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Encyclopedia > Roman Catholic Church
Part of a series on the
Roman Catholic Church
Organisation

Pope - Pope Benedict XVI
College of Cardinals
Ecumenical Councils
Episcopal polity
Latin Rite  • Eastern Catholic Churches The name Catholic Church (literally universal church) is used to refer to a number of entities and conceptualizations, viz. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3072x1983, 688 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Vatican City ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... The Sacred College of Cardinals is the body of all Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church established by Pope St. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An... It has been suggested that episcopal be merged into this article or section. ... The Latin Rite is one of the 23 sui iuris particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The...

Background

Christianity
Catholicism
One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church
Apostolic Succession
Virgin birth  • Death  • Resurrection
Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic—from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1]—is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... In Christian theology, One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church is a phrase describing the nature of the Christian community and/or Christian Church, in the various meanings it has. ... In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor to the original body of believers in Christ, composed of the Apostles. ... For the biological phenomenon of female-only reproduction, see Parthenogenesis. ... Bronzinos Deposition of Christ For more details on this topic, see Passion (Christianity). ... The resurrection of Jesus is an event in the New Testament in which God raised him from the dead[1] after his death by crucifixion. ...

Theology

Trinity (Father, Son, Holy Spirit)
History of  • Roman Catholic Theology  • Apologetics
Divine Grace  • Salvation  • Sacraments
Original sin  • Mary  • Saints
This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Christian views of Jesus consist of the teachings and beliefs held by Christian groups about Jesus, including his divinity, humanity, and earthly life. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... This is an overview of the history of theology in Greek thought, Christianity, Judaism and Islam from the time of Christ to the present. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian apologetics is the... In Christianity, divine grace refers to the sovereign favour of God for humankind — especially in regard to salvation — irrespective of actions (deeds), earned worth, or proven goodness. ... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... Catholic sacraments redirects here. ... Original Sin redirects here. ... Saints redirects here. ...

Liturgy and Worship

Catholic Liturgy
Eucharist (Catholic Church) · Liturgy of the Hours
Liturgical Year
Biblical Canon
Roman Rite  • Alexandrian Rite  • Antiochene Rite
Armenian Rite  • Byzantine Rite  • East Syrian Rite
The Catholic Church is fundamentally liturgical and sacramental in its public life of worship. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Liturgy of the Hours is usually recited in full in monastic communities. ... The month of October from a liturgical calendar for Abbotsbury Abbey. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article, refers to the sui juris particular Church of the Roman Catholic Church that developed in the area of western Europe and northern Africa where Latin was for many centuries the language of education and culture. ... The Alexandrian Rite is officially called the Liturgy of Saint Mark, traditionally regarded as the first bishop of Alexandria. ... Antiochene rite designate the family of liturgies originally used in the Patriarchate of Antioch: that of the Apostolic Constitutions; then that of St. ... After the Armenian Apostolic Church, along with the rest of Oriental Orthodoxy formally broke off communion from the Chalcedonian churches, numerous Armenian bishops made attempts to restore communion with the Catholic Church. ... The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called Constantinopolitan, is the liturgical rite used (in various languages) by all the Eastern Orthodox Churches and by several Eastern Catholic Churches. ... The East Syrian Rite is also known as the Chaldean Rite, Assyrian Rite, or Persian Rite. ...

Catholicism Topics

Ecumenism  • Monasticism
Preaching  • Prayer
Music  • Liturgy · Symbols  • Art
The Catholic Church has been heavily involved in the ecumenical movement since the Second Vatican Council (1961-1965). ... Catholic religious orders (Religious Institutes, cf. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christian... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A liturgy is a...

Catholicism Portal

The Roman Catholic Church, often referred to as the Catholic Church, is the world's largest, Christian church, representing over half of all Christians and one sixth of the world's population.[1][2] It is made up of one Western and 22 Eastern Catholic churches and divided into 2,782 jurisdictional areas around the world.[3] The Church looks to the Pope, currently Pope Benedict XVI, as their highest visible authority in matters of faith, morals, and church governance.[4][5] The Church community is composed of an ordained ministry and the laity.[6] Numerous religious communities exist within the Church and are composed of members from each of these groups.[6] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Church. ... The Latin Rite is one of the 23 sui iuris particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... A particular Church, in Catholic theology and Canon law, is any of the individual constituent ecclesial communities in full communion with Rome that are part of the Catholic Church as a whole. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pope. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ...


The primary mission of the Catholic Church is to spread the message of Jesus Christ, found in the four Gospels, and to administer sacraments that aid the spiritual growth of its members.[7] To further its mission, the Church operates social programs and institutions throughout the world. These include schools, universities, hospitals, missions and shelters, as well as Catholic Relief Services and Catholic Charities that help the poor, families, the elderly and the sick.[8][9][10] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... Catholic sacraments redirects here. ... Catholic schools are education ministries of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Catholic Relief Services is a non-governmental organisation (NGO), which attempts to assist the poor and disadvantaged ([1]). It is headquartered in Baltimore, Maryland, while operating numerours field offices on 5 continentsince 1943, Catholic Relief Services (CRS) has held the privilege of serving poor and disadvantaged people overseas. ... Catholic Charities is a worldwide charitable organization whose aim is to reduce poverty, support families, and empower communities. ...


The Catholic Church and some historians assert that, via Apostolic Succession, it is the Christian community founded by Jesus in his act of consecrating Saint Peter.[11][12] Believing itself to be preserved by the Holy Spirit from error in doctrinal matters, the Church has defined its doctrines through various ecumenical councils, following the example set by the first Apostles in the Council of Jerusalem.[13][14][15] Catholic faith is summarized in the Nicene Creed and detailed in the Catechism of the Catholic Church.[16] Formal Catholic worship is ordered by the liturgy, which is regulated by Church authority. The celebration of the Eucharist, one of seven Church sacraments and a key part of every Catholic Mass, is considered the center of Catholic worship.[17] In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor to the original body of believers in Christ, composed of the Apostles. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... St Peter redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An... This article is about the 1st century Council of Jerusalem in Christianity. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


The history of the Catholic Church is virtually inseparable from the history of Western civilization. The Church has affected and shaped the lives and beliefs of Christians and non-Christians alike for almost two thousand years.[18] In the 11th century, the Eastern Church and the Western Church split, largely over disagreements regarding Papal primacy.[19] Eastern churches which maintained or later re-established communion with Rome now form the Eastern Catholic Churches. In the 16th century, partly in response to the Protestant Reformation, the Church engaged in a substantial process of reform and renewal, known as the Counter-Reformation.[20] Although the Catholic Church believes that it is the one, holy, catholic and apostolic church founded by Jesus Christ, the church acknowledges that the Holy Spirit can make use of Christian communities separated from itself to bring people to salvation, and that Catholics are called by the Holy Spirit to work for unity or ecumenism among all Christians.[21][22] Modern challenges faced by the Church include the rise of secularism, and controversy over its opposition to abortion, contraception and euthanasia.[23] The HISTORY of the Catholic Church covers a period of just under two thousand years, making the Church one of the oldest continuously existing religious institutions in history. ... The history of western civilization traces its roots back to the fall of the Roman Empire and continues to the present era in Europe, North America, Australia, and New Zealand // In 476 A.D. the western Roman Empire, which had ruled modern-day Italy, France, Spain, Portugal and England for... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Reformation redirects here. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater religious unity or cooperation. ... Birth control is the practice of preventing or reducing the probability of pregnancy without abstaining from sexual intercourse; the term is also sometimes used to include abortion, the ending of an unwanted pregnancy, or abstinence. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ...

Contents

Origin and mission

Main articles: History of the Roman Catholic Church and History of the Papacy
A 15th-century painting by Pietro Perugino depicting Jesus giving the keys of heaven to the apostle Peter.
A 15th-century painting by Pietro Perugino depicting Jesus giving the keys of heaven to the apostle Peter.

The Catholic Church traces its founding to Jesus and the Twelve Apostles and sees the bishops of the Church as the successors of the apostles, and the pope in particular as the successor of Peter, leader of the apostles.[24][25] The Gospel of Matthew recounts Christ's consecration of Peter in these words "... you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church, and the gates of the netherworld shall not prevail against it. I will give you the keys to the kingdom of heaven. Whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven".[5][26] According to church belief, the coming of the Holy Spirit upon the apostles in an event Christians call Pentecost brought this promised "church" fully into the world.[25] Scholars such as emeritus Fellow and former dean of Peterhouse, Cambridge, Edward Norman agree that the Church was founded by Jesus during his earthly life and believe the historical record reveals that it was considered a Christian doctrinal authority from the beginning.[12] Others like University of Cambridge history professor Eamon Duffy, caution that the insufficient number of clear written records surviving from the early years of Christianity make such precision difficult to confirm. Dismissing a letter from Pope Clement I dated to the year 95 that other historians cite as evidence of a presiding cleric,[27] Duffy questions the concept of apostolic succession and doubts that there was a ruling bishop in the Roman church in the first century.[28] Calling "suspiciously tidy" the first historical document to list the Roman bishops back to Saint Peter which was supplied by Irenaeus in the second century, Duffy states, "there is no sure way to settle on a date by which the office of ruling bishop had emerged in Rome, and so to name the first pope, but the process was certainly complete by the time of Anicetus in the mid-150s, when Polycarp, the aged bishop of Smyrna, visited Rome, and he and Anicetus debated amicably the question of the date of Easter".[29] The HISTORY of the Catholic Church covers a period of just under two thousand years, making the Church one of the oldest continuously existing religious institutions in history. ... The office of the Pope is called the Papacy. ... Self-portrait, 1497–1500. ... Saint Peter holding the Keys of Heaven. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... This article is about the role of bishops in the Roman Catholic Church. ... In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor to the original body of believers in Christ, composed of the Apostles. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. ... College name Peterhouse Named after Saint Peter Established 1284 Previously named The Scholars of the Bishop of Ely Saint Peter’s College Location Trumpington Street Admittance Men and women Master The Lord Wilson of Tillyorn Undergraduates 284 Graduates 130 Sister college Merton College, Oxford Official website Boat Club website Peterhouse... Dr. Edward Norman was Canon Chancellor of York Minster and is an ecclesiastical historian. ... Eamon Duffy is an Irish Professor of the History of Christianity at the University of Cambridge, and former President of Magdalene College. ... Saint Clement I was the Bishop of Rome, and thus pope, from 88 to 99 AD. Also called Clement of Rome and Clemens Romanus, he was the fourth pope, according to Catholic tradition. ... Saint Irenaeus (Greek: Ειρηναίος), (b. ... Anicetus was pope from about 154 to about 167 (the Vaticans list cites 150 or 157 to 153 or 168). ... For other uses, see Polycarp (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Christian festival. ...


The Church believes that its mission is founded upon Christ's biblical command to his followers to spread the faith across the world:[12] "Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you: and Lo, I am with you always, until the close of the age".[30][31][32] Pope Benedict XVI summarized the Church's mission as a three-fold responsibility which includes proclaiming the word of God, celebrating the sacraments, and exercising the ministry of charity. He states that these duties presuppose each other and are inseparable.[33] The Church therefore administers social programs throughout the world. Through Catholic Relief Services, Catholic Charities, Catholic schools, universities, hospitals, shelters, and ministries to the poor, as well as ministries to families, the elderly and the marginalized, the church applies the tenets of Catholic social teaching and tends to the corporal and spiritual needs of others.[9] Pope Benedict XVI (Latin: ; born April 16, 1927 as Joseph Alois Ratzinger in Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany) is the 265th reigning pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City. ... Catholic Relief Services is a non-governmental organisation (NGO), which attempts to assist the poor and disadvantaged ([1]). It is headquartered in Baltimore, Maryland, while operating numerours field offices on 5 continentsince 1943, Catholic Relief Services (CRS) has held the privilege of serving poor and disadvantaged people overseas. ... Catholic Charities is a worldwide charitable organization whose aim is to reduce poverty, support families, and empower communities. ... Catholic schools are education ministries of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Catholic social teaching comprises those aspects of Catholic doctrine which relate to matters dealing with the collective aspect of humanity. ...


Beliefs

Main article: Roman Catholic theology

The Catholic Church is a trinitarian Christian church whose beliefs are detailed in the Catechism of the Catholic Church.[16][34] Catholic teachings have been refined and clarified by major councils of the Church, convened by Church leaders at important points throughout history.[15] The first such council, the Council of Jerusalem was convened by the apostles around the year 50.[14] The most recent was Vatican II, which closed in 1965. This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An... This article is about the 1st century Council of Jerusalem in Christianity. ... The Second Vatican Council, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ...

A 19th century painting by Carl Heinrich Bloch showing Jesus preaching the Sermon on the Mount
A 19th century painting by Carl Heinrich Bloch showing Jesus preaching the Sermon on the Mount

The Catholic Church believes that it is guided by the Holy Spirit, and that it is protected by divine revelation from falling into doctrinal error. It bases this belief on biblical promises that Jesus made to his apostles.[13] In the Gospel of Matthew, Jesus tells Peter, "... the gates of hell will not prevail against" the church,[26] and in the Gospel of John, Jesus states, "I have much more to tell you, but you cannot bear it now. But when he comes, the Spirit of truth, he will guide you to all truth".[35] According to the church, the Holy Spirit reveals God's truth through Sacred Scripture, Sacred Tradition and the Magisterium. Sacred Tradition consists of those beliefs handed down through the church since the time of the Apostles.[36] Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition are collectively known as the deposit of faith. This is in turn interpreted by the Magisterium, or the teaching authority of the Church. The Magisterium includes those pronouncements of the pope that are considered infallible,[37] as well as the pronouncements of ecumenical councils and those of the college of bishops in union with the pope when they condemn false interpretations of scripture or define truths.[37] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Carl Heinrich Bloch (May 23, 1834 – February 22, 1890) was a Danish painter. ... The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... For information on the last book of the New Testament see the entry on the Book of Revelation. ... The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... The Catholic Church bases all of its teachings on Sacred Tradition and Sacred Scripture (The Bible). ... Magisterium (from the Latin magister, teacher) is a technical ecclesiastical term in Catholicism referring to the teaching ability and authority of the Pope and those Bishops who are in union with him. ... In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is the dogma that, by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of error[1] when he solemnly declares or promulgates to the Church a dogmatic teaching on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at... The College of Bishops is an organization consisting of all the bishops in the Roman Catholic Church. ...


According to the Catechism, seven sacraments were instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church.[38] These are Baptism, Confirmation, the Eucharist, Penance, the Anointing of the Sick, Holy Orders and Holy Matrimony. They are vehicles through which God's grace is said to flow into all those who receive them with the proper disposition.[39] The Church encourages individuals to engage in adequate preparation before receiving certain sacraments.[40] Catholic sacraments redirects here. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... confirmed redirects here. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Penance (disambiguation). ... Extreme Unction, part of The Seven Sacraments (1445) by Roger van der Weyden. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Catholic deacon... Ancient Christian Marriage symbol: two gold rings and Greek letters chi (X) and rho (P) for Jesus Christ // The Christian views of marriage historically have regarded marriage as ordained by God for the lifelong union of a man and a woman. ... In Christianity, divine grace refers to the sovereign favour of God for humankind — especially in regard to salvation — irrespective of actions (deeds), earned worth, or proven goodness. ...


The beliefs of other Christian denominations differ from those of Catholics in varying degrees. Eastern Orthodox belief differs mainly with regard to papal infallibility, the filioque clause and the immaculate conception of Mary, but is otherwise quite similar.[41][42] Protestant churches vary in their beliefs, but they generally differ from Catholics regarding the authority of the Pope and church tradition, as well as the role of Mary and the saints, the role of the priesthood, and issues pertaining to grace, good works and salvation.[43] The five solas were one attempt to express these differences. Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is the dogma that, by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of error[1] when he solemnly declares or promulgates to the Church a dogmatic teaching on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at... In Christian theology the filioque clause or filioque controversy (filioque meaning and [from] the son in Latin) is a heavily disputed addition to the Nicene Creed, that forms a divisive difference in particular between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions. ... Mary, mother of Jesus as the Immaculate Conception. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Virgin Mary redirects here. ... Saints redirects here. ... The Ministerial Priesthood in the Catholic Church includes both the orders of bishops and presbyters, which in Latin is sacerdos. ... In Christianity, divine grace refers to the sovereign favour of God for humankind — especially in regard to salvation — irrespective of actions (deeds), earned worth, or proven goodness. ... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... The Five Solas are five Latin phrases (or slogans) that emerged during the Protestant Reformation and summarize the Reformers basic beliefs and emphasis in contradistinction to the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church of the day. ...


Creed

The Nicene Creed, an expansion of the Apostles' Creed, sets out the main principles of Catholic Christian belief.[44] This creed is recited at Sunday Masses as well as at the services of most other Catholic churches.[44][45] It states: Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The...

We believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, of all that is, seen and unseen. We believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only Son of God eternally begotten of the Father, God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God, begotten, not made, one in Being with the Father. Through him all things were made. For us men and for our salvation he came down from heaven: by the power of the Holy Spirit he was born of the Virgin Mary, and became man. For our sake he was crucified under Pontius Pilate; he suffered, died, and was buried. On the third day he rose again in fulfillment of the Scriptures; he ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. He will come again to judge the living and the dead, and his kingdom will have no end. We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son. With the Father and the Son he is worshiped and glorified. He has spoken through the Prophets. We believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church. We acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. We look for the resurrection of the dead and the life of the world to come.

Nicene Creed[46]

Original sin and Baptism

Main article: Original sin
Saint Michael, one of three archangels, is depicted here defeating Lucifer.
Saint Michael, one of three archangels, is depicted here defeating Lucifer.

Catholics believe that God is not a part of nature, but that he created nature and all that exists. He is viewed as a loving and caring God who is active both in the world and in people's lives.[47] He desires his creatures to love him and to love one another.[48] Before the creation of mankind, however, God made spiritual beings called angels. In an event known as the "fall of the angels", a number of them chose to rebel against God and his reign.[49] The leader of this rebellion has been given many names including "Lucifer" (meaning "light bearer" in Latin), "Satan" and the devil. The sin of pride, considered one of seven deadly sins, is attributed to Satan for desiring to be God's equal.[50] A fallen angel tempted the first humans, Adam and Eve, who then committed the original sin which brought suffering and death into the world. This event, known as the Fall of Man, left humans separated from their original state of intimacy with God, a separation that can persist beyond death.[51][52] The Catechism states that "the account of the fall in Genesis 3 uses figurative language, but affirms ... a deed that took place at the beginning of the history of man" resulting in "a deprivation of original holiness and justice ..." that makes each person "subject to ignorance, suffering, and the dominion of death: and inclined to sin ..."[49] People can be cleansed from this original sin and all personal sins through Baptism.[53] This sacramental act of cleansing admits one as a full member of the natural and supernatural Church and is only conferred once in a person's lifetime.[53] Original Sin redirects here. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 401 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1576 × 2358 pixels, file size: 313 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 401 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1576 × 2358 pixels, file size: 313 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Saint Michael redirects here. ... An archangel is a supernatural being of Zoroastrian Persian, Judaic, Christian, and Islamic theology, counted among the angels. ... This article is about the star or fallen angel. ... This article is about the supernatural being. ... For the Islamic devil, see Iblis. ... For other uses, see Cardinal sin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the entities from Christian mythology. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... Adam, Eve, and a female serpent (possibly Lilith) at the entrance to Notre Dame de Paris In Abrahamic religion, the Fall of Man, the Story of the Fall, or simply, the Fall, refers to mans transition from a state of innocence to a state of knowing only dualities such... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ...


Jesus, sin, and Penance

In the messianic texts of the Jewish Tanakh, which make up much of the Christian Old Testament, God promised to send his people a savior.[54] The Church believes that this savior was Jesus whom John the Baptist called "the lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world". In a supernatural event called the Incarnation, Catholics believe that God the Son came down from heaven and was made man, born of a virgin Jewish girl named Mary. They believe that Jesus' mission on earth included giving people his word and example to follow, as recorded in the four Gospels.[55] The Church teaches that following the example of Jesus helps believers to grow more like him, and therefore to true love, freedom, and the fullness of life.[56][57] Sinning is the opposite of following Jesus, robbing people of their resemblance to God while turning their souls away from God's love.[58] People can sin by failing to obey the Ten Commandments, failing to love God, and failing to love other people. Some sins are more serious than others, ranging from lesser, venial sins, to grave, mortal sins that sever a person's relationship with God.[59][58] Through the passion of Jesus and his crucifixion, it is taught that all people have an opportunity for forgiveness and freedom from sin, and so can be reconciled to God.[54][60] In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ... Christ en majesté, Matthias Grünewald, 16th c. ... Virgin Mary redirects here. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ten Commandments (disambiguation). ... According to Catholicism, a venial sin is a sin which meets at least one of the following critera: it does not concern a grave matter, it is not committed with full knowledge, or it is not committed with both deliberate and complete consent. ... Mortal sin, according to the beliefs of Roman Catholicism, is a sin that, unless confessed and absolved (or at least sacramental confession is willed if not available), condemns a persons soul to Hell after death. ... The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ... The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ...


Since Baptism can only be received once, the sacrament of Penance is the principal means by which Catholics may obtain forgiveness for subsequent sin and receive God's grace and assistance not to sin again. This is based on Jesus' words to his disciples in the Gospel of John 20:21–23.[61] A penitent confesses his sins to a priest who may then offer advice or impose a particular penance to be performed. The penitent then prays an act of contrition and the priest administers absolution, formally forgiving the person of his sins.[62] A priest is forbidden under penalty of excommunication to reveal any matter heard under the seal of confession. Penance helps prepare Catholics before they can validly receive the Holy Spirit in the sacraments of Confirmation and the Eucharist.[63][64] For other uses, see Penance (disambiguation). ... The Act of Contrition is a prayer recited by the penitent during the Latin Rite Roman Catholic sacrament of Confession. ... Absolution in a liturgical church refers to the pronouncement of Gods forgiveness of sins. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... For Roman Catholic priests, the confidentiality of anything that they learn from penitents during the course of confession is absolute. ...

The Holy Spirit is often depicted in art as a dove in reference to John the Baptist's proclamation that he saw the Holy Spirit descend upon Jesus at his baptism "like a dove".

Holy Spirit dove window of St. ... Holy Spirit dove window of St. ... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ...

Holy Spirit and Confirmation

Jesus told his apostles that after his death and resurrection he would send them the "Advocate," the "Holy Spirit," who "will teach you everything and remind you of all that I told you".[65][66] In the Gospel of Luke, Jesus tells his disciples "If you then, who are evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will the heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him!"[67] To the Catholic, receiving the Holy Spirit is receiving God, the source of all that is good.[68] Catholics formally ask for and receive the Holy Spirit through the sacrament of Confirmation. Sometimes called the sacrament of Christian maturity, Confirmation is believed to bring an increase and deepening of the grace received at Baptism.[67] Spiritual graces or gifts of the Holy Spirit can include wisdom to see and follow God's plan, right judgment, love for others, courage in witnessing the faith, knowledge, reverence, and rejoicing in the presence of God.[69] The corresponding fruits of the Holy Spirit are love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self control.[69] To be validly confirmed, a person must be in a state of grace, which means that they cannot be conscious of having committed a mortal sin. They must also have prepared spiritually for the sacrament, chosen a sponsor or godparent for spiritual support, and selected a saint to be their special patron and intercessor.[67] A diagram of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre based on a german documentary, claimed to be the site of Calvary and the Tomb of Jesus. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... confirmed redirects here. ... The gifts of the Holy Spirit are spiritual gifts described in the New Testament. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church has this to say about the Fruits of the Holy Spirit: The fruits of the Spirit are perfections that the Holy Spirit forms in us as the first fruits of eternal glory. ... A godparent, in many denominations of Christianity, is someone who sponsors a childs baptism. ... Saints redirects here. ...

Church, works of mercy, and Anointing of the Sick

Catholics believe that the Church is the continuing presence of Jesus on earth.[70] Jesus told his disciples "Abide in me, and I in you ... I am the vine, you are the branches".[71] Thus, for Catholics, the term "Church" refers not only to a building but also to the people of God who abide in Jesus and form the different parts of his spiritual body.[32][72] Catholic belief holds that the Church exists simultaneously on earth (Church militant), in purgatory (Church suffering), and in heaven (Church triumphant); thus Mary, the mother of Jesus, and the other saints are alive and part of the living Church.[73] This unity of the Church in heaven and on earth is called the "communion of the saints".[74][75] Although the Catholic Church believes and teaches that it is the one, holy, Catholic, and apostolic Church founded by Jesus,[76] it also believes that the Holy Spirit can make use of other churches to bring people to salvation.[25] In its apostolic constitution, the church acknowledges that the Holy Spirit is active in Christian churches and communities separated from itself, and that Catholics are called by the Holy Spirit to work for unity among all Christians.[21] The Body of Christ is a term used by Christians to describe believers in Christ. ... The Christian Church is traditionally divided into the Church Militant (Ecclesia Militans), comprising Christians who are living, and the Church Triumphant (Ecclesia Triumphans), comprising those who are in Heaven. ... Illustration for Dantes Purgatorio (18), by Gustave Doré, an imaginative picturing of Purgatory. ... The Communion of Saints is the doctrine that the saints (i. ... Lumen Gentium, the Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, is one of the principal documents of the Second Vatican Council. ...


Catholic social teaching is based on the teaching of Jesus and commits Catholics to the welfare of others. Although the Catholic Church operates numerous social ministries throughout the world, individual Catholics are also required to practice spiritual and corporal works of mercy. Corporal works of mercy include feeding the hungry, welcoming strangers, immigrants or refugees, clothing the naked, taking care of the sick and visiting those in prison. Spiritual works require the Catholic to share their knowledge with others, to give advice to those who need it, comfort those who suffer, have patience, forgive those who hurt them, give correction to those who need it, and pray for the living and the dead.[9] The sacrament of Anointing of the Sick, however, is performed by a priest, who will anoint with oil the head and hands of the ill person and pray a special prayer for them while laying on hands.[77] Catholic social teaching comprises those aspects of Catholic doctrine which relate to matters dealing with the collective aspect of humanity. ... The Works of Mercy or Acts of Mercy are actions and practices which the Catholic Church considers expectations to be fulfilled by believers. ... Extreme Unction, part of The Seven Sacraments (1445) by Roger van der Weyden. ...

Download high resolution version (660x786, 236 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (660x786, 236 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Last Judgment is a painting by Michelangelo located in the Sistine Chapel (Vatican City), above the altar. ... -1... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ...

Final judgment and afterlife

According to the Church, each soul will appear before the judgment seat of Christ immediately after death and receive a particular judgment based on the deeds of their earthly life.[78] Chapter 25:35–46 of the Gospel of Matthew underpins the Catholic belief that a day will also come when Jesus will sit in a universal judgment of all mankind.[9][79] The final judgment will bring an end to human history. It will also mark the beginning of a new heaven and earth in which righteousness dwells and God will reign forever.[80] For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... In Christian eschatology, particular judgment is the doctrine that immediately after death the eternal destiny of each separated soul is decided by the just judgment of God. ... Judgment Day redirects here. ...


There are three states of afterlife in Catholic belief. Heaven is a time of glorious union with God and a life of unspeakable joy that lasts forever.[78] Purgatory is a temporary place for the purification of souls who, although saved, are not free enough from sin to enter directly into heaven. It is a state requiring penance and purgation of sin through God's mercy aided by the prayers of others.[78] Finally, those who freely chose a life of sin and selfishness, were not sorry for their sins and had no intention of changing their ways go to hell, an everlasting separation from God. The church teaches that no one is condemned to hell without freely deciding to reject God and his love.[78] He predestines no one to hell and no one can determine whether anyone else has been condemned.[78] Catholicism teaches that God's mercy is such that a person can repent even at the point of death and be saved, like the good thief who was crucified next to Jesus.[78][81] For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... Perdition redirects here, for the play see Perdition (play). ... Predestination (also linked with foreknowledge) is a religious concept, which involves the relationship between the beginning of things and their destinies. ...


Prayer and worship

In the Catholic Church, a distinction is made between the formal, public liturgy and other prayers or devotions. The liturgy is regulated by Church authority and consists of the Eucharist and Mass, the other sacraments, and the Liturgy of the Hours. All Catholics are expected to participate in the liturgical life of the Church but individual or communal prayer and devotions, while encouraged, are a matter of personal preference. The Catholic Church is fundamentally liturgical and sacramental in its public life of worship. ... The Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments (Congregatio de Cultu Divino et Disciplina Sacramentorum) is the congregation of the Roman Curia that handles most affairs relating to liturgical practices of the Latin Catholic Church as distinct from the Eastern Catholic Churches and also some technical matters... The Liturgy of the Hours is usually recited in full in monastic communities. ...


The Church provides a set of precepts that every Catholic is expected to follow.[82] These set a minimum standard for personal prayer and require the Catholic to attend Mass on Sundays, confess sins at least once a year, receive the Eucharist at least during Easter season, observe days of fasting and of abstinence from meat as established by the church, and help provide for the Church's needs.[82]


Mass, Eucharist, and liturgical year

At the Last Supper, Catholics believe that Jesus ratified a New Covenant by instituting the sacrament of the Eucharist.[83] Breaking bread and passing it to his disciples he said, "This is my body, which will be given up for you. Do this in remembrance of me".[83] Passing a cup of wine, he then told his disciples, "This cup which is poured out for you is the New Covenant in my blood. Drink it, all of you; for this is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins".[83][84] The New Covenant in Jesus' Blood, according to Catholics, is continually celebrated and renewed in the Eucharist.[83] This sacrament, celebrated at each Mass, is considered the source and summit of Christian life.[85] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Catholic Church is fundamentally liturgical and sacramental in its public life of worship. ... Catholic sacraments redirects here. ... For other uses, see The Last Supper (disambiguation). ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Pope Benedict XVI celebrates Holy Mass at the canonization of Frei Galvão in São Paulo, Brazil on May 11, 2007.
Pope Benedict XVI celebrates Holy Mass at the canonization of Frei Galvão in São Paulo, Brazil on May 11, 2007.

The ordinary form of the Mass or the Mass of Paul VI, is most often celebrated in the vernacular and separated into two parts. The first, called Liturgy of the Word, consists of readings from the Old and New Testament, a Gospel passage and the priest's homily or explanation of one of those passages.[86] The second part, called Liturgy of the Eucharist is the celebration of the Eucharist.[86] Catholics believe that the bread and wine brought to the altar are changed through the power of the Holy Spirit into the true Body and the true Blood of Christ through transubstantiation.[87] This Mass is almost identical in form to that practiced by the earliest Christians.[88] Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ... Saint Anthony de Saint Anne Galvão,OFM, popularly known as Frei Galvão (Friar Galvão), (1739 — December 23, 1822) was a Brazilian friar of the Franciscan order. ... This article is about the city. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Mass of Pope Paul VI is the liturgy of the Catholic Mass of the Roman Rite as revised after the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... In the Roman Catholic Church and in the Eastern Orthodox Church, a homily is usually given during Mass (or Divine Liturgy for Orthodox) at the end of the Liturgy of the Word. ... Main article: Eucharist (Catholic Church) Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. ...


The extraordinary form of the Mass is also known as the Tridentine or Traditional Latin Mass. This Mass was codified by the Council of Trent to reaffirm traditional Catholic teaching that the Mass is the same sacrifice of Calvary offered in a non-bloody manner[89] as opposed to Protestant belief that the Mass is not an actual sacrifice. Although it was superseded by the vernacular as the primary form of the Mass, it was never forbidden after the reforms of the Second Vatican Council; it had been offered by an Indult since Pope John Paul II's 1988 motu proprio, Ecclesia Dei[90] and can now be said by any Roman rite priest according to Pope Benedict XVI's 2007 Motu Proprio, Summorum Pontificum.[91] Because the Church teaches that Christ is fully present in the Eucharist,[92] there are strict rules about its celebration and reception. The ingredients of the bread and wine used in the mass are specified, and a fast of one hour prior to receiving Communion is in effect.[93] Only Catholics who are in a state of grace are admitted to communion; anyone who is in a state of mortal sin must not receive the Eucharist without having received absolution through the sacrament of Penance.[93] The church also teaches that receiving the Eucharist forgives venial sins.[93] The Tridentine Mass (Pontifical High Mass) being celebrated at Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church in Wyandotte, Michigan - 1949. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Golgotha redirects here. ... A pardon is the forgiveness of a crime and the penalty associated with it. ... A motu proprio is a papal rescript in which the clause motu proprio (Latin, of his own motion) is used, signifying that the provisions of the rescript were decided by the Pope personally and not by a cardinal or other advisors. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Ecclesia Dei Ecclesia Dei is the papal document (technically speaking, a motu proprio) that Pope John Paul II wrote in reaction to Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre and Bishop Antônio de Castro Mayer’s unlawful consecration in 1988 of four bishops. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. Summorum Pontificum (English: ) is the Apostolic Letter motu proprio data of Pope Benedict XVI, which formulates the canonical rules to be respected in the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church for the celebration of Mass according to the Missal promulgated by John XXIII in...


The Catholic liturgical year follows key events in the life of Jesus. It begins with Advent, the time of preparation for both the celebration of Jesus' birth, and his expected second coming at the end of time. Christmas follows, beginning on the night of 24 December, Christmas Eve, and ending with the feast of the baptism of Jesus on 13 January. Lent is the 40-day period of purification and penance that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends on Holy Thursday. The Holy Thursday evening Mass of the Lord's Supper marks the beginning of the Easter Triduum which includes Good Friday, Holy Saturday and Easter Sunday. These days recall Jesus' last supper with his disciples, death on the cross, burial and resurrection. The seven week liturgical season of Easter immediately follows the Triduum climaxing at Pentecost. This recalls the descent of the Holy Spirit upon Jesus' disciples after the Ascension of Jesus. The rest of the liturgical year is known as Ordinary Time.[94] μ This article is about the Christian season. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lent (disambiguation). ... In the Western Christian calendar, Ash Wednesday is the first day of Lent. ... The Last Supper - museum copy of Master Pauls sculpture, from the main altar in St. ... For other uses, see The Last Supper (disambiguation). ... Easter Triduum, or Holy Triduum, or Paschal Triduum is a term used by some Christian churches, particularly the Roman Catholic Church, the Lutheran Church, and many Anglicans, to denote, collectively, the three days from the evening of Maundy Thursday (or Holy Thursday) to the evening of Easter Sunday. ... Good Friday, also called Holy Friday or Great Friday, is the Friday preceding Easter Sunday. ... Holy Saturday is the day before Easter in the Christian calendar. ... Easter (also called Pascha) is generally accounted the most important holiday of the Christian year, observed March or April each year to celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus from the dead (after his death by crucifixion; see Good Friday), which Christians believe happened at about this time of year, almost two... This article is about the Christian festival. ... The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. ... The Christian doctrine of the Ascension holds that Jesus bodily ascended to heaven following his resurrection. ... Ordinary Time is a season of the Christian (especially the Catholic) liturgical calendar. ...


Liturgy of the Hours

Main article: Liturgy of the Hours

The Liturgy of the Hours, also known as the Divine Office, is the official daily liturgical prayer of the whole church through which Catholics consecrate the day to God.[95] It makes particular use of the Psalms as well as readings from the New and Old Testament, and various prayers.[95] It is an adaptation of the ancient Jewish practice of praying the Psalms at certain hours of the day or night. Catholics who pray the Liturgy of the Hours use a set of books issued by the Church called a breviary. By canon law, priests and deacons are required to pray the Liturgy of the Hours each day.[96] Religious orders often make praying the Liturgy of the Hours a part of their rule of life; the Second Vatican Council encouraged the Christian laity to take up the practice.[97][95] The Liturgy of the Hours is usually recited in full in monastic communities. ... Psalms (Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or praises) is a book of the Hebrew Bible included in the collected works known as the Writings or Ketuvim. ... Breviary of Cologne, 12th or 13th century (Helsinki University Library) A breviary (from Latin brevis, short or concise) is a liturgical book containing the public or canonical prayers, hymns, the Psalms, readings, and notations for everyday use, especially for priests, in the Divine Office (i. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for...


Devotional life and personal prayer

Main articles: Catholic spirituality and Marian doctrines of the Catholic Church
Mary, Joseph and the child Jesus. Albrecht Dürer.
Mary, Joseph and the child Jesus. Albrecht Dürer.

In addition to the Mass, the Catholic Church considers personal and communal prayer to be one of the most important elements of Christian life. In the Gospel, Jesus instructs his disciples to "pray always".[98] The Church considers personal prayer a Christian duty, one of the spiritual works of mercy and principal ways its members nourish a relationship with God.[99] The Catechism identifies three types of prayer: vocal prayer, meditation, and contemplative prayer. Quoting from the early church father John Chrysostom regarding vocal prayer, the Catechism states, "whether or not our prayer is heard depends not on the number of words, but on the fervor of our souls".[100] Meditation is prayer where the "mind seeks to understand the why and how of Christian life, in order to adhere and respond to what the Lord is asking".[100] Contemplative prayer is being with God, taking time to be close to and alone with him.[100] Two of the core prayers of the Catholic Church are the Rosary and Stations of the Cross.[101] These prayers are most often vocal, yet always meditative and contemplative. Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament is a common form of contemplative prayer, whereas Benediction is a common vocal method of prayer. Lectio divina which means "sacred reading" is a form of meditative prayer. The Church encourages patterns of prayer intended to develop into habitual prayer. This includes such daily prayers as grace at meals, the Rosary, or the Liturgy of the Hours, as well as the weekly rhythm of Sunday Eucharist and the observation of the year-long liturgical cycle.[100] The belief of the Roman Catholic Church is that, once one has accepted the faith (fides quae creditur) by making a personal act of faith (fides qua creditur), then one lives it out through spiritual practice. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1256x1893, 387 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Holy Family ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1256x1893, 387 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Holy Family ... Albrecht Dürer (pronounced ) (May 21, 1471 – April 6, 1528)[1] was a German painter, printmaker and theorist from Nuremberg, Germany. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... This article refers to the Christian saint. ... Our Lady of Lourdes appearing at Lourdes with Rosary beads. ... The 12th Station of the Cross - Jesus dies on the Cross. ... In Roman Catholic and Anglo-Catholic churches, Benediction usually refers to the Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. ... Lectio Divina is Latin for “spiritual reading” and represents an early Roman Catholic monastic technique of prayer that continues in practice though less widely, intended to achieve communion with God as well as providing special spiritual insights and peace from that experience. ...


Prayers and devotions to Mary and the saints are a common part of Catholic life but are distinct from the worship of God.[102] The Church teaches that the saints "do not cease to intercede with the Father for us ... so by their fraternal concern is our weakness greatly helped".[102][75] Catholics hold Mary, the mother of Jesus in special regard. She is believed to have been born without the stain of original sin, a doctrine considered infallible and termed the Immaculate Conception. She is honored with many loving titles such as "Blessed Mother", and "Mother of God". She is considered to be a spiritual mother to each believer of Christ.[103] Because of her influential role in the life of Jesus, prayers and devotions asking for her intercession, such as the Rosary, the Hail Mary and the Memorare are common Catholic practices.[101] The Church devotes several liturgical feasts to Mary throughout the church year and pilgrimages to Marian shrines such as Lourdes, France and Fátima, Portugal are a common form of devotion.[104] Latria is a Greek term used in Catholic theology to mean adoration, which is the highest form of worship or reverence and is directed only to God. ... Mary, mother of Jesus as the Immaculate Conception. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Hail Mary... Memorare (Remember O Most Gracious Virgin Mary) is a Catholic prayer to the Blessed Virgin Mary. ... There is another Lourdes with a different pronunciation, see Lourdes, Brazil Our Lady of Lourdes Basilica Lourdes (Lorda in Occitan) is a town in the Hautes-Pyrénées département in France. ... Our Lady of Fatima Our Lady of Fatima (pron. ...


Church organization and community

The spiritual head and leader of the Catholic Church on earth is the Pope. He governs from Vatican City in Rome, a sovereign state of which he is also the Head of State.[105] He is elected by the College of Cardinals, composed of bishops or priests who have been granted special status by the Pope to serve as his advisors.[106] They may theoretically select any male member of the Church, but that person must be ordained as a bishop before taking office. The Church community is governed according to the Code of Canon Law. The Roman Curia assists the pope in the administration of the church. The Sacred College of Cardinals is the body of all Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church established by Pope St. ... Ordination is the process in which clergy become authorized by their religious denomination and/or seminary to perform religious rituals and ceremonies. ... This article is about the role of bishops in the Roman Catholic Church. ... Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Roman Curia — usually called the Vatican — is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ...


The basic administrative unit of the Catholic Church is the diocese. There are more than 2,500 Catholic dioceses in the world, each of which is led by a bishop. Every diocese is further divided into individual communities called parishes, which are usually staffed by at least one priest. Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ...


The worldwide Church community is made up of ordained members and the laity. Members of religious orders such as nuns, friars and monks are considered lay members unless individually ordained as priests.[107] Ordination is the process in which clergy become authorized by their religious denomination and/or seminary to perform religious rituals and ceremonies. ... For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ... A friar is a member of a religious mendicant order of men. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ...


Ordained members and Holy Orders

Priestly Ordination, a popular depiction of Catholic ordination from the 1920s
Priestly Ordination, a popular depiction of Catholic ordination from the 1920s

Lay men become ordained through the sacrament of Holy Orders, and form a three-part hierarchy of bishops, priests and deacons. As a body the College of Bishops are considered to be the successors of the apostles.[108][109] Along with the Pope, the College includes all the cardinals, patriarchs, primates, archbishops and metropolitans of the Church. Only bishops are allowed to perform the sacraments of Holy Orders and Confirmation.[110] While bishops are responsible for teaching, governing and sanctifying the faithful of their diocese, priests and deacons have these same responsibilities at a more local level, the parish, subordinate to the ministry of the bishop. Priests, bishops and deacons preach, teach, baptize, witness marriages, and conduct wake and funeral services, but only priests and bishops may administer the sacraments of the Eucharist, Penance, and Anointing of the Sick.[111] In the Roman Catholic Church, the threefold order, or hierarchy, of bishop, priest, and deacon, conferred through the sacrament of Holy Orders, is a structural feature considered to be of divine institution. ... The College of Bishops is an organization consisting of all the bishops in the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Ministerial Priesthood in the Catholic Church includes both the orders of bishops and presbyters, which in Latin is sacerdos. ... For other uses, see Deacon (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (714x845, 190 KB) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (714x845, 190 KB) This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Catholic deacon... In the Roman Catholic Church, the threefold order, or hierarchy, of bishop, priest, and deacon, conferred through the sacrament of Holy Orders, is a structural feature considered to be of divine institution. ... This article is about the role of bishops in the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Ministerial Priesthood in the Catholic Church includes both the orders of bishops and presbyters, which in Latin is sacerdos. ... For other uses, see Deacon (disambiguation). ... The College of Bishops is an organization consisting of all the bishops in the Roman Catholic Church. ... For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ... Primate (from the Latin Primus, first) is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop (then more precisely called Metropolitan archbishop) of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of an old Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. ...


Although deacons may be married, only celibate men are ordained as priests in the Latin Rite.[112][113] Clergy who have converted from other denominations are sometimes excepted from this rule.[114] The Eastern Catholic Churches ordain both celibate and married men.[115] [116] All rites of the Catholic Church maintain the ancient tradition that, after ordination, marriage is not allowed. Men with transitory homosexual leanings may be ordained deacons following three years of prayer and chastity, but men with deeply rooted homosexual tendencies who are sexually active cannot be ordained.[117] The Latin Rite is one of the 23 sui iuris particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The...


All programs for the formation of men to the Catholic priesthood are governed by Canon Law.[118] They are designed by the various national bishops' conferences like United States Conference of Catholic Bishops and may vary slightly from country to country. The conferences consult Vatican documents such as Pastores Dabo Vobis, Novo Millennio Ineunte, Optatam Totius, Ratio Fundamentalis Institutionis Sacerdotalis, and others to create these programs.[119] In most countries, priests are required to have a college degree plus another four years of full time theological study in a seminary or other approved institution. Candidates for the priesthood are also evaluated in terms of human, spiritual and pastoral formation.[120] The sacrament of Holy Orders is always conferred by a bishop through the laying-on of hands, following which the newly-ordained priest is formally clothed in his priestly vestments.[110] The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (also known as the USCCB) is the official governing body of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States. ... Pastores Dabo Vobis - (I Shall Give You Shepherds) is an apostolic exhortation released on March 25, 1992 by Pope John Paul II. It concerns the formation of priests and is addressed to both clergy and the lay faithful of the Catholic Church. ... Novo Millennio Ineunte is an apostolic letter of John Paul II, addressed to the the Bishops Clergy and Lay Faithful, At the Close of the Great Jubilee of the Year 2000. ... Optatam Totius, the Decree on Priestly Training, was a document produced by the Second Vatican Council. ... For the Ecuadorian artist, see Manuel Rendón Seminario. ...


Because the Twelve Apostles chosen by Jesus were all male, only men may be ordained in the Catholic Church.[121] The Church teaches that women have different yet equally important roles in church ministry.[122] In Pope John Paul II's apostolic letter Christifidelis Laici, he states that women were equally called to be disciples of Christ who were given tasks connected to spreading the Gospel.[123] Throughout history women have held prominent roles within the Church as Abbesses, missionaries, and Doctors of the Church. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... In Roman Catholicism, a Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor, teacher, from Latin docere, to teach) is a saint from whose writings the whole Christian Church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom eminent learning and great sanctity have been attributed by a proclamation of a pope...


Lay members, Marriage

Main article: Laity

The laity consists of all those Catholics who are not ordained clergy. Saint Paul compares the diversity of roles in the Church to the different parts of a body - all being equally important to enable the body to function properly.[6] Lay members are equally called to live according to Christian principles, work to spread the message of Jesus, and effect change in the world for the good of others. The Church calls these actions participation in Christ's priestly, prophetic and royal offices.[124] In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ...


Marriage, the single life, and the consecrated life are all lay vocations. The sacrament of Holy Matrimony is the only sacrament not actually conferred by a priest or bishop. The couple desiring marriage are themselves the ministers of the sacrament while the priest or deacon serves as witness.[110] Notably, Catholics may marry in the Church only once. Church law makes no provision for divorce but annulments may be requested in strictly-defined circumstances. Since the church condemns all forms of artificial birth control, married persons are expected to be open to new life in their sexual relations.[125] Natural family planning is approved. Ancient Christian Marriage symbol: two gold rings and Greek letters chi (X) and rho (P) for Jesus Christ // The Christian views of marriage historically have regarded marriage as ordained by God for the lifelong union of a man and a woman. ... For other uses, see Deacon (disambiguation). ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... Annulment is a legal procedure for declaring a marriage null and void. ... Natural family planning (NFP) is a term referring to the family planning methods approved by the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Tertiaries are laypersons who live according to the third rule of orders such as the Franciscans or Carmelites, either within a religious community or outside.[126] Although all tertiaries make a public profession, participate in the good works of their order and can wear the habit, they are not bound by public vows unless they live in community. Lay ecclesial movements consist of lay Catholics organized for purposes of teaching the faith, cultural work, mutual support or missionary work.[126] Such groups include: Communion and Liberation, Neocatechumenal Way, Regnum Christi, Opus Dei, Life Teen and many others.[126] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Third Order. ... Lay ecclesial movements, also called associations of the faithful, are groups of baptized Catholics organized for the purposes of catechesis, cultural work, mutual support, and/or missionary apostolate. ... Communion and Liberation, or CL, is a lay ecclesial movement within the Catholic Church. ... Painting of Kiko Argüello, most used in the Neocatechumenal Way. ... Regnum Christi is an international lay ecclesial movement associated with the Legion of Christ, founded by Fr. ... For other uses, see Opus Dei (disambiguation). ... Life Teen is a Catholic youth ministry organization and movement originating in the United States. ...


Some non-ordained Catholics practice formal, public ministries within the Church.[127] These are called lay ecclesial ministers, a broad category which may include pastoral life coordinators, pastoral assistants, youth ministers, and campus ministers. Lay Ecclesial Ministry is the relatively new category of pastoral ministers in the Catholic Church who serve the Church but are not ordained. ...

Teresa of Ávila, a Carmelite nun honored as a Doctor of the Church because of her influence in shaping Church theology and spirituality.
Teresa of Ávila, a Carmelite nun honored as a Doctor of the Church because of her influence in shaping Church theology and spirituality.

Download high resolution version (1813x1734, 483 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1813x1734, 483 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other saints with similar names, please see Saint Teresa. ... Origin and early history Carmelites (in Latin Ordo fratrum Beatæ Virginis Mariæ de monte Carmelo) is the name of a Roman Catholic order founded in the 12th century by a certain Berthold (d. ... In Roman Catholicism, a Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor, teacher, from Latin docere, to teach) is a saint from whose writings the whole Christian Church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom eminent learning and great sanctity have been attributed by a proclamation of a pope...

Members of religious orders

Both the ordained and the laity may enter the religious or consecrated life - either as monks or nuns, if cloistered, or friars and sisters if not. A candidate takes vows confirming their desire to follow the three evangelical counsels of chastity, poverty and obedience.[128] St Benedict of Nursia (c. ... Catholic religious orders (Religious Institutes, cf. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Consecrated Life in... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ... Catholic religious orders (Religious Institutes, cf. ... Missionaries of Charity Religious vows are the public vows taken by members of religious communities of the Roman Catholic, Anglican and Eastern Orthodox Churches. ... The evangelical counsels or counsels of perfection are poverty, chastity, and obedience. ...


The majority of those wishing to enter the consecrated life join a religious institute, (also referred to as a monastic or religious order.) They follow a common rule such as the Rule of St Benedict, which includes the vows of poverty chastity and obedience, and agree to live under the leadership of a superior.[129][130] They usually live in community, although occasionally an individual is given permission to live as a hermit, or to reside elsewhere, for example as a serving priest or chaplain.[131] Examples of religious institutes include the Sisters of Charity, Dominicans, Franciscans, Carmelites, Cistercians, Marist Brothers, Paulist Fathers and the Society of Jesus, but there are many others.[128] The Church recognizes several other forms of consecrated life, including secular institutes, societies of apostolic life, and consecrated widows and widowers.[128] It also makes provision for the approval of new forms.[132] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Consecrated Life in... St. ... For other uses, see Hermit (disambiguation). ... Many religious groups have the term Sisters of Charity as part of their name. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... The Order of Our Lady of Mt. ... Cistercians coat of arms The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin: ), otherwise White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which a black scapular or apron is sometimes worn) is a Roman Catholic order of enclosed monks. ... For other uses, see Society of Mary (disambiguation). ... // Missionary Society of Saint Paul the Apostle The Missionary Society of Saint Paul the Apostle, or the Paulists Fathers, is a Roman Catholic religious order for men, that was founded by Isaac Thomas Hecker. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... A Society of Apostolic Life is a kind of religious order within the Roman Catholic Church, whose members do not profess religious vows, unlike members of an Institute of Consecrated Life. ...

Demographics

Further information: Roman Catholicism by country

The Catholic Church is the largest Christian church, encompassing over half of all Christians, and is the largest organized body of any world religion.[2][133] Church membership exceeds 1.131 billion people.[134] While the number of practicing Catholics worldwide is not reliably known,[135] membership is growing particularly in Africa and Asia.[1] Some parts of Europe, Ireland and the United States have experienced a priest shortage in recent years as the number of priests has not increased in proportion to the number of Catholics.[136] As of 2005, Brazil had the greatest number of Catholics.[135] The worldwide Catholic Church is made up of one Western or Latin and 22 Eastern Catholic autonomous particular churches. The Latin Church is divided into jurisdictional areas called dioceses and eparchies in the Eastern Church. Each diocese or eparchy is headed by a bishop, patriarch or eparch who is appointed by the pope. At the end of 2006, counting both dioceses and eparchies, there were 2,782 sees.[3] Worldwide distribution of Catholic (yellow), Protestant (purple) and Orthodox (cyan) Christians relative to the total population per country. ... The Latin Rite is one of the 23 sui iuris particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... A particular Church, in Catholic theology and Canon law, is any of the individual constituent ecclesial communities in full communion with Rome that are part of the Catholic Church as a whole. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... Eparchy is an anglicized Greek word, authentically latinized as eparchia and loosely translating as rule over something, but has the following specific meanings, both in political history and in the hierarchy of eastern churches. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ... Eparchy is an anglicized Greek word, authentically latinized as eparchia and loosely translating as rule over something, but has the following specific meanings, both in political history and in the hierarchy of eastern churches. ... A see (from the Latin word sedem, meaning seat) is the throne (cathedra) of a bishop. ...


Membership

According to canon law, one becomes a member of the Catholic Church by being baptized in the Church.[137] Christians baptized outside of the Church or those never baptized may be received by participating in a formation program such as the Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults.[138] Formation programs may include the reception of the sacrament of Penance and are regulated by the diocesan bishop.[139] After going through formation and making a profession of faith, candidates receive the sacraments of initiation at the Easter vigil on Holy Saturday.[138] The Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults (often abbreviated RCIA) is the process through which interested adults are gradually introduced to the Roman Catholic Faith and way of life. ... The Sacraments of Initiation are those rituals by which one comes to be one of Christs Faithful. ... The Easter Vigil, also called the Paschal Vigil or the Great Vigil of Easter, is a service held in many Christian churches as the first official celebration of the Resurrection of Jesus. ... Holy Saturday is the day before Easter in the Christian calendar. ...


A person can excommunicate themselves or be excommunicated from membership in the church by committing certain particularly grave sins.[140][141] Examples include violating the seal of confession, (committed when a priest discloses the sins heard in the sacrament of Penance,) persisting in heresy, creating schism, becoming an apostate, or having an abortion.[142] Throwing away the consecrated body and blood of Jesus received during the Eucharist or taking or retaining them for a sacrilegious purpose are also considered excommunicable offenses.[143] Excommunication is the most severe ecclesiastical penalty because it prevents a person from validly receiving any church sacrament. It can only be forgiven by the Pope, the bishop of the diocese where the person resides, or priests authorized by him.[144] Among those who have been excommunicated or incurred excommunication are Frederick I, Henry VIII, Elizabeth I and members of the group Womenpriests. Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... For Roman Catholic priests, the confidentiality of anything that they learn from penitents during the course of confession is absolute. ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχίσμα, skhísma (from σχίζω, skhízō, to tear, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization or a movement. ... Apostasy (Greek απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is the formal renunciation of ones religion. ... Frederick Barbarossa in a 13th century chronicle. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603 ) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... Roman Catholic Womenpriests (RCWP) is an international and controversial initiative associated with the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Church history

Main articles: History of the Roman Catholic Church and Role of Catholic Church in Civilization
Further information: History of Christianity, History of Western civilization, and Criticism of the Catholic Church

The HISTORY of the Catholic Church covers a period of just under two thousand years, making the Church one of the oldest continuously existing religious institutions in history. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Church historian redirects here. ... The history of western civilization traces its roots back to the fall of the Roman Empire and continues to the present era in Europe, North America, Australia, and New Zealand // In 476 A.D. the western Roman Empire, which had ruled modern-day Italy, France, Spain, Portugal and England for... Criticism of the Catholic Church subsumes critical observations made about the current or historical Roman Catholic Church, in its actions, teachings, omissions, structure, or nature; theological disagreements would be covered on a denominational basis. ...

Roman Empire

Early Christians were martyred as entertainment in the Colosseum. Vatican City, the heart of the worldwide Catholic Church, is located a short distance from this site.
Early Christians were martyred as entertainment in the Colosseum. Vatican City, the heart of the worldwide Catholic Church, is located a short distance from this site.

The Catholic Church considers Pentecost to be its moment of origin because this was the day when the apostles first emerged from hiding to publicly preach the message of Jesus after his death.[145] They traveled to various Jewish communities in northern Africa, Asia Minor, Arabia, Greece and Rome forming the first Christian communities.[145] By the year 100 more than forty Christian communities existed in these areas.[146] The Colosseum by night: exterior view of the best-preserved section. ... The Descent of the Holy Spirit in a 15th century illuminated manuscript. ...


From the first century onward, the Church of Rome was respected as a doctrinal authority because the Apostles Peter and Paul had led the Church there.[147] The apostles had already convened the first Church council, the Council of Jerusalem, in or around the year 50 to reconcile doctrinal differences concerning the Gentile mission.[14] Although competing forms of Christianity emerged early and persisted into the fifth century, the Roman Church retained the practice of meeting in ecumenical councils to ensure that any doctrinal differences were quickly resolved.[15] St Peter redirects here. ... St. ... This article is about the 1st century Council of Jerusalem in Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An...


In the first few centuries of its existence, Church teachings and traditions were defined and formed into a systematic whole under the influence of distinguished theological apologists such as Pope Clement I, Saint Ignatius of Antioch, Saint Justin Martyr, and St Augustine.[148] However, because they refused to offer sacrifices to the Roman gods or to defer to Roman rulers as gods, early Christians were frequently subject to persecution.[149] The ferocity or absence of the persecution varied depending upon the policies of the emperor in question. Persecution began under Nero in the first century, and by the mid-third century it was extensive throughout the empire, culminating in the great persecution of Diocletian and Galerian at the beginning of the fourth century, which was seen as a final attempt to wipe out Christianity.[149] In spite of these persecutions evangelization efforts persisted, leading to the Edict of Milan which legalized Christianity in 313.[149] Apologetics is the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of a position. ... Saint Clement I was the Bishop of Rome, and thus pope, from 88 to 99 AD. Also called Clement of Rome and Clemens Romanus, he was the fourth pope, according to Catholic tradition. ... Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus)(c. ... Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher) (100–165) was an early Christian apologist and saint. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... Spanish Leftists during the Red Terror Shoot at a statue of Christ The persecution of Christians is religious persecution that Christians sometimes undergo as a consequence of professing their faith, both historically and in the current era. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... Galerians are a fictional race from the Galerians series, and the first games movie, <a href=http://en. ... Evangelism is the proclaiming of the Christian Gospel. ... The Edict of Milan was a letter that proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire. ...


In 325 the First Council of Nicaea was convened in response to the Arian challenge concerning the nature of the trinity of God. The council established a Church administration and formulated the Nicene Creed as a basic statement of Christian belief.[150] During the reign of Pope Sylvester I, Emperor Constantine I commissioned the first Basilica of St. Peter, as well as the Lateran, a papal residence and several other sites of lasting importance to Christianity.[151] Many standard Christian practices had been established by the end of Constantine's life including the observation of Sunday as the official day of worship, the use of the altar as the focal point of each church, the sign of the cross, and the liturgical calendar.[152] By 380, Christianity became the official religion of the Empire.[153] The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first Ecumenical council[1] of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... Nineteenth century drawing of Old Saint Peters Basilica as it is thought to have looked around 1450. ... Late Baroque façade of the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano, completed after a competition for the design by Alessandro Galilei in 1735 Lateran and Laterano are the shared names of several architectural projects throughout Rome and Vatican City. ...


Over subsequent decades a series of ecumenical christological councils formally codified critical elements of the theology of the Church. The Council of Rome in 382 set the Biblical canon, listing the accepted books of the Old and New Testament, and in 391 the Vulgate Latin translation of the Bible was made.[146] The Council of Ephesus in 431 clarified the nature of Jesus' incarnation, declaring that he was both fully man and fully God.[154] However Monophysite disagreements over the precise nature of the incarnation of Jesus led to the first of the various Oriental Orthodox Churches breaking away from the Catholic Church in 451. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Council of Rome was a... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ... Cyril of Alexandria The Council of Ephesus was held in the Church of Mary in Ephesus, Asia Minor in 431 under Emperor Theodosius II, grandson of Theodosius the Great; Ephesus was the city of Artemis (see Acts 19:28). ... Look up incarnation, incarnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Early Middle Ages

Further information: Middle Ages and Christian monasticism
St Benedict, father of Western monasticism and author of Rule of St Benedict
St Benedict, father of Western monasticism and author of Rule of St Benedict

After the final fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476, the Catholic faith competed with Arianism for the conversion of the barbarian tribes.[155] The conversion of Clovis I, pagan king of the Franks in 496 marked the beginning of the steady rise of the faith in the West.[156] In 530, Saint Benedict wrote his Rule of St Benedict as a practical guide for monastic community life. Its message soon spread to monasteries throughout Europe.[157] Monasteries became major conduits of civilization, preserving craft and artistic skills while maintaining intellectual culture within their schools, scriptoriums and libraries. They were also agricultural, economic and production centers as well as a focus for spiritual life.[158] As a result, the Church soon saw the conversion of the Visigoths and Lombards who were abandoning Arianism for Catholicism.[156] Pope Gregory the Great, who played a notable role in these conversions, dramatically reformed ecclesiastical structure and administration, which then launched a renewed missionary effort.[159] Subsequently, missionaries such as Augustine of Canterbury, Saint Boniface, Willibrord and Ansgar took Christianity into northern Europe, allowing Catholicism to spread among the Germanic peoples, the Irish and the Slavic peoples, reaching the Vikings and other Scandinavians in subsequent centuries.[160] The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Order of Friars Minor is a major mendicant movement founded by Saint Francis of Assisi. ... St. ... This article is about the historiography of the decline of the Roman Empire. ... Clovis I (variously spelled Chlodowech or Chlodwig, giving modern French Louis and modern German Ludwig) (c. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... This article is about Saint Benedict of Nursia, for other uses of the name Benedict see Benedict (disambiguation) Saint Benedict of Nursia (c. ... St. ... This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. ... Gregory I Pope Saint Gregory I or Gregory the Great (called the Dialogist in Eastern Orthodoxy) (c. ... Augustine of Canterbury (birth unknown, died May 26, 604) was the first Archbishop of Canterbury, sent to Ethelbert of Kent, Bretwalda (ruler) of England by Pope Gregory the Great in 597. ... For the Roman general of this name, see Bonifacius. ... Saint Willibrord (c. ... For the city in Iowa, see St. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ...


In the early 700's, iconoclasm became the source of conflict between the Eastern and Western churches. Under the direction of the Byzantine Emperors, Iconoclasts forbade the creation and veneration of images, claiming this to be a violation of one of the Ten Commandments. Iconodules, backed by the Pope and the Western Church, disagreed with this interpretation.[161] The dispute was resolved in 787 when the Second Council of Nicaea ruled in favor of icons.[162] Afterward, the Church ushered in the Carolingian Renaissance when the pope crowned Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor in 800, partially in response to the dispute over iconoclasm. Charlemagne attempted to create an international unity through the common bond of Christianity. Although this resulted in many reforms including the creation of an improved system of education and unified laws, it also created a problem for the Church when succeeding emperors sought to appoint future popes.[163] In 858 disagreements between the Eastern and Western churches arose again when Patriarch Ignatius of Constantinople, favored by the pope, was deposed in favor of the more extreme Photios.[164] The pope refused to recognize Photios, declared his election invalid and excommunicated him. Although Rome eventually approved his election, the dispute added to the growing alienation between the churches.[161] Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, attacked in Reformation iconoclasm in the 16th century. ... The Second Council of Nicaea was the seventh ecumenical council of Christianity; it met in 787 AD in Nicaea (site of the First Council of Nicaea) to restore the honoring of icons (or, holy images), which had been suppressed by imperial edict inside the Byzantine Empire during the reign of... Sample of Carolingian minuscule, one of the products of the Carolingian Renaissance. ... For the American band, see Charlemagne (band). ... St. ... Icon of Photius Photios I or Photius I (in Greek: Φώτιος, Phōtios), (Constantinople c. ...

High Middle Ages

Further information: High Middle Ages

The Cluniac reform of monasteries that began in 910, placed abbots under the direct control of the pope rather than the secular control of feudal lords, eliminating a major source of corruption. This sparked a great monastic renewal.[165] Monasteries, convents, and cathedrals still operated virtually all schools and libraries.[166] After 1100, some older cathedral schools split into lower "grammar schools" and higher schools for advanced learning. First in Bologna, then at Paris and Oxford, many of these higher schools developed into universities and became the direct ancestors of modern Western institutions of learning.[167][168] Monastic contributions to western society included the teaching of metallurgy, the introduction of new crops, the invention of musical notation, and the creation and preservation of literature.[167] The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... Cluniac Reform was the time of the purification and scourging of the Roman Catholic Church during the 11th century. ... The University of Bologna (Italian: , UNIBO) is the oldest continually operating degree-granting university in the world, and the second biggest university in Italy. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The first European medieval institutions generally considered to be universities were established in Italy, France, and England in the late 11th and the 12th centuries for the study of arts, law, medicine, and theology. ...


During the 11th century Christianity was permanently divided as a result of the East-West schism.[19] A dispute over whether Constantinople or Rome held jurisdiction over the church in Sicily led to mutual excommunications in 1054. The Western (Latin) branch of the church has since become known as the Catholic Church, while the Eastern (Greek) branch became known as the Orthodox Church.[169] The Second Council of Lyon (1274) and the Council of Florence (1439) each failed to heal the schism. Some Eastern churches have subsequently reunited with the Catholic Church, and others claim never to have been out of communion with the Pope.[169] Officially, the two churches remain in schism, although excommunications were mutually lifted in 1965.[170] The Second Ecumenical Council whose contributions to the Nicene Creed lay at the heart of the famous theological disputes underlying the East-West Schism. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... The Second Council of Lyon was a Roman Catholic council convoked 31 March 1272, which convened in Lyon in 1274. ... A decree of the Council of Constance (9 October 1417), sanctioned by Pope Martin V obliged the papacy to summon general councils periodically. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... The Catholic-Orthodox Joint Declaration of 1965 was read out on 7 December 1965 simultaneously at a public meeting of the Second Vatican Council in Rome and at a special ceremony in Istanbul. ...

Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, where he preached the First Crusade
Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, where he preached the First Crusade

Pope Urban II launched the First Crusade in 1095 after receiving an appeal from Byzantine emperor Alexius I to help ward off a Turkish invasion.[171] Urban also believed that a Crusade might help bring about reconciliation with Eastern Christianity.[172] Fueled by reports of Muslim atrocities against Christians most notably by the Caliph Hakim,[173] the series of military campaigns known as the Crusades began in 1096. They were intended to return the Holy Land to Christian control. These goals were not permanently realized and episodes of brutality committed by the armies of both sides left a legacy of mutual distrust between Muslims and Western and Eastern Christians.[174] The sack of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade left Eastern Christians embittered, despite the fact that Pope Innocent III had expressly forbidden any such attack.[175] In 2001 Pope John Paul II apologized to the Orthodox Christians for the sins of Catholics including the sacking of Constantinople in 1204.[176] Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, painting from c. ... Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, painting from c. ... Pope Urban II (1042 – July 29, 1099), born Otho of Lagery (alternatively: Otto or Odo), was a Pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099. ... Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, given a late Gothic setting in this illumination from the Livre des Passages dOutre-mer, of c 1490 (Bibliothèque National) The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, which was held in... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... Pope Urban II (1042 – July 29, 1099), born Otho of Lagery (alternatively: Otto or Odo), was a Pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... Emperor Alexios I Komnenos Alexios I Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus (Greek: ; Latin: ; 1048 – August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the son of John Komnenos and Anna Dalassena and the nephew of Isaac I Komnenos (emperor 1057–1059). ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation). ... Belligerents Crusaders Holy Roman Empire Republic of Venice Montferret Champagne Blois Amiens ÃŽle-de-France Saint-Pol Burgundy Flanders Balkans Byzantine Empire Kingdom of Hungary Croatia Dalmatia Commanders Otto IV Boniface I Theobald I Lois I Alexios V Doukas Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Emeric I The Fourth Crusade... Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: , Polish: ) born   IPA: ; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City from 16 October 1978, until his death, almost 27 years later, making his the second-longest...


Two new orders of architecture emerged from the Church of this era. The earlier, Romanesque, style employed massive walls, rounded arches, and ceilings of masonry. To compensate for the absence of large windows, interiors were brightly painted with scenes from the Bible and the lives of the saints. Later, the Basilique Saint-Denis near Paris, marked a new trend in cathedral building.[177] The new Gothic style of architecture with its large windows and high, pointed arches, provided improved lighting and geometric harmony that was meant to direct the worshipper's mind to God who "orders all things".[177] South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ...


Eight new monastic orders were founded in the 12th century, many consisting of noblemen who took monastic vows and whose functions were increasingly military after the Crusades began.[178] Cistercian monk, Bernard of Clairvaux exerted great influence over the new orders and produced reforms to ensure purity of purpose.[178] His influence led Pope Alexander III to launch reforms that would lead to the establishment of canon law.[179] In the following century, new mendicant orders, including the Franciscans and the Dominicans, were founded to bring consecrated religious life into urban settings. The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin Cistercenses), otherwise Gimey or White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which is worn a black scapular or apron) are a Catholic order of monks. ... Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–August 21, 1153) was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian monastic order. ... Pope Alexander III (c. ... Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The mendicant orders are religious orders which depend directly on begging, or the charity of the people for their livelihood. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... St Benedict of Nursia (c. ...


Catharism was a dualistic belief in extreme asceticism which taught that all matter was evil, accepted suicide and denied the value of church sacraments. It spread widely in 12th century France. After a papal legate was murdered by the Cathars in 1209, Pope Innocent III declared the Albigensian Crusade.[180] Abuses committed by the crusaders caused Innocent III to institute the first inquisition to prevent future abuses and to root out the remaining Cathars.[181] The inquisition saw 230 people sentenced to prison and 21 executed.[181] Over time, other inquisitions were launched by the Church or secular rulers to prosecute heretics, to respond to the threat of Moorish invasion or for political purposes.[182] The accused were encouraged to recant their heresy and those who did not could be punished by penance, fines, imprisonment, torture or execution by burning.[183][182] In the fourteenth century, King Philip IV of France created his own inquisition for his suppression of the Knights Templar.[184] King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella also created their own inquisition from 1480, originally in order to deal with the distrusted ex-Jewish and ex-Muslim converts.[185] Over a 350 year period this Spanish Inquisition executed between 3–4,000 people,[186] most of them in the first few decades of its existence, this being around 2 percent of those accused.[187] The inquisition played a major role in the final expulsion of Islam from the kingdoms of Sicily and Spain.[188] In 1482 Pope Sixtus IV, condemned the excesses of the Spanish Inquisition, but his protests were ignored by Ferdinand.[189] Historians note that for centuries Protestant propaganda and popular literature exaggerated the horrors of the inquisitions and identified the entire Catholic Church with the occasional excesses wrought by secular rulers.[190][191][192] While it has been revealed that over-all one percent of those tried by all of the inquisitions received death penalties, scholars confirm that even at its most active point, the inquisitions as a whole were regarded as far more enlightened than secular courts whose judgements and punishments were often far more severe.[184][186] Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209 Catharism was a name given to a religious sect with dualistic and gnostic elements that appeared in the Languedoc region of France in the 11th century and flourished in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Dualistic cosmology is a collective term, the present article shows certain myths and motifs which are termed as such in the ethnographic and anthropological literature. ... A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ... Pope Innocent III (c. ... The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the heresy of the Cathars of Languedoc. ... This article is about the Inquisition by the Roman Catholic Church. ... For other uses, see moor. ... “Philip the Fair” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... Ferdinand on the left with Isabella on the right Coffins of the Catholic Monarchs at the Granada Cathedral The Catholic Monarchs (Spanish: los Reyes Católicos) is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... Sixtus IV (July 21, 1414 – August 12, 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 1471 to 1484. ...


The 14th century was marked by a growing sense of church-state conflicts. In 1309 Clement V became the first of seven popes to reside in the fortified Sicilian owned city of Avignon.[193] Known as the Avignon Papacy, it eventually returned to Rome in 1378 at the urging of Catherine of Siena and other devout men and women who reverenced the Roman church as the See of Peter.[194][195] With the death of Pope Gregory XI later that year, the papal election was disputed between supporters of Italian and French-backed candidates leading to the Western schism. For 38 years, separate claimants to the papal throne sat in Rome and Avignon. Efforts at resolution in 1409 further complicated the issue with the election of a third, compromise pope.[196] The matter was finally resolved in 1417 at the Council of Constance where the cardinals called upon all three claimants to the papal throne to resign, and held a new election naming Martin V pope.[196] Clement V, born Bertrand de Goth (also occasionally spelled Gouth and Got) (1264 – April 20, 1314), was Pope from 1305 to his death. ... For the Municipality in Quebec, see Avignon Regional County Municipality, Quebec. ... The Papal palace in Avignon In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI... Saint Catherine of Siena, O.P. (March 25, 1347 - April 29, 1380) was a Tertiary (a lay affiliate) of the Dominican Order, and a scholastic philosopher and theologian. ... While all episcopal sees can be referred to as holy, the expression the Holy See (without further specification) is normally used in international relations (as well as in the canon law of the Catholic Church)[1] to refer to the central government of the Catholic Church, headed by the Bishop... Pope Gregory XI (c. ... Historical map of the Western Schism: red is support for Avignon, blue for Rome The Western Schism or Papal Schism (also known as the Great Schism of Western Christianity) was a split within the Catholic Church (1378 - 1417). ... The Council of Constance was an ecumenical council considered valid by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Martin V, né Oddone Colonna or Odo Colonna (1368 – February 20, 1431), Pope from 1417 to 1431, was elected on St. ...


Late Medieval and Renaissance

Further information: Roman Catholic Church and colonialism

Through the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries European missionaries and explorers spread Catholicism to the Americas, Asia, Africa and Oceania. Pope Alexander VI awarded colonial rights over most of the newly discovered lands to Spain and Portugal.[197] In December 1511, Dominican friar Antonio de Montesinos openly rebuked the Spanish authorities governing Hispaniola for their mistreatment of the American natives, telling them "you are in mortal sin ... for the cruelty and tyranny you use in dealing with these innocent people".[198] Although King Ferdinand enacted the Laws of Burgos and Valladolid in response, enforcement was lax. The issue did rouse a crisis of conscience in 16th century Spain. An outpouring of self-criticism and philosophical reflection among Catholic theologians, most notably Francisco de Vitoria, led to debate on the nature of human rights, and the birth of modern international law.[199] The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... This box:      King Henry VIII of England. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... Sanctuary dedicated to the Difunta Correa, a semi-pagan saint, located in Uruguay, between the Tacuarembó and Paso de los Toros cities. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... Pope Alexander VI (1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), born Roderic Borja (Italian: Borgia), (reigned from 1492 to 1503), is the most controversial of the secular popes of the Renaissance and one whose surname became a byword for the debased standards of the papacy of that era. ... Early map of Hispaniola Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ... Ferdinand V of Castile & II of Aragon the Catholic (Spanish: , Catalan: , Aragonese: ; March 10, 1452 – January 23, 1516) was king of Aragon (1479–1516), Castile, Sicily (1468–1516), Naples (1504–1516), Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... The document known as the Leyes de Burgos (Laws of Burgos) was promulgated on December 27, 1512 in Burgos, Spain. ... Francisco de Vitoria Francisco de Vitoria, Statue before San Esteban, Salamanca Statue of Francisco de Vitoria, in Vitoria-Gasteiz Francisco de Vitoria (Francisci de Victoria; c. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


In 1521, through the leadership and preaching of the Spanish explorer Ferdinand Magellan, the first Catholics were baptized in what would become the first Christian nation in Southeast Asia, the Philippines.[200] The following year, Franciscan missionaries arrived in what is now Mexico. They worked hard both to convert the Indians and to care for their health and well-being by establishing schools and hospitals. They taught the Indians better farming methods, and new and easier ways of weaving and making pottery. Because some people questioned whether or not the Indians were really men who deserved baptism, Pope Paul III made a declaration in 1537 that "the Indians are truly men." Afterward, the conversion effort gained momentum.[201] Over the next 150 years, the missions expanded into southwestern North America.[202] The native people were legally defined as children, and priests took on a paternalistic role, often enforced with corporal punishment.[203] Elsewhere, in India, Portuguese missionaries and the Spanish Jesuit Francis Xavier evangelized among non-Christians and a Christian community which claimed to have been established by Thomas the Apostle.[204] For the Presidential railcar named Ferdinand Magellan, see Ferdinand Magellan Railcar. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... The Southwest could be defined as the states west, or for the most part west, of the mississippi river, with the qualification of a certain northern limit, such as the 37, or 38, or 39, or 40 degree north line. ... Saint Francis Xavier (Basque: San Frantzisko Xabierkoa; Spanish: San Francisco Javier; Portuguese: São Francisco Xavier; Chinese: 聖方濟各沙勿略) (7 April 1506 - 2 December 1552) was a Spanish pioneering Roman Catholic Christian missionary and co-founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order). ... Subscript text == Headline text ==dfgdfgdsfgfdgdf Insert non-formatted text here Saint Thomas the Apostle, Judas Thomas or Didymus, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. ...

Whitby Abbey England, one of hundreds of European monasteries destroyed during the Reformation
Whitby Abbey England, one of hundreds of European monasteries destroyed during the Reformation

In Europe, the Renaissance was a period of renewed interest in art, ancient and classical learning, and a re-examination of accepted beliefs. Cathedrals and churches served as picture books and art galleries for millions of uneducated people. The stained glass windows, frescoes, statues, paintings and panels told stories of saints and biblical characters. The Church sponsored great artists like Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, who created some of the world's most famous artworks.[205] The most famous scholar of the age, Erasmus, in 1509 wrote In Praise of Folly which captured a widely held opinion about corruption in the church.[206] Abuses of power, usury, clerical wealth and hypocrisy all contributed to a general feeling among educated people that reform of some sort was necessary.[206] In 1517, Martin Luther included his Ninety-Five Theses in a letter to several bishops, hoping to spark debate.[207] His theses protested key points of Catholic doctrine as well as the sale of indulgences.[207] Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin, and others further criticized Catholic teachings. These challenges developed into the Protestant Reformation.[208] In Germany, the reformation led to war between the Protestant Schmalkaldic League and the Catholic Emperor Charles V. The first nine-year war ended in 1555 and was followed by a more serious conflict, the Thirty Years' War, which broke out in the following century.[209] In France a series of conflicts termed the French Wars of Religion were fought between 1562 and 1598 between the Huguenots and the forces of the French Catholic League. The popes took sides and became financial supporters of the Catholic League.[210] This ended under Pope Clement VIII who supported King Henry IV's Edict of Nantes in 1598 which granted civil and religious toleration to Protestants.[209][210] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 393 KB) Summary Whitby abbey taken by Me (nez202 / Neil Gray) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 393 KB) Summary Whitby abbey taken by Me (nez202 / Neil Gray) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The ruins of Whitby Abbey Illustration of the ruins of Whitby Abbey Whitby Abbey from pond Whitby Abbey is a ruined Benedictine abbey sited on Whitbys East Cliff in North Yorkshire on the north-east coast of England. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Michelangelo (disambiguation). ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Indulgence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli or Ulricus Zuinglius (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Reformation redirects here. ... The Schmalkaldic League was a defensive league of Protestant princes in the Holy Roman Empire in the mid-16th century. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway[1] Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire Catholic League Austria Bavaria Spain Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Vicomte de Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ... From the 16th to the 18th century the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... [[The French Catholic League was created by [[Henry of Guise]], in [[1576]] during the [[French Wars of Religion]]. [[Pope Sixtus V]], the [[Jesuits]], [[Catherine de Medici]], and [[Philip II of Spain]] were all members of this intransigent ultra-Catholic party, bent upon extirpating the Protestant [[heresy]] in France once and... Pope Clement VIII (Fano, Italy, February 24, 1536 – March 3, 1605 in Rome), born Ippolito Aldobrandini, was Pope from January 30, 1592 to March 3, 1605. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The English Reformation was ostensibly based on Henry VIII's desire for an annulment and was initially more of a political than a theological dispute. However, growing theological disputes eventually came to the fore.[211] The Acts of Supremacy made the English monarch head of the English church thereby establishing the Church of England. Then, beginning in 1536, some 825 monasteries throughout England, Wales, and Ireland were dissolved and Catholic churches were confiscated.[212] Henry VIII executed those like Thomas More, who disagreed with his Act of Supremacy. Although he tried to put the Reformation into reverse at the end of his life by passing the Six Articles, it was too late and by the time he died in 1547, all monasteries, friaries, convents of nuns and shrines were gone.[213] Mary I of England reunited the Church of England with Rome and, against the advice of her Catholic spiritual advisor, persecuted Protestants during the Marian Persecutions.[214] After some provocation, the following monarch, Elizabeth I enforced the Act of Supremacy. This prevented Catholics from becoming members of professions, holding public office, voting, or educating their children.[214] Executions of Catholics under Elizabeth I then surpassed the Marian persecutions.[214] Persecution of Catholics persisted under subsequent English monarchs.[215] Penal laws were also enacted in Ireland[216] but were less effective than in England.[214] In part because the Irish people associated Catholicism with nationhood and national identity, they resisted persistent English efforts to eliminate the Church.[214] The Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829 and subsequent actions of the English parliament eventually helped to eliminate some of the oppressive anti-Catholic laws throughout the British empire.[217] This box:      King Henry VIII of England. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... // The Act of Supremacy November 1534 (26 Hen. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses of the term dissolution see Dissolution. ... For the Elizabethan play, see Sir Thomas More (play). ... The Six Articles of 1539 (short title ), also called the Bloody Statute and the Bloody Whip with Six Strings, was an Act of Parliament which reaffirmed Henry VIIIs general Catholicism. ... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... Marian Persecutions refers to the persecutions of Protestants and dissenters under the Queen Mary I of England. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603 ) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... The Penal laws in Ireland (Irish: Na Péindlíthe) refers to a series of laws imposed under British rule that sought to discriminate against majority native Catholic population but also against Protestant dissenters in favour of the established Church of Ireland which recognised the English monarchy as its spiritual... Catholic Emancipation was a process in Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century which involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics which had been introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the Penal Laws. ...

Melk Abbey, in Austria near the Wachau valley, is an example of the Baroque style.
Melk Abbey, in Austria near the Wachau valley, is an example of the Baroque style.

The Catholic Church responded to doctrinal challenges and abuses highlighted by the Protestant Reformation at the Council of Trent (1545–1563). The council became the driving-force of the Counter-Reformation, reaffirming central Catholic doctrines like transubstantiation and the requirement for love and hope as well as faith to attain salvation. It also reformed many areas of the Church's mission, most importantly by improving the education of the clergy and consolidating the central jurisdiction of the Roman Curia.[20][218] The hostile criticisms of the Reformation were among factors that sparked new religious orders including the Theatines, Barnabites and Jesuits, some of which became the great missionary orders of later years.[219] Improvement to the education of the laity was another positive effect of the era, with a proliferation of secondary schools reinvigorating higher studies such as history, philosophy and theology.[220] To popularize Counter-Reformation teachings, the Church encouraged the Baroque style in art, music and architecture. Baroque religious expression was stirring and emotional, created to stimulate religious fervor.[221] Download high resolution version (2443x1523, 2681 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2443x1523, 2681 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Stift Melk Courtyard of the Stift Melk Melk Abbey Melk Abbey or Stift Melk is an historic Austrian Benedictine abbey, and one of the worlds most famous monastic sites. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... Main article: Eucharist (Catholic Church) Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Theatines or the Congregation of Clerks Regular of the Divine Providence are a male religious order of the Catholic Church, with the post-nominal initials C.R. // The order was founded by Saint Cajetan (Gaetano dei Conti di Tiene), Paolo Consiglieri, Bonifacio da Colle, and Giovanni Pietro Carafa (afterwards... The Barnabites, or Clerics Regular of Saint Paul (Latin: Clericorum Regularium S. Pauli, abbr. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ...


Elsewhere, Christianity was introduced to Japan by the Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier. By the end of the 16th century tens of thousands of Japanese followed Roman Catholicism. Church growth came to a halt in 1597 under the Shogun Iemitsu Tokugawa who, in an effort to seal Japan off from the outside world, launched a severe persecution of Christians.[222] Japanese were forbidden to leave the country and Europeans were forbidden to enter. Despite this, a minority Christian population survived into the nineteenth century.[222][223] Tokugawa Iemitsu (Iyemitsu) (徳川 家光, 1604 - 1651) was the 3rd shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate who reigned from 1623 to 1651 during the early Edo period of Japan. ...


Age of Reason

Toward the latter part of the seventeenth century, Pope Innocent XI attempted to reform many Church abuses such as simony, nepotism and lavish papal expenditures which had caused him to inherit a papal debt of 50,000,000 scudi.[224] By eliminating certain honorary posts, and introducing a raft of economic measures, he was able to balance the books.[224] He then proceeded to promote missionary activity all over the world and condemned all religious persecution.[224] Despite the changes, the European religious conflicts of the Reformation era provoked a backlash against Christianity. Outside of Italy secular powers gained control of virtually all major Church appointments and much of the Church's property.[224] Matters grew still worse with the violent anti-clericalism of the French Revolution. The Church was outlawed, all monasteries destroyed, 30,000 priests were exiled and hundreds more were killed.[225] When Pope Pius VI took sides against the revolution in the First Coalition, Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Italy. The pope was imprisoned by French troops the following year and died after six weeks of captivity. After a change of heart, Napoleon then re-established the Catholic Church in France with the signing of the Concordat of 1801.[226] All over Europe, the end of the Napoleonic wars brought Catholic revival, renewed enthusiasm, and new respect for the papacy following the depredations of the previous era.[227] The Blessed Innocent XI, né Benedetto Odescalchi (May 16, 1611 – August 12, 1689) was pope from 1676 to 1689. ... Look up simony in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up nepotism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The scudo was a coin used in Italy in past times, whose name derives from the French golden écu, created during the reign of Louis IX. From the 18th century, the name was used in Italy for large silver coins sporting the sovereigns insignas. ... Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence, real or imagined[1], in all aspects of public and political life, and the involvement of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Pius VI, born Giovanni Angelo Braschi (December 27, 1717 – August 29, 1799), Pope from 1775 to 1799, was born at Cesena. ... The name First Coalition (1793–1797) designates the first major concerted effort of multiple European powers to contain Revolutionary France. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français... The Concordat of 1801 reaffirmed the Roman Catholic Church as the major religion of France and restored some of its civil status. ...

Church from the Indian settlement of San Ignacio Miní
Church from the Indian settlement of San Ignacio Miní

In the Americas, the Church expanded its missions in cooperation with the Spanish government and military. Junípero Serra, the Franciscan priest in charge of this effort, founded a series of missions which quickly became important economic, political, and religious institutions.[228] These missions brought grain, cattle, and a new way of living to the pagan Indian tribes of California. Overland routes were established from New Mexico that resulted in the colonization of San Francisco in 1776 and Los Angeles in 1781. However, by bringing civilization to the area, these missions and the Spanish government have been held responsible for wiping out nearly a third of the native population, primarily through disease.[229] The Jesuit Reductions were a particular version of the general Spanish colonial strategy of building reducciones de indios in order to civilise and catechise the native populations of South America. ... Remains of the entrance to the church. ... Blessed Junípero Serra (November 24, 1713 – August 28, 1784) was a Majorcan (Spain) Franciscan friar who founded the mission chain in Alta California. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ...


This period also saw the Church struggling against the colonial abuses of the Portuguese and Spanish governments. In South America, the Jesuits protected native peoples from enslavement by establishing semi-independent settlements called reductions. Pope Gregory XVI, challenging Spanish and Portuguese sovereignty, appointed his own candidates as bishops in the colonies, condemned slavery and the slave trade in 1839, and approved the ordination of native clergy in the face of government racism.[230] South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Jesuit Reductions were a particular version of the general Spanish colonial strategy of building reducciones de indios in order to civilise and catechise the native populations of South America. ... Pope Gregory XVI (September 18, 1765 – June 1, 1846), born Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari, named Mauro as a member of the religious order of the Camaldolese, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1831 to 1846. ...


While missionary expansion was occurring in the Americas, the Church in China experienced missionary setbacks in 1721 when the Chinese Rites controversy led the Kangxi Emperor to ban Christian missions in that country.[231] This controversy added fuel to growing criticism of the Jesuit order. In 1773, European rulers united to force Pope Clement XIV to dissolve the Jesuits.[232] The Jesuits were held in disdain throughout Europe because they symbolized the strength and independence of the Church. They also defended the rights of native peoples in South America, hindering the efforts of European powers to maintain absolute rule over their domains.[232] The Chinese Rites controversy was a dispute within the Roman Catholic Church in the early 18th century about whether Chinese folk religion rites and offerings to the emperor constituted idolatry or not. ... For other uses, see Kangxi (disambiguation) The Kangxi Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kang-hsi; May 4, 1654 – December 20, 1722) was an Emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty,[1] and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1661 to 1722. ...


Modern era

In 1870, the First Vatican Council affirmed the doctrine of papal infallibility when exercised in specifically defined pronouncements.[233][234] Controversy over papal infallibility and other issues led to the formation of a small breakaway movement called the Old Catholic Church.[235] The First Vatican Council was summoned by Pope Pius IX by the bull Aeterni Patris of June 29, 1868. ... In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is the dogma that, by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of error[1] when he solemnly declares or promulgates to the Church a dogmatic teaching on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at... The Old Catholic Church is a community of Christian churches. ...

Dead fighters of the 1926–29 uprising known as the "Cristero War", in Manzanillo, Colima, Mexico

This era in Latin America saw anti-clerical regimes come to power from 1860 onward. The confiscation of Church properties and restrictions on people's religious freedoms generally accompanied secularist or Marxist-leaning governmental reforms.[236] One such regime was that of Mexico in 1860. Church properties were confiscated and basic civil and political rights were denied to religious orders and the clergy. Harsh enforcement of these measures eventually led to an uprising known as the Cristero War. Between 1926 and 1934 the number of priests in Mexico fell by over 3000 due to assassination, emigration or expulsion.[237][238] Despite persecution, the Church continued to grow in Mexico, and a 2000 census reported that 88 percent of Mexicans identified themselves as Catholic.[239] Another example includes Argentina, where extravagant press denunciations of the clergy, destruction of Churches, and confiscation of Catholic schools occurred under the regime of General Juan Perón in 1954 as he tried to extend state control over national institutions.[240] The struggle between church and state in Mexico broke out in armed conflict during the Cristero War (also known as the Cristiada) of 1926 to 1929. ... Manzanillo is a city as well as its surrounding municipality in the Mexican state of Colima. ... Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence, real or imagined[1], in all aspects of public and political life, and the involvement of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. ... The struggle between church and state in Mexico broke out in armed conflict during the Cristero War (also known as the Cristiada) of 1926 to 1929. ... Juan Domingo Perón (October 8, 1895 – July 1, 1974) was an Argentine colonel and politician, elected three times as President of Argentina, serving from 1946 to 1955 and from 1973 to 1974. ...


The Industrial Revolution of this era led to increasing concern about the deteriorating conditions of urban workers. Inspired by the German Catholic industrialist Lucien Harmel, Pope Leo XIII published the 1891 encyclical Rerum Novarum explaining Catholic social teaching in terms that rejected socialism but advocated the regulation of working conditions, the establishment of a living wage, and the right of workers to form trade unions.[241] A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810—July 20, 1903), born Count Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was the 256th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, reigning from 1878 to 1903, succeeding Pope Pius IX. Reigning until the age of 93, he was the oldest pope, and had the third longest... Rerum Novarum (Translation: Of New Things) is an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on May 15, 1891. ... Catholic social teaching comprises those aspects of Catholic doctrine which relate to matters dealing with the collective aspect of humanity. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ...


A few decades later, in 1938, Pope Pius XI warned Catholics that antisemitism was incompatible with Christianity.[242] Yet World War II presented new challenges for the Catholic Church in this area because even though no church teachings promote the killing of Jews, some historians accuse Pope Pius XII of not doing enough to stop Nazi atrocities.[243] Although the historical record reveals his words and efforts were clearly against the Nazis, his actions continue to be a source of debate.[244][245] Prominent members of the Jewish community such as Golda Meir and Albert Einstein contradicted the criticisms and spoke highly of Pius' efforts to protect Jews,[246] others noted the significant numbers of Jews saved by the Church.[242] Stating that some 400,000 Jewish lives were saved, one Israeli consul claimed that the Catholic Church saved more Jewish lives during the war than all other churches, religious institutions and rescue organizations combined.[242] Some efforts to help save Jewish lives failed and by the end of the war, almost 5,000 Catholic priests had been executed by the Nazis and many others imprisoned.[242] Pope Pius XI (Latin: ; Italian: Pio XI; May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Pius XIIs signature Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th pope, the human head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City, from March 2, 1939 until his death. ... Golda Meir (‎, Arabic: ‎, born Golda Mabovitch, May 3, 1898 - December 8, 1978, known as Golda Myerson from 1917-1956) was the fourth prime minister, and a founder, of the State of Israel. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ...


Vatican II and beyond

In the aftermath of World War II, communist governments came to power in Eastern Europe and religious affiliation was strongly discouraged.[247] The resistance of the Church and in particular the leadership of Pope John Paul II were credited with helping to bring about the downfall of communist governments across Europe in 1991.[247] This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: , Polish: ) born   IPA: ; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City from 16 October 1978, until his death, almost 27 years later, making his the second-longest...

The Catholic Church engaged in a comprehensive process of reform during and immediately after the Second Vatican Council (1962–65). Tasked with making the historical teachings of the Church clear to the modern world, the council issued documents on numerous topics, including the nature of the church, the mission of the laity, and religious freedom. It also issued directives for a revision of the liturgy, including permission for the Latin liturgical rites to use vernacular languages as well as Latin in the Mass and the other sacraments.[248] The Church also embarked on new efforts to improve Christian unity.[249] In addition to finding common ground on certain issues with Protestant churches, the Catholic Church has discussed the possibility of unity with the Eastern Orthodox Church.[250] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (471x706, 78 KB) Summary Pontifical High Mass in St Peters Basilica Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (471x706, 78 KB) Summary Pontifical High Mass in St Peters Basilica Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... See also: 15th-century Antipope John XXIII. Pope John XXIII (Latin: ; Italian: ), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), known as Blessed John XXIII since his beatification, was elected as the 261st Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Latin liturgical rites used within that area of the Roman Catholic Church where the Latin language once dominated (the Latin Rite or Western Catholic Church) were for many centuries no less numerous than the liturgical rites of the Eastern autonomous particular Churches. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater religious unity or cooperation. ...


In Latin America, the 1960s saw the emergence of Liberation Theology. Growing out of sympathy for working-class movements in Latin American cities, this new movement sought revolutionary change to improve the lot of the poor.[251] Using a radical interpretation of the Gospel, Liberation Theology aimed to redefine the mission of the Church toward achieving political change.[251] A chief promoter of this effort was the Peruvian priest Gustavo Gutiérrez.[251] Liberation Theology was subsequently denounced by both Pope John Paul II and Pope Benedict XVI.[251] Calling the movement "dangerous", the Church sees it as a return to the pre-modern notion of establishing a Christian society through coercive political management.[251] The movement is still alive in Latin America today although somewhat diminished in popularity.[252] Liberation theology is a school of theology within the Catholic Church that focuses on Jesus Christ as not only the Redeemer but also the Liberator of the oppressed. ... Gustavo Gutiérrez Merino, O.P. (born 8 June 1928 Lima) is a Peruvian theologian and Dominican priest regarded as the founder of Liberation Theology. ... Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: , Polish: ) born   IPA: ; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City from 16 October 1978, until his death, almost 27 years later, making his the second-longest... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ...


The sexual revolution of the 1960s brought challenging new issues for the Church to address. Pope Paul VI's encyclical Humanae Vitae in 1968 affirmed the sanctity of life from conception to natural death and rejected the use of contraception, while both abortion and euthanasia were considered to be murder.[125][253][254] The Church's rejection of the use of condoms has provoked criticism, especially with respect to countries where AIDS and HIV attain epidemic proportions. The Church maintains that countries like Kenya, where behavioral changes are endorsed instead of condom use, have experienced greater progress towards controlling the disease than countries solely promoting condoms.[255] For the Macy Gray song, see Sexual Revolution (song). ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... Humanae Vitae (Latin Of Human Life) is an encyclical written by Pope Paul VI and promulgated on July 25, 1968. ... Birth control is the practice of preventing or reducing the probability of pregnancy without abstaining from sexual intercourse; the term is also sometimes used to include abortion, the ending of an unwanted pregnancy, or abstinence. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ... This article is about the male contraceptive device. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ...


Efforts to lead the church to consider the ordination of women led Pope John Paul II to issue two documents to explain church teaching. Mulieris Dignitatem was issued in 1988 to clarify women's equally important and complimentary role in the work of the Church.[256] Then in 1994, Ordinatio Sacerdotalis explained that the Church only extends ordination to men in order to follow the example of Christ, who chose only men for this specific duty.[122][257][258] In general religious use, ordination is the process by which one is consecrated (set apart for the undivided administration of various religious rites). ...


Serious lawsuits emerged in 2001 claiming that deviant priests had sexually abused minors.[259] Some priests resigned, some others were defrocked and jailed[260] and financial settlements were agreed with many victims.[259] The US Church, where the vast majority of sex abuse cases occurred, commissioned a comprehensive study that found 4 percent of all priests who served in the US from 1950 to 2002 faced some sort of sexual accusations.[261][262] This percentage was far surpassed in a 2004 US government investigation of student sexual abuse by US public school teachers.[263][264] Although public school administrators engaged in exactly the same behavior when dealing with accused teachers,[265][266] the Church was widely criticized when it was discovered that some bishops knew about allegations and reassigned the accused instead of removing them.[259][267] Some bishops and psychiatrists noted that the prevailing psychology of the times suggested that people could be cured of such behavior with counseling.[267][268] Many of the abusive priests had received counseling before being reassigned.[262][269] Pope John Paul II responded by stating there is no place in the priesthood or religious life for those who abuse children.[270] The Church instituted reforms to prevent future abuse by requiring fingerprinting and background checks for Church employees and, because a significant majority of victims were teenage boys, disallowing ordination of men with deeply seated homosexual tendencies.[117][268] They also require all dioceses faced with an allegation to alert the authorities, conduct an investigation and remove the accused from duty.[271][272] In 2008, the Church called the scandal "exceptionally serious" and estimated that it was "probably caused by 'no more than 1 per cent' of the 400,000" worldwide Catholic priests.[261] The Roman Catholic sex abuse cases are a series of accusations of child sexual abuse made against Roman Catholic priests and also concern accusations of related church cover-ups against said abuse. ...


See also

Catholicism Portal

For a list of articles related to this topic, see Category:Roman Catholic Church. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Anti-Catholicism is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Catholics or the Catholic Church. ... . ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of Christians. ... Worldwide distribution of Catholic (yellow), Protestant (purple) and Orthodox (cyan) Christians relative to the total population per country. ... For the General Roman Calendar as it was in 1955, see Traditional Catholic Calendar. ... A traditionalist Catholic is a Roman Catholic who believes that there should be a restoration of the liturgical forms, public and private devotions, and presentation of Catholic teachings that prevailed in the Catholic Church just before the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965). ...

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Number of Catholics and Priests Rises. Zenit News Agency (2007-02-12). Retrieved on 2008-02-21.
  2. ^ a b CIA World Factbook. United States Government Central Intelligence Agency (2007). Retrieved on 2008-02-28.
  3. ^ a b Vatican, Annuario Pontificio (Pontifical Yearbook) (2007), p. 1172
  4. ^ Paul VI, Pope (1964). Lumen Gentium. Chapter 3. Vatican. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  5. ^ a b Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 1
  6. ^ a b c Schreck, The Essential Catholic Catechism (1997), p. 153
  7. ^ Barry, One Faith, One Lord (2001), p. 50
  8. ^ Statistics on the Church's Mission Work. National Institute for the Renewal of the Priesthood (2003-02-27). Retrieved on 2008-02-09.
  9. ^ a b c d Barry, One Faith, One Lord (2001), pp. 98–9
  10. ^ Herzog, Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), p. 80
  11. ^ Hitchcock, Geography of Religion (2004), p. 281, quote: "Some (Christian communities) had been founded by Peter, the disciple Jesus designated as the founder of his church. ... Once the position was institutionalized, historians looked back and recognized Peter as the first pope of the Christian church in Rome"
  12. ^ a b c Norman, The Roman Catholic Church an Illustrated History (2007), pp. 11, 14, quote: "The Church was founded by Jesus himself in his earthly lifetime." , "The apostolate was established in Rome, the world's capital when the church was inaugurated; it was there that the universality of the Christian teaching most obviously took its central directive – it was the bishops of Rome who very early on began to receive requests for adjudication on disputed points from other bishops."
  13. ^ a b Barry, One Faith, One Lord (2001), pp. 37, 43–4
  14. ^ a b c McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity (2002), p. 37, Chapter 1 The Early Christian Community subsection entitled "Rome", quote: "In Acts 15 scripture recorded the apostles meeting in synod to reach a common policy about the Gentile mission."
  15. ^ a b c McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity (2002), pp. 37–8, Chapter 1 The Early Christian Community subsection entitled "Rome", quote: "The 'synod' or, in Latin, 'council' (the modern distinction making a synod something less than a council was unknown in antiquity) became an indispensable way of keeping a common mind, and helped to keep maverick individuals from centrifugal tendencies. During the third century synodal government became so developed that synods used to meet not merely at times of crisis but on a regular basis every year, normally between Easter and Pentecost."
  16. ^ a b Marthaler, Introducing the Catechism of the Catholic Church, Traditional Themes and Contemporary Issues (1994), preface
  17. ^ Barry, One Faith, One Lord (2001), p. 71
  18. ^ Orlandis, A Short History of the Catholic Church (1993), preface
  19. ^ a b Vidmar, The Catholic Church Through the Ages (2005), p. 100
  20. ^ a b Norman, The Roman Catholic Church an Illustrated History (2007), p. 81
  21. ^ a b Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, Chapter 2 paragraph 15. Libreria Editrice Vaticana (1964). Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  22. ^ Kreeft, Catholic Christianity (2001), p. 110
  23. ^ Shorto, Russel (2007). Keeping the Faith. New York Times Magazine. The New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-03-29.
  24. ^ Paragraph number 881 (1994). Catechism of the Catholic Church. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  25. ^ a b c Barry, One Faith, One Lord (2001), p. 46
  26. ^ a b Matthew 16:18–9
  27. ^ McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity (2002), p. 36, Chapter 1 The Early Christian Community subsection entitled "Rome", quote: "Towards the latter part of the first century, Rome's presiding cleric named Clement wrote on behalf of his church to remonstrate with the Corinthian Christians who had ejected clergy without either financial or charismatic endowment in favour of a fresh lot; Clement apologized not for intervening but for not having acted sooner."
  28. ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 7
  29. ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), pp. 9–11
  30. ^ Matthew 28:19–20
  31. ^ Paragraph number 849 (1994). Catechism of the Catholic Church. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  32. ^ a b Norman, The Roman Catholic Church an Illustrated History (2007), p. 12
  33. ^ Benedict XVI, Pope (2005). Deus Caritas Est. Vatican. Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
  34. ^ John Paul II, Pope (1997). Laetamur Magnopere. Vatican. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  35. ^ John 16:12–3
  36. ^ Schreck, The Essential Catholic Catechism (1997), pp. 16–9
  37. ^ a b Schreck, The Essential Catholic Catechism (1997), p. 30
  38. ^ Paragraph number 1131 (1994). Catechism of the Catholic Church. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  39. ^ Kreeft, Catholic Christianity (2001), p. 298
  40. ^ Mongoven, The Prophetic Spirit of Catechesis: How We Share the Fire in Our Hearts (2000), p. 68
  41. ^ Langan, The Catholic Tradition (1998), p. 118
  42. ^ Parry, The Blackwell Dictionary of Eastern Christianity (1999), p. 292
  43. ^ McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity (2002), pp. 254–60
  44. ^ a b Schaff, Creeds of Christendom, With a History and Critical Notes (1910), pp. 24, 56
  45. ^ Richardson, The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Theology (1983), p. 132
  46. ^ Barry, One Faith, One Lord (2001), p. 119
  47. ^ Barry, One Faith, One Lord (2001), p. 7
  48. ^ Matthew 22:37–40
  49. ^ a b Paragraph numbers 390, 392, 405 (1994). Catechism of the Catholic Church. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  50. ^ Schreck, The Essential Catholic Catechism (1997), p. 57
  51. ^ Barry, One Faith, One Lord (2001), pp. 18–9
  52. ^ Romans 5:12
  53. ^ a b Kreeft, Catholic Christianity (2001), p. 308
  54. ^ a b Kreeft, Catholic Christianity (2001), pp. 71–2
  55. ^ McGrath, Christianity: An Introduction (2006), pp. 4–6
  56. ^ John 10:1–30
  57. ^ Schreck, The Essential Catholic Catechism (1997), p. 265
  58. ^ a b Paragraph numbers 1850, 1857 (1994). Catechism of the Catholic Church. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  59. ^ Barry, One Faith, One Lord (2001), p. 77
  60. ^ Paragraph number 608 (1994). Catechism of the Catholic Church. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  61. ^ Kreeft, Catholic Christianity (2001), p. 336
  62. ^ Kreeft, Catholic Christianity (2001), p. 344
  63. ^ Paragraph number 1310 (1994). Catechism of the Catholic Church. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved on 2008-02-11.
  64. ^ Paragraph numbers 1385, 1389 (1994). Catechism of the Catholic Church. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved on 2008-02-11.
  65. ^ John 14:15
  66. ^ Barry, One Faith, One Lord (2001), p. 37
  67. ^ a b c Schreck, The Essential Catholic Catechism (1997), pp. 230–1
  68. ^ Kreeft, Catholic Christianity (2001), p. 88
  69. ^ a b Schreck, The Essential Catholic Catechism (1997), p. 277
  70. ^ Schreck, The Essential Catholic Catechism (1997), p. 131
  71. ^ John 15:4–5
  72. ^ Paragraph numbers 777–8 (1994). Catechism of the Catholic Church. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  73. ^ Kreeft, Catholic Christianity (2001), pp. 113–4
  74. ^ Kreeft, Catholic Christianity (2001), p. 114
  75. ^ a b Paragraph number 956 (1994). Catechism of the Catholic Church. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  76. ^ Paragraph number 750 (1994). Catechism of the Catholic Church. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
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  80. ^ Schreck, The Essential Catholic Catechism (1997), p. 397
  81. ^ Luke 23:39–43
  82. ^ a b Paragraph numbers 2041–3 (1994). Catechism of the Catholic Church. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  83. ^ a b c d Schreck, The Essential Catholic Catechism (1997), pp. 232–3
  84. ^ Matthew 26:27–8
  85. ^ Kreeft, Catholic Christianity (2001), p. 320
  86. ^ a b Kreeft, Catholic Christianity (2001), p. 325
  87. ^ Kreeft, Catholic Christianity (2001), p. 328
  88. ^ Schreck, The Essential Catholic Catechism (1997), pp. 189–190, quote: "Some of the earliest Christian writings, such as the Didache, or the 'Teaching of the Twelve Apostles,' chapters 9–10 (late first and early second century), and the First Apology of Justin Martyr, chapters 65–67 (about A.D. 155), describe the primitive form of the Mass and its prayers in a way that bears striking resemblance to the basic format of the Mass today. In fact, the main elements of St. Justin's description of the Mass are almost identical to the form Catholics now employ."
  89. ^ Traufler, The Mass (1927), p. 79
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  94. ^ Barry, One Faith, One Lord (2001), p. 116
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  96. ^ Canon 276. 1983 Code of Canon Law. Vatican. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  97. ^ Paragraph numbers 1174–8, 1196 (1994). Catechism of the Catholic Church. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  98. ^ Luke 18:1
  99. ^ Barry, One Faith, One Lord (2001), pp. 86, 98
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  101. ^ a b Barry, One Faith, One Lord (2001), pp. 122–3
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  104. ^ Baedeker, Rob. "World's most-visited religious destinations", USA Today, 2007. Retrieved on 2008-03-03. 
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  108. ^ Canon 42. 1983 Code of Canon Law. Vatican. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  109. ^ Canon 375. 1983 Code of Canon Law. Vatican. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
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  111. ^ Committee on the Diaconate. Frequently Asked Questions About Deacons. United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  112. ^ Canon 1037. 1983 Code of Canon Law. Vatican. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
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  116. ^ Codex Canonum Ecclesiarum Orientalium 1990, Code of Canon Law for the Eastern Catholic Churches, Canons 285, 373, 374, 758
  117. ^ a b Pope Benedict XVI. "Instruction Concerning the Criteria for the Discernment of Vocations with regard to Persons with Homosexual Tendencies in view of their Admission to the Seminary and to Holy Orders", Vatican. Retrieved on 2008-03-09. 
  118. ^ Canons 232–293. 1983 Code of Canon Law. Vatican. Retrieved on 2008-05-05.
  119. ^ USCCB, Program for Priestly Formation (2006), preface
  120. ^ USCCB, Program for Priestly Formation (2006), para. 243
  121. ^ Paragraph number 1577 (1994). Catechism of the Catholic Church. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  122. ^ a b Pope Benedict XVI, Jesus of Nazareth (2008), pp. 180–1, quote: "The difference between the discipleship of the Twelve and the discipleship of the women is obvious; the tasks assigned to each group are quite different. Yet Luke makes clear—and the other Gospels also show this in all sorts of ways—that 'many' women belonged to the more intimate community of believers and that their faith—filled following of Jesus was an essential element of that community, as would be vividly illustrated at the foot of the Cross and the Resurrection."
  123. ^ John Paul II, Pope (1988). Christifideles Laici. Vatican. Retrieved on 2008-03-17.
  124. ^ Paragraph numbers 871–2, 899, 901, 905, 908–9 (1994). Catechism of the Catholic Church. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  125. ^ a b John Paul II, Pope (1991-05-19). On combatting abortion and euthanasia. Catholic Information Network. Retrieved on 2008-02-21.
  126. ^ a b c Pontifical Council for the Laity (2000). International Associations of the Faithful. Vatican. Retrieved on 2008-03-27.
  127. ^ Canon 129. 1983 Code of Canon Law. Vatican. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  128. ^ a b c Canons 573–746. 1983 Code of Canon Law. Vatican. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  129. ^ Canons 573–602, 605–709. 1983 Code of Canon Law. Vatican. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  130. ^ Canon 654. 1983 Code of Canon Law. Vatican. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  131. ^ Canon 587. 1983 Code of Canon Law. Vatican. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  132. ^ Canon 605. 1983 Code of Canon Law. Vatican. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  133. ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), preface
  134. ^ Number of priests increases, but not as fast as number of Catholics. Catholic News Service (2008-02-29). Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  135. ^ a b "Factfile: Roman Catholics around the world", BBC News, 2005-04-01. Retrieved on 2008-03-24. (English) 
  136. ^ Pogatchnik, Shawn (2005). Catholic Priest Shortage. CBS News. Retrieved on 2008-04-04.
  137. ^ Canon 11. 1983 Code of Canon Law. Vatican. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  138. ^ a b Barry, One Faith, One Lord (2001), p. 56
  139. ^ Gledhill, Ruth (2007). Tony Blair converts to Catholicism. Times Newspapers Ltd. Retrieved on 2008-04-04.
  140. ^ Pro-abortion politicians excluded from Communion: Pope. Catholic World News (2007-05-09). Retrieved on 2008-02-12.
  141. ^ Excommunication. Catholic World News (2007-05-09). Retrieved on 2008-02-12.
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  144. ^ Paragraph number 1463 (1994). Catechism of the Catholic Church. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  145. ^ a b Vidmar, The Catholic Church Through the Ages (2005), pp. 19–20
  146. ^ a b Hitchcock, Geography of Religion (2004), p. 281, quote: "By the year 100, more than 40 Christian communities existed in cities around the Mediterranean, including two in North Africa, at Alexandria and Cyrene, and several in Italy."
  147. ^ Vidmar, The Catholic Church Through the Ages (2005), pp. 40–2, quote: "Several pieces of evidence indicate that the Bishop of Rome even after Peter held some sort of preeminence among other bishops. ...(lists several historical documents)... None of these examples, taken by themselves, would be sufficient to prove the primacy of the successors of Peter and Paul. Taken together, however, they point to a Roman authority which was recognized in the early church as going beyond that of other churches."
  148. ^ Norman, The Roman Catholic Church an Illustrated History (2007), pp. 27–8, quote: "A distinguished succession of theological apologists added intellectual authority to the resources at the disposal of the papacy, at just that point in its early development when the absence of a centralized teaching office could have fractured the universal witness to a single body of ideas. At the end of the first century there was St. Clement of Rome, third successor to St. Peter in the see; in the second century there was St. Ignatius of Antioch, St. Irenaeus of Lyons and St. Justin Martyr; in the fourth century St. Augustine of Hippo, the greatest theologian of the Early Church."
  149. ^ a b c Hitchcock, Geography of Religion (2004), p. 282
  150. ^ Hitchcock, Geography of Religion (2004), p. 283
  151. ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 18
  152. ^ Hitchcock, Geography of Religion (2004), p. 284
  153. ^ Hitchcock, Geography of Religion (2004), p. 286
  154. ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 35
  155. ^ Le Goff, Medieval Civilization (1964), pp. 5–20
  156. ^ a b Le Goff, Medieval Civilization (1964), p. 21
  157. ^ Woods, How the Church Built Western Civilization (2005), p. 27
  158. ^ Le Goff, Medieval Civilization (1964), p. 120
  159. ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 52
  160. ^ Collins, The Story of Christianity (1999), pp. 84–6
  161. ^ a b Vidmar, The Catholic Church Through the Ages (2005), pp. 102–3
  162. ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), pp. 63, 74
  163. ^ Vidmar, The Catholic Church Through the Ages (2005), pp. 107–11
  164. ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 82
  165. ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), pp. 88–9
  166. ^ Woods, How the Church Built Western Civilization (2005), p. 40
  167. ^ a b Woods, How the Church Built Western Civilization (2005), pp. 44–5
  168. ^ Woods, How the Church Built Western Civilization (2005), pp. 47–8
  169. ^ a b Vidmar, The Catholic Church Through the Ages (2005), p. 104
  170. ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 278
  171. ^ Riley-Smith, The First Crusaders (1997), p. 8
  172. ^ Vidmar, The Catholic Church Through the Ages (2005), pp. 130–1
  173. ^ Vidmar, The Catholic Church Through the Ages (2005), p. 121
  174. ^ Le Goff, Medieval Civilization (1964), pp. 65–7
  175. ^ Tyerman, God's War: A New History of the Crusades (2006), pp. 525–60
  176. ^ Pope sorrow over Constantinople. BBC News (2004-06-29). Retrieved on 2008-04-06.
  177. ^ a b Woods, How the Church Built Western Civilization (2005), pp. 119–22
  178. ^ a b Norman, The Roman Catholic Church (2007), p. 62
  179. ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 101
  180. ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 112
  181. ^ a b Vidmar, The Catholic Church Through the Ages (2005), p. 144
  182. ^ a b Black, Early Modern Italy (2001), pp. 200–2
  183. ^ Casey, Early Modern Spain: A Social History (2002), pp. 229–30
  184. ^ a b Norman, The Roman Catholic Church an Illustrated History (2007), p. 93
  185. ^ Kamen, The Spanish Inquisition (1997), pp. 48–9
  186. ^ a b Vidmar, The Catholic Church Through the Ages (2005), pp. 150–2
  187. ^ Kamen, The Spanish Inquisition (1997), pp. 59, 203
  188. ^ McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity (2002), p. 187
  189. ^ Kamen, The Spanish Inquisition (1997), p. 49, quote: "In this bull the pope protested ...the Inquisition has for some time been moved not by zeal for the faith and the salvation of souls, but by lust for wealth, and that many true and faithful Christians, on the testimony of enemies, rivals, slaves and other lower and even less proper persons, have without any legitimate proof been thrust into secular prisons, tortured and condemned as relapsed heretics, deprived of their goods and property and handed over to the secular arm to be executed, to the peril of souls, setting a pernicious example, and causing disgust to many."
  190. ^ Norman, The Roman Catholic Church an Illustrated History (2007), p. 93, quote: " ...subsequent Protestant propaganda for centuries identified the entire Catholic Church in Spain, and elsewhere, with their occasional excesses. By the nineteenth century political liberals and religious dissenters took the 'crimes' of the Inquisition to be the ultimate proofs of the vile character of 'popery', and an enormous popular literature on the subject poured from the presses of Europe and North America. At its most active, in the sixteenth century, nevertheless, the Inquisition was regarded as far more enlightened than the secular courts: if you denied the Trinity and repented you were given penance; if you stole a sheep and repented you were hung. It has been calculated that only one per cent of those who appeared before the Inquisition tribunals eventually received death penalties. But the damage wrought by propaganda has been effective, and today the 'Spanish' Inquisition, like the Crusades, persists in supplying supposedly discreditable episodes to damn the memory of the Catholic past."
  191. ^ McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity (2002), p. 215, quote: "The inquisition has come to occupy such a role in European demonology that we must be careful to keep it in proportion. ...and the surviving records indicate that the proportion of executions was not high."
  192. ^ Vidmar, The Catholic Church Through the Ages (2005), p. 146, quote: "The extent of the Inquisition trials for heresy has been highly exaggerated. Once the Inquisition was established...the pyromania which had characterized lay attempts to suppress heresy came to an end. Ninety percent of the sentences were "canonical" or church-related penances: fasting, pilgrimage, increased attendance at Mass, the wearing of distinctive clothing or badges, etc. The number of those who were put to death was very small indeed. The best estimate is that, of every hundred people sentenced, one person was executed, and ten were given prison terms. Even these latter could have their sentences reduced once the inquisitors left town."
  193. ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 122
  194. ^ McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity (2002), p. 232
  195. ^ Vidmar, The Catholic Church Through the Ages (2005), p. 155
  196. ^ a b McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity (2002), p. 240
  197. ^ Koschorke, A History of Christianity in Asia, Africa, and Latin America (2007), p. 13
  198. ^ Woods, How the Church Built Western Civilization (2005), p. 135
  199. ^ Woods, How the Church Built Western Civilization (2005), p. 137
  200. ^ Koschorke, A History of Christianity in Asia, Africa, and Latin America (2007), p. 21
  201. ^ Samora et al, A History of the Mexican-American People (1993), p. 20
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  204. ^ Koschorke, A History of Christianity in Asia, Africa, and Latin America (2007), pp. 3, 17
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  211. ^ Scruton, A Dictionary of Political Thought (1996), p. 470, quote: "The (English) Reformation must not be confused with the changes introduced into the Church of England during the 'Reformation Parliament' of 1529–36, which were of a political rather than a religious nature, designed to unite the secular and religious sources of authority within a single sovereign power: the Anglican Church did not until later make any substantial change in doctrine."
  212. ^ Schama, A History of Britain 1: At the Edge of the World? (2003), pp. 309–11
  213. ^ Vidmar, The Catholic Church Through the Ages (2005), p. 220, quote: "Henry, seeing how far Cranmer had tried to take him in making the land Lutheran or Calvinist, pulled the plug in September 1538 and passed the Six Articles, which tried to restore the ancient faith, including the practice of celibacy for the clergy. By 1543 most of the Reformation legislation was reversed. One man, John Lambert, was made an example in November 1538. He was burned by being dragged in and out of the fire for holding the very same beliefs about the Eucharist that Cranmer held. Cranmer was made to watch the whole brutal event. He also had to send his wife back to Germany. But Henry, try as he might to apply brakes to the Reformation in England by restricting it and (toward the end) reversing it, had set in motion a formidable machine."
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  272. ^ Scandals in the church: The Bishops' Decisions; The Bishops' Charter for the Protection of Children and Young People. The New York Times (2002-06-15). Retrieved on 2008-02-12.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Annuario Pontificio or Pontifical Yearbook is the annual directory of the Holy See of the Roman Catholic Church. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: , Polish: ) born   IPA: ; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City from 16 October 1978, until his death, almost 27 years later, making his the second-longest... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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  • Woods Jr, Thomas (2005). How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization. Regnery Publishing, Inc. ISBN 0-89526-038-7. 
  • Woolner, David (2003). FDR, The Vatican and the Roman Catholic Church in America, 1933–1945. Macmillan. ISBN 978-88-209-7908-9. 

Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... Christopher Black is an international criminal lawyer and political activist based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Eamon Duffy is an Irish Professor of the History of Christianity at the University of Cambridge, and former President of Magdalene College. ... Robert Jackson was the name of the following people: Robert H. Jackson (1892 - 1954), a justice on the Supreme Court of the United States, and the chief American prosecutor at the Nuremberg trials. ... Peter Kreeft Peter Kreeft is a Catholic apologist for Christianity, professor of philosophy at Boston College and The Kings College, and author of over 45 books including Fundamentals of the Faith, Everything you Ever Wanted to Know about Heaven, and Back to Virtue. ... A French medievalist, representative of the Annales School of historiography. ... Martin E. Marty (b. ... Richard Peter McBrien (born 1936) is the Crowley-OBrien professor of Theology at the University of Notre Dame. ... The Rev. ... Chris Murray Chris Murray is a Canadian-born singer-songwriter and guitarist working primarily in the genre of ska. ... Dr. Edward Norman was Canon Chancellor of York Minster and is an ecclesiastical historian. ... Jose Orlandis is a historian who has written more than 200 works, among which are 20 books. ... Alan Richardson (born May 6, 1975) is an English cricketer. ... Philip Schaff (January 1, 1819-1893), was a Swiss-born, German-educated theologian and a historian of the Christian church, who, after his education, lived and taught in the United States. ... Simon Schama Simon Michael Schama, CBE (born 13 February 1945) is a professor of history and art history at Columbia University. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Roger Vernon Scruton (born 27 February 1944) is a British philosopher. ... Peter F. Steinfels (born in 1941) is an American journalist and educator best known for his writings on religious topics. ... The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (also known as the USCCB) is the official governing body of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States. ... The Annuario Pontificio or Pontifical Yearbook is the annual directory of the Holy See of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Thomas Woods Thomas E. Woods, Jr. ...

Further reading

Chronological order of publication (oldest first)

  • Johnson, Kevin Orlin (1994). Why do Catholics do that?. Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-39726-6. 
  • Keating, Karl (1995). What Catholics Really Believe-Setting the Record Straight: 52 Answers to Common Misconceptions About the Catholic Faith. San Francisco: Ignatius Press. ISBN 0898705533. 
  • Crocker, III, H. W. (November 2001). Triumph: The Power and the Glory of the Catholic Church: A 2,000-Year History. Prima Lifestyles. ISBN 0-7615-2924-1. 
  • Brighenti, Kenneth (2003). Catholicism for dummies. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley Pub. ISBN 0764553917. 
  • Pope Benedict XVI (2005). Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church. USCCB. ISBN 1574557203. 
  • O'Gorman, PhD, Bob (2006). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Understanding Catholicism, 3rd Edition (Complete Idiot's Guide to). Indianapolis, IN: Alpha, 432. ISBN 1592575358. 
  • Brighenti, Kenneth (2007). Catholicism Answer Book: The 300 Most Frequently Asked Questions. Sourcebooks, Inc, 320. ISBN 1402208065. 
  • Dubruiel, Michael (2007). The How-To Book of the Mass: Everything You Need to Know but No One Ever Taught You. Huntington, Ind: Our Sunday Visitor, 272. ISBN 1592762697. 
  • DeTurris Poust, Mary (2008). The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Catholic Catechism (Complete Idiot's Guide to). Indianapolis, IN: Alpha, 336. ISBN 1592577075. 
  • O'Collins, Gerald (2008). Catholicism: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 144. ISBN 019954591X. 

Karl Keating (born 1950), a prominent Catholic apologist and author, is the founder and president of Catholic Answers. ...

External links

  • Vatican: the Holy See – The official website of the Vatican.
  • Catholic Hierarchy – Information on Catholic bishops and dioceses.
  • The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church – Information on the Cardinals of the Catholic Church.
  • Global Catholic Statistics: 1905 and TodayPDF (26.3 KiB) by Albert J. Fritsch, SJ, PhD.
  • MassTimes – A comprehensive database of every Catholic Church and Mass in the entire world.
  • Catholic Wiki – A wiki site dedicated to the Catholic Church.

“PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... The HISTORY of the Catholic Church covers a period of just under two thousand years, making the Church one of the oldest continuously existing religious institutions in history. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... // Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Early Christianity is the Christianity of the three centuries between the death of Jesus ( 30) and the First Council of Nicaea (325). ... The office of the Pope is called the Papacy. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A... The Second Ecumenical Council whose contributions to the Nicene Creed lay at the heart of the famous theological disputes underlying the East-West Schism. ... Historical map of the Western Schism: red is support for Avignon, blue for Rome The Western Schism or Papal Schism (also known as the Great Schism of Western Christianity) was a split within the Catholic Church (1378 - 1417). ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, the threefold order, or hierarchy, of bishop, priest, and deacon, conferred through the sacrament of Holy Orders, is a structural feature considered to be of divine institution. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cardinal (disambiguation). ... See Patriarchs (Bible) for details about Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob of the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, a major archbishop is an Eastern Rite hierarch who has the same jurisdiction in his sui juris particular church that an Eastern rite patriarch does, but whose episcopal see is less prestigious than a patriarchal see. ... Primate (from the Latin Primus, first) is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop (then more precisely called Metropolitan archbishop) of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of an old Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop heading a diocese of particular importance due to either its size, history, or both, called an archdiocese. ... This article is about the role of bishops in the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... Original Sin redirects here. ... In Christian theology, One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church is a phrase describing the nature of the Christian community and/or Christian Church, in the various meanings it has. ... Monument honoring the right to worship, Washington, D.C. In Christianity, worship has been considered by most Christians to be the central act of Christian identity throughout history. ... In Christianity, divine grace refers to the sovereign favour of God for humankind — especially in regard to salvation — irrespective of actions (deeds), earned worth, or proven goodness. ... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... The Sermon on the Mount by Carl Heinrich Bloch. ... This article is about the list of religious and moral imperatives. ... A particular Church, in Catholic theology and Canon law, is any of the individual constituent ecclesial communities in full communion with Rome that are part of the Catholic Church as a whole. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... The Alexandrian Rite is officially called the Liturgy of Saint Mark, traditionally regarded as the first bishop of Alexandria. ... The Coptic Catholic Church is an Alexandrian Rite church sui juris particular Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... The Ethiopic Catholic Church is a Metropolitan sui iuris Eastern Rite particular Church within the Roman Catholic Church and uses the Ethiopic liturgical rite. ... Antiochene rite designate the family of liturgies originally used in the Patriarchate of Antioch: that of the Apostolic Constitutions; then that of St. ... Religions Christianity Scriptures Bible Languages Vernacular: Lebanese Arabic, Cypriot Maronite Arabic Liturgical: Syriac Maronites (Arabic: ‎, transliteration: , Syriac: ܡܪܘܢܝܐ, Latin: Ecclesia Maronitarum) are members of one of the Eastern Catholic Churches, with a heritage reaching back to Maron in the early 5th century. ... The Syriac Catholic Church or Syrian Catholic Church is a Christian church in the Levant having practices and rites in common with the Syriac Orthodox Church. ... The Syro-Malankara Catholic Church is a Major Archepiscopal sui iuris Eastern Rite Roman Catholic Church in communion with the Roman Catholic Church, with historical links to the Syrian Catholic Church. ... The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called Constantinopolitan, is the liturgical rite used (in various languages) by all the Eastern Orthodox Churches and by several Eastern Catholic Churches. ... The Italo-Albanian Catholic Church, also known as the Italo-Greek Catholic Church, is one of the Byzantine Rite sui juris churches of the Catholic Communion. ... The Melkite Greek Catholic Church (Arabic: , ) is an Eastern Rite sui juris particular Church of the Catholic Church in communion with the Pope. ... The Russian Catholic Church is a Byzantine Rite church sui juris of the Catholic Church. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The East Syrian Rite is also known as the Chaldean Rite, Assyrian Rite, or Persian Rite. ... These are the only peoples in this region that were fully and originally Semitic. ... Syro-Malabar Church Official website The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church is a Major Archiepiscopal Church in communion with the Roman Catholic Church. ... Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article, refers to the sui juris particular Church of the Roman Catholic Church that developed in the area of western Europe and northern Africa where Latin was for many centuries the language of education and culture. ... Ambrosian Rite (also sometimes called the Milanese Rite) named after Saint Ambrose, bishop of Milan in the fourth century, is a Catholic liturgical rite practised among Catholics in the greater part of the Archdiocese of Milan (excluding, notably, the city of Monza, and a few other towns), and neighbouring area... The Anglican Use is an adaptation or usage of the liturgy of the Catholic Roman Rite that is used by some formerly Anglican ecclesial communities that submitted to the authority of the Roman Pontiff. ... The Mozarabic rite is a form of Catholic worship within the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church. ... The Sarum Rite, more properly called the Sarum Use, was a variant of the Latin Rite practiced in Great Britain & Ireland from the late 11th Century until the Reformation. ... The Latin Church is that part of the Roman Catholic Church where the Latin rites are or were used in the liturgy. ... Catholic sacraments redirects here. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... Confirmation, known also as Chrismation (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1289), is one of the seven sacraments instituted by Christ for the conferral of sanctifying grace and the strengthening of the union between individual souls and God. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In Roman Catholic teaching, the Sacrament of Penance (commonly called Confession, Reconciliation or Penance) is the method given by Christ to the Church by which individual men and women may be freed from sins committed after receiving Baptism. ... Anointing of the Sick is the ritual anointing of a sick person and is a Sacrament of the Catholic Church. ... The Ministerial Priesthood in the Catholic Church includes both the orders of bishops and presbyters, which in Latin is sacerdos. ... (Gospel of Matthew 19:6) Matrimony, The Seven Sacraments, Rogier van der Weyden, ca. ... Catholic sacraments redirects here. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... In Roman Catholic teaching, the Sacrament of Penance (commonly called Confession, Reconciliation or Penance) is the method given by Christ to the Church by which individual men and women may be freed from sins committed after receiving Baptism. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Confirmation, known also as Chrismation (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1289), is one of the seven sacraments instituted by Christ for the conferral of sanctifying grace and the strengthening of the union between individual souls and God. ... (Gospel of Matthew 19:6) Matrimony, The Seven Sacraments, Rogier van der Weyden, ca. ... The Ministerial Priesthood in the Catholic Church includes both the orders of bishops and presbyters, which in Latin is sacerdos. ... Anointing of the Sick is the ritual anointing of a sick person and is a Sacrament of the Catholic Church. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... A Papal Mass is a traditional Catholic mass celebrated by the Pope. ... Please note that this page is still under construction. ... In Great Britain & Ireland the term Sung Mass or Misa Cantata is used for what in the United States of America is called High Mass. ... Until the changes brought in following the Second Vatican Council, a Low Mass or Missa Lecta was one said by a priest alone, with the assistance of one or two servers. ... The Tridentine Mass (Pontifical High Mass) being celebrated at Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church in Wyandotte, Michigan - 1949. ... In Roman Catholic and Anglo-Catholic churches, Benediction usually refers to the Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. ... The Liturgy of the Hours is usually recited in full in monastic communities. ... Ambrosian Rite (also sometimes called the Milanese Rite) named after Saint Ambrose, bishop of Milan in the fourth century, is a Catholic liturgical rite practised among Catholics in the greater part of the Archdiocese of Milan (excluding, notably, the city of Monza, and a few other towns), and neighbouring area... Antiochene rite designate the family of liturgies originally used in the Patriarchate of Antioch: that of the Apostolic Constitutions; then that of St. ... The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called Constantinopolitan, is the liturgical rite used (in various languages) by all the Eastern Orthodox Churches and by several Eastern Catholic Churches. ... Coat of arms of the Carthusian order Monasterio de la Cartuja, a former Carthusian monastery in Seville The Carthusian Order, also called the Order of St. ... The Mozarabic rite is a form of Catholic worship within the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church. ... Catholic Order Rites are liturgical rites, in the sense of variations on the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, specific to a number of regular orders. ... Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article, refers to the sui juris particular Church of the Roman Catholic Church that developed in the area of western Europe and northern Africa where Latin was for many centuries the language of education and culture. ... The Sarum Rite, more properly called the Sarum Use, was a variant of the Latin Rite practiced in Great Britain & Ireland from the late 11th Century until the Reformation. ... The East Syrian Rite is also known as the Chaldean Rite, Assyrian Rite, or Persian Rite. ... The West Syrian Rite is the rite used by the Jacobite sect in Syria, the Orthodox church of India, and by the Catholic Syrians is in its origin simply the old rite of Antioch in the Syriac language. ... The Anglican Use is an adaptation or usage of the liturgy of the Catholic Roman Rite that is used by some formerly Anglican ecclesial communities that submitted to the authority of the Roman Pontiff. ... Aperges is the ceremony of sprinkling the people with holy water before High Mass in the Roman Catholic Church. ... Saint Francis exorcised demons in Arezzo, fresco of Giotto Exorcism (from Late Latin exorcismus, from Greek exorkizein - to adjure) is the practice of evicting demons or other evil spiritual entities from a person or place which they are believed to have possessed (taken control of). ... A Catholic Funeral refers to the funeral rites specifically in use in the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Requiem (from the Latin requiés, rest) or Requiem Mass (informally, the funeral Mass), also known formally (in Latin) as the Missa pro defunctis or Missa defunctorum, is a liturgical service of the Roman Catholic Church as well as the Anglican/ Episcopalian High Church and certain Lutheran Churches in... Catholic Order Rites are liturgical rites, in the sense of variations on the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, specific to a number of regular orders. ... Catholic Order Rites are liturgical rites, in the sense of variations on the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, specific to a number of regular orders. ... Catholic Order Rites are liturgical rites, in the sense of variations on the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, specific to a number of regular orders. ... The Durham Rite is a historical fusion of the Roman Rite and the Gallican Rite in the English bishopric of Durham. ... By Pre-Tridentine Mass is meant the successive forms of the liturgy of the Mass of the Roman Rite up to 1570, when Pope Pius V, to whom the task was entrusted by the 1545-1563 Council of Trent, ordered the general adoption, within the Latin-Rite or Western Church... In the History of Christianity, African Rite refers to a now defunct Roman Catholic Western liturgical rite. ... The Aquileian Rite was a particular liturgical tradition within the schismatical province of the ancient patriarchal see of Aquileia. ... // How Christianity Reached the Area One part of Britain, indeed, derived a great part of its Christianity from post-Patrician Irish missions. ... The Gallican Rite is a historical sub-grouping of Christianity in western Europe; it is not a single rite but actually a family of rites within the Western Rite which comprised the majority use of most of Christianity in western Europe for the greater part of the 1st millennium AD... The Missa Sicca (Latin: dry Mass) was a common form of devotion used in the medieval Roman Catholic Church for funerals or marriages in the afternoon, when a real Mass could not be said. ... The Missa Sicca (Latin: dry Mass) was a common form of devotion used in the medieval Roman Catholic Church for funerals or marriages in the afternoon, when a real Mass could not be said. ... The Missa Sicca (Latin: dry Mass) was a common form of devotion used in the medieval Roman Catholic Church for funerals or marriages in the afternoon, when a real Mass could not be said. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... For the biological phenomenon of female-only reproduction, see Parthenogenesis. ... Christ en majesté, Matthias Grünewald, 16th c. ... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years. ... According to the canonical Gospels, Jesus worked many miracles in the course of his ministry, which may be categorized into cures, exorcisms, dominion over nature, three instances of raising the dead, and various others. ... Bronzinos Deposition of Christ For more details on this topic, see Passion (Christianity). ... The resurrection of Jesus is an event in the New Testament in which God raised him from the dead[1] after his death by crucifixion. ... For other uses, see Second Coming (disambiguation). ... The chronology of Jesus depicts the traditional chronology established for the events of the life of Jesus by the four canonical gospels (which allude to various dates for several events). ... Image File history File links Christian_cross. ... For other uses, see Creed (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... Kingdom of Heaven redirects here. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The purpose... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... Christian doctrine redirects here. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      // In... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christology is a field of study... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... For other uses, see Atonement (disambiguation). ... This is an overview of the history of theology in Greek thought, Christianity, Judaism and Islam from the time of Christ to the present. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian apologetics is the... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Church historian redirects here. ... List of Christian denominations (or Denominations self-identified as Christian) ordered by historical and doctrinal relationships. ... // Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Early Christianity is the Christianity of the three centuries between the death of Jesus ( 30) and the First Council of Nicaea (325). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Western Christianity... Reformation redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... Fundamentalist Christianity, or Christian fundamentalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and American Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by conservative evangelical Christians, who, in a reaction to modernism, actively affirmed a fundamental set of Christian beliefs: the inerrancy of the Bible, Sola Scriptura, the... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Liberal Christianity, sometimes called... The Baruch Hashem Messianic Synagogue in Dallas, Texas Theology and Practice Messiah · Yeshua · Dance · Seal Religious Texts Messianic Bible translations Movement leaders & Orgs. ... For other usages, see Dispensationalism, Restoration Movement, and Restoration The term Restorationism is used to describe both the late middle ages (15-16th century) movement that preceded the protestant reformation, and recent religious movements. ... Monument honoring the right to worship, Washington, D.C. In Christianity, worship has been considered by most Christians to be the central act of Christian identity throughout history. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christian... Throughout the history of Christianity, a wide range of Christians and non-Christians alike have offered criticisms of Christianity, the Church, and Christians themselves. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A denomination... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism) refers to initiatives aimed at greater religious unity or cooperation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A liturgy is a... The month of October from a liturgical calendar for Abbotsbury Abbey. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A... Christian movements are theological, political, or philosophical intepretations of Christianity that are not generally represented by a specific church, sect, or denomination. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christian... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Parallels between Christianity and Buddhism have been noted across the ages by scholars but are now being more widely appreciated as individuals search accessible Buddhist scriptures in ancient and modern languages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article discusses the traditional views of the two religions and may not be applicable all adherents of each. ... Early Christianity developed in Roman Judea and in the milieu of Hellenistic Judaism, in the 2nd and 3rd centuries leading an underground existence as an illicit mystery religion, in the 4th century undergoing syncretism with Roman imperial cult and Hellenistic philosophy, a process completed by AD 391 with the ban... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Since the... Christianity and astrology are seen as incompatible by modern orthodox Christian teachings (Christian doctrine). ...


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Roman Catholic Church - MSN Encarta (615 words)
Roman Catholic Church, the largest single Christian body, composed of those Christians who acknowledge the supreme authority of the bishop of Rome, the pope, in matters of faith.
The Roman Catholic Church regards itself as the only legitimate inheritor, by an unbroken succession of bishops descending from Saint Peter to the present time, of the commission and powers conferred by Jesus Christ on the 12 apostles.
In keeping with early Christian traditions, the fundamental unit of organization in the Roman Catholic Church is the diocese, headed by a bishop.
Roman Catholic Church. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (2272 words)
The doctrine of apostolic succession is one of the keystones of the Catholic faith; it holds that the pope (the vicar of Christ) and the bishops have in varying degrees the spiritual authority Jesus assigned to his apostles.
In addition the Roman Catholic Church stresses that since the members, living and dead, share in each other’s merits, the Virgin Mary and other saints and the dead in purgatory are never forgotten (see church; saint).
The contest between church and state continued, ruining the Hohenstaufen dynasty and, in the contest between Boniface VIII and Philip IV of France, bringing the papacy to near ruin.
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