknown, dead estimated at...

References

  1. ^ Zamoyski, Adam The Polish Way page 329.
  2. ^ Ibid pages 329-330.
  3. ^ Ibid page 330.
  4. ^ Ibid.
  5. ^ Ibid.
  6. ^ Ibid.
  7. ^ Ibid page 332.
  8. ^ Macmillan, Margaret Paris 1919 page 209.
  9. ^ Ibid.
  10. ^ Ibid.
  11. ^ Ibid.
  12. ^ Ibid.
  13. ^ Ibid.
  14. ^ Ibid.
  15. ^ Ibid.
  16. ^ Zamoyski, Adam The Polish Way page 329.
  17. ^ Ibid.
  18. ^ Ibid.
  19. ^ Ibid.
  20. ^ Ibid.
  21. ^ Ibid.
  22. ^ Mendelsohn, Ezra The Jews of East Central Europe page 38.
  23. ^ Zamoyski, Adam The Polish Way page 333.
  24. ^ Ibid.
  25. ^ Ibid page 334.
  26. ^ Ibid.
  27. ^ Macmillan, Margaret Paris 1919 pages 209-210 & 212.
  28. ^ Ibid pages 212-213.
  29. ^ Ibid page 210.
  30. ^ Ibid page 212.
  31. ^ Ibid.
  32. ^ Ibid.
  33. ^ Ibid page 213.
  34. ^ Ibid pages 213-214.
  35. ^ Ibid page 214.
  36. ^ Ibid pages 213-214.
  37. ^ Ibid.
  38. ^ Ibid.
  39. ^ Ibid.
  40. ^ Ibid.
  41. ^ Lundgreen-Nielsen, K. The Polish Problem at the Paris Peace Conference pages 131-134 & pages 231-233
  42. ^ Ibid.
  43. ^ Ibid pages 223-224.
  44. ^ Ibid page 225.
  45. ^ Ibid page 225.
  46. ^ Ibid pages 225-226.
  47. ^ Ibid pages 238-240.
  48. ^ Ibid page 217.
  49. ^ Ibid.
  50. ^ Ibid.
  51. ^ Mendelsohn, Ezra The Jews of East Central Europe pages 38 & 261.
  52. ^ Ibid page 38.
  53. ^ Ibid page 21.
  54. ^ Ibid page 41.
  55. ^ Ibid.
  56. ^ Ibid pages 68-70.
  57. ^ Ibid page 39.
  58. ^ Ibid page 70.
  59. ^ Zamoyski, Adam The Polish Way page 347.
  60. ^ Ibid.

Further reading

  • Cang, Joel "The Opposition Parties in Poland and Their Attitude towards the Jews and the Jewish Question" pages 241-256 from Jewish Social Studies, Volume 1, Issue #2, 1939.
  • Davies, Norman "Lloyd George and Poland, 1919-20"" from Journal of Contemporary History, Volume 6, Issue 3, 1971.
  • Fountain, Alvin Marcus Roman Dmowski: Party, Tactics, Ideology 1895-1907, Boulder : East European Monographs, 1980 ISBN 0914710532.
  • Groth, Alexander "Dmowski, Pilsudski and Ethnic Conflict in Pre-1939 Poland" pages 69-91 from Canadian Slavic Studies, Volume 3, 1969.
  • Kormarnicki, Titus Rebirth of the Polish Republic: A Study in the Diplomatic History of Europe, 1914-1920, London, 1957.
  • Lundgreen-Nielsen, K. The Polish Problem at the Paris Peace Conference: A Study in the Policies of the Great Powers and the Poles, 1918-1919: Odense, 1979.
  • Macmillan, Margaret Paris 1919 : Six Months That Changed The World, New York : Random House, 2003, 2002, 2001 ISBN 0375508260.
  • Mendelsohn, Ezra The Jews of East Central Europe Between The World Wars, Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 1983 ISBN 0253331609.
  • Wandycz, Piotr Stefen "Dmowski's Policy and the Paris Peace Conference: Success or Failure?" from The Reconstruction of Poland, 1914-23, edited by P. Latawski: London, 1992.
  • Zamoyski, Adam The Polish Way A Thousand-Year History of the Poles and their Culture, London: John Murray Ltd, 1987 ISBN 0719546745.
  • Porter, Brian, When Nationalism Began to Hate. Imagining Modern Politics in Nineteenth-Century Poland, New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0195151879


Prof. ... Margaret Olwen MacMillan OC (born 1943 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada) is a historian and professor at the University of Toronto and is also Provost of Trinity College. ... Adam Zamoyski - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...

edit Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Poland Coat of Arms of Poland
2nd Republic of Poland (1918 - 1939) Leon Wasilewski | Ignacy Jan Paderewski | Władysław Wróblewski | Stanisław Patek | Eustachy Sapieha | Jan Dąbski | Konstanty Skirmunt | Gabriel Narutowicz | Aleksander Skrzyński | Marian Seyda | Roman Dmowski | Karol Bertoni | Maurycy Zamoyski | Aleksander Skrzyński | Kajetan Dzierżykraj-Morawski | August Zaleski | Józef Beck
Government in Exile (1939 - 1990) August Zaleski | Edward Raczyński | Tadeusz Romer | Adam Tarnowski
People's Republic of Poland (1944 - 1989) Edward Osóbka-Morawski | Wincenty Rzymowski | Zygmunt Modzelewski | Stanisław Skrzeszewski | Adam Rapacki | Stefan Jędrychowski | Stefan Olszowski | Emil Wojtaszek | Józef Czyrek | Stefan Olszowski | Marian Orzechowski | Tadeusz Olechowski
3rd Republic of Poland (since 1989) Krzysztof Skubiszewski | Andrzej Olechowski | Władysław Bartoszewski | Dariusz Rosati | Bronisław Geremek | Władysław Bartoszewski | Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz | Adam Daniel Rotfeld | Stefan Meller | Anna Fotyga


This is a list Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Poland. ... Image File history File links Herb_Polski. ... The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and... Ignacy Jan Paderewski Ignacy Jan Paderewski (November 6, 1860 – June 29, 1941) was a Polish pianist, composer, diplomat and politician, the third Prime Minister of Poland. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Wróblewski (1875-1951) was a Polish politician, scientist, diplomat and lawyer. ... Jan DÄ…bski (b. ... Term of office from December 9, 1922, until December 16, 1922 Profession Engineer, university professor Political party nonpartisan Spouse Date of birth March 17, 1865 Place of birth Telsze (in todays Lithuania) Date of death December 16, 1922 Place of death Warsaw, Poland Gabriel Narutowicz, born on March 17... Aleksander Skrzynski (1882-1931) was a Polish politician who served as prime minister from 1925 to 1926. ... Noble Family Zamoyski Coat of Arms Jelita Parents Tomasz Franciszek Zamoyski Maria Potocka Consorts Maria Róża Sapieha Children with Maria Róża Sapieha Maria Zamoyska Zofia Zamoyska Róża Zamoyska Jan Zamoyski Andrzej Zamoyski Władysław Marek Zamoyski Anna Zamoyska Paweł Zamoyski Teresa Zamoyska Krystyna Zamoyska Date of Birth July 30, 1871 Place... Aleksander Skrzynski (1882-1931) was a Polish politician who served as prime minister from 1925 to 1926. ... August Zaleski (b. ... Józef Beck Józef Beck (October 4, 1894 - June 5, 1944) was a Polish statesman, diplomat, military officer, and close associate of Józef PiÅ‚sudski. ... The Government of the Polish Republic in exile was the government of Poland after the German occupation of Poland in September 1939. ... August Zaleski (b. ... Term of office from 1979 until 1986 Profession Lawyer Political party none Spouse Date of birth July 19, 1891 Place of birth Zakopane Date of death July 30, 1993 Place of death London Edward RaczyÅ„ski (1891-1993) was a Polish aristocrat, diplomat, politician and President of Poland in exile... The Peoples Republic of Poland or Polish Peoples Republic (Polish: Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) was the official name of Poland from 1952 to 1989, during its period of rule by the Communist party, officially called the Polish United Workers Party (Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, or PZPR). ... Edward Osóbka-Morawski (1909-1997) was a Polish politician who served as Prime Minister of the Communist Lublin government, and then of Poland, from January 1945 to 1947. ... Adam Rapacki (born 24th of December 1909 in Lwow, died 10th of October 1970 in Warsaw), was a Polish politician and diplomate. ... The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and... Andrzej Olechowski (b. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Bartoszewski WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Bartoszewski (b. ... Dariusz Rosati (born August 8, 1946 in Radom) is a Polish professor of economics, politician and member of the European Parliament (elected on 13 June 2004). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Bartoszewski WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Bartoszewski (b. ... WÅ‚odzimierz Cimoszewicz (born September 13, 1950 in Warsaw, Poland) is a renowned Polish politician, the Prime Minister of Poland from 1996 to autumn 1997, the Foreign Minister of Poland in the governments of Leszek Miller (2001-2004) and Marek Belka (2004-2005) , and speaker of the Sejm (lower chamber... Adam Daniel Rotfeld Adam Daniel Rotfeld (b. ... Stefan Meller (born July 4, 1942, Lyon, France) is a Polish diplomat. ... Anna Elzbieta Fotyga (born 12 January 1957) is a Polish economist, politician, foreign minister of Poland in the cabinet of Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz (since 9 May 2006, and former Member of the European Parliament (elected on 13 June 2004) Fotyga is a graduate of international trade in GdaÅ„sk University and...


 
 

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