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Encyclopedia > Roman Catholic
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The Roman Catholic Church believes its founding was based on Jesus' appointment of Saint Peter as the primary church leader, later Bishop of Rome.

The Roman Catholic Church is the largest Note that this kind of denomination is not that of a coin or banknote. A religious denomination, (also simply denomination) is a large, long-established subgroup within a religion that has been in existence for many years. The term is frequently used to describe the different Christian churches (Eastern Orthodoxy... religious denomination of For other uses of the term Christian, see This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back and fix it to point directly to the intended... Christianity with over one billion members. It maintains the claim that it is both organizationally and doctrinally the original Christian Church, founded by This article is about the figure known by both Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ. For other usages, see Jesus (disambiguation). This 11th-century portrait is one of many images of Jesus in which a halo with a cross is used. Jesus of Nazareth (b. about 6–4 BC... Jesus on According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. Saint Peter (died c. 67) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus in the New Testament. His original name was Simon (שמעון Hearkening; listening, Standard Hebrew Šimʿon... St. Peter and the other Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the... Apostles. The Roman Catholic Church claims an unbroken In Christianity, the doctrine of apostolic succession maintains that the Christian Church is the spiritual successor of the Apostles. Different Christian denominations interpret this doctrine in different ways. The Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Nestorian, Lutheran, and Anglican Churches hold that apostolic succession is maintained through the ordination of... Apostolic Succession with Divine grace consists of gifts granted to humanity by This article focuses on the concept of singular, monotheistic God. See deity, gods, or goddesses for details on divine entities in specific religions and mythologies. God is a term referring to the concept of a supreme being, generally believed to be... grace transferred through the laying on of hands. It is both the largest and the oldest continuously operating institution in existence.


Members generally prefer the term Catholic Church, but this term has multiple meanings (see This article considers Catholicism in the broadest ecclesiastical sense. See Catholicism (disambiguation) for alternative meanings Catholicism has two main ecclesiastical meanings, described in Websters Dictionary as: a) the whole orthodox christian church, or adherence thereto; and b) the doctrines or faith of the Roman Catholic church, or adherence thereto... Catholicism); the term Roman Catholic Church is used in this article to avoid confusion. The relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and the Latin Rite, in the singular, usually refers to the sui juris particular Church of the Roman Catholic Church that developed, with its own rituals, customs and canon law, in the area of western Europe and northern Africa where Latin was for many centuries the language of education and culture. This... Western or Latin and the Eastern Churches within it is dealt with below.


The Second Vatican Council Date 1962–1965 Accepted by Roman Catholic Church Previous Council First Vatican Council Next Council none Convoked by Pope John XXIII Presided by Pope John XXIII, Pope Paul VI Attendance up to 2540 Topics of discussion Church in the modern world, ecumenism Documents and statements 16... Second Vatican Council's Decree on the Church Lumen Gentium, 8,[1]  (http://www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/documents/vat-ii_const_19641121_lumen-gentium_en.html) declared that "the sole Church of Christ which in the Creed we profess to be one, holy, catholic and Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the... apostolic" has a concrete realization (the Latin term is "subsistit") "in the Catholic Church, which is governed by the successor of Peter and by the bishops in communion with him". "Successor of Peter" refers to the Pope.

Contents

Overview

The Roman Catholic Church has a worldwide membership that worships in every country on For other uses, see Earth (disambiguation). Earth The Blue Marble, taken from Apollo 17 Human Social statistics Largest Agglomerations Tokyo, Mexico City, Seoul, New York, São Paulo, Bombay Languages (2000 est.) Mandarin Chinese 14.37%, Hindi 6.02%, English 5.61%, Spanish 5.59%, Bengali 3.4%, Portuguese 2... Earth. It is a A hierarchy (in Greek hieros = sacred, arkho = rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things. Different fields use the word in slightly different ways, but a particular definition (below) captures the core of almost all uses. Originally, hierarchy meant rule by priests. Since hierarchical churches such as the Roman... hierarchical organisation in which ordained clergy are divided into the orders of For other uses, see Bishop (disambiguation). A bishop is an ordained person who holds a specific position of authority in any of a number of Christian churches. Contents // 1 Bishops in the New Testament 2 Bishops in civil government 3 Bishops in Catholic, Orthodox, and Anglican churches 4 Bishops in... bishops, Roman Catholic priest A priest or priestess is a holy man or woman who takes an officiating role in worship of any religion, with the distinguishing characteristic of offering sacrifices. Priests have been known since the earliest times and in the simplest societies (see shaman and oracle). There are priests... priests and The diaconate is one of three ordained offices in the Roman Catholic, Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox churches. The other two offices are those of priest and of bishop. It is also an office in many Protestant denominations. The word deacon ( and deaconess) is derived from the Greek word... deacons. The world is divided into 2755 (at the end of 2004) In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Church of England and the... bishoprics (more commonly called a diocese), each with a presiding bishop, responsible for the religious welfare of the believers in his geographical area. The principal bishopric is that of For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). The Roman Colosseum Rome (Italian and Latin Roma) is the capital city of Italy, and of its Lazio region. It is located on the lower Tiber river, near the Mediterranean Sea, at 41°50N, 12°15E. The Vatican City State, a sovereign... Rome, whose occupant is known as the For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). Pope John Paul II has reigned since 22 Oct 1978. The Pope is the Catholic bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches (note that the name within the communion is simply the one Holy Catholic... Pope, considered to be the successor of According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. Saint Peter (died c. 67) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus in the New Testament. His original name was Simon (שמעון Hearkening; listening, Standard Hebrew Šimʿon... Saint Peter, the chief of the apostles.


The Church sees itself as set up by Jesus Christ for the salvation of souls. The Church accomplishes this goal through teaching and through administration of A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates, in the sense of being a visible symbol or manifestation of invisible divine grace. Christian churches and sects are divided regarding the number and operation of the sacraments, but they are generally held to have been instituted by Christ. Sacraments are usually... sacraments, including baptism, communion, and forgiveness of sins, which grant Grace may stand for: favors received from God, see divine grace a short prayer said before a meal to bless and give thanks for it, in folk practices of Christianity and other religions. Grace, a 1994 album by Jeff Buckley. a synonym for reformed; so the Grace Baptist Assembly is... graces to the believer. Teaching authority is held by the Magisterium (from the Latin magister: master) is a technical ecclesiastical term in Catholicism referring to the authority of the Catholic Church to teach the truths of the faith infallibly. Informally, magisterium refers to the consensus of the faith as it has been historically taught and believed over two millennia. This... magisterium of the Church, whose teachings are based on both Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. Often believing that their sacred texts (or scriptures) are wholly divine or partially inspired in origin, the faithful use titles like Word of God to denote the holy writings... scripture and apostolic tradition. As well as ordained secular clergy, the Church encourages Monasticism (from Greek: monachos—a solitary person) is the religious practice of renouncing all worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. Many religions have monastic elements, including Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, and Islam, Jainism though the expressions differ considerably. Those pursuing a monastic life... monasticism, and has many orders of monks, friars and nuns who live in Celibacy may refer either to being unmarried or to Sexual abstinence or chastity is the practice of voluntarily refraining from sexual intercourse and (usually) other sexual activity. Sexual abstinence is typically considered a subset of behavior in the context of chastity as the latter refers also to attitude and intent... celibacy, and devote their lives entirely to God. Other religious practices include Fasting is the act of willingly abstaining from all food and in some cases drink, or in other cases from certain types or groups of food (e.g. meat). Contents // 1 Fasting for Religious Reasons 1.1 Hinduism 1.2 The Bahá’í Faith 1.3 Islam 1.4 Christianity... fasting, Prayer is an effort to communicate with a God, or to some deity or deities, either to offer praise to the deity, to make a request of the deity, or simply to express ones thoughts and emotions to the deity. There are a variety approaches to understanding prayer: The... prayer, Penance comprises actions required to complete a confession, such as an act of prayer or an act of restoration to the wronged party. Penance is set by the priest who hears the confession. In eastern religions (Hinduism, etc.), acts of hardship committed on oneself (fasting, lying on rocks heated by... penance, A pilgrimage is a journey by a religious person to a place that is sacred according to his or her religion. Contents // 1 Pilgrimage in Hinduism 2 Pilgrimage in Direct Worship 3 Pilgrimage in Buddhism 4 Pilgrimage in Judaism 5 Pilgrimage in Christianity 6 Pilgrimage in Islam 7 Pilgrimage in... pilgrimage and Meditation usually refers to a state of extreme relaxation and concentration, in which the body is generally at rest and the mind quieted of surface thoughts. Several major religions include ritual meditation; however, meditation itself need not be a religious or spiritual activity. Most of the more popular systems of... meditation.


According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church, the Church's first purpose is "to be the sacrament of the inner union of men with God." Thus the Church's "structure is totally ordered to the holiness of Christ's members." (Catechism of the Catholic Church 775, 773)


History

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Download high resolution version (453x831, 74 KB)A small crucifix of mine Taken by →Raul654 on December 26, 2004. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the... Enlarge
The Crucifix, bearing the image of Jesus suffering on a cross, often serves as the symbol of the Roman Catholic Church.

The The History of the Roman Catholic Church spans nearly two thousand years and covers the existence of one of the oldest Religion, sometimes used interchangeably with faith, is commonly defined as belief concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine, and the practices and institutions associated with such belief. In its broadest... History of the Roman Catholic Church spans nearly two thousand years with the Roman Catholic Church one of the oldest religious institutions in existence. The church claims an unbroken history to the year For alternate uses, see Number 33. Years: 28 29 30 31 32 - 33 - 34 35 36 37 38 Decades: 0s 10s 20s - 30s - 40s 50s 60s Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Events April 21 - Crucifixion of Jesus (suggested date, also suggested is April 7, 30). Eastern Orthodox... 33 AD which was the year in which This article is about the figure known by both Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ. For other usages, see Jesus (disambiguation). This 11th-century portrait is one of many images of Jesus in which a halo with a cross is used. Jesus of Nazareth (b. about 6–4 BC... Jesus is said to have been Religious depictions of the crucifixion of Jesus typically show him supported by nails through the palms. Crucifixion is an ancient method of execution, in which the victim was tied or nailed to a large wooden cross (Latin: crux) and left to hang there until dead. It was a common form... crucified and subsequently risen from the dead, thereafter instructing his followers to establish a new church.


The early Roman Catholic Church played an important role as the state religion of the The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). Roman Empire between AD 60 and 400 with major cities. During this time only Dacia and Mesopotamia were added to the Empire but were lost before 300. The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman... Roman Empire and would later influence the History of Germany series Franks Holy Roman Empire German Confederation German Empire Weimar Republic Nazi Germany Nazi Germany (WWII) Germany since 1945 The history of Germany is, in places, extremely complicated and depends much on how one defines Germany. As a nation-state, Germany did not exist until 1871. Before... Holy Roman Empire, as well as serving as the motivating agency for the Crusade Series First Crusade Peoples Crusade German Crusade, 1096 Crusade of 1101 Second Crusade Third Crusade Fourth Crusade Albigensian Crusade Childrens Crusade Fifth Crusade Sixth Crusade Seventh Crusade Shepherds Crusade Eighth Crusade Ninth Crusade Northern Crusades This article is about historical Crusades . For other uses, see Crusade (disambiguation... Crusades. Both the Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. During the first millennium of Christendom, differences developed between the Christian East and West. By the 11th century, this had culminated in a Great Schism, separating the Roman Catholic Church... Eastern Orthodox church and the The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. Contents // 1 Roots of the Reformation 2 Reformation begins 2... Protestant Reformation can trace origins to the Roman Catholic Church in the Middle Ages by region Medieval Britain Medieval France Medieval Germany Medieval Italy Medieval Spain Byzantine Empire by topic Art Literature Poetry Music Architecture Philosophy Universities Technology Warfare Fortifications The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of... Middle Ages.


The Roman Catholic Church has sometimes been involved in questionable activites such as the Pedro Berruguete. Saint Dominic Presiding over an Auto-da-fe (1475). The Spanish Inquisition was the Inquisition acting in Spain under the control of the Kings of Spain. This Inquisition was the result of the reconquest of Spain from the Muslims and the policy of converting Spanish Jews and Muslims... Spanish Inquisition and The Russian word pogrom (погром) refers to a massive violent attack on people with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). Historically the term has been used to denote massive acts of violence, either spontaneous or premeditated, against Jews and other ethnic minorities... pogroms against both Main article: Jew Jewish religion Etymology of Jew  · Who is a Jew? Jewish leadership  · Jewish culture Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi (German and E. Europe) Mizrahi (Arab and Oriental) Sephardi (Iberian) Temani (Yemenite)  · Beta Israel Jewish populations Israel · United States · Russia/USSR Germany  · France  ... Jews and This article forms part of the series This article forms part of the seriesIslam Vocabulary of Islam Five Pillars Profession of faith Prayer · Alms · Fasting Pilgrimage to Mecca Jihad (See Sixth pillar of Islam) People Muhammad Prophets of Islam Caliph · Shia Imam Companions of Muhammad Holy Cities Mecca · Medina · Jerusalem... Muslims. Pope Official papal image of John Paul II. His Holiness Pope John Paul II, né Karol Józef Wojtyła (born May 18, 1920 in Wadowice, Poland), is the current Pope — the Bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church. He was elected on October 16, 1978... John Paul II acknowledged this in the last years of his life, asking publically that God forgive the sins of the early Roman Catholic Church.


Roman Catholic Catholic religious orders should be distinguished from Holy Orders, the sacrament of bishops, priests, and deacons. The following list refers to Roman Catholic orders; it should be understood that communities using the same name may exist in Anglican or Eastern Orthodox traditions as well. In the following list of some... religious orders also have a rich and lengthy history with some Catholic religious orders spanning back to the very earliest days of the church. In the modern age, such institutions confine their time to charity and social work; however, in the past, some Catholic groups were powerful both in the Catholic Church and world politics. The Jesuits, for instance, controlled an economic monopoly on For other uses, see Japan can refer to one of the following topics: The East Asian island nation of Japan or Nippon (日本, Nihon); The British rock band. See Japan (band); Japanning, a lacquer technique japan, See Lacqerware This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists... Japan in the (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. Contents // 1 Events 2 Significant people 3 Inventions, discoveries, introductions 4 Decades and years Events Beginning of the Little Ice Age... 16th century and a bitter rivalry developed with the Franciscans is the common name used to designate a variety of mendicant religious orders of men or women tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi and following the Rule of St. Francis. The official Latin name is the Ordo Fratrum Minorum (Order of the Lesser Brothers, or Order of the... Franciscans (the novel This page is about the James Clavell novel. For other meanings of Shogun, see Shogun (disambiguation). Shōgun is the first novel in James Clavells Asian Saga. It is set in feudal Japan somewhere around the year 1600 and gives a highly fictionalized account of the rise of... Shogun is set during this time period). Other examples from history speak of Catholic religious orders almost as secret societies with their own agenda, sometimes separate from that of the Church.


Liturgy

The centre of the Roman Catholic Church's life is the From the Greek word λειτουργια, which can be transliterated as leitourgia, meaning the work of the people, a liturgy comprises a prescribed religious ceremony, according to the traditions of a particular religion; it may be refer to, or include, an elaborate... liturgical service of the The Eucharist is either the Christian sacrament of consecrated bread and wine or the ritual surrounding it. The term Eucharist is used mainly in Catholic, Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, and Lutheran traditions, and is based upon the Greek word ευχαριστω, eucharisto, meaning to... Eucharist or Mass. On each Sunday and In the Roman Catholic Church, the Holy Days of Obligation are the days, other than Sundays, on which the faithful are required to attend Mass. The 1983 Code of Canon Law standardized ten days to be observed as Holy Days of Obligation throughout the Church. These days are: The Immaculate... Holy Day of Obligation or on the evening before, Catholics have an obligation to participate in this celebration. For further information, see the article This article discusses the Mass as part of Christian liturgy, in particular the form it has taken in the Latin rite of the Catholic Church. For the Mass as a genre of classical music composition, see Mass (music). For mass as a concept in physics, see Mass. Mass, in the... Mass (liturgy) and the references in that article.


Another especially important part of the Church's continual prayer is the Canonical hours are ancient divisions of time (also called offices), developed by the Christian Church, serving as increments between prayers. The practice grew from the Jewish practice of reciting prayers at set times of the day: for example, in the book of Acts, Peter and John visit the temple for... Liturgy of the Hours, whose particular characteristic is to consecrate the course of day and night. Lauds and Vespers is the evening prayer service in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox liturgies of the canonical hours. The word comes from Latin vesper, meaning evening. The term is also used in some Protestant denominations to describe evening services. The general structure of the Roman Catholic service of vespers is... Vespers (morning and evening prayer) are the principal hours. To these are added one or three intermediate prayer periods (traditionally called Terce, Sext and None), another prayer period to end the day ( Compline is the final service of the day in the Catholic tradition. The term compline is derived from the Latin completorium, or complement, as compline can be considered to be the completion of the day. In the Roman Catholic Breviary compline is divided as follows: the introduction, the psalmody, with... Compline), and a special period at no fixed time devoted chiefly to readings from the A Bible handwritten in Latin, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. This Bible was transcribed in Belgium in 1407 AD, for reading aloud in a monastery. The Bible (From Greek (Ελληνικά) Spoken in: Greece, Cyprus, Albania and surrounding countries Region: The Balkans... Scriptures and ecclesiastical writers. The prayers consist principally of the Psalter or Books of Ketuvim Psalms Proverbs Job Song of Solomon Ruth Lamentations Ecclesiastes Esther Daniel Ezra Nehemiah Chronicles edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Books_of_Ketuvim&action=edit) Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or... Book of Psalms. Like the Mass, the Liturgy of the Hours has inspired great musical compositions. Earlier names for the Liturgy of the Hours were the Divine Office (a name still used as the title of one English translation), the Book of Hours, and the A breviary (from Latin brevis, short) is a liturgical book containing the public or canonical prayers, hymns, the Psalms, readings, and notations for everyday use, especially for priests, in the Divine Office (i.e. at the canonical hours or Liturgy of the Hours prayer ritual). It can be richly decorated... Breviary.


Sacraments

The Roman Catholic Church recognizes and administers seven A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates, in the sense of being a visible symbol or manifestation of invisible divine grace. Christian churches and sects are divided regarding the number and operation of the sacraments, but they are generally held to have been instituted by Christ. Sacraments are usually... sacraments, which are considered gifts of Christ through the Church which give Divine grace consists of favors received from God, that God is under no need or obligation to grant. The concept of grace is of central importance in the theology of Christianity. Because it is central to salvation, grace has proven to be one of the most contentious issues in the... Divine grace to those who receive them. The sacraments are listed here with reference to the section of the Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC) that deals with each.

  • Baptism is a water purification ritual practiced in certain religions such as Christianity, Mandaeanism, Sikhism, and some historic sects of Judaism. The word baptize derives from the Greek word βάπτειν (the infinitive; also listed as the 1st person singular present active indicative βα... Baptism: CCC 1213-1284 (http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P3G.HTM)
  • Contents // 1 Roman Catholic views 2 Orthodox views 3 Protestant views 4 Each person is confirmed at most once Roman Catholic views In the Roman Catholic church confirmation is one of the seven sacraments. Confirmation is seen as granting the receiver an extra-natural source of wisdom, knowledge and courage... Confirmation: CCC1285-1321 (http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P3P.HTM)
  • The Eucharist is either the Christian sacrament of consecrated bread and wine or the ritual surrounding it. The term Eucharist is used mainly in Catholic, Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, and Lutheran traditions, and is based upon the Greek word ευχαριστω, eucharisto, meaning to... Eucharist: CCC 1322-1419 (http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P3W.HTM)
  • In criminal proceedings, a confession is a document in which a suspect admits having committed a crime. See also: testimony, right to silence Contents // 1 Confession of sins 1.1 Roman Catholic Church 1.2 Eastern Orthodoxy 1.3 Protestantism 2 Confession of faith 3 External link 4 See also... Reconciliation and Penance (Confession): CCC 1422-1498 (http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P46.HTM)
  • The Anointing of the Sick is one of the sacraments of the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and some Protestant churches. The former name Extreme Unction was used in the Western (Roman) part of the Catholic Church from the end of the twelfth century until the Second Vatican Council... Anointing of the Sick: CCC 1499-1532 (http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P4J.HTM)
  • This article is about the sacrament. Holy Orders was also the title of a 1908 book by Marie Corelli. Holy Orders in the modern Roman Catholic Church and in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and Anglican churches, includes three degrees: bishop, priest, and deacon. Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox... Holy Orders: CCC 1536-1600 (http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P4R.HTM)
  • In the Christian faith, marriage is viewed as a lifelong union of a man and a woman before God. One commonly used text is from the Gospel of Matthew (which is itself a quote from the book of Genesis). ...For this reason a man shall leave his father and mother... Matrimony: CCC 1601-1666 (http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P50.HTM)

Doctrine

The Roman Catholic Church attributes very high authority to 21 In Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, an ecumenical council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. The word is from Greek Οικουμένη (oikumene), which literally means inhabited, i.e... Ecumenical Councils: Nicaea I (325), Constantinople I (381), Ephesus (431), Chalcedon (451), Constantinople II (553), Constantinople III (680-681), Nicaea II (787), Constantinople IV (869-870), Lateran I (1123), Lateran II (1139), Lateran III (1179), Lateran IV (1215), Lyons I (1245), Lyons II (1274), Vienne (1311-1312), Constance (1414-1418), Florence (1438-1445), Lateran V (1512-1517), Trent (1545-1563), Vatican I (1869-1870), Vatican II (1962-1965).


Of these, the Orthodox Churches of Byzantine tradition accept only the first seven, the family of "non-Chalcedonian" or "pre-Chalcedonian" Churches only the first three, and the Christians of Nestorian tradition only the first two.


Dialogue has shown that even where the break with one of these ancient Churches occurred as far back as the Councils of Ephesus (431) and Chalcedon (451), long before the break with Constantinople (1054), the few doctrinal differences often concern terminology, not substance.


Emblematic is the "Common Christological Declaration between the Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East" [2]  (http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_councils/chrstuni/documents/rc_pc_chrstuni_doc_11111994_assyrian-church_en.html) (note the use in an inter-Church document of "Catholic Church" rather than "Roman Catholic Church"), signed by "His Holiness John Paul II, Bishop of Rome and Pope of the Catholic Church, and His Holiness Mar Dinkha IV, Catholicos-Patriarch of the Assyrian Church of the East", on 11 November 1994. The division between the two Churches in question goes back to the disputes over the legitimacy of the expression "Mother of God" (as well as "Mother of Christ") for the The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: For the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary, see Mary, the mother of Jesus. For the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary, see Blessed Virgin Mary. For the issue of Marian apparitions, see Marian apparitions. For shrines associated with... Virgin Mary that came to a head at the Council of Ephesus in 431. The Common Declaration recalls that the Assyrian Church of the East prays the Virgin Mary as "the Mother of Christ our God and Saviour", and the Catholic tradition addresses the Virgin Mary as "the Mother of God" and also as "the Mother of Christ", fuller expressions by which each Church clearly acknowledges both the divinity and the humanity of Mary's son. The co-signers of the Common Declaration could thus state: "We both recognize the legitimacy and rightness of these expressions of the same faith and we both respect the preference of each Church in her liturgical life and piety."


Some, at least, of the most difficult questions in relations with the ancient Eastern Churches concern not so much doctrine as practical matters such as the concrete exercise of the claim to papal primacy and how to ensure that ecclesial union would not mean mere absorption of the smaller Churches by the Latin component of the much larger Roman Catholic Church (the most numerous single religious denomination in the world), and the stifling or abandonment of their own rich theological, liturgical and cultural heritage.


There are much greater differences with the doctrinal views of Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. It generally refers to those that separated from the Catholic Church in the Reformation, their offshoots, and those that share similar doctrines or ideologies. It is commonly considered one of the three major branches of Christianity, along with Catholicism and Eastern... Protestants, whom Roman Catholics feel have broken continuity with the past, and the true teachings of the Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the... apostles, for the sake of what Protestants believe to be the true teaching of the Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the... apostles. But even with these groups, dialogue has on both sides clarified some misunderstandings of what the other believes.


Magisterium

The The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 with the authorization of Pope John Paul II.[1] (http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_constitutions/documents/hf_jp-ii_apc_19921011_fidei-depositum_en.html) To correspond... Catechism of the Catholic Church, 85 states that authentic interpretation of the word of God is entrusted to the living Magisterium of the Church, namely the bishops in communion with the successor of Peter.


Social teaching

Main article: Catholic Social Teaching encompasses the teaching of the Download high resolution version (807x1038, 99 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years... Catholic social teaching


The Church holds that the teachings of This article is about the figure known by both Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ. For other usages, see Jesus (disambiguation). This 11th-century portrait is one of many images of Jesus in which a halo with a cross is used. Jesus of Nazareth (b. about 6–4 BC... Jesus call its members to act a particular way in their dealings with the rest of humanity. Among these teachings, as they have been elaborated in recent decades by Catholic thinkers, Bishops' statements and Papal In the ancient Church, an encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area. As used at that time, the word could be used of a letter sent out by any bishop. The word comes from Latin encyclia meaning general or encircling, which is also... encyclicals, are that every person has a The term right to life is a political term used in controversies over various issues that involve the taking of a life (or what is perceived to be a life). It is most commonly used in reference to abortion meaning the same as Pro-Life; it is also found in... right to life and to a decent minimum standard of living, that humanity's use of God's creation implies a responsibility to protect the environment, and that the range of circumstances under which military force is permissible is extremely limited.


In Roman Catholic theology and canon law, a particular Church is any of the individual constituent ecclesial communities in full communion with the Church of Rome. These can be the local Churches mentioned in canon 368 of the Code of Canon Law: Particular Churches, in which and from which the... Particular Churches within the single Roman Catholic Church

Unlike "families" or "communions" of Churches that see themselves as distinct Churches, the Church of those who are in full communion with the Pope considers itself a single Church, not a federation of Churches. It has authoritatively expressed this self-understanding in, for instance, the 28 May 1992 Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on some aspects of the Church understood as communion, 9.[3]  (http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cfaith/documents/rc_con_cfaith_doc_28051992_communionis-notio_en.html)


Accordingly, it has never adopted the usage of those who apply the term "Roman Catholic" to the Latin or Western Church alone, to the exclusion of the Eastern Churches that also are in full communion with the Bishop of Rome. When it employs the term "Roman Catholic Church", which it rarely does except in its relations with other Churches, it means the whole Church "governed by the successor of Peter and by the bishops in communion with him", wherever they live and whether they are of Eastern or Western tradition, since this Church has Rome as its centre. The only other meaning it would give to "Roman Catholic" is "a Catholic who lives in Rome", as a Catholic who lives in Warsaw could be called a Warsaw Catholic.


On the other hand, the Roman Catholic Church attaches great importance to the In Roman Catholic theology and canon law, a particular Church is any of the individual constituent ecclesial communities in full communion with the Church of Rome. These can be the local Churches mentioned in canon 368 of the Code of Canon Law: Particular Churches, in which and from which the... particular Churches within it, whose theological significance the Second Vatican Council highlighted. Two categories of particular Churches are distinguished.


Particular Churches or Rites

The higher level of particular Churches is that of what the Second Vatican Council’s Decree on the Catholic Eastern Churches Orientalium Ecclesiarum, 2 [4] (http://www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/documents/vat-ii_decree_19641121_orientalium-ecclesiarum_en.html) calls "particular Churches or rites". The long-established use of the term "rite" for these particular Churches is due to the central place that the Eucharist holds in the Roman Catholic Church, making each particular Church's liturgy its most noted distinguishing mark.


However, the word "rite" is used not only of particular Churches but also of liturgical rites. Examples are the Ambrosian Rite, named after Saint Ambrose, bishop of Milan in the fourth century, is a Catholic rite practised by approximately five million inhabitants in northern Lombardy, Italy and part of Canton Ticino, Switzerland, and including the regional capital city of Milan. It shows differences during the Mass, and some parts... Ambrosian rite, the The Mozarabic rite is a form of Catholic worship within the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church. It dates principally to the 7th and 8th centuries, and is localized in Spain. Its liturgy is particularly apt as a spiritual defense during Islamic rule, and is widely reputed to be spiritually... Mozarabic rite and the Roman rite, different liturgical rites used within the one Latin particular Church or Latin rite (singular). And terms such as "Byzantine rite" may refer to a liturgical rite used by more than one particular Church. To avoid the ambiguity to be found in the terms "particular Church" and "rite", the 1983 is an integer and composite number that represents a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. Years: 1980 1981 1982 - 1983 - 1984 1985 1986 Decades: 1950s 1960s 1970s - 1980s - 1990s 2000s 2010s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1983 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature... 1983 Code of Canon Law adopted instead the term "autonomous ritual Church" (in Latin, "Ecclesia ritualis sui iuris") for the same reality; and the 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. Years: 1987 1988 1989 - 1990 - 1991 1992 1993 Decades: 1960s 1970s 1980s - 1990s - 2000s 2010s 2020s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1990 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport... 1990 Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches shortened this to "autonomous Church" (in Latin, "Ecclesia sui iuris").


The autonomy of each such Church, Eastern or Western, shows in its distinctive liturgy, canon law, theological tradition etc. The Latin or Western particular Church is governed by the Code of Canon Law, while the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches outlines the discipline that the Eastern particular Churches have in common.


The official yearly Vatican directory, Annuario Pontificio (Libreria Editrice Vaticana), gives the following list of rites (in the sense of particular Churches) within the Roman Catholic Church:

A. Eastern rites of Alexandrian tradition: The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. The dispute is about The Arab Invasion and Occupation of Egypt. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. Christ - Coptic Art Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established... Coptic, Ethiopic (2).
B. Eastern rites of Antiochian tradition: This article or section should be merged with Malankara catholic church The Syro-Malankara Catholic Church is an Indian branch of the Eastern Rite Syrian Catholic Church in communion with the Holy See,which on February 10, 2005 erected its primatial see of Trivandrum into a Major Archeparchy,elevating the... Malankara, Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܶܐ in Syriac, Mawarinah in Arabic) are members of one of the Eastern Rites of the Catholic church. They trace their founding to St. John Maron and to St. Maron, while they also claim full apostolic succession through the See of Antioch... Maronite, The Syrian Catholic Church is a Christian church in the Levant in full communion with the pope having practices and rite in common with the Jacobites. They are one of the Eastern-Rite Catholic churches. These Syrian Catholics number about as many as the Jacobites; their head, the Syrian Catholic... Syrian (3).
C. Eastern rite of Armenian tradition: After the Armenian Apostolic Church, along with the rest of Oriental Orthodoxy formally broke off communion from the Chalcedonian churches, numerous Armenian bishops made attempts to restore communion with the Catholic Church. In 1195 during the Crusades, the church of the Armenian kingdom of Cilicia entered into a union with... Armenian Church (1).
D. Eastern rites of Chaldaean or East-Syrian tradition: Some factual claims in this article need to be verified. If you can do so, please leave a note on the talk page or adjust the article text as necessary, and then remove this notice. Chaldean is the name given to the ancient language Urartian also known as Vannic. It... Chaldean, The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church is an Eastern Rite church in communion with the Papacy. The Synod of Diamper formally reunited this branch of the Church with the Catholic Church in 1599 by Aleixo de Meneses, archbishop of Goa. [1] (http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04076a.htm) See also... Malabar (2).
E. Eastern rites of Constantinopolitan or Byzantine tradition: The Albanian Catholic Church is an Byzantine Rite church sui juris of the Catholic Communion. Not to be confused with the Italo-Albanian Catholic Church, this church consists of the Byzantine Catholics living in Albania. Its present leader is Most Rev. Hil Kabashi, OFM, Apostolic Administrator of Albania Meridionale. Categories... Albanian, Belarussian, Bulgarian, Greek, Greek-Melkite, Hungarian, Italo-Albanian, The Romanian Greek-Catholic Uniate Church (in Romanian: Biserica Română Unită cu Roma, Greco-Catolică) is a Catholic church which belongs to the Eastern Rites, and is one of the official churches of Romania. It also has a diocese in the US headed by Most Reverend... Romanian, Russian, The Ruthenian Catholic Church is a sui iuris Catholic Church of the Byzantine Eastern Rite. Its geographical roots are in the region called Carpatho-Ukraine and the Carpathian Mountains. Saints Cyril [1] (http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintc08.htm) and Methodius [2] (http://www.catholic-forum.com... Ruthenian, Slovak, The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church is a successor church to the acceptance of Christianity by Prince Volodymyr (also Vladimir) in Kyiv (Kiev), in 988. By the beginning of the 21st century, this church was the second-largest church in the Catholic Communion and the largest Catholic Eastern Rite Church. The... Ukrainian (12).
F. Latin Rite, in the singular, usually refers to the sui juris particular Church of the Roman Catholic Church that developed, with its own rituals, customs and canon law, in the area of western Europe and northern Africa where Latin was for many centuries the language of education and culture. This... Latin rite (1).

Particular or Local Churches

In Catholic teaching, each diocese too is a local or particular Church: "A diocese is a section of the People of God entrusted to a bishop to be guided by him with the assistance of his clergy so that, loyal to its pastor and formed by him into one community in the Holy Spirit through the Gospel and the Eucharist, it constitutes one particular church in which the one, holy, catholic and apostolic Church of Christ is truly present and active" (Second Vatican Council, Decree on the Pastoral Office of Bishops in the Church Christus Dominus, 11[5]  (http://www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/documents/vat-ii_decree_19651028_christus-dominus_en.html)).


Theological significance

The particular Churches within the Roman Catholic Church, whether rites or dioceses, are seen as not simply branches or sections of a larger body. Theologically, each is considered to be the embodiment in a particular place of the whole Roman Catholic Church. "It is in these and formed out of them that the one and unique Catholic Church exists" (Second Vatican Council, Dogmatic Decree on the Church Lumen Gentium, 23.[6]  (http://www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/documents/vat-ii_const_19641121_lumen-gentium_en.html)).


Organization

The Pope

Pope Benedict XVI assumes the throne for the first time upon election on April 19, 2005. This image was sanctioned and/or released to the public directly or indirectly by The State of the City of the Vatican or the Vatican City (Latin: Status Civitatis Vaticanae, Italian Stato della Citt...
Pope Benedict XVI assumes the throne for the first time upon election on April 19, 2005. This image was sanctioned and/or released to the public directly or indirectly by The State of the City of the Vatican or the Vatican City (Latin: Status Civitatis Vaticanae, Italian Stato della Citt... Enlarge
The current Pope of the Roman Catholic Church is Benedict XVI Name Joseph Alois Ratzinger Papacy began April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the The Gregorian calendar is the calendar currently used in the Western world. A modification of the Julian calendar, it was first proposed by the Neapolitan doctor Aloysius Lilius, and was... Pope Benedict XVI of Germany.

What most obviously distinguishes the Roman Catholic Church from others is the link between its members and the Pope. The The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 with the authorization of Pope John Paul II.[1] (http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_constitutions/documents/hf_jp-ii_apc_19921011_fidei-depositum_en.html) To correspond... Catechism of the Catholic Church, 882, quoting the Second Vatican Council’s document Lumen Gentium, states: "The Pope, Bishop of Rome and Peter’s successor, ‘is the perpetual and visible source and foundation of the unity both of the bishops and of the whole company of the faithful.’"[7] (http://www.vatican.va/archive/catechism/p123a9p4.htm#I)


In certain circumstances, this papal primacy, which is referred to also as the Pope's Petrine authority or function, involves In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is the dogma that the Pope, when he solemnly defines a matter of faith and morals ex cathedra (that is, officially and as pastor of the universal Church), does not have the possibility of error. This doctrine was defined dogmatically by the First Vatican Council... papal infallibility, i.e. the definitive character of the teaching on matters of faith and morals that he propounds solemnly as visible head of the Church. In any normal circumstances, exercise of this authority will involve previous consultation of all Catholic bishops.


The Catechism of the Catholic Church, 891 says: "’The Roman Pontiff, head of the college of bishops, enjoys this infallibility in virtue of his office, when, as supreme pastor and teacher of all the faithful – who confirms his brethren in the faith – he proclaims by a definitive act a doctrine pertaining to faith or morals... The infallibility promised to the Church is also present in the body of bishops when, together with Peter’s successor, they exercise the supreme Magisterium (from the Latin magister: master) is a technical ecclesiastical term in Catholicism referring to the authority of the Catholic Church to teach the truths of the faith infallibly. Informally, magisterium refers to the consensus of the faith as it has been historically taught and believed over two millennia. This... Magisterium,’ above all in an In Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, an ecumenical council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. The word is from Greek Οικουμένη (oikumene), which literally means inhabited, i.e... Ecumenical Council."[8] (http://www.vatican.va/archive/catechism/p123a9p4.htm#I)


The Pope lives in The State of the City of the Vatican or the Vatican City (Latin: Status Civitatis Vaticanae, Italian Stato della Città del Vaticano) is the smallest independent state in the world (both in area and in population), a landlocked enclave surrounded by the city of Rome in Italy. The Vatican is... Vatican City, set up in Years: 1927 1928 - 1929 - 1930 1931 1932 Decades: 1890s 1900s 1910s - 1920s - 1930s 1940s 1950s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1929 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics Canada - Sport Lists of leaders: State leaders - Religious leaders... 1929 as a minute, but symbolically important, independent state within the city of Rome. The body of officials that assist him in governance of the Church as a whole is known as the The Roman Curia is the complex of the organs and the authorities that constitute the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Roman Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. It is generally considered as representing the government... Roman curia. The term " The term Holy See (Latin: Sancta Sedes, lit. holy seat) refers in a geographic sense to the episcopal see of Rome, of which the Pope is the ordinary (i.e., the diocesan bishop); in canon law, the terms Holy See and Apostolic See refer to the Pope (Roman Pontiff) and... Holy See" (i.e. of Rome) is generally used only of Pope and curia, because the Code of Canon Law, which concerns governance of the Latin Rite, in the singular, usually refers to the sui juris particular Church of the Roman Catholic Church that developed, with its own rituals, customs and canon law, in the area of western Europe and northern Africa where Latin was for many centuries the language of education and culture. This... Latin Church as a whole and not internal affairs of the see (diocese) of Rome itself, necessarily uses the term in this technical sense.


The present rules governing the election of a pope are found in the apostolic constitution Universi Dominici Gregis. [9] (http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_constitutions/documents/hf_jp-ii_apc_22021996_universi-dominici-gregis_en.html) This deals with the powers, from the death of a pope to the announcement of his successor’s election, of the cardinals and the departments of the Roman curia; with the funeral arrangements for the dead pope; and with the place, time and manner of voting of the meeting of the cardinal electors, a meeting known as a The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave. It was richly decorated by the famous Renaissance artist Michelangelo. Papal elections are the method by which the Roman Catholic Church fills the office of Bishop of Rome, whose incumbent is usually referred to as the Pope. An occasion steeped in... conclave. This word is derived from Latin com- (together) and clavis (key) and refers to the locking away of the participants from outside influences, a measure that was introduced first as a means instead of forcing them to reach a decision.


A pope is given the option to resign. (The term "abdicate" is not usually used of popes.) There have been several cases, though the two best known are those of Celestine V, né Pietro di Morrone (1215 - May 19, 1296) was pope in the year 1294. Prior to his advancement to the papacy, he was known as Pietro di Morrone. He was born in 1215 near Isernia (Molise) (there is no proof to the actual village) from Angelo Angelario (Angelieri... Pope Celestine V in 1294 (who, though the poet Dante redirects here. There are also the 19th century English painter, poet and translator Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and the 20th century Florida politician Dante Fascell. Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. 1450 (Uffizi Gallery) Dante Alighieri (May/June 1265 – September 13/14... Dante pictured him condemned to hell for this action, was canonized in Years: 1310 1311 1312 - 1313 - 1314 1315 1316 Decades: 1280s 1290s 1300s - 1310s - 1320s 1330s 1340s Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Events Siege of Rostock ends Births Aradia de Toscano, female messianic figure in Italian Witchcraft (Stregheria). Giovanni Boccaccio, Italian Renaissance humanist scholar(+ 1375). Emperor Kogon of Japan... 1313) and Gregory XII, né Angelo Coraria (Venice ca. 1326 - October 18, 1417), pope from 1406 to 1409, succeeded Innocent VII on 30th November 1406, having been chosen at Rome by a conclave consisting of only fifteen cardinals, under the express condition that, should Benedict XIII, the rival pope at Avignon, renounce... Pope Gregory XII, who resigned in 1415 to help end the The Western Schism or Papal Schism was a split within the Catholic Church in 1378. Lacking any real theological or doctrinal underpinnings, being rather driven by politics, it was resolved after 40 years by the Council of Constance. It is occasionally called the Great Schism, though this term is more... Great Western Schism.


The Cardinals

A cardinal is a senior Ecclesiology is that branch of Christian theology that deals with the doctrine of the Church: its role in salvation, and its origin, its discipline, and its leadership. Contents // 1 Issues addressed by ecclesiology 2 See also 2.1 Beliefs that define the Church 2.2... Cardinals are appointed by the pope, generally from the ranks of his assistants in the curia and bishops of important sees, Latin or Eastern, throughout the world.


In 1059, the right of electing the Pope was assigned exclusively to the principal clergy of Rome and the bishops of the seven "suburbican" sees. Because of their resulting importance, the term "cardinal" (from Latin "cardo", meaning "hinge") was applied to them. In the twelfth century the practice of appointing ecclesiastics from outside Rome as cardinals began. Each cardinal is still assigned a church in Rome as his "titular church" or is linked with one of the The six suburbicarian dioceses are Roman Catholic dioceses located in the suburbs that surround Rome. A Cardinal is named titular bishop of each of the six sees (which have varied slightly in history but are now Velletri-Segni, Porto-Santa Rufina, Frascati, Palestrina, Albano, and Sabina-Poggio Mirteto) and the... suburbicarian dioceses. Of these sees, the The Dean of the College of Cardinals is the president of the College of Cardinals in the Roman Catholic Church and as such is always a Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church of the episcopal order. The Dean is not necessarily the longest-serving member of the whole College (who... Dean of the College of Cardinals holds that of Ostia while keeping his preceding link with one of the other six sees. Traditionally, there have thus been only six cardinals who hold the rank of Cardinal Bishops, or Cardinals of the Episcopal Order, are among the most important persons in the The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. Members generally prefer the term Catholic Church, but this term has... Cardinal Bishop, but when The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. Or it may apply to these particular Churches themselves... Eastern rite -1... patriarchs are made cardinals, they too hold the rank of Cardinal Bishop, without being assigned a suburbicarian see, still less a church in Rome. The other cardinals have the rank either of Cardinal Priests are the most numerous of the three orders of A cardinal is a senior Ecclesiology is that branch of Christian theology that deals with the doctrine of the Church: its role in salvation, and its origin, its discipline, and its leadership. Contents // 1 Issues addressed by ecclesiology 2... Cardinal Priest or The Cardinal Deacons are the lowest-ranked of the three orders of A cardinal is a senior Ecclesiology is that branch of Christian theology that deals with the doctrine of the Church: its role in salvation, and its origin, its discipline, and its leadership. Contents // 1 Issues addressed by ecclesiology... Cardinal Deacon.


Only a limited number (which has been set at a maximum of 120) can be admitted to a conclave. The rule has therefore been made that cardinals who have celebrated their eightieth birthday before the pope’s death may not join the conclave. Accordingly, no more than 120 ecclesiastics below the age of eighty may normally be made cardinals, but there may be any number over that age. This has enabled the Pope to confer the cardinalatial dignity on particularly worthy older clergy, such as theologians, or priests who have suffered long imprisonment under dictatorial regimes.


The colour associated with the robes of cardinals is a crimson red, while the red of bishops who are not cardinals (and of Honorary Prelates and Apostolic Prothonotaries) is really a Roman purple, and that of the lower class of monsignors (known as Chaplains of His Holiness) has a violet hue.


The hat and tassels of cardinals’ armorial bearings are red; those of bishops and lesser prelates are green.


The Bishops

For other uses, see Bishop (disambiguation). A bishop is an ordained person who holds a specific position of authority in any of a number of Christian churches. Contents // 1 Bishops in the New Testament 2 Bishops in civil government 3 Bishops in Catholic, Orthodox, and Anglican churches 4 Bishops in... Bishops are the successors of the apostles in the governance of the Church. The Pope himself is a bishop and traditionally uses the title "Venerable Brother" when writing formally to another bishop. The typical role of a bishop is to provide pastoral governance for a diocese. Bishops who fulfill this function are known as diocesan ordinaries, because they have what canon law calls ordinary (i.e. not delegated) authority for a diocese. Other bishops may be appointed to assist them (auxiliary and coadjutor bishops) or to carry out a function in a broader field of service to the Church. Even when a bishop retires from his active service, he remains a bishop, since the ontological effect of the sacrament of holy orders is permanent.


On the other hand, titles such as In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop heading a diocese of particular importance due to either its size, history, or both, called an archdiocese. When a bishop becomes an archbishop, he is not in any sense being ordained nor otherwise receiving any sacrament; by contrast (in the Anglican, Catholic... archbishop or -1... patriarch imply no ontological alteration, but are generally associated with special authority. Some of the Eastern Catholic Churches are headed by a patriarch. (A few bishops in the Latin Church also have the title of patriarch, but in their case the title is merely honorary.) Two Eastern Churches are headed by a major archbishop, a bishop who has practically all the powers of a patriarch, but without the title. Smaller Eastern Churches (consisting however of at least two dioceses or, to use the Eastern term, two eparchies) are headed by a metropolitan. Within the Latin Church too, dioceses are normally grouped together as ecclesiastical provinces, in which the bishop of a particular see has the title of metropolitan archbishop, with some very limited authority for the other dioceses, which are known as suffragan sees. However, almost all the authority of a metropolitan archbishop to intervene in case of necessity with regard to a suffragan see belongs, in the case of the metropolitan see itself, to the senior suffragan bishop. (In some Eastern Churches, the term "metropolitan bishop" corresponds instead to "diocesan ordinary" in the Latin Church; and an Anglican usage of "suffragan" corresponds to Catholic "auxiliary bishop.") The Latin-Church title of primate is now merely honorary.


Bishops of a country or region form an episcopal conference and meet periodically to discuss common problems. Decisions in certain fields, notably liturgy, fall within the exclusive competence of these conferences. But the decisions are binding on the individual bishops only if agreed to by at least two-thirds of the membership and confirmed by the Holy See.


Other Clergy

Bishops are assisted by Roman Catholic priest A priest or priestess is a holy man or woman who takes an officiating role in worship of any religion, with the distinguishing characteristic of offering sacrifices. Priests have been known since the earliest times and in the simplest societies (see shaman and oracle). There are priests... priests and The diaconate is one of three ordained offices in the Roman Catholic, Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox churches. The other two offices are those of priest and of bishop. It is also an office in many Protestant denominations. The word deacon ( and deaconess) is derived from the Greek word... deacons. A parish is a subdivision of a diocese or bishopric within the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Church of Sweden, and of some other churches. In Roman Catholicism, each parish has the services of a parish priest, who acts as the chaplain to the... Parishes, whether territorial or person-based, within a diocese are normally in the charge of a priest, known as the parish priest or the pastor. Dioceses too, though normally territorial, may be person-based (as, for instance, a military ordinariate).


The honorary title of Monsignor is an ecclesiastical honorific used by certain priests and bishops of the Roman Catholic Church. It comes from the French mon signor, meaning my lord. It is abbreviated Mons. or Msgr. Monsignor is the simple title for bishops and archbishops, as opposed to their formal title of Excellency. In... Monsignor is conferred on some priests. It corresponds to a knighthood or similar honour for a lay person.


In the Latin Church only celibate men, as a rule, are ordained as priests, while the Eastern Catholic Churches also ordain married men. Both sides maintain the tradition of holding it impossible for a priest to marry. Even a married priest whose wife dies may not then marry.


To explain this tradition, one theory[10]  (http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cclergy/documents/rc_con_cclergy_doc_01011993_chisto_en.html) holds that, in early practice, married men who became priests – they were often older men, "elders" – were expected to refrain permanently from sexual relations with their wives, perhaps because they, as priests representing Christ, were treated as the Church's spouse. When at a later stage it was clear that not all did refrain, the Western reaction was to ordain only celibates, while the Eastern Churches relaxed the rule, so that Eastern Orthodox Churches now require their married clergy to abstain from sexual relations only for a limited period before celebrating the Eucharist. The Church in Persia, which in the fifth century became separated from the Church described as Orthodox or Catholic, decided at the end of that century to abolish the rule of continence and allow priests to marry, but recognized that it was abrogating an ancient tradition. The Coptic and Ethiopic Churches, whose separation came slightly later, allow deacons (who are ordained when they are boys) to marry, but not priests. The theory in question, if true, helps explain why all the ancient Christian Churches of both East and West, with the one exception mentioned, exclude marriage after priestly ordination, and why all reserve the episcopate (seen as a fuller form of priesthood than the presbyterate) for the celibate.


Since the Second Vatican Council Date 1962–1965 Accepted by Roman Catholic Church Previous Council First Vatican Council Next Council none Convoked by Pope John XXIII Presided by Pope John XXIII, Pope Paul VI Attendance up to 2540 Topics of discussion Church in the modern world, ecumenism Documents and statements 16... Second Vatican Council, the Latin Church admits married men of mature age to ordination as deacons, but not if they intend to advance to priestly ordination. Ordination even to the diaconate is an impediment to a later marriage.


The Roman Catholic Church and the other ancient Christian Churches see priestly ordination as a A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates, in the sense of being a visible symbol or manifestation of invisible divine grace. Christian churches and sects are divided regarding the number and operation of the sacraments, but they are generally held to have been instituted by Christ. Sacraments are usually... sacrament effecting an ontological change, not as the deputizing of someone to perform a function or as the admission of someone to a profession such as that of medicine or law. They also consider that priestly ordination can be conferred only on males. In the face of continued questioning, Pope John Paul II felt obliged to confirm the existing teaching that the Church is not empowered to change this practice: "In order that all doubt may be removed regarding a matter of great importance, a matter which pertains to the Church's divine constitution itself, in virtue of my ministry of confirming the brethren (cf. New Testament Matthew Mark Luke John Acts Romans 1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians Galatians Ephesians Philippians Colossians 1 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians 1 Timothy 2 Timothy Titus Philemon Hebrews James 1 Peter 2 Peter 1 John 2 John 3 John Jude Revelation edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title... Luke 22:32) I declare that the Church has no authority whatsoever to confer priestly ordination on women and that this judgment is to be definitively held by all the Church's faithful." [11]  (http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_letters/documents/hf_jp-ii_apl_22051994_ordinatio-sacerdotalis_en.html) The Roman Catholic Church thus holds this teaching as irrevocable and as having the character of infallibility, not in virtue of the apostolic letter Ordinatio Sacerdotalis itself, from which this quotation is taken, but because the teaching "has been preserved by the constant and universal Tradition of the Church and firmly taught by the Magisterium ."


What in the Latin Church were called minor orders have, since the Second Vatican Council, been reduced to two, lectors and In some Christian churches, an acolyte is one who wishes to attain clergyhood. More generally, the term can refer to anyone who performs ceremonial duties such as lighting altar-candles. Roman Catholicism Until the Second Vatican Council, the acolyte was the highest of the minor orders, having as duties the... acolytes. These are now called "instituted ministries", and those on whom they are conferred are no longer classified as members of the clergy.


Public Consecrated Life

Within the Catholic Church, there are those who publicly undertake to observe as obligations what the Christian gospel proposes as counsels rather than commands. Some Catholics, in particular hermits and consecrated virgins, do so individually. Others group together to form what are called religious institutes. The term " Catholic religious orders should be distinguished from Holy Orders, the sacrament of bishops, priests, and deacons. The following list refers to Roman Catholic orders; it should be understood that communities using the same name may exist in Anglican or Eastern Orthodox traditions as well. In the following list of some... religious order", which in its strict sense refers only to a subset of these institutes, is commonly used also of all of them.


There is a great variety of religious institutes. Some have only lay members, others have both priests and lay members, others still may have only priests and men preparing for priesthood. Some date from the earliest centuries of Christianity, others spring up every year.


These groups normally begin as an association formed, with the consent of the diocesan bishop, for the purpose of becoming a religious institute. After time has provided proof of the rectitude, seriousness and durability of the group, the bishop, after consulting the Holy See, may formally set it up as a religious institute, for which he is responsible. Later, when it has grown in numbers, perhaps extending also into other dioceses, and further proved its worth, then the Holy See may grant it formal approval, bringing it under the Holy See's responsibility, rather than that of the bishops of the dioceses where it is present. For the good of the institute and to provide for the needs of their apostolate, the Holy See can exempt them from the governance of the local bishops, bringing them entirely under the authority of the Holy See itself or of someone else.


The oldest existing forms of such institutes are those of For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). A Roman Catholic monk A monk is a person who practices monasticism, adopting a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle, usually in community with others following the same path. The word comes from the Greek monachos (μοναχός), commonly translated... monks and In general, a nun is a female ascetic who chooses to voluntarily leave the world and live her life in prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent. The term nun is applicable to Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox Christians, Anglicans, Lutherans, and Buddhists, for example. The male equivalent of a... nuns, such as the The longest lasting of the western Catholic monastic orders, the Benedictine Order traces its origins to the adoption of the monastic life by St. Benedict of Nursia (Norcia) in 529. Benedict, founder of the monastery of Monte Cassino between Naples and Rome, wrote a Rule or plan of life for... Benedictines of the West and the The Basilian Fathers, also known as The Congregation of Saint Basil, is an international order of The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. Members generally prefer the term Catholic Church, but this term has... Basilians of the East, living in monasteries. Around the thirteenth century Mendicant Orders, such as of those of the The Dominican Order, (its formal name, Ordo praedicatorum or the Order of Preachers, is less common in English; a member is referred as a blackfriar) founded by Saint Dominic in the early 13th century, is one of the great orders of mendicant friars that revolutionized religious life in Europe during... Dominicans and Franciscans is the common name used to designate a variety of mendicant religious orders of men or women tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi and following the Rule of St. Francis. The official Latin name is the Ordo Fratrum Minorum (Order of the Lesser Brothers, or Order of the... Franciscans, arose. Unlike the monks and nuns, the members of these orders had their convents not in the country but in the towns, which were becoming increasingly important. One of the best known of those that appeared still later is the The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. It was founded in 1534 by a group of University of Paris graduate students led by Iñigo López de Loyola (Ignatius of Loyola). Contents // 1 Foundation 2 Early works 3... Society of Jesus, which today is the religious institute with the largest number of members (known as Jesuits).


Typically, members of religious institutes take vows of poverty, chastity and obedience. For some, the vow of stability in a monastery or to live according to a particular written rule is considered to include these vows. Other institutes add further vows. People wishing to join a religious institute may spend some time as postulants, then as novices, and then one or more periods with temporary vows, before committing themselves fully with perpetual vows.


Unless they are priests, male members of religious institutes are usually referred to as "Brother", while in female institutes most members are called "Sister", but the superior of the whole institute, or even of a single community, is usually called "Mother" or " The Mother Superior is the nun in charge of a Christian convent. See also: Abbess, monasticism. It is also the name of at least two obscure and possibly apocryphal cocktails: either a martini with a prune instead of an olive, or a glass of ginger ale with a prune in... Mother Superior".


Secular institutes are another form of consecrated life. They differ from religious institutes in that their members live their lives in the ordinary conditions of the world, either alone, in their families or in fraternal groups.


Somewhat similar are the societies of apostolic life, dedicated to pursuit of an apostolic purpose, such as educational or missionary work. They do not take religious vows, but live in common, striving for perfection through observing the "constitutions" of the society to which they belong.


Worldwide Distribution

The total number of Catholics in the world is over one billion. They are found in nearly every country, though they are more concentrated in the Americas and Europe. They currently make up 63% of the population of World map showing location of North America A satellite composite image of North America North America is the third largest Dymaxion map by Buckminster Fuller shows land mass with minimal distortion as only one continuous continent A continent (Latin continere, to hold together) is a large continuous mass of land... North and South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. South America is situated between the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. It became attached to North America only recently, geologically speaking, with the formation of the Isthmus of Panama... South America, 40% of This article is about the continent. For alternative meanings, see: Europe (disambiguation) World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the... Europe, roughly 20% of Sub-Saharan Africa, Africa south of the Sahara Desert, is the term used to describe those countries of Africa that are not part of North Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa is also known as Black Africa or as Dark Africa (though some consider these terms to be offensive). Sub-Saharan corresponds... Sub-Saharan Africa, and 3% of For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). A satellite composite image of Asia The continent of Asia is defined by subtracting Europe and Africa from the great land mass of Africa-Eurasia. The exact boundaries are vague (especially for non geographers), especially between Asia and Europe: Asia and Africa meet somewhere... Asia [12] (http://www.ewtn.com/library/CHISTORY/ANNU2000.HTM).


In This article is about the continent. For alternative meanings, see: Europe (disambiguation) World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the... Europe, Catholic majorities are found in The Republic of Austria (German Republik Österreich) is a landlocked country in Germany and the Czech Republic to the north, Hungary to the east, Italy to the south, and Liechtenstein to the west. The state is a representative democracy governed in accordance with principles of Parliamentarism. Republik Österreich (In Detail... Austria, For other uses, see Belgium is: a country in Europe, see United States: Belgium, Illinois Belgium, Wisconsin Belgium (town), Wisconsin Belgium Township, Minnesota Belgium, West Virginia a curse word in the radio series and US version of The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy. Brussels, the capital of Belgium, is also... Belgium, The Republic of Croatia is a country in Europe bordering the Mediterranean, Central Europe and the Balkans. Its capital is Zagreb. In recent history, it was a republic of Yugoslavia. Republika Hrvatska (Flag) (Coat of Arms) National motto: none Official languages Croatian (with Italian in Istria county) Capital Zagreb... Croatia, Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. Subject to disclaimers. Trying... France, The Republic of Hungary (Magyar Köztársaság) or Hungary (Magyarország) is a A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. There are 42 landlocked countries in the world. A landlocked sea is a sea that is not connected to the oceans: the... Hungary, A true colour image of Ireland, captured by a NASA satellite on January 4, 2003. Scotland, the Isle of Man and Wales are visible to the east. The island of Ireland is located west of the European landmass, and lies alongside Britain. The island of Ireland (Éire in Irish), is... Ireland, For other uses, see Italy is the name of: a European country: Italy places in the United States Italy, New York - a town in Yates County Italy, Texas - a town in Ellis County, Texas This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... Italy, The Republic of Lithuania (in Lithuanian, Lietuva) is a republic in Northeastern Europe. One of the three Baltic States along the Baltic Sea, it shares borders with fellow Baltic State Latvia to the north, Belarus to the southeast, Poland to the south, and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia to the... Lithuania, This article is about the European nation. For other meanings, see this page. Repubblika ta Malta Republic of Malta (In Detail) (Full size) National motto: Viva Malta u l-Maltin! Official languages Maltese and English Capital Valletta Largest City Birkirkara President Edward Fenech Adami Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi Religion Catholicism... Malta, For other uses, see Poland is a country in Central Europe. Poland is also the name of some places in the United States of America: Poland, Maine Poland, New York Poland, Ohio This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... Poland, The Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa), or Portugal, is a democratic republic located on the west and southwest parts of the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. Portugal is bordered by Spain to the north and east and by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south. In addition, Portugal contains... Portugal, Slovakia (Slovak: Slovensko) is a landlocked republic in Central Europe. It borders the Czech Republic in the northwest, Poland in the north, Ukraine in the east, Hungary in the south, and Austria in the southwest. Slovenská republika (In Detail) National motto: None Official language Slovak Capital Bratislava President Ivan Ga... Slovakia, The Republic of Slovenia (Slovenian: Slovenija) is a coastal sub-Alpine country in south central Europe bordering Italy to the west, the Adriatic Sea to the southwest, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north. Republika Slovenija (Flag) (Coat of Arms) National motto... Slovenia and The Kingdom of Spain or Spain ( Spanish (espa ol or castellano) Spoken in: Mexico, Colombia, Spain, Argentina, Nicaragua, Chile, USA, Venezuela, Costa Rica , Cuba, Peru, and 34 other countries. Region: Total speakers: 417 million (including second language speakers) Ranking: 2 (first language speakers, may vary based on metric) Genetic classification... Spain. The Federal Republic of Germany ( German (Deutsch) Spoken in: Germany, Switzerland, Austria, and 38 other countries. Region: Europe Total speakers: 120 million Ranking: 9 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Germanic   West Germanic    Old High German    Middle High German    Modern... Germany, the For other uses, see The Netherlands have been the name of different political and geographical entities in northwestern Europe. The Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland), the current Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Seven United Netherlands, also known as the United Provinces. A predecessor of the current country. It existed from 1581 to... Netherlands, and The Swiss Confederation or Switzerland is a landlocked federal state in This article is about the continent. For alternative meanings, see: Europe (disambiguation) World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογο... Switzerland, as well as the Northern Ireland Tuaisceart Éireann Northren Ireland Norlin Airlann Flag none (see Flag of Northern Ireland) Official language English, Irish, Ulster-Scots Capital Belfast Largest City Belfast First Minister: suspended Area  - Total Ranked 4th 13,843 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 4th 1,685,267 122/km... Northern Ireland, are about equally divided between Catholics and Protestants. In the Česká republika Czech coat of arms This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. It may be ineligible for copyright or in the public domain. In other cases, it is believed that these images may be exhibited on Wikipedia under the fair... Czech Republic, Roman Catholics make up 39% of the population. Catholics are a significant minority in The word Britain is used to refer to the United Kingdom (UK): i.e. the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (from 1927), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801_1927) or the united Kingdom of Great Britain (1707-Great Britain (with its outlying islands) consisting of... Britain, where their faith underwent a revival in the Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. In the sense of the Common Era... 19th and early (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... 20th Century after three centuries of relentless persecution.


Nearly all Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. Most frequently the term Latin America is restricted to countries whose inhabitants speak... Latin American countries have large Catholic majorities, among them being such heavyweights as For other uses, see Brazil - a country in South America. Brazil R/S - The Brazil Rendering System, a photorealistic rendering engine. Brazil, Indiana - a town in the United States. Brazil - a movie directed by Terry Gilliam. Brazil (mythical island). a former name of Terceira Island. a neighbourhood or refugee camp... Brazil, For other uses, see Mexico (disambiguation). The United Mexican States or Mexico (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México; regarding the use of the variant spelling Méjico, see section The name below) is a country located in North America, bordered to the north by the United States, to the... Mexico, For other uses see Note: The similar sounding country uses a different spelling--see Colombia. Columbia is a name used in the English language for many things and places. The name is derived from that of Christopher Columbus. The term Pre-Columbian is used for American cultures before the arrival... Colombia, and Argentina is a country in southern South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. South America is situated between the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. It became attached to North America only recently, geologically speaking, with the... Argentina. The For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). The United States of America, also referred to as the United States, U.S.A., U.S., US, America¹, or the States, is a federal republic of fifty states, mostly in central North America. The U.S. has three land... United States of America has a large minority of Catholics; this is a legacy of massive immigration, mainly from countries like For other uses, see Italy is the name of: a European country: Italy places in the United States Italy, New York - a town in Yates County Italy, Texas - a town in Ellis County, Texas This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... Italy, A true colour image of Ireland, captured by a NASA satellite on January 4, 2003. Scotland, the Isle of Man and Wales are visible to the east. The island of Ireland is located west of the European landmass, and lies alongside Britain. The island of Ireland (Éire in Irish), is... Ireland and The Federal Republic of Germany ( German (Deutsch) Spoken in: Germany, Switzerland, Austria, and 38 other countries. Region: Europe Total speakers: 120 million Ranking: 9 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Germanic   West Germanic    Old High German    Middle High German    Modern... Germany. The number of Catholics grew from virtually nothing in 1790 to about a quarter of the total population by 1920, a proportion that remains today. A majority of Canada is an independent This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. For other meanings, see state (disambiguation). In international law and international relations, a state is a geographic political entity possessing politicial sovereignty, i.e. not being subject to any higher political authority. In casual language, the idea of... Canadians are also Catholic, given the strong historical presence of France in the region and the vast number of people that have immigrated from Catholic countries.


Catholicism has spread relatively recently to some parts of the world; there are now some 115 million in ... World map showing location of Africa Download high resolution version (741x800, 113 KB) This image page contains items that originally came from a NASA website or publication. All works created by NASA are in the public domain, with the exception of the usage-restricted NASA logo, because works created by... Africa. Other countries where significant populations have developed are South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK; Korean: Daehan Minguk (Hangul: 대한 민국; Hanja: 大韓民國)), is a country in East Asia, covering the southern half of the Korean Peninsula. To the north, the Republic of Korea borders North Korea, with which it formed a... South Korea and The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, commonly known as East Timor, is an island nation in Southeast Asia, consisting of the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecussi-Ambeno, a political exclave of East Timor situated on the western side of... East Timor. But, aside from an older presence in The Republic of Uganda is a country in east central Africa. It is bordered in the east by Kenya, in the north by Sudan, by the Democratic Republic of Congo in the west, Rwanda in the southwest and Tanzania in the south. The southern part of the country includes a... Uganda, the Catholicism in those countries tends to be somewhat more eclectic than in more established regions of the world. Catholics form a majority in the The Republic of the Philippines is an island nation consisting of an archipelago of 7,107 islands, lying in the tropical western Pacific Ocean about 100 kilometers southeast of mainland Asia. Spain (1565-1898) and the United States (1898-1946), colonized the country and have been the largest influences on... Philippines, which was once a Spanish colony.


The number of Catholics in the world continues to increase, through population growth in developing countries and, to a lesser extent, spread to new areas. The increase between Years: 1975 1976 1977 - 1978 - 1979 1980 1981 Decades: 1940s 1950s 1960s - 1970s - 1980s 1990s 2000s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1978 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics Canada - Sport Lists of leaders: State leaders - Religious... 1978 and This page is about the year 2000. See Note: This is an article about the British comic book 2000 AD, rather than the year 2000 2000 AD logo 2000 AD is a weekly British science fiction oriented comic. The publication, which serialises a number of separate stories each prog (see... 2000 was 288 million. The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. Please see the relevant discussion on the talk page. This article forms part of the series For other uses of the term Christian, see This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... Protestant Evangelicalism, in a strictly lexical, but rarely used sense, refers to all things that are implied in belief that Jesus is the savior. To be evangelical would then mean to be merely Christian - that is, founded upon, motivated by, acting in agreement with, or in some other way identified with... evangelicals have succeeded in making inroads into parts of Latin America, but remain a small percentage of the population. In most industrialized countries, church attendance has decreased since the Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. In the sense of the Common Era... 19th Century, similarly to other faiths.


Criticisms

Throughout the centuries of its existence, the Roman Catholic Church has met with criticism for various reasons. The particular controversies are discussed in separate articles.


Historically, the Church's response to Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the ‘catholic’ or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox... heresy and This article is in multiple, independent sections. The duplicate sections should be merged. Please see the talk page. This article is part of the Witchcraft series. African witchcraft Asian witchcraft European witchcraft Middle-eastern witchcraft North American witchcraft South American witchcraft European Christians in the medieval era, some conservative Christians... witchcraft through the The Inquisition was an office of the Roman Catholic Church charged with suppressing heresy. Their actions and interactions with the local governments are subjects of considerable historical inquiry. Contents // 1 Origin 2 History 2.1 Medieval Inquisition 2.2 Spanish Inquisition 2.3 Roman Inquisition 3 Other Inquisitions 4 See... Inquisition and its association with A witch-hunt is a search for suspected witches; it is a type of moral panic. If a witch is found, then there might be a witchcraft trial. While actual witchhunts occasionally occur in the modern era, there is a general scientific belief that witchcraft is mythological, and thus is... witchhunts are subjects of criticism. The Church is also accused of being hostile to This article deals with democracy in its Modern can simply mean something that is up-to-date, trendy, new, or from the present time. It can also refer to the modern age, a very loosely defined time period which generally commences at or some time after the Renaissance in Europe... democracy, Freedom of religion is the individuals right or freedom to hold whatever religious beliefs he or she wishes, or none at all. This freedom extends mere freedom of thought by adding the freedom of worship and the freedom of religious congregation, and became regarded in the 20th century as... freedom of religion, and Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. Recently, it has been commonly understood as encompassing full freedom of expression, including the freedom to create and distribute movies, pictures, songs, dances, and all other... freedom of speech, and of supporting Absolute monarchy is an idealized form of government, a monarchy where the ruler has the power to rule his or her country and citizens freely with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition telling him or her what to do, although some religious authority may be able to discourage the... absolute monarchy and, later, Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. The word fascism (uncapitalized) has come to mean any political stance or system of government resembling Mussolinis, as... Fascism and Falange was a totalitarian clerical fascist political organization founded by José Antonio Primo de Rivera in 1933 in opposition to the Second Spanish Republic. During the Spanish Civil War the Falange became a leading force on the Nationalist side, eventually favouring Francisco Franco. It constituted the core of the official... Falangism. The Church came under fire from the philosophers of This article is a part of the History of Philosophy series. History of Western philosophy Pre-Socratic philosophy Ancient philosophy Medieval philosophy Renaissance philosophy 17th-century philosophy 18th-century philosophy 19th-century philosophy 20th-century philosophy Postmodern philosophy Contemporary philosophy Eastern philosophy The Age of Enlightenment (or The Enlightenment for... the Age of Enlightenment, who perceived the Church's doctrines as superstitious and hindering the progress of civilization. Other thinkers and academics criticised it for being anti-science for clinging to Ptolemaic The geocentric model (in Greek: geo = earth and centron = centre) of the universe is a paradigm which places the Earth at its center. Common in ancient Greece after the discovery of the approximately spherical shape of Earth, it was believed by both Aristotle and Ptolemy. Most Greeks assumed that the... geocentrism and for the famous trial of Galileo Galilei Galileo used techniques of the scientific method to make significant discoveries in physics and astronomy. Born February 15, 1564 Pisa, Italy Died January 8, 1642 Arcetri, Italy Galileo Galilei (Pisa, February 15, 1564 – Arcetri, January 8, 1642), was a Tuscan astronomer, philosopher, and physicist who is closely... Galileo Galilei.


Contemporary criticism concerns the Church's stance on issues such as artificial Birth control is the practice of preventing or reducing the probability of pregnancy without abstaining from sexual intercourse; the term is also sometimes used to include abortion, the ending of an unwanted pregnancy, or abstinence. The term family planning is sometimes used as well, especially for thoughtful and premeditated selection... birth control, Homosexuality may refer to: A Sexual orientation, sexual preference or sexual inclination describes the focus of a persons amorous or erotic desires, fantasies, and feelings. A persons sexual orientation is most often classified by the gender(s) one is oriented towards, as: heterosexual, if the focus is primarily a person... homosexuality, Abortion, in its most common usage, refers to the voluntary or induced termination of pregnancy, generally through the use of surgical procedures or drugs. As a result, birth does not take place. Medically, the term also refers to the early termination of a pregnancy by natural causes (spontaneous abortion or... abortion and Mouse embryonic stem cells. [More lab photos (http://www.news.wisc.edu/packages/stemcells/labphotos.html)] Stem cells are primal, undifferentiated cells which have the unique potential to produce any kind of cell in the body. Medical researchers believe stem cells have the potential to change the face of... embryonic stem cell research, and in particular the Church's resulting opposition to the use of A standard latex condom still rolled up This article is about the contraceptive device. For the village in France, see Condom, France. A condom is a device, usually made of latex, that covers a mans penis during sexual intercourse to avoid pregnancy and/or sexually transmitted diseases (STD) such... condoms to prevent the spread of AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, sometimes written Aids) is a human disease characterized by progressive destruction of the bodys immune system. It is widely accepted that AIDS results from infection with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), although this hypothesis is not without controversy. AIDS is currently... AIDS. Actions by bishops or other officials have aroused controversy, with some praising them for upholding Catholic teaching on faith and morals, and others condemning what they see as heavy-handed attempts to limit a right of conscience, as when it was stated that the The Eucharist is either the Christian sacrament of consecrated bread and wine or the ritual surrounding it. The term Eucharist is used mainly in Catholic, Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, and Lutheran traditions, and is based upon the Greek word ευχαριστω, eucharisto, meaning to... Eucharist should not be given to politicians who oppose legislation limiting access to abortion or support broadening access. Another issue given wide coverage has been the In the late 20th century, and especially at the turn of the 21st, the Catholic Church in several countries was confronted with a series of allegations concerning sexual abuse of children under the legal age of consent ¹ by Catholic clergy, the overwhelming majority of whom are priests. The controversy was... Roman Catholic Church sex abuse scandal that broke towards the end of the twentieth century.


Additional reading

  • Catechism of the Catholic Church - English translation (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2000). ISBN 1574551108 [13] (http://www.vatican.va/archive/catechism/ccc_toc.htm)
  • H. W. Crocker III, Triumph - The Power and the Glory of the Catholic Church: A 2,000-Year History (Prima Publishing, 2001). ISBN 0761529241
  • Eamon Duffy, Saints and Sinners: A History of the Popes (Yale Nota Bene, 2002). ISBN 0300091656
  • K. O. Johnson, Why Do Catholics Do That? (Ballantine, 1994). ISBN 0345397266

See also

  • Other articles on the Catholic Church
  • For other uses of the term Christian, see This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an article link referred you here, you might want to go back and fix it to point directly to the intended... Christianity
  • Roman Catholic Church by Country
  • Categories: Catholic-related stubs ... Catholic Worker Movement

External links

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Roman Catholic Church
  • The Holy See (http://www.vatican.va)
  • Catechism of the Catholic Church (http://www.usccb.org/catechism/text/index.htm)
  • The Catholic Encyclopedia (http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/) An exhaustive resource concerning Catholic history and doctrine as well as related matters of philosophy.
  • Catholic Apologetics of America (http://catholicapologeticsofamerica.blogspot.com) A Large, Award Winning Catholic Blog with Several Articles and Links
  • Catholic Culture Sites Review (http://www.catholicculture.org/sites/sites.cfm) A categorized, reviewed, searchable collection of links to orthodox Roman Catholic links. Ratings for Fidelity, Resources and Useability
  • About Catholics (http://www.aboutcatholics.com/) Catholic evangelization and information about specific beliefs
  • Truly Open Directory (http://www.trulyopendirectory.com/Religion_And_Spirituality_-_Christianity_-_Denominations_-_Catholicism) A categorised collection of links on Roman Catholicism
  • New Advent (http://newadvent.org)
  • Catechism of the Catholic Church (http://www.scborromeo.org/ccc.htm) better search engine
  • Catholic Culture (http://CatholicCulture.org)
  • Catholic Exchange (http://www.catholicexchange.com/) non-profit evangelist charity
  • Catholic Answers (http://www.catholic.com/) Catholic apologetics and evangelization organization in North America
  • Catholic Hierarchy (http://www.catholic-hierarchy.org/) information on Catholic bishops and dioceses
  • Catholics United for the Faith (http://CUF.org)
  • EWTN (http://ewtn.com) American Catholic television station, live streaming in English and Spanish.
  • Frequently Asked Questions About the Catholic Church (http://www.columbia.edu/cu/augustine/a/faq-cc.html)
  • Statistics on the Global Catholic population (http://www.ewtn.com/library/CHISTORY/ANNU2000.HTM)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Roman Catholic Church - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (9534 words)
However, some use "Roman Catholic Church" to refer instead to the Western or Latin Church to the exclusion of the Eastern-Rite particular Churches in full communion with the Pope and which therefore are part of the same Church taken as a whole.
The Catechism of the Catholic Church, 85 states that authentic interpretation of the Word of God is entrusted to the living Magisterium of the Church, namely the bishops in communion with the successor of Peter.
Catholics are a significant minority in Britain, where their faith underwent a revival in the 19th and early 20th Century after three centuries of persecution and official repression.
BIGpedia - Roman Catholic Church - Encyclopedia and Dictionary Online (4471 words)
The early Roman Catholic Church played an important role as the state religion of the Roman Empire and would later influence the Holy Roman Empire, as well as serving as the motivating agency for the Crusades.
The Roman Catholic Church and the other ancient Christian Churches see priestly ordination as a sacrament effecting an ontological change, not as the deputizing of someone to perform a function or as the admission of someone to a profession such as that of medicine or law.
Catholics are a significant minority in Britain, where their faith underwent a revival in the 19th and early 20th Century after three centuries of relentless persecution.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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