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Encyclopedia > Roman Curia
Holy See

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the Vatican City
Vatican City flag Politics of the Vatican City takes place in a framework of an absolute elect-monarchy, in which the head of the Roman Catholic Church, the Pope, exercises supreme legislative, executive, and judicial power over the Holy See and the State of the Vatican City, a rare case...



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The Roman Curia — usually called the Vatican — is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. It is generally considered as representing the international government of the Catholic Church. The current Pope is Benedict XVI (born Joseph Alois Ratzinger), who was elected at the age of 78 on 19 April 2005. ... This article is becoming very long. ... The Secretariat of State is the oldest dicastery in the Roman Curia, the government of the Roman Catholic Church. ... A congregation is a type of dicastery of the Roman Curia, the central administrative organism of the Catholic Church. ... Cardinal Vicar is the title of the the vicar general of the Pope, as Bishop of Rome, for the spiritual administration of the city, and its surrounding district, known in Latin as Vicarius Urbis. ... The Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State is the legislative body of Vatican City. ... The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave. ... The Lateran Treaties of February 11, 1929 provided for the mutual recognition of the then Kingdom of Italy and the Vatican City. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ...


Curia in medieval and later Latin usage means "court" in the sense of "royal court" rather than "court of law". The Roman Curia, then, sometimes anglicized as Roman Court, is the Papal Court, and assists the Pope in carrying out his functions. The Roman Curia can also be loosely compared to cabinets in governments of countries with a Western form of governance, though it only includes a Foreign 'ministry' (the Secetary of State), the secular interal affairs being handled by separate institutions of the Vatican City State, unlike the earlier Papal States. The current Pope is Benedict XVI (born Joseph Alois Ratzinger), who was elected at the age of 78 on 19 April 2005. ... The State of the City of the Vatican or the Vatican City (Latin: Status Civitatis Vaticanae, Italian Stato della Città del Vaticano) is the smallest independent state in the world (both in area and in population), a landlocked enclave surrounded by the city of Rome in Italy. ... Map of the Papal States. ...

Contents

Purpose

In exercising supreme, full, and immediate power in the universal Church, the Roman pontiff makes use of the departments of the Roman Curia which, therefore, perform their duties in his name and with his authority for the good of the churches and in the service of the sacred pastors.

Christus Dominus, 9 Christus Dominus is the Second Vatican Councils Decree on the Pastoral Office of Bishops. ...

History

The Roman Curia was originally established in the 16th Century by Pope Sixtus V with the bull Immensa Aeterni Dei on 22 January 1588. Originally, the Curia had both religious and civil functions, though the latter were greatly transformed in the 19th century when the expansion of the Piedmontese State to include the greater part of Italy included the seizure of most of the Papal States in 1860 and the city of Rome itself in 1870, and hence effectively ended much of the Papacy's temporal power. An agreement was reached on this issue when in 1929 the Holy See concluded the Lateran Treaty with the Italian State, which had since 1919 occupied the whole of the peninsula, plus Sicily and Sardinia. By this act, the Roman Curia gave up any claim to an administrative role in the defunct Papal States, though it has such with regard to the successor Vatican City State. In practice, the Curia is now mainly dedicated to the support of the Pope's ecclesiastical responsibilities. Sixtus V, né Felice Peretti (December 13, 1521 - August 27, 1590) was pope from 1585 to 1590. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of the Papal States. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... By the expression temporal power is commonly indicated the political and governmental activity of the Popes of the Roman Catholic Church, as distinguished from their spiritual and pastoral activity (also called eternal power). ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Lateran Treaties of February 11, 1929 provided for the mutual recognition of the then Kingdom of Italy and the Vatican City. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: Sardegna; Sardinian: Sardigna or Sardinna) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily). ... Map of the Papal States. ... The State of the City of the Vatican or the Vatican City (Latin: Status Civitatis Vaticanae, Italian Stato della Città del Vaticano) is the smallest independent state in the world (both in area and in population), a landlocked enclave surrounded by the city of Rome in Italy. ...


In its long and eventful history, it underwent numerous organizational changes. Among its former components are:

The Apostolic Chancery, also known as Papal - or Roman Chanc(ell)ery, is a former office of the Roman Curia. ... The Apostolic dataria was one of the five Ufficii di Curia which were part of the Roman Curia until its abolition in the 20th century. ... The Secretariate of Briefs to Princes and of Latin Letters, or in short Secretariate of Briefs, was one of the so-called offices of the Roman Curia which were abolished in the 20th century. ... A congregation is a type of dicastery of the Roman Curia, the central administrative organism of the Catholic Church. ... The Congregation for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affiars (Italian: Congregatio de Negotiis Ecclesiasticis Extraordinariis) was a congregation of the Roman Curia, erected in 1793 (as the Congregation Super Negotiis Ecclesiasticis Regni Galliarum) by Pope Pius VI under the jurisdiction of the Cardinal Secretary of State, reorganized by later popes, and finally spun... Venetiis, M. D. LXIIII. The Index Librorum Prohibitorum (List of Prohibited Books) is a list of publications which the Catholic Church censored for being a danger to itself and the faith of its members. ... A congregation is a type of dicastery of the Roman Curia, the central administrative organism of the Catholic Church. ...

Structure

The following organs or charges, according to the official website of the Holy See ([1]), compose the Curia:

It should be noted that it is normal for every Latin Catholic diocese to have a curia in its administration. For the Diocese of Rome, these functions are not handled by the Roman Curia, but by the Vicariate General of His Holiness for the City of Rome, as provided by the Apostolic Constitution Ecclesia in Urbe. The Vicar General, traditionally a Cardinal, and his deputy the Vicegerent, who holds the personal title of Archbishop, supervise the governance of the diocese by reference to the Pope himself, but with no more dependence on the Roman Curia as such than other Catholic dioceses throughout the world. The Secretariat of State is the oldest dicastery in the Roman Curia, the government of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Dicasteries (from Greek: δικαστ, judge/juror) are the central offices of the Roman Curia in which the stewardship of the Roman Catholic Church is entrusted. ... The Cardinal Secretary of State presides over the Vatican Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia. ... A congregation is a type of dicastery of the Roman Curia, the central administrative organism of the Catholic Church. ... The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) (Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) is the oldest of the nine congregations of the Roman Curia. ... Inquisition (capitalized I) is broadly used, to refer to things related to judgment of heresy by the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Congregation for the Oriental Churches (Congregatio pro Ecclesiis Orientalibus) is the congregation of the Roman Curia responsible for contact with the Oriental Catholic Churches for the sake of assisting their development, protecting their rights and also maintaining whole and entire in the one Catholic Church, alongside the liturgical, disciplinary... The Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments (Congregatio de Cultu Divino et Disciplina Sacramentorum) is the congregation of the Roman Curia that handles most affairs relating to liturgical practices of the Latin Catholic Church as distinct from the Eastern Catholic Churches and also some technical matters... The Congregation for the Causes of Saints (Congregatio de Causis Sanctorum) is the congregation of the Roman Curia which oversees the complex process which leads to the canonization of saints, passing through the steps of a declaration of heroic virtues and beatification. ... The headquarters of the Propaganda fide in Rome, North facade on Piazza di Spagna by architect Bernini, the southwest facade seen here by Borromini: etching by Giuseppe Vasi, 1761 [1] The Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples (Congregatio pro Gentium Evangelizatione) is the congregation of the Roman Curia responsibile for... The Congregation for the Clergy (Congregatio pro Clericis) is the congregation of the Roman Curia responsibile for overseeing matters regarding priests and deacons, and overseeing the religious education of all Roman Catholics. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life (Congregatio pro Institutis Vitae Consecratae et Societatibus Vitae Apostolicae) is the congregation of the Roman Curia responsible for everything which concerns institutes of consecrated life (orders and religious congregations, both of men and of women, secular institutes) and... The Congregation for Catholic Education is a dicastery of the Roman curia responsible for: (1) seminaries (except those regulated by the Congregations for the Evangelization of Peoples and for Oriental Churches) and houses of formation of religious and secular institutes; (2) universities, faculties, institutes and higher schools of study, either... The Congregation for Bishops (Congregatio pro Episcopis) is the congregation of the Roman Curia which oversees the selection of new bishops pending papal approval. ... The Apostolic Penitentiary, more formally the Tribunal of the Apostolic Penitentiary, is one of three bodies in the Roman Curia that make up the judiciary within the Holy See. ... The Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura is the administrative appellate tribunal of the Holy See and, consequently, the highest judicial authority of the Roman Catholic Church outside of the Pope himself. ... The Sacra Rota Romana or Sacred Roman Rota is the second highest tribunal of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Pontifical Council may refer to: Pontifical Council Cor Unum, a part of the Curia of the Roman Catholic Church Pontifical Council for Culture, a part of the Roman Curia Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, a dicastery of the Catholic Roman Curia Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, a part of... The Pontifical Council for the Laity has the responsibility of assisting the Pope in his dealings with the laity in lay ecclesial movements or individually, and their contributions to the Church. ... The Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity origins are associated with the Second Vatican Council. ... The Pontifical Council for the Family is part of the Curia of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace (Justitia et Pax) is a part of the Roman Curia dedicated to action-oriented studies for the international promotion of justice, peace, and human rights from the perspective of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Pontifical Council Cor Unum for Human and Christian Development is part of the Curia of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Health Care Workers is part of the Roman Curia with Javier Cardinal Lozano Barragán as its President. ... The Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts is part of the Roman Curia. ... The Catholic Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, was from 1964 (when Pope Paul VI created it) to 1998 called the Secretariat for Non-Christians. ... The Pontifical Council for Culture (Pontificium Consilium de Cultura) dates back to the Second Vatican Council. ... A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine or administration. ... The Apostolic Camera, or in Latin (Reverenda) Camera Apostolica or Apostolica Camera, is the former central board of finance in the papal administrative system, which at one time was of great importance in the government of the States of the Church, and in the administration of justice, lead by the... The Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See is part of the Roman Curia that deals with the properties owned by the Holy See in order to provide the funds necessary for the Roman Curia to function. (Pastor Bonus, 172). ... The Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See is an Office of the Roman Curia that manages the financial investments and budget of Vatican City and the Roman Catholic Church, erected August 15, 1957. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Office for the Liturgical Celebrations of the Supreme Pontiff is described in Pastor Bonus as: § 2. ... The Pontifical Biblical Commission is a committee of Cardinals, aided by consultors, who meet in Rome to ensure the proper interpretation and defense of Sacred Scripture. ... The International Theological Commission is a group of 30 Catholic theologians from around the world. ... The Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei is a commission of the Roman Catholic Church aiming to bring back traditionalist Catholics into communion with Rome, primarily the Society of Saint Pius X. It is headed by Darío Cardinal Castrillón Hoyos. ... The Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State is the legislative body of Vatican City. ... Papal Swiss Guards in traditional uniforms Swiss Guards are Swiss mercenary soldiers who have served as bodyguards, ceremonial guards and palace guards at foreign European courts from the late 15th century until the present day (in the form of the Papal Swiss Guard). ... A Pontifical university is a Roman Catholic university established by and directly under the authority of the Holy See. ... A vicar general (often abbreviated VG) is the principal deputy of the bishop of a diocese for the exercise of administrative authority. ...


Before the reform, there also existed Hereditary Officers of the Roman Curia. The Roman Court or Papal Curia was reformed by the Bull Pontificalis Domus of 1969. ...


See also

World distribution of major legal traditions The four major legal systems of the world today consist of civil law, common law, customary law, and religious law. ... Vatican City flag Politics of the Vatican City takes place in a framework of an absolute elect-monarchy, in which the head of the Roman Catholic Church, the Pope, exercises supreme legislative, executive, and judicial power over the Holy See and the State of the Vatican City, a rare case...

Sources & external links


  Results from FactBites:
 
ROMAN CURIA (1714 words)
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This is a tribunal of appeal from the Tribunal of the Roman Rota.
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