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Encyclopedia > Roma people
Roma
Flag of the Roma people
Khamoro Roma Festival Prague 2007
Total population

15 million or more Image File history File links Roma_flag. ... Roma flag The Roma flag (O styago le romengo in Romani) refers to the flag of the Roma people. ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of India India 5,794,000 [1][2]
Flag of Turkey Turkey Disputed:
3,000,000-5,000,000
[3][4]
Flag of Romania Romania Disputed:
535,250
(official census)
Other estimations:
700,000–2,500,000
[5][6][7]
[8][9]
[10]
Flag of Spain Spain 600,000 to 800,000
or 1,500,000
[11][12]
Flag of France France 500,000 (official estimation)
to 1,200,000-1,300,000
[13][14]
Flag of the United States United States 1,000,000 (Roma organizations' estimations) [15]
[16]
[17]
[18]
[19][20]
Flag of Brazil Brazil 678,000–1,000,000 [21]
Flag of Hungary Hungary Disputed: 205,720 (official census);
Other estimations:
500,000-600,000
Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria Disputed: 370,908 (official census) to 700,000–800,000 [22]
Flag of Slovakia Slovakia Disputed: 92,500 or 550,000 [23][24]
Flag of Serbia Serbia Disputed: 108,193 (official census)
500,000 estimated (540,000 incl. Kosovo)
[7]
Flag of Russia Russia Disputed: 183,000
to 400,000
[25][26][27]
Flag of Greece Greece Disputed: 200,000
or 300,000–350,000
[28]

[29] Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ...

Flag of Ukraine Ukraine 48,000 (census 2002); 400,000 (estimated by Roma organizations) [30]
Flag of Argentina Argentina 300,000 [31]
[32]
Flag of the Czech Republic Czech Republic Disputed: 11,746
or 220,000 to 300,000
[33]

[34]
[35] Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ...

Flag of the Republic of Macedonia Rep. Macedonia Disputed: 53,879
to 260,000
[36][7]
Flag of Germany Germany 110,000–130,000 [37]
Flag of Albania Albania Disputed: 1,300 to 120,000 [38]
Flag of Iran Iran 110,000 [39]
Flag of Italy Italy 90,000–110,000 [37]
Flag of Canada Canada 80,000 [40]
Flag of Colombia Colombia 79,000 [41]
Flag of Portugal Portugal 40,000 [42]
Flag of Poland Poland 15,000 to 50,000 [43]
. more countries .
Languages
Romany, languages of native region
Religion
Romanipen, combined with assimilations from local religions
Related ethnic groups
South Asians (Desi)

The Romani people[44][45] (singular Rom, plural Roma as a noun; also known as Romanies, Rromani people) are an ethnic group with origins in India.[46][47]. This widely dispersed ethnic group lives across the world not only near Southern and Eastern Europe,[48] but also in the Americas and the Middle East. They are often referred to as Gypsies or Gipsies. Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Albania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Romany (or Romani) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, peoples often referred to in English as Gypsies. The Indo-Aryan Romany language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... This article is about the South Asian people. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... The southern half of Europe is shown in shades of red. ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Look up Gypsy, gypsy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Population

Roma people in Europe
Roma people in Europe

Worldwide there is an estimated population of at least 15 million Romanies[49]. The official number of Romani people is disputed in many countries.[50] Because many Romanies often refuse to register their ethnic identity in official censuses for fear of discrimination[51], unofficial estimates are undertaken in efforts to reveal their true numbers. The largest population of Romanies is found in the Balkan peninsula; significant numbers also live in the Americas, the former Soviet Union, Western Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


The Romanies recognize divisions among themselves based in part on territorial, cultural and dialectal differences. The main branches are[52][53]: For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ...

  1. Rom/Dom/Lom crystallized in Eastern Europe and Central Italy, emigrated also (mostly from the 19th century onwards), in the rest of Europe, but also on the other continents;
  2. Iberian Kale in Iberian Peninsula, emigrated also in Southern France and Latin America;
  3. Finnish Kale, in Finland, emigrated also in Sweden;
  4. Welsh Kale in Wales;
  5. Romnichal, in British Isles, emigrated also in the Anglosphere;
  6. Sinti, in German-speaking areas of Central Europe;
  7. Manush, in France.

Among Roma there are further internal differentiations, like Bashaldé; Churari; Luri; Ungaritza; Lovari (Lovara) from Hungary; Machvaya (Machavaya, Machwaya, or Macwaia) from Serbia; Romungro (Modyar or Modgar) from Hungary and neighbouring carpathian countries; Erlides (also Yerlii or Arli); Xoraxai (Horahane) from Greece/Turkey; Boyash (Lingurari, Ludar, Ludari, Rudari, or Zlătari) from Romanian/Moldovan miners; Ursari from Romanian/Moldovan bear-trainers; Argintari from silversmiths; Aurari from goldsmiths; Florari from florists;, and Lăutari from singers. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Caló (originally Zincaló) or Spanish Romani is a jargon spoken by the Gitanos or Zincarli originating from Spain: Caló blends native Romani vocabulary with Spanish grammar,[1] as Spanish Gypsies lost the full use of their ancestral language. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Romnichal or Romanichal is the name by which groups of Romani people (often known as Gypsies) found in some parts of the United Kingdom, notably England, are called in their own language, Anglo-Romany. ... This article explains the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... Definitions of the Anglosphere vary: Countries in which English is the first language of a large fraction of the population are shown in blue. ... Sinti or Sinte (Singular masc. ... Sinte or Sinti (Singular masc. ... Luri is a dialect of Persian language. ... Lovari Recording artist and actor. ... The Machvaya (also Machavaya) are a group of Romany originating specifically from Serbia. ... The Machvaya (also Machavaya) are a group of Romany originating specifically from Serbia. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... The Carpathian Romany language is an Indo-European language, spoken in the Czech Republic (220 000 speakers), Hungary (3 000), Poland, Romania, Slovakia (220 000) and Ukraine. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... Boyash (also known as Bayash; Hungarian: Beás) are a Roma (Gypsy) ethnic group living mainly in Hungary. ... The El Chino Mine located near Silver City, New Mexico is an open-pit copper mine Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually (but not always) from an ore body, vein, or (coal) seam. ... The Ursari (from the Romanian Urs, meaning bear) are bear trainers, of the Manush nation of Gypsy. ... Animal training is a method to teach animals to perform specific acts in response to conditions or stimuli. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A goldsmith creating a new ring A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with precious metals, usually to make jewelry. ... Floristry is most often understood as referring to the cultivation of flowers as well as their arrangement, rather than to the business of selling them. ... Lăutari are traditional musicians performing traditional Gypsy songs. ... For other uses, see Singer (disambiguation). ...


Origins

The absence of a written history has meant that the origin and early history of the Roma people was long an enigma. As early as 200 years ago, cultural scholars hypothesised an Indian origin of the Roma based on linguistic evidence[54]. Genetic information confirms this.


Although the Nazis claimed that the Gypsies were not Aryan, some members of the Gypsy Lore Society (established in 1888 in England) claimed that the Gypsies were the most ancient Aryans and "sought to protect them from mixing with non-Gypsy elements and from modernization...".[55] The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Aryan (/eərjən/ or /ɑːrjən/, Sanskrit: ) is a Sanskrit and Avestan word meaning noble/spiritual one. ...


Linguistic evidence

Until the mid to late eighteenth century, theories of the origin of the Roma were mostly speculative. Then in 1782, Johann Christian Christoph Rüdiger published his research that pointed out the relationship between the Romani language and Hindustani[56]. Subsequent work supported the hypothesis that Romani shared a common origin with the Indo-Aryan languages of Northern India,[57] with Romani grouping most closely with Sinhalese in a recent study[58]. This article is about the language spoken by Roma people. ... The word Hindustani is an adjective used to denote a connection to India, or, more precisely, the historical region that encompasses Northern India, Pakistan, and nearby areas. ... Sinhalese or Sinhala (සිංහල, ISO 15919: , pronounced ], earlier referred to as Singhalese) is the mother tongue of the Sinhalese, the largest ethnic group of Sri Lanka. ...


The majority of historians accepted this as evidence of an Indian origin for the Roma, but some maintained that the Roma acquired the language through contact with Indian merchants[59].


Genetic evidence

Further evidence for the Indian origin of the Roma came in the late 1990s when it was discovered that Roma populations carried large frequencies of particular Y chromosomes (inherited paternally) and mitochondrial DNA (inherited maternally) that otherwise exist only in populations from South Asia. The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ... Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...


47.3% of Roma men carry Y chromosomes of haplogroup H-M82 which is otherwise rare outside of the Indian subcontinent[60]. Mitochondrial haplogroup M, most common in Indian subjects and rare outside Southern Asia, accounts for nearly 30% of Roma people[60]. A more detailed study of Polish Roma shows this to be of the M5 lineage, which is specific to India[61]. Moreover, a form of the inherited disorder congenital myasthenia is found in Romani subjects. This form of the disorder, caused by the 1267delG mutation, is otherwise only known in subjects of Indian ancestry. This is considered to be the best evidence of the Indian ancestry of the Romanies.[62] In human genetics, Haplogroup H (M52) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup M is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... Myasthenia gravis (sometimes abbreviated MG; from the Greek myastheneia, lit. ...


The Roma have been described as a conglomerate of genetically isolated founder populations[63], while a number of common Mendelian disorders among Romanies from all over Europe indicates a common origin and founder effect.[63] See also this table: [64]


A study from 2001 by Gresham et al. suggests a limited number of related founders, compatible with a small group of migrants splitting from a distinct caste or tribal group.[65] Also the study pointed out that genetic drift and different levels and sources of admixture, appear to have played a role in the subsequent differentiation of populations.[65] More interesting, the same study found that a single lineage ... found across Romani populations, accounts for almost one-third of Romani males. A similar preservation of a highly resolved male lineage has been reported elsewhere only for Jewish priests.[65] See also the Cohen Modal Haplotype. Y-chromosomal Aaron is the name given to the hypothesised most recent common ancestor of many of the patrilineal Jewish priestly caste known as Kohanim (singular Kohen, Cohen, or Kohane). ...


A 2004 study by Morar et all concluded that the Roma are a founder population of common origins that has subsequently split into multiple socially divergent and geographically dispersed Gypsy groups.[62]The same study revealed that this population was founded approximately 32-40 generations ago, with secondary and tertiary founder events occurring approximately 16-25 generations ago.[62]


History

The migration of the Roma through the Middle East and Northern Africa to Europe
The migration of the Roma through the Middle East and Northern Africa to Europe
First arrival of the Roma outside Berne in the 15th century, described by the chronicler as getoufte heiden ("baptized heathens") and drawn with dark skin and wearing Saracen-style clothing and weapons (Spiezer Schilling, p. 749).
First arrival of the Roma outside Berne in the 15th century, described by the chronicler as getoufte heiden ("baptized heathens") and drawn with dark skin and wearing Saracen-style clothing and weapons (Spiezer Schilling, p. 749).

Linguistic and genetic evidence indicates the Roma originated from the Indian subcontinent.[66] The cause of the Roma diaspora is unknown. However, the most probable conclusion is that the Roma were part of the military in Northern India. When there were repeated raids by Mahmud of Ghazni and these soldiers were defeated, they were moved west with their families into the Byzantine Empire. This occurred between 1000 and 1050 CE. This departure date is assumed because, linguistically speaking, the Romany language is a New Indo-Aryan language (NIA)--it has only two genders (masculine and feminine). Until around the year 1000, the Indo-Aryan languages, named Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA), had three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter). By the turn of the 2nd millennium they changed into the NIA phase, losing the neuter gender. Most of the neuter nouns became masculine while a few feminine, like the neuter अग्नि (agni) in the Prakrit became the feminine आग (āg) in Hindi and jag in Romany. The parallels in grammatical gender evolution between Romany and other NIA languages is proposed to prove that the change occurred in the Indian subcontinent. It is therefore not considered possible that the Romas' ancestors left India prior to 1000 CE. They then stayed in the Byzantine Empire for several hundred years. However, the Muslim expansion, mainly made by the Seljuk Turks, into the Byzantine Empire recommenced the movement of the Roma people.[67] The Romani people, also referred to as the Roma or Gypsies, are an ethnic group who live primarily in Europe. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (555x674, 84 KB) Spiezer Schilling p. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (555x674, 84 KB) Spiezer Schilling p. ... For other uses, see Berne (disambiguation). ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Saracens was a term used in the Middle Ages for those who professed the religion of Islam. ... Spiezer Schilling (or Amtliche Chronik) is a chronicle of Diebold Schilling the Elder of Berne (1480s). ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ... Dark green region marks the approximate extent of northern India while the regions marked as light green lies within the sphere of north Indian influence. ... Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... Middle Indo-Aryan refers to a stage (c. ... This article is about dynasty which ruled the political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ...


The Banjara people, numbering around 2,274,000 in India,[68] are Gypsies[69] who claim that they, too, are descended from the Rajputs, and that many of their ancestors left India through the Himalayas and never returned. For this reason, the Banjara are considered related to the Romani people.[70] Many historians believe[citations needed] that the Muslim conquerors of northern India took the Roma as slaves and marched them home over the unforgiving terrain of Central Asia, taking great tolls on the population and thereby giving rise to such designations as the Hindu Kush mountains of present-day Pakistan and Afghanistan. Mahmud of Ghazni reportedly took 500,000 prisoners during a Turkish/Persian invasion of Sindh and Punjab. Banjaras are tribes in the Telangana region of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, known locally as Lambada. Category: ... A Rajput (possibly from Sanskrit rāja-putra, son of a king) is a member of a prominent caste who live throughout northern and central India, primarily in the northwestern state of Rajasthan. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... Persia redirects here. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... This article is about the geographical region. ...


Others suggest the Roma were originally low-caste Hindus recruited into an army of mercenaries, granted warrior caste status, and sent westward to resist Islamic military expansion. In either case, upon arrival, they became a distinct community. Why the Roma did not return to India, choosing instead to travel west into Europe, is an enigma, but may relate to military service under the Muslims. Castes are hereditary systems of social occupation, endogamy, social culture, economic class, and political power. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... Mercenary (disambiguation). ... A Kshatriya is a member of the military or reigning order, according to the law-code of Manu the second ranking caste of the Indian varna system of four castes, the first being the Brahmin or priestly caste, the third the Vaishya or mercantile caste and the lowest the Shudra. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ...


Contemporary scholars have suggested that one of the first written references to the Roma, under the term "Atsinganoi", (Greek), dates from the Byzantine era during a time of famine in the 9th century. In 800 CE, Saint Athanasia gave food to "foreigners called the Atsinganoi" near Thrace. Later, in 803 CE, Theophanes the Confessor wrote that Emperor Nikephoros I had the help of the "Atsinganoi" to put down a riot with their "knowledge of magic". <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Saint Theophanes the Confessor (about 758/760, Constantinople - March 17, 817 or 818, Samothrace) was an aristocratic but ascetic Byzantine monk and chronicler. ... Nicephorus I and his son and successor, Stauracius. ...


"Atsingani" was used to refer to itinerant fortune tellers, ventriloquists and wizards who visited the Emperor Constantine IX in the year 1054.[71] The hagiographical text, The Life of St. George the Anchorite, mentions that the "Atsingani" were called on by Constantine to help rid his forests of the wild animals which were killing his livestock. They are later described as sorcerers and evildoers and accused of trying to poison the Emperor's favorite hound. For the Batman villain, see Ventriloquist (comics). ... Mosaic of Constantine IX and Empress Zoe Constantine IX Monomachus (c. ... Hagiography is the study of saints. ...


In 1322 CE a Franciscan monk named Simon Simeonis described people resembling these "atsinganoi" living in Crete and in 1350 CE Ludolphus of Sudheim mentioned a similar people with a unique language whom he called Mandapolos, a word which some theorize was possibly derived from the Greek word mantes (meaning prophet or fortune teller).[72] The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... For other uses, see Monk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... Categories: Stub ...


Around 1360, an independent Romani fiefdom (called the Feudum Acinganorum) was established in Corfu and became "a settled community and an important and established part of the economy."[73] Fief depiction in a book of hours Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of inheritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord, generally to a vassal, in return for a form of allegiance, originally to give him the means... This article is about the Greek island Kerkyra known in English as Corfu or Corcyra. ...


By the 14th century, the Roma had reached the Balkans; by 1424 CE, Germany; and by the 16th century, Scotland and Sweden. Some Roma migrated from Persia through North Africa, reaching the Iberian Peninsula in the 15th century. The two currents met in France. Roma began immigrating to the United States in colonial times, with small groups in Virginia and French Louisiana. Larger-scale immigration began in the 1860s, with groups of Romnichal from Britain. The largest number immigrated in the early 1900s, mainly from the Vlax group of Kalderash. Many Roma also settled in South America. Balkan redirects here. ... This article is about the country. ... Migration occurs when living things move from one biome to another. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Flag In 1803, the United States concluded the Louisiana Purchase (green area) with France. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...

Roma in Sliven, Bulgaria
Roma in Sliven, Bulgaria

When the Roma people arrived in Europe, curiosity was soon followed by hostility and xenophobia. Roma were enslaved for five centuries in Wallachia and Moldavia until abolition in 1864. Elsewhere in Europe, they were subject to ethnic cleansing, abduction of their children, and forced labor. During World War II, the Nazis murdered 200,000 to 800,000 Roma in an attempted genocide known as the Porajmos. They were marked for extermination and sentenced to forced labor and imprisonment in concentration camps. They were often killed on sight, especially by the Einsatzgruppen (essentially mobile killing units) on the Eastern Front. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Sliven (Bulgarian: Сливен) is a town in southeast Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Sliven Province. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Not to be confused with Nasi. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Roma arrivals in the Belzec extermination camp await instructions The Porajmos (also Porrajmos) literally Devouring, or Samudaripen (Mass killing) is a term coined by the Roma (Gypsy) people to describe attempts by the Nazi regime to exterminate most of the Roma peoples of Europe during The Holocaust. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ...


In Communist Eastern Europe, Roma experienced assimilation schemes and restrictions of cultural freedom. The Romany language and Romani music were banned from public performance in Bulgaria. In Czechoslovakia, they were labeled a "socially degraded stratum," and Roma women were sterilized as part of a state policy to reduce their population. This policy was implemented with large financial incentives, threats of denying future social welfare payments, misinformation or after administering drugs (Silverman 1995; Helsinki Watch 1991). An official inquiry from the Czech Republic, resulting in a report (December 2005), concluded that the Communist authorities had practised an assimilation policy towards Roma, which "included efforts by social services to control the birth rate in the Romani community" and that "the problem of sexual sterilisation carried out in the Czech Republic, either with improper motivation or illegally, exists" [74], with new revealed cases up until 2004, in both the Czech Republic and Slovakia. [75] This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... 19th century print of Romani musicians Roma musicians at a wedding in the Czech Republic in 2005 Typically nomadic, the Roma have long acted as wandering entertainers and tradesmen. ... Helsinki Watch was an independent NGO created in mid-1970s to monitor compliance to the Helsinki Accords (signed 1975). ...


In the early 1990s, Germany deported tens of thousands of illegal immigrants to Eastern Europe. Sixty percent of some 100,000 Romanian nationals deported under a 1992 treaty were Roma.[citation needed] In Norway, many Roma were forcibly sterilized by the state until 1977.[76][77] Illegal alien and Illegal aliens redirect here. ...


In May 2008 Roma camps in Naples, Italy were attacked and set on fire by local residents.[78]


Society and culture

A Gipsy Family - Facsimile of a woodcut in the "Cosmographie Universelle" of Munster: in folio, Basle, 1552.
A Gipsy Family - Facsimile of a woodcut in the "Cosmographie Universelle" of Munster: in folio, Basle, 1552.

The traditional Roma place a high value on the extended family. Virginity is essential in unmarried women. Both men and women often marry young; there has been controversy in several countries over the Roma practice of child marriage. Roma law establishes that the man’s family must pay a bride price to the bride's parents, but only traditional families still follow this rule. A Gipsy Family - Facsimile of a woodcut in the Cosmographie Universelle of Munster: in folio, Basle, 1552. ... Download high resolution version (1338x833, 35 KB)A Gipsy Family. ... Download high resolution version (1338x833, 35 KB)A Gipsy Family. ... Charles Sprague Pearce, Family (1896). ... Virgin redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Bride price also known as bride wealth or a dower is an amount of money or property paid to the parents of a woman for the right to marry their daughter. ...


Once married, the woman joins the husband's family where her main job is to tend to her husband's and her children's needs, and to take care of the in-laws as well. The power structure in the traditional Roma household has at its top the oldest man or grandfather, and men in general have more authority than women. As women get older, however, they gain respect and authority in the eyes of the community. Young wives begin gaining authority once they mother children.


Roma social behaviour is strictly regulated by Hindu purity laws ("marime" or "marhime"), still respected by most Roma and among Sinti groups by the older generations. This regulation affects many aspects of life, and is applied to actions, people and things: parts of the human body are considered impure: the genital organs (because they produce emissions) as well as the rest of the lower body. Fingernails and toenails must be filed with an emery board, as cutting them with a clipper is a taboo. Clothes for the lower body, as well as the clothes of menstruating women, are washed separately. Items used for eating are also washed in a different place. Childbirth is considered impure, and must occur outside the dwelling place. The mother is considered impure for forty days after giving birth. Death is considered impure, and affects the whole family of the dead, who remain impure for a period of time. However, in contrast to the practice of cremating the dead, Roma dead must be buried.[79] Cremation and burial are both known from the time of the Rigveda, and both are widely practiced in Hinduism today (although the tendency for higher caste groups is to burn, for lower caste groups in South India to bury their dead)[80]. Some animals are also considered impure, for instance cats because they lick themselves and mix the impure outside with their pure inside[citation needed]. In biology, psychology and sociology social behavior is behavior directed towards, or taking place between, members of the same species. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, as narrowly defined, is any of the anatomical parts of the body which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in a complex organism; in mammals, these are: Female: Bartholins glands, cervix, clitoris, Fallopian tubes, labia, ovaries, Skenes... This article is about cultural prohibitions in general; for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ... See also Mensuration, a term sometimes used to describe Measurement, particularly in the context of forestry. ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ...


Religion

The original Roma people, still in India by the majority, maintain the Hindu religion,[81] where those who left the subcontinent have converted to the Christian or Islamic faiths. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


Roma have usually adopted the dominant religion of the host country while often preserving aspects of their particular belief systems and indigenous religion and worship. Most Eastern European Roma are Catholic, Orthodox Christian or Muslim. Those in western Europe and the United States are mostly Roman Catholic or Protestant. In Turkey, Egypt, and the southern Balkans, the Roma are split into Christian and Muslim populations. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


Evangelical Romany churches exist today in every country where Roma are settled. The movement is particularly strong in France and Spain; there are more than one thousand Roma churches (known as "Filadelfia") in Spain, with almost one hundred in Madrid alone. In Germany, the most numerous group is that of Polish Roma, having their main church in Mannheim. Other important and numerous Romany assemblies exist in Los Angeles, California; Houston, Texas; Buenos Aires, Argentina; and Mexico City. Some groups in Romania and Chile have joined the Seventh-day Adventist Church. This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Mannheim is a city in Germany. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... This article is about the U.S state. ... Houston redirects here. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated Adventist[3]) Church is a Protestant Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance of Saturday, the original seventh day of the Judeo-Christian week, as the Sabbath. ...


In the Balkans, the Roma of the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo and Albania have been particularly active in Islamic mystical brotherhoods (Sufism). Muslim Roma immigrants to western Europe and America have brought these traditions with them.[citation needed] For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Sufism (Arabic: ‎ - taṣawwuf, Kurdish Sufayeti, Persian: صوفی‌گری, sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf), is generally understood by scholars to be the inner or mystical dimension of Islam. ...


Music

Main article: Roma music

Roma music plays an important role in Eastern European countries such as Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, the Republic of Macedonia, Albania, Hungary, Russia, and Romania, and the style and performance practices of Roma musicians have influenced European classical composers such as Franz Liszt and Johannes Brahms. The lăutari who perform at traditional Romanian weddings are virtually all Roma. Probably the most internationally prominent contemporary performers in the lăutar tradition are Taraful Haiducilor. Bulgaria's popular "wedding music," too, is almost exclusively performed by Roma musicians such as Ivo Papasov, a virtuoso clarinetist closely associated with this genre. Many famous classical musicians, such as the Hungarian pianist Georges Cziffra, are Roma, as are many prominent performers of manele. Zdob şi Zdub, one of the most prominent rock bands in Moldova, although not Roma themselves, draw heavily on Roma music, as do Spitalul de Urgenţă in Romania, Goran Bregović in Serbia, Darko Rundek in Croatia, Beirut and Gogol Bordello in the United States. 19th century print of Roma musicians Typically nomadic, the Roma have long acted as wandering entertainers and tradesmen. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... This is an alphabetical list of classical music composers sorted by eras. ... Liszt redirects here. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ... Lăutari are traditional musicians performing traditional Gypsy songs. ... Taraful Haiducilor (a. ... Ivo Papasov is a Bulgarian clarinetist, born in 1952 in Kurdzhali, Bulgaria. ... This article is about Western art music from 1000 AD to the present. ... A pianist is a person who plays the piano. ... Georges (originally György) Cziffra (November 5, 1921–January 17, 1994) was a Hungarian virtuoso pianist. ... Manele (singular: manea) is a music style from the Balkans, mainly derived from Turkish, Greek, Arab or Serbian love songs. ... Zdob ÅŸi Zdub at the 2005 Eurovision Song Contest Zdob ÅŸi Zdub are a Moldovan musical group, based in ChiÅŸinău, whose work for the last several years combines elements of hip-hop (especially sampling) and hardcore punk with traditional Romanian music and Roma music. ... This article is about the genre. ... Spitalul de Urgenţă, literally Emergency Hospital, is a Romanian pop band, integrating elements of traditional Romanian music into a sometimes hard-edged rock sound, although also incorporating influences as diverse as Turkish traditional music, European classical music, and cartoon soundtrack music. ... Goran Bregović (Serbian Cyrillic: Горан Бреговић) (born March 22, 1950) is a musician from Bosnia and Herzegovina and one of the most recognizable modern composers of the Balkans. ... Darko Rundek (born 30. ... Beirut is the name of the band of 22-year-old Santa Fe native Zach Condon. ... Gogol Bordello is a multi-ethnic Gypsy punk band from the Lower East Side of New York City that formed in 1999 and is known for its theatrical stage shows. ...


Another tradition of Roma music is the genre of the Gypsy brass band, with such notable practitioners as Boban Marković of Serbia, and the brass lăutari groups Fanfare Ciocărlia and Fanfare din Cozmesti of Romania. A brass band a musical group consisting mostly or entirely of brass instruments, often with a percussion section. ... Boban Marković (Бобан Марковић) is a Serbian trumpet player and brass ensemble leader from Vladicin Han, frequently recognized as the greatest trumpet player to emerge from the Balkans. ... Fanfare Ciocărlia is a popular twelve-piece Roma brass band from the northeastern Romanian village of Zece Prajini. ...


The distinctive sound of Roma music has also strongly influenced bolero, jazz, and flamenco (especially cante jondo) in Europe. European-style Gypsy jazz is still widely practised among the original creators (the Roma People); one who acknowledged this artistic debt was guitarist Django Reinhardt. Contemporary artists in this tradition known internationally include Stochelo Rosenberg, Biréli Lagrène, Jimmy Rosenberg, and Tchavolo Schmitt. Lineart drawing of a man dancing the Bolero, with castanets For other uses, see Bolero (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Flamenco is a Spanish musical genre with strong, rhythmic undertones and is often accompanied with a similarly impassioned style of dance characterized by its powerful yet graceful execution, as well as its intricate hand and footwork. ... An unspoiled form of Andalusian folk music also known as deep song. Cante Jondo is a vocal style in flamenco. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Jean-Baptiste Django Reinhardt (January 23, 1910 – May 16, 1953) was a Belgian Sinto Gypsy jazz guitarist. ... Stochelo Rosenberg (b Helmond, Netherlands, 19 Feb 1968) is a Sinti-Gypsy Jazz Guitarist who plays in the Manouche style of Django Reinhardt and leads the Rosenberg trio. ... Biréli Lagrène is a French guitarist and electric bassist. ... Tchavolo Schmitt (born 1954 in Paris) is a noted guitarist in gypsy jazz. ...


The Roma of Turkey have achieved musical acclaim from national and local audiences. Local performers usually perform for special holidays. Their music is usually performed on instruments such as the darbuka and gırnata. A number of nationwide best seller performers are said to be of Roma origin.[citation needed] Custom simbati from Egypt The goblet drum (also chalice drum) is a goblet shaped hand drum used mostly in Arabic, Jewish, Assyrian, Persian, Balkan, Greek, Armenian, Azeri and Turkish music. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ...


Language

Main article: Romany language

Most Roma speak one of several dialects of Romany[82], an Indo-Aryan language. They also will often speak the languages of the countries they live in. Typically, they also incorporate loanwords and calques into Romani from the languages of those countries, especially words for terms that the Romani language does not have. The Ciganos of Portugal, the Gitanos of Spain and the Romnichal of the UK, have lost their knowledge of pure Romani, and respectively speak the patois languages Caló[83] and Angloromany. Roma of the Iberian Peninsula, however, mostly speak the languages of their countries. Romany (or Romani) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, peoples often referred to in English as Gypsies. The Indo-Aryan Romany language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages. ... Romany (or Romani) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, peoples often referred to in English as Gypsies. The Indo-Aryan Romany language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages. ... The Indo-Aryan languages (within the context of Indo-European studies also Indic[1]) are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... // In linguistics, a calque (pronounced ) or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word (Latin: verbum pro verbo) or root-for-root translation. ... It has been suggested that Roma in Spain be merged into this article or section. ... Romnichal or Romanichal is the name by which groups of Romani people (often known as Gypsies) found in some parts of the United Kingdom, notably England, are called in their own language, Anglo-Romany. ... Patois, although without a formal definition in linguistics, can be used to describe a language considered as nonstandard. ...


There are independent groups currently working toward standardizing the language, including groups in Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, the USA, and Sweden. Romany is not currently spoken in India.[citation needed]


Etymology

The Gypsies of India originally referred to themselves by the term "Dom," meaning "man" in their language. While in other Gypsy communities the word was transformed into "Rom" or "Lom," the term "Dom" is still used by the Gypsies of the Middle East and North Africa. Other names used to designate Gypsies in the Middle East are "Barake," "Kaloro," "Koli," "Kurbat," "Ghorbati," and "Zargari." [84][85][86]


Most Roma refer to themselves as rom or rrom, depending on the dialect. The word means "husband", romni/rromni meaning "wife", while the unmarried are named čhavo ("boy") (pronounced [cʰaʋo]) or čhej ("girl").[citation needed] There are no historical proofs to clarify the etymology of these words.


The word Rom (plural Roma) is a noun, Romany is an adjective, while Romanes is an adverb (meaning, roughly, "in the Romany way"). The language is called the Romany language or Romanes. In the Romany language, the adjective is created by attaching suffixes to the root that express gender and number: "Romani" (f. sing.), "Romano (m. sing.) and "Romane" (m. & f. pl.). Usually in English only the feminine singular form is used, but they may also appear in the other forms.[citation needed] "Romanes" is created by attaching the suffix -es, usually employed for adverbs. [87] The use of the word Romanes in English as a noun is incorrect[88]. In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... Adverbs redirects here. ... Romany (or Romani) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, peoples often referred to in English as Gypsies. The Indo-Aryan Romany language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages. ... Look up Suffix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


The English term Gypsy (or Gipsy) originates from the Greek word Αιγύπτοι (Aigyptoi), modern Greek γύφτοι (gyphtoi), in the erroneous belief that the Roma originated in Egypt, and were exiled as punishment for allegedly harboring the infant Jesus.[89] If used, this exonym should also be written with capital letter, to show that it is about an ethnic group. [90] As described in Victor Hugo's novel The Hunchback of Notre Dame, the medieval French referred to the Roma as "egyptiens". This ethnonym is not used by the Roma to describe themselves, and is often considered pejorative (as is the term "gyp", meaning "to cheat", a reference to the suspicion the Roma engendered). However, the use of "Gypsy" in English is now so pervasive that many Roma organizations use the word Gypsy in their own names. In North America, the word "Gypsy" is commonly used as a reference to lifestyle or fashion, and not to the Roma ethnicity. The Spanish term gitano and the French term gitan may have the same origin.[91] Look up Gypsy, gypsy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Jacopo Bellinis Madonna and Child Blessing depicts the infant Jesus in the act of blessing the viewer The Child Jesus, Christ Child, or Divine Infant, represents the infant Jesus until to the age of twelve. ... An exonym is a name for a place or people that is created by people outside of that place and is different from the name used in the native language. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced ) (February 26, 1802 — May 22, 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... The Hunchback of Notre Dame (original French title, Notre-Dame de Paris) is an 1831 French novel written by Victor Hugo. ... An ethnonym (Gk. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... North American redirects here. ... The Gitanos are Roma people living in Spain. ...


In much of continental Europe, Roma are known by names similar to the Hungarian cigány (pronounced [ˈtsiɡaːɲ]), German and Dutch zigeuner, Italian zingari and Russian цыгане (tsyganje). Early Byzantium literature suggests that names now referring to Gypsies such as tzigane, zincali, cigány, etc., are derived from the Greek ατσίγγανοι (atsinganoi, Latin adsincani), applied to Roma during Byzantine times,[92] or from the Greek term αθίγγανοι (athinganoi)[93] meaning literally 'untouchables', in reference to a 9th-century heretical sect that had been accused of practising magic and fortune-telling.[94] In modern Greek, aside from the singular term Rom (Ρομ), the terms gyphtoi (Greek:γύφτοι) and tsinganoi (Greek:τσιγγάνοι) are interchangeable and both are used when referring to the Roma. "Bosha" is Georgian word for Roma (pl. "boshebi"). Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον, Latin: , ) was an ancient Greek city, which was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Main article: Greek language Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική, lit. ...


Because many Roma living in France had come via Bohemia, they were also referred to as Bohémiens. This would later be adapted to describe the impoverished artistic lifestyle of Bohemianism. For other uses, see Bohemia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bohemian (disambiguation). ...


Outside Europe, Roma are referred to by more varied names, such as Kowli (کولی) in Iran and Iraq ; Lambani, Labana Lambadi, Rabari or Banjara in India; Ghajar (غجر),Salab (صلب) or Nawar (نور) in Arabic. In Arabic, these three words distinguish entertainment Roma: Ghajar or Salab, from trade Roma Nawar, Nawar is also used as a pejorative term to mean vulgar, or low in North Levantine Arabic, and are used as insults. The other term, Ghajar does not hold any pejorative connotations; They are called tzo'anim צוענים in Hebrew (after an ancient city in Egypt and the biblical verb צען ṣā‛an, roaming). Arabic redirects here. ... Hebrew redirects here. ...


There is no etymological connection between the name Roma (ethnicity) and the city of Rome, ancient Rome, Romania, the Romanian people or the Romanian language. For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Languages Romanian language Religions Predominantly Romanian Orthodox, but also including Romanian Catholic, Roman Catholic, Protestant and Atheist. ... Romanian (limba română, IPA: ) is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people[1], primarily in Romania and Moldova. ...


Persecutions

Main article: Antiziganism

Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial...

Historical persecution

The first and one of the most enduring persecutions against the Roma people was the enslaving of the Roma who arrived on the territory of the historical Romanian states of Wallachia and Moldavia, which lasted from the 14th century until the second half of the 19th century. Legislation decreed that all the Roma living in these states, as well as any others who would immigrate there, were slaves.[95] Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ...


The arrival of some branches of the Roma people in Western Europe in the 15th century was precipitated by the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans. Although the Roma themselves were refugees from the conflicts in southeastern Europe, they were mistaken by the local population in the West, because of their foreign appearance, as part of the Ottoman invasion (the German Reichstags at Landau and Freiburg in 1496-1498 declared the Roma as spies of the Turks). In Western Europe, this resulted in a violent history of persecution and attempts of ethnic cleansing until the modern era. As time passed, other accusations were added against local Roma (accusations specific to this area, against non-assimilated minorities), like that of bringing the plague, usually sharing their burden together with the local Jews.[96] A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Balkan redirects here. ... What is Refugees? Refugees is a simple internet community that was created as a homeland and haven for the members of the message board MegaMassMedia. ... The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe are also sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Wars or as Turkish Wars, particularly in older, European texts. ...


Later in the 19th century, Roma immigration was forbidden on a racial basis in areas outside Europe, mostly in the English speaking world (in 1885 the United States outlawed the entry of the Roma) and also in some american countries (in 1880 Argentina adopted a similar policy).[96]


Holocaust

Main article: Porajmos
Roma arrivals at the Belzec death camp await instructions.
Roma arrivals at the Belzec death camp await instructions.

The persecution of the Roma reached a peak during World War II in the Porajmos, the genocide perpetrated by the Nazis during the Holocaust. In 1935, the Nuremberg laws stripped the Roma people living in Nazi Germany of their citizenship, after which they were subjected to violence, imprisonment in concentration camps and later genocide in extermination camps. The policy was extended in areas occupied by the Nazis during the war, and it was also applied by their allies, notably the Independent State of Croatia, Romania and Hungary. Roma arrivals in the Belzec extermination camp await instructions The Porajmos (also Porrajmos) literally Devouring, or Samudaripen (Mass killing) is a term coined by the Roma (Gypsy) people to describe attempts by the Nazi regime to exterminate most of the Roma peoples of Europe during The Holocaust. ... Public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Belzec was the first of the Nazi German extermination camps created for implementing Operation Reinhard during the Holocaust. ... A death camp is either a concentration camp, the important (though not necessarily single) function of which is to facilitate mass murder of the people deported into such a camp (such as the Nazis Auschwitz and Majdanek, which acquired their murderous functions only some time after they had been... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Roma arrivals in the Belzec extermination camp await instructions The Porajmos (also Porrajmos) literally Devouring, or Samudaripen (Mass killing) is a term coined by the Roma (Gypsy) people to describe attempts by the Nazi regime to exterminate most of the Roma peoples of Europe during The Holocaust. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... The Nuremberg Laws (German: Nürnberger Gesetze) of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Extermination camps were two types of facilities that Nazi Germany built during World War II for the systematic killing of millions of people in what has become known as the Holocaust. ... Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Puppet-state King  - 1941-1943 Tomislav II Poglavnik  - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić Legislature None Historical era World War II  - Established April 10, 1941  - Disestablished May 8, 1945 Population  - 1941 est. ...


Because no accurate pre-war census figures exist for the Roma, it is impossible to accurately assess the actual number of victims. Ian Hancock, director of the Program of Romani Studies at The University of Texas at Austin, proposes a figure of up to a million and a half, while an estimate of between 220,000 and 500,000 was made by the late Sybil Milton, formerly senior historian of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum.[97]. In Central Europe, the extermination in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia was so thorough that the Bohemian Romany language became totally extinct. Ian Hancock is a renowned Romani scholar. ... University of Texas at Austin The University of Texas at Austin (full official name), often UT or Texas for short, is the flagship institution of the University of Texas System, the largest public university system in Texas, established in 1883. ... Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, German Political structure Protectorate Reichsprotektor  - 1939-1941 Konstantin von Neurath  - 1941-1942 Reinhard Heydrich (acting)  - 1942-1943 Kurt Daluege (acting)  - 1943-1945 Wilhelm Frick Staatspräsident  - 1939-1945 Emil Hácha Historical era World War II  - Occupation March 15, 1939  - Fall of Prague May 13...


Assimilation

In the Habsburg Monarchy under Maria Theresia (1740-1780), a series of decrees tried to force the Roma to sedentarize, removed rights to horse and wagon ownership (1754), renamed them as "New Citizens" and forced Roma boys into military service if they had no trade (1761), forced them to register with the local authorities (1767), and prohibited marriage between Roma (1773). Her successor Josef II prohibited the wearing of traditional Roma clothing and the use of the Romany language, punishable by flogging.[98] In Spain, attempts to assimilate the Gitanos were under way as early as 1619, when Gitanos were forcibly sedentarized, the use of the Romany language was prohibited, Gitano men and women were sent to separate workhouses and their children sent to orphanages. Similar prohibitions took place in later in 1783 under King Charles III, who prohibited the nomadic lifestyle, the use of the Calo language, Romani clothing, their trade in horses and other itinerant trades. Ultimately these measures failed, as the rest of the population rejected the integration of the Gitanos.[98][99] The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... Not to be confused with Maria Theresa of Austria (1816-1867). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Joseph II (full name: Joseph Benedikt August Johannes Anton Michel Adam; March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. ... Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Other examples of forced assimilation include Norway, where a law was passed in 1896 permitting the state to remove children from their parents and place them in state institutions[100]. This resulted in some 1,500 Roma children being taken from their parents in the 20th century[101].


Contemporary issues

A young Romani woman from the Czech Republic (2005)
A young Romani woman from the Czech Republic (2005)

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Central and Eastern Europe

The practice of placing Roma students in segregated schools or classes remains widespread in countries across Central and Eastern Europe. In Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania, many Roma children have been channeled into all-Roma schools that offer inferior quality education and are sometimes in poor physical condition, or into segregated all-Roma or predominantly Roma classes within mixed schools.[102] In Hungary and Bulgaria, many Roma children are sent to classes for pupils with learning disabilities, regardless of whether such classes are appropriate for the children in question or not. In Bulgaria, they are also sent to so-called "delinquent schools", where a variety of human rights abuses take place.[102]


Despite the low birth rate in the country, Bulgaria's Health Ministry was considering a law aimed at lowering the birth rate of certain minority groups, particularly the Roma, due to the high mortality rate among Roma families, which are typically large. This was later abandoned due to conflict with EU law and the Bulgarian constitution.[103] Many governments, both national and more local, have a Department of Health. This article is about the British one. ... “Minority” redirects here. ... Crude death rate by country Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in some population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit time. ... European Union law is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ...


Roma in European population centers are often accused of crimes such as pickpocketing. This is a regular justification for anti-Roma persecution. In 1899, the Nachrichtendienst in Bezug auf die Zigeuner ("Intelligence Service Regarding the Gypsies") was set up in Munich under the direction of Alfred Dillmann, cataloguing data on all Roma individuals throughout the German lands. It did not officially close down until 1970. The results were published in 1905 in Dillmann’s Zigeuner-Buch [104], that was used in the next years as justification for the Porajmos. It described the Roma people as a "plague" and a "menace", but presented as Gypsy crime almost exclusively trespassing and the theft of food. A UN study[105] found that Roma in Eastern European countries such as Bulgaria are arrested for robbery at a much higher rate than other groups. Amnesty International[106] and Roma groups such as the Union Romani blame widespread police and government racism and persecution.[107] Eighteenth century engraving showing a pickpocket in action. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Roma arrivals in the Belzec extermination camp await instructions The Porajmos (also Porrajmos) literally Devouring, or Samudaripen (Mass killing) is a term coined by the Roma (Gypsy) people to describe attempts by the Nazi regime to exterminate most of the Roma peoples of Europe during The Holocaust. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience...


United Kingdom

In the UK, "travellers" (referring to Irish Travellers and New Age Travellers as well as Roma) became a 2005 general election issue, with the leader of the Conservative Party promising to review the Human Rights Act 1998. This law, which absorbs the European Convention on Human Rights into UK primary legislation, is seen by some to permit the granting of retrospective planning permission. Severe population pressures and the paucity of greenfield sites have led to travellers purchasing land, and setting up residential settlements very quickly, thus subverting the planning restrictions[citation needed]. Irish Travellers are a nomadic or itinerant people of Irish origin living in Ireland, Great Britain and the United States. ... The New age travellers or Peace Convoy were a group of people who often espoused New age and/or hippie beliefs, and who travelled between music festivals and fairs in the United Kingdom in order to live in a community with others who hold similar beliefs. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election. ... The Conservative Party, officially though less commonly known as the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Human Rights Act 1998 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom which received Royal Assent on November 9, 1998, and mostly came into force on October 2, 2000. ... “ECHR” redirects here. ... Primary legislation is legislation made by the legislative branch of government. ... Main article: Town and Country Planning in the United Kingdom Planning permission or planning consent is the permission required in the United Kingdom in order to be allowed to build on land, or change the use of land or buildings. ... Greenfield land is a term used to describe a piece of undeveloped land, either currently used for agriculture or just left to nature. ...


Travellers argued in response that thousands of retrospective planning permissions are granted in Britain in cases involving non-Roma applicants each year and that statistics showed that 90% of planning applications by Roma and travellers were initially refused by local councils, compared with a national average of 20% for other applicants, disproving claims of preferential treatment favouring Roma.[108] A Local Council (LC, formerly Resistance Council -RC) is a form of local elected government within the districts of Uganda. ...


They also argued that the root of the problem was that many traditional stopping-places had been barricaded off and that legislation passed by the previous Conservative government had effectively criminalised their community, for example by removing local authorities’ responsibility to provide sites, thus leaving the travellers with no option but to purchase unregistered new sites themselves.[109]


Denmark

In Denmark there was much controversy when the city of Helsingør decided to put all Roma students in special classes in its public schools. The classes were later abandoned after it was determined that they were discriminatory, and the Roma were put back in regular classes.[110] Elsinore (Danish Helsingør) is a Danish city at the north-east point of Zealand. ... The term public school has three distinct meanings: In the USA and Canada, elementary or secondary school supported and administered by state and local officials. ...


United States

Law enforcement agencies in the United States hold regular conferences [111] on the Roma and similar nomadic groups. It is common to refer to the operators of certain types of travelling con artists [112] and fortune-telling [113] businesses as "Gypsies," although many are Irish Travellers or not members of any particular nomadic ethnic group. A confidence trick, confidence game, or con for short, (also known as a scam) is an attempt to intentionally mislead a person or persons (known as the mark) usually with the goal of financial or other gain. ... For prophecy in the context of revealed religions see Prophet. ... Irish Travellers are a nomadic or itinerant people of Irish origin living in Ireland, Great Britain and the United States. ...


Roma people by geographic area

Central and Eastern Europe

A significant proportion of the world's Roma live in Central and Eastern Europe, often in squatter communities with very high unemployment, while only some are fully integrated in the society. However, in some cases—notably the Kalderash clan in Romania, who work as traditional coppersmiths—they have prospered. Some Roma families choose to immigrate to Western Europe now that many of the former Communist countries like the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, Hungary and Bulgaria have entered the European Union and free travel is permitted. During the 1970s and 1980s many Roma from former Yugoslavia migrated to Western European countries, especially to Austria, Germany and Sweden. A Polish Roma woman The Roma people in Central and Eastern Europe often live in depressed squatter communities with very high unemployment, while only some are fully integrated in the society. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... This article is about occupying land without permission. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... A coppersmith is a person who works with copper and brass. ...


The current and historical situation of Roma in the region differs from country to country.


Hungary

Main article: Roma people of Hungary

The number of Roma people in Hungary is disputed. In the 2001 census only 190,000 people called themselves Roma, but sociological estimates give much higher numbers (about 5%-10% of the total population). Since World War II, the number of Roma has increased rapidly, multiplying sevenfold in the last century[citation needed]. Today every fifth or sixth newborn is Roma[citation needed]. Estimates based on current demographic trends project that in 2050, 20.9% of the population (1.64 million people) will be Roma.[114] 2050 (MML) will be a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Turkey

Roma in Turkey are known as Chingene, Chingen or Chingan (Mostly), Chingit (West Black Sea region), Dom (East Anatolia), Posha (East Anatolia), Abdal (Kahramanmaraş), Roman (Izmir) [115]. Estimates of the population vary from 300.000 to 5 million, dispersed all across the country.[3] They have integrated fully to the ethnic make up of the country, and in later years have started to recognize, and cherish their Roma background as well.[116] Blacksmithing and other handicrafts are the Roma's specialities. A blacksmith is an artisan specializing in the hand-wrought manufacture of metal objects, such as wrought iron gates, grills and railings, light fixtures and furniture, sculpture, weapons, decorative and religous items, cooking utensils and tools. ...

Spanish Roma woman
Spanish Roma woman
A Roma family travelling (1837 print)
A Roma family travelling (1837 print)

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 429 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1554 × 2172 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 429 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1554 × 2172 pixel, file size: 1. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...

Spain

Main article: Roma in Spain

Roma in Spain are generally known as Gitanos and tend to speak Caló which is basically Andalusian Spanish with a large number of Romany loan words.[117] Estimates of the Spanish Gitano population range between 600,000 and 800,000 with the Spanish government estimating between 650,000 and 700,000. [118] Semi-nomadic Quinqui consider themselves apart from the Gitanos. Language(s) Romani language Caló (Spanish Romani) Spanish language Catalan language Religion(s) Predominantly Roman Catholic Church Related ethnic groups Roma people Indo-Aryans Spanish people The Romani people (also called Romany or Gypsies) are a diverse ethnic group who until recently lived primarily in Southern and Eastern Europe, Western... The Andalusian dialect (also called andaluz) of European Spanish is spoken in Andalusia (including Gibraltar). ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... Quinqui is the language of a semi-nomadic group present mainly in the northern half of Spain known as quinquilleros (tinkers), although they prefer to be called mercheros. ...


Portugal

The Roma in Portugal are known as Ciganos, and their presence goes back to the second half of the 15th century. Early on, due to their socio-cultural difference and nomadic style of live, the Ciganos were the object of fierce discrimination and persecution.[119]


The number of Ciganos in Portugal is difficult to estimate, since there are no official statistics about race or ethnic categories. According to data from Council of Europe's European Commission against Racism and Intolerance[120] there are about 50,000 to 60,000 spread all over the country. Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden...


The majority of the Ciganos do not have today a nomad style of life, rather concentrating themselves in the most important urban centers. This population is characterised by very low levels of educational qualification, social exclusion and residential and housing difficulties (mainly living in degraded ghettos). The Ciganos are the ethnic group that the Portuguese most reject and discriminate against, and are also targets for discriminatory practices from the State administration, namely at a local level, finding persistent difficulties in the access to job placement, housing and social services, as well as in the relation to police forces.[121]


France

Roma in France are generally known as Gitans, Tsiganes, Romanichels (slightly pejorative), Bohémiens, or Gens du voyage ("travellers").


Finland

Roma in Finland are known as mustalaiset and romanit. Currently, there are approximately 10,000 Roma living in Finland, mostly in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area.[citation needed] In Finland, the Roma people usually wear their traditional dress in everyday life.[citation needed] Central Helsinki, the focal point of the Capital Region, from the sky Greater Helsinki (Finnish: Suur-Helsinki, Swedish: Storhelsingfors), Capital Region (Pääkaupunkiseutu, Huvudstadsregionen), Helsinki Metropolitan Area, and Helsinki Region (Helsingin seutu, Helsingforsregionen) all refer to the conurbation surrounding the Finnish capital, Helsinki. ...


The United Kingdom

Main article: Romnichal

Roma in England are generally known as Romnichals or Romany Gypsies, while their Welsh equivalent are known as Kale. They have been known in the UK since at least the early 16th century and may number up to 120,000. There is also a sizable population of East European Roma who immigrated into the UK in the late 1990s/early 2000s, and also after EU expansion in 2004. Romnichal or Romanichal is the name by which groups of Romani people (often known as Gypsies) found in some parts of the United Kingdom, notably England, are called in their own language, Anglo-Romany. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ...


There are records of Roma people in Scotland in the early 16th century, the first recorded reference to "the Egyptians" would appear to be in 1492, in the reign of James IV, when an entry in the Book of the Lord High Treasurer records a payment "to Peter Ker of four shillings, to go to the king at Hunthall, to get letters subscribed to the 'King of Rowmais'". Two days after, a payment of twenty pounds was made at the king's command to the messenger of the 'King of Rowmais'.[122] This article is about the country. ... James IV (March 17, 1473-September 9, 1513) was King of Scots from 1488 to his death. ...


It is difficult to be clear about the numbers of Roma today in Scotland, according to the Scottish Traveller Education Programme, there are probably about 20,000 Scottish Gypsies/Travellers.[123]. Although it is unknown how many of this number are Roma and it is recognised that Gypsies and Travellers in Scotland are not one homogenous group, but consist of several groups each with different histories and cultures, and could consist of many unrelated ethnic groups. Highland Travellers have been part of Scottish society for at least 500 years. ...


From this, the term "gypsy" in the United Kingdom has come to mean, in common culture, anyone who travels with no fixed abode (regardless of ethnic group). This use of the term is synonymous with "pikey", which is seen by many as a derogatory term. In some parts of the UK they are commonly called "tinkers" from their work as tinsmiths.


North America

The first Roma group arriving in the North America was the Romnichels, at the beginning of the 19th century. In the second half of the century, the immigration of Roma groups from Eastern Europe began, especially from Romania, the ancestors of the majority of the contemporary local Roma population. Among them were Romany-speaking groups like the Kalderash, Machvaya, Lovari, Churari, and even linguistically Romanianized groups, like the Boyash (Ludari). They arrived after their liberation from slavery in 1840-1850, directly from Romania, or after living some years in neighbouring states (the Russian Empire, Austria-Hungary, and Serbia)[124]. The Bashalde arrived from what is now Slovakia around this same time.[125] This immigration decreased drastically during the Communist regime in Eastern Europe, in the second half of the 20th century, but resumed in the 1990s, after the fall of Communism. Roma organizations currently estimate that there are about one million Roma in the USA and 80,000 in Canada.[40] North American redirects here. ... Romnichal or Romanichal is the name by which groups of Romani people (often known as Gypsies) found in some parts of the United Kingdom, notably England, are called in their own language, Anglo-Romany. ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... Romany (or Romani) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, peoples often referred to in English as Gypsies. The Indo-Aryan Romany language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages. ... they are the most conservative and compact copact Roma community. ... The Machvaya (also Machavaya) are a group of Romany originating specifically from Serbia. ... Lovari Recording artist and actor. ... Boyash (also known as Bayash; Hungarian: Beás) are a Roma (Gypsy) ethnic group living mainly in Hungary. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...


South America

  • Brazil- Roma groups settled the Brazilian states of Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais in the late 19th century. They came from Serbia (the Machvaya), from Romania (the Kalderash), from Italy (the Lovari), as well as from Greece and Turkey (the Horahane) [126] Initially, the presence of Roma in Brazil was explained by the Portuguese Inquisition persecuting the Ciganos of Portugal by exiling them overseas. Now there are at least 60,000 Roma there, although the exact number cannot be known.[citation needed] Most of them are Kalderash, Macwaia, Rudari, Horahane, and Lovara.
  • There is a sizeable population of Roma people in Chile. They are widely and easily recognized and they continue to hold on to their traditions and language and many continue to live semi-nomadic lifestyles traveling from city to city and living in small tented communities. A domestically produced television series (a soap opera) called Romane was based around the Roma people, it went into depth showing their lifestyles, ideas and even featured the Chilean born actors speaking in the Romany language with subtitles in Spanish occasionally.

For other places that have this name, see Espírito Santo (disambiguation) Espírito Santo is one of the states of southeastern Brazil, often referred to by the abbreviation ES. Those who are born in the state are known as Capixabas. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... Capital (and largest city) Belo Horizonte Demonym Mineiro Government  -  Governor Aécio Neves  -  Vice Governor Antônio Augusto Junho Anastasia Area  -  Total 588,528. ... The Machvaya (also Machavaya) are a group of Romany originating specifically from Serbia. ... Lovari Recording artist and actor. ... An Inquisition - Auto-da-fe. ...

The Middle East

A community related closely to the Roma and living in Israel and the Palestinian territories and in neighboring countries are known as Dom people. Before 1948, there was an Arabic-speaking Dom community in Jaffa, whose members were noted for their involvement in street theatre and circus performances. They are the subject of the play "The Gypsies of Jaffa" (Hebrew: הצוענים של יפו HaTsoʿinim sha Yafo), by the late Nissim Aloni, considered among Israel's foremost playwrights, and the play came to be considered a classic of the Israeli theatre (see [4]). Like most other Jaffa Arabs, much of this community was uprooted in the face of the Israeli advance in April 1948, and its descendants are assumed to be presently living in the Gaza Strip; it is unknown to what degree they still preserve a separate Domari identity. Another Dom community is known to exist in East Jerusalem. In October 1999, the nonprofit organisation "Domari: The Society of Gypsies in Jerusalem" was established by Amoun Sleem to advocate on this community's behalf. [5], [6] In neighboring Egypt, the Roma population is estimated at 1,080,000 individuals, 234,000 of whom are counted as Dom.[127] This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ... The Dom (or Domi) (Arabic,دومي or دومري) of the Middle East are a South Asian (Desi) ethnic group. ... Arabic is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... For other uses, see Jaffa (disambiguation). ... A troupe of street theatre performers by the beach in Vancouver, Canada. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Nisim Aloni (1926 - 1998) was an Israeli playwright and translator. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... A non-profit organization (abbreviated NPO, or non-profit or not-for-profit) is an organization whose primary objective is to support an issue or matter of private interest or public concern for non-commercial purposes, without concern for monetary profit. ...


Some Eastern European Roma are known to have arrived in Israel in the late 1940s and early 1950s, being from Bulgaria or having intermarried with Jews in the post-WWII Displaced Persons camps or, in some cases, having pretended to be Jews when Zionist representatives arrived in those camps. The exact numbers of these Roma living in Israel are unknown, since such individuals tended to assimilate into the Israeli Jewish environment. According to several recent accounts in the Israeli press, some families preserve traditional Romany lullabies and a small number of Romany expressions and curse words, and pass them on to generations born in Israel who, for the most part, are Jews and speak Hebrew.[citation needed] The Roma community in Israel has grown since the 1990s, as some Roma immigrated there from the former Soviet Union. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with forced migration. ... A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. ... Hebrew redirects here. ...


In Iraq, the Qawliya people are a small Roma minority group who trace their history back to Spain. The Qawliya are a small Roma minority in Iraq. ...


Fictional representations of Roma

Many fictional depictions of the Roma emphasize their supposed mystical powers. They often appear as nomads. A Roma family travelling (1837 print) Many fictional depictions of the Romani emphasize their supposed mystical powers. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Banjara, Hindu of India. Joshua Project. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  2. ^ Lambanis or Gypsies. Kamat. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  3. ^ a b No official count; estimate from Reaching the Romanlar—A Feasibility Study Report (International Romani Studies Network), Istanbul: 2006, p.13. See also Turkey: A Minority Policy of Systematic Negation (IHF report) and SERİN, Ayten (08-05-2005). AB ülkeleriyle ortak bir noktamız daha ÇİNGENELER. Hürriyet. Retrieved on September 23, 2006.
  4. ^ There are an estimated 3 million to 5 million Roma in Turkey, 6/9/2008 The Christian Science Monitor
  5. ^ 2002 census: Population by ethnicity (Romanian). Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  6. ^ Romii din România (Romanian). Centrul de Resurse pentru Diversitate Etnocultuală. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  7. ^ a b c 2002 census not including Kosovo (PDF). UNDP Regional Bureau for Europe. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  8. ^ WORLD BANK INVOLVEMENT IN ROMA ISSUES. World Bank (June 2006). Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  9. ^ Qiao, Chungui (July 2005). "Iaos Satellite Meeting: Measuring Small And Indigenous Populations”" (PDF). Social Policy Journal of New Zealand (25). 
  10. ^ Rumänien sieht Ende starker Auswanderung (Schweiz, NZZ Online)
  11. ^ Spain - The Gypsies. U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  12. ^ 1,500,000 Roma estimated by the Society for Threatened Peoples [1]
  13. ^ Report by the European Roma Rights Centre
  14. ^ Full Report by the European Roma Rights Centre
  15. ^ 2001 census Hungary
  16. ^ "Budapest Journal; A Real Voice, at Last, for Hungary's Pariah People", The New York Times, 2001-03-05. 
  17. ^ (2005) Hungary's Strategic Audit 2005 (PDF), DEMOS Hungary, 45. ISBN 9632190300. Retrieved on 2007-08-26. 
  18. ^ PRESS CONFERENCE. United Nations (2007-01-29).
  19. ^ Population Census 2001 – National and county data – Summary Data
  20. ^ Hungary acknowledges the need for progress regarding its population of 500,000 to 1 million Roma, or Gypsies
  21. ^ Official data: 678,000
    800,000 -1,000,000 in The Rom of the Americas (chapter Brazil), by Jorge M. Fernandez Bernal
  22. ^ According to the last official census in 2001 370,908 Bulgarian citizens define their identity as Roma (official results here). 313,000 self-declared in 1992 census (Elena Marushiakova and Vesselin Popov, The Gypsies of Bulgaria: Problems of the Multicultural Museum Exhibition (1995), cited in Patrin Web Journal). According to Marushiakova and Popov, "The Roma in Bulgaria", Sofia, 1993, the people who declared Roma identity in 1956 were about 194,000; in 1959, 214,167; in 1976, 373,200; because of the obvious and significant difference between the number of Bulgarian citizens with Roma self-identification and this of the large total population with physical appearance and cultural particularity similar to Roma in 1980 the authorities took special census of all people, defined as Roma through the opinions of the neighbouring population, observations of their way of life, cultural specificity, etc. - 523,519; in the 1989 the authorities counted 576,927 people as Roma, but noted that more than a half of them preferred and declared Turkish identity (pages 92–93). According to the rough personal assumption of Marushiakova and Popov the total number of all people with Roma ethic identity plus all people of Roma origin with different ethnic self-identification around 1993 was about 800,000 (pages 94–95). Similar supposition Marushiakova and Popov made in 1995: estimate 750,000 ±50,000. Some international sources mention the estimates of some unnamed experts, who suggest 700,000–800,000 or higher than figures in the official census (UNDP's Regional Bureau for Europe<ref></ref>). These mass non-Roma ethnic partialities are confirmed in the light of the last census in 2001—more than 300,000 Bulgarian citizens of Roma origin traditionally declare their ethnic identity as Turkish or Bulgarian. Other statistics: 450,000 estimated in 1990 (U.S. Library of Congress study); at least 553,466 cited in a confidential census by the Ministry of the Interior in 1992 (cf Marushiakova and Popov 1995).
  23. ^ Sweeney, Fionnuala (2004-04-16). Slovakia seeks help on Roma issue. CNN. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  24. ^ The CIA World Factbook: Slovakia. Central Intelligence Agency (2007-08-16). Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  25. ^ НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ СОСТАВ НАСЕЛЕНИЯ (National Population - 2002 Russian Census) (Russian). perepis2002.ru. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  26. ^ Liégeois, Jean-Pierre (1994). Roma, Tsiganes, Voiageurs (in French). Conseil de l'Europe, 34. 
  27. ^ Independent estimates range from 5 to 6 million Roma in Russia[citation needed].
  28. ^ The State of the Roma in Greece. Hellenic Republic - National Commission for Human Rights (2001-11-29). Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  29. ^ "The Situation of Roma in Selected Western European Countries: Report to the OSCE Conference on Anti-Semitism and on other Forms of Intolerance Cordoba, Spain, June 8-9, 2005" (Microsoft Word) (June 2005): 13. IHF. Retrieved on 2007-08-26. “300,000 to 350,000” 
  30. ^ Ukrainian census 2002
  31. ^ Tchileva, Druzhemira (2004-11-16). Emerging Roma Voices from Latin America. European Roma Rights Centre.
  32. ^ Jorge M. Fernandez Bernal, The Rom of the Americas (chapter Argentina)
  33. ^ Sčítaní lidu, domů a bytů 2001 (2001 census) (Czech). Český statistický úřad (2005). Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  34. ^ By James Palmer
  35. ^ Lhotka, Petr. Romové v České republice po roce 1989. Vzdělávací cyklus o Romech. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  36. ^ Census of population, households and dwellings in the Republic of Macedonia, 2002 (Macedonian, English). Republic of Macedonia State Statistical Office (May 2005).
  37. ^ a b Liégeois, Jean-Pierre (1994). Roma, Tsiganes, Voiageurs (in French). Conseil de l'Europe, 34. 
  38. ^ MINORITIES IN SOUTHEAST EUROPE: Roma of Albania (Microsoft Word). Center for Documentation and Information on Minorities in Europe - Southeast Europe (CEDIME-SE) (August 2000).
  39. ^ Iran Gypsy Population. Dom Research Center. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  40. ^ a b Lee, Ronald (October 1998). Roma in Canada fact sheet ROMA IN CANADA. Roma Community Centre.
  41. ^ = Romani Vlax by country [2]
  42. ^ The Ciganos. Estimate by the European Roma Rights Centre
  43. ^ American studies of the Gypsies in Poland [3]
  44. ^ Hancock, Ian, 2001, Ame sam e rromane džene / We are the Romani People, The Open Society Institute, New York, page 2
  45. ^ Matras, Yaron, Romani: A linguistic introduction, Cambridge University Press, 2002, page 5
  46. ^ Kenrick, Donald (1998). Historical Dictionary of the Gypsies (Romanies). Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-3444-8. 
  47. ^ The History and Origin of the Roma
  48. ^ The Roma of Eastern Europe: Still Searching for Inclusion
  49. ^ Estimated population from adding the sourced population numbers from the article Romani people by country. Note that some countries with Romani populations are not included, where reliable sources could not be found, and that many of the sources are outdated or supply only partial information about Roma groups in a certain country.
  50. ^ European effort spotlights plight of the Roma
  51. ^ Chiriac, Marian (2004-09-29). It Now Suits the EU to Help the Roma. other-news.info.
  52. ^ Hancock, Ian, 2001, Ame sam e rromane džene / We are the Romani People, The Open Society Institute, New York, page 2
  53. ^ Matras, Yaron, Romani: A linguistic introduction, Cambridge University Press, 2002, page 5
  54. ^ Fraser, Angus (1995-02-01). Gypsies (Peoples of Europe), 2nd edition, Blackwell, Oxford. ISBN 978-0631196051. 
  55. ^ P. 17 Germany and Its Gypsies: A Post-Auschwitz Ordeal By Gilad Margalit
  56. ^ Johann Christian Christoph Rüdiger. On the Indic Language and Origin of the Gypsies (PDF).
  57. ^ Halwachs, Dieter W. (2004-04-21). Romani - An Attempting Overview. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  58. ^ Gray, R.D. and Atkinson, Q.D.. Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin (PDF).
  59. ^ Christina Wells (2003-11-13). Introduction to Gypsies. University of North Texas. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  60. ^ a b Kalaydjieva, L.; Morar, B.; Chaix, R. and Tang, H. (2005). "A Newly Discovered Founder Population: The Roma/Gypsies". BioEssays volume=27: 1084–1094. 
  61. ^ Malyarchuk, B.A.; Grzybowski, T.; Derenko, M.V.; Czarny, J. and Miscicka-Slivvka, D. (2006) (2006). "Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in the Polish Roma". Annals of Human Genetics 70: 195–206. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00222.x. 
  62. ^ a b c Mutation history of the roma-gypsies, <http://lib.bioinfo.pl/pmid:15322984>. Retrieved on 16.06.200816.06.2008 
  63. ^ a b Kalaydjieva, Luba (2001), “Genetic studies of the Roma (Gypsies): a review”, BMC Medical Genetics 2: 5, doi:10.1186/1471-2350-2-5, <http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2350/2/5>. Retrieved on 16 June 2008 
  64. ^ http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2350/2/5/figure/F4
  65. ^ a b c Origins and Divergence of the Roma (Gypsies), PMID 11704928, <http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1235543>. Retrieved on 16 June 2008 
  66. ^ Balasubramanian, D. (2005-11-17). Gypsies — the dalits of European continent. The Hindu. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  67. ^ Shastri, Vagish (2007). Migration of Aryans from India. Varanasi: Yogic Voice Consciousness Institute. 
  68. ^ Banjara, Hindu of India. Joshua Project. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  69. ^ Lambanis or Gypsies. Kamat. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  70. ^ Hancock, Ian. Ame Sam e Rromane Džene/We are the Romani people, 13. ISBN 1902806190. 
  71. ^ Sareen, Jeetan. The Lost Tribes of India. Kuviyam. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  72. ^ Linda Anfuso (1994-02-24). "gypsies". rec.org.sca. (Web link). Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  73. ^ A Chronology of significant dates in Romani history. Archived from the original on 2004-12-04.
  74. ^ Denysenko, Marina. "Sterilised Roma accuse Czechs", BBC News, 2007-03-12. 
  75. ^ Thomas, Jeffrey (2006-08-16). Coercive Sterilization of Romani Women Examined at Hearing: New report focuses on Czech Republic and Slovakia. Washington File. Bureau of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State.
  76. ^ Eleanor Harding. "The eternal minority", New Internationalist, January 2008. 
  77. ^ Hannikainen, Lauri & Åkermark, Sia Spiliopoulou, “The non-autonomous minority groups in the Nordic countries”, in Clive, Archer & Joenniemi, Pertti, The Nordic peace, Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 171–197, <http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=j5TdqodY_QwC&pg=PA173&lpg=PA173&dq=Norway+roma+sterilisation&source=web&ots=Fq8F1IWa4x&sig=CDLknZpZOBdn14DodVsBO7CkhOE&hl=en#PPA171,M1> 
  78. ^ Unknown, Unknown (2008-05-28). Italy condemned for 'racism wave'. BBC News. BBC.
  79. ^ Romani Customs and Traditions: Death Rituals and Customs. Patrin Web Journal. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  80. ^ David M. Knipe. The Journey of a Lifebody. Retrieved on 2008-05-26.
  81. ^ http://www.joshuaproject.net/peopctry.php?rop3=111445&rog3=IN
  82. ^ Dieter W. Halwachs. Speakers and Numbers (distribution of Romani-speaking Roma population by country) (PDF). Rombase.
  83. ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). Caló: A language of Spain. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. ISBN 978-1-55671-159-6. 
  84. ^ [http://imeu.net/news/article004439.shtml The Institute for Middle East Understanding
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  86. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=Romany Online Etymology Dictionary - Douglas Harper
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  88. ^ Hancock, Ian. Ame Sam e Rromane Džene/We are the Romani people, 3. ISBN 1902806190. 
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  90. ^ Hancock, Ian (1995). A Handbook of Vlax Romani. Slavica Publishers, 17. 
  91. ^ gitan (French). Dictionnaire de l'Académie française. Retrieved on 2007-08-26. “Nom donné aux bohémiens d'Espagne ; par ext., synonyme de Bohémien, Tzigane. Adjt. Une robe gitane.”
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  97. ^ Most estimates for numbers of Roma victims of the Holocaust fall between 200,000 and 500,000, although figures ranging between 90,000 and 4 million have been proposed. Lower estimates do not include those killed in all Axis-controlled countries. A detailed study by the late Sybil Milton, formerly senior historian at the US Holocaust Memorial Museum gave a figure of at least a minimum of 220,000, probably higher, possibly closer to 500,000 (cited in Re. Holocaust Victim Assets Litigation (Swiss Banks) Special Master's Proposals, September 11, 2000). Ian Hancock, Director of the Program of Romani Studies and the Romani Archives and Documentation Center at the University of Texas at Austin, argues in favour of a higher figure of between 500,000 and 1,500,000 in his 2004 article, Romanies and the Holocaust: A Reevaluation and an Overview as published in Stone, D. (ed.) (2004) The Historiography of the Holocaust. Palgrave, Basingstoke and New York.
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  104. ^ Dillmann, Alfred (1905). Zigeuner-Buch (in German). Munich: Wildsche. 
  105. ^ Ivanov, Andrey (December 2002). "7", Avoiding the Dependence Trap: A Regional Human Development Report. United Nations Development Programme. ISBN 92-1-126153-8. 
  106. ^ Denesha, Julie (February 2002). Anti-Roma racism in Europe. Amnesty International. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  107. ^ Rromani People: Present Situation in Europe. Union Romani. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  108. ^ Gypsies and Irish Travellers: The facts. Commission on Racial Equality (UK).
  109. ^ Gypsies. Inside Out - South East. BBC (2005-09-19).
  110. ^ Roma-politik igen i søgelyset (Danish). DR Radio P4 (18 January 2006).
  111. ^ Becerra, Hector (2006-01-30). Gypsies: the Usual Suspects. Los Angeles Times.
  112. ^ Dennis Marlock, John Dowling (January 1994). License To Steal: Traveling Con Artists: Their Games, Their Rules, Your Money. Paladin Press. ISBN 978-0873647519. 
  113. ^ Real Stories From Victims Who've Been Scammed. gypsypsychicscams.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  114. ^ Romani world
  115. ^ Özhan Öztürk. Karadeniz Ansiklopedik Sözlük. İstanbul. 2005. ISBN 975-6121-00-9. p.280-281.
  116. ^ TÜRKİYE'Lİ ÇİNGENELER (Turkish). Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  117. ^ My Friends, The Gypsies
  118. ^ http://www.eumap.org/reports/2002/eu/international/sections/spain/2002_m_spain.pdf
  119. ^ Joel Serrão, Ciganos, in Dicionário de História de Portugal, Lisboa, 2006.
  120. ^ ECRI (2002), Relatório da Comissão Europeia contra o Racismo e a Intolerância - Segundo Relatório sobre Portugal, Estrasburgo, p. 23 (In Portuguese).
  121. ^ ECRI (2002), Relatório da Comissão Europeia contra o Racismo e a Intolerância - Segundo Relatório sobre Portugal, Estrasburgo, pp. 23-25.; ; See also: European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, Third report on Portugal, 2006.
  122. ^ Gypsies in Scotland. The Scottish Gypsies of Scotland (2004). Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  123. ^ Gypsies and Travellers in Scotland. Scottish Traveller Education Programme (2007-02-05). Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  124. ^ Alin Dosoftei, Romani history (chapter Other areas)
  125. ^ "Gypsies" in the United States. Migrations in History. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  126. ^ The Roma (Gypsies) of Brazil
  127. ^ Ethnologue.com

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References

  • Achim, Viorel (2004). "The Roma in Romanian History." Budapest: Central European University Press. ISBN 963-9241-84-9.
  • Auzias, Claire. Les funambules de l'histoire. Baye: Éditions la Digitale, 2002.
  • De Soto, Hermine. Roma and Egyptians in Albania: From Social Exclusion to Social Inclusion. Washington, DC, USA: World Bank Publications, 2005.
  • Fonseca, Isabel. Bury me standing: the Gypsies and their journey. New York: A.A. Knopf, 1995.
  • Fraser, Angus The Gypsies : Blackwell Publishers, Oxford UK, 1992 ISBN 0-631-15967-3.
  • Genner, Michael. Spartakus, 2 vols. Munich: Trikont, 1979-80.
  • “Germany Reaches Deal to Deport Thousands of Gypsies to Romania,” Migration World Magazine, Nov-December 1992.
  • Gray, RD; Atkinson, QD (2003). "Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin." Nature.
  • Gresham, D; et al. (2001). "Origins and divergence of the Roma (Gypsies)." American Journal of Human Genetics. 69(6), 1314-1331. [7]
  • Hackl, Erich. (1991). Farewell Sidonia, New York: Fromm International Pub. ISBN 0-88064-124-X. (Translated from the German, Abschied von Sidonie 1989)
  • Helsinki Watch. Struggling for Ethnic Identity: Czechoslovakia’s Endangered Gypsies. New York, 1991.
  • Leland, Charles G. The English Gipsies and Their Language. London: Trübner & Co., 1873.
  • Lemon, Alaina (2000). Between Two Fires: Gypsy Performance and Romani Memory from Pushkin to Post-Socialism. Durham: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-2456-3
  • Luba Kalaydjieva; et al. (2001). "Patterns of inter- and intra-group genetic diversity in the Vlax Roma as revealed by Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA lineages." European Journal of Human Genetics. 9, 97-104. [8]
  • Marushiakova, Elena; Popov, Vesselin. (2001) "Gypsies in the Ottoman Empire." Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press.
  • Matras, Yaron (2002). Romani: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-512-02330-0.
  • McDowell, Bart (1970). "Gypsies, Wanderers of the World". National Geographic Society. ISBN 0-87044-088-8.
  • "Gypsies, The World's Outsiders." National Geographic, April 2001, 72-101.
  • Ringold, Dena. Roma & the Transition in Central & Eastern Europe: Trends & Challenges. Washington, DC, USA: World Bank, 2000. pg. 3,5, & 7.
  • Roberts, Samuel. The Gypsies: Their Origin, Continuance, and Destination. London: Longman, 4th edition, 1842.
  • Silverman, Carol. “Persecution and Politicization: Roma (Gypsies) of Eastern Europe.” Cultural Survival Quarterly, Summer 1995.
  • Simson, Walter. History of the Gipsies. London: S. Low, 1865.
  • Tebbutt, Susan (Ed., 1998) Sinti and Roma in German-speaking Society and Literature. Oxford: Berghahn.
  • Turner, Ralph L. (1926) The Position of Romani in Indo-Aryan. In: Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society 3rd Ser. 5/4, pp. 145–188.
  • Danish Broadcasting Corporation A page in Danish about Roma treatment in Denmark

This article provides only a brief outline of each period of the History of Romania; details are presented in separate articles (see the links in the box and below). ... Central European University is a US-licensed and accredited university based in Budapest, Hungary. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... Duke University is a private research university located in Durham, North Carolina, United States. ... Genetic diversity is a characteristic of ecosystems and gene pools that describes an attribute which is commonly held to be advantageous for survival -- that there are many different versions of otherwise similar organisms. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... This article is about the organization. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Roma people

Tirgu-Jiu in Romania Cem Romengo is a name of a symbolic ethnic Roma state. ... Dazdie was the tax paid by Roma state slaves in Bessarabia to the Russian Empire after the region was incorporated in 1812. ... Decade of Roma Inclusion logo The Decade of Roma Inclusion is an initiative of eight Central and Southeastern European countries to improve the socio-economic status and social inclusion of the Roma (gypsy) minority across the region. ... European Roma Rights Centre Roma or gypsies are a minority in Europe. ... The Gypsy Lore Society was founded in Great Britain in 1888 to unite persons interested in the history and lore of Gypsies and rovers and to establish closer contacts among scholars studying aspects of such cultures. ... The International Romani Union is an organization active for the rights of the Roma. ... The title King of the Gypsies has been claimed or given over the centuries to many different people. ... This is list of settlements in which ethnic Roma form the majority of population. ... This list contains Romanian urban localities (municipalities or cities/towns) in which Roma people make up over 5% of the total population. ... This list includes all groups that are thought to be Romani people. ... This is a list of Romani poets. ... This is a list of famous ethnic Romani people (sometimes referred to as Gypsies). ... 19th century print of Romani musicians Roma musicians at a wedding in the Czech Republic in 2005 Typically nomadic, the Roma have long acted as wandering entertainers and tradesmen. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Šuto Orizari (Шуто Оризари in Macedonian, Shuto Orizari in Romani) or shortly Shutka is one of the ten municipalities that makes up the City of Skopje, the capital of the Republic of Macedonia. ... The Roma have long been a part of the collective mythology of the West, where they were (and very often still are) depicted as outsiders, aliens, and a threat. ... Time of the Gypsies (Serbian: Dom Za Vešanje) is a 1988 film by Serbiann director Emir Kusturica. ... The Yeniche, or Jenische, are the third-largest population of nomadic people (or Travelers) in Europe, living mostly in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and parts of France. ...

External links

  • Rroma.org Roma organizations, culture and history
  • The World Bank: Roma Population Map
  • European Parliament resolution on the situation of the Roma in the European Union - April 28, 2005
  • Final report on the human rights situation of the Roma, Sinti and travellers in Europe by the European Commissioner for Human Rights (Council of Europe) - February 15, 2006

is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Non-governmental organisations

  • European Roma Rights Centre - European Roma NGO
  • European Roma and Traveller Forum

News media sources

  • The Rom News Network
  • Roma Press Center - Roma Media Agency NGO, News, Radio and Television service in Hungary

A media agency is a company which help companies to communicate with current and potential consumers and/or the general public. ...

Museums and libraries


  Results from FactBites:
 
Roma people - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5906 words)
The Roma People (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom), sometimes "Romany Folk" in the British Isles, often referred to as Gypsies (or Gipsies), are a heterogeneous ethnic group who live primarily in Southern and Eastern Europe, Western Asia, Latin America, the southern part of the United States and the Middle East.
The cause of the Roma diaspora is unknown.
Roma religion has a highly developed sense of morality, taboos, and the supernatural, though it is often denigrated by organized religions.
The Ultimate Roma people Dog Breeds Information Guide and Reference (2531 words)
The Roma people (pronounced "rahma," singular Rom, sometimes Rroma, and Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies in English.
Roma were widely believed to have psychic powers (see the popular stereotype of the Gypsy fortune-teller), and some romantics attribute the invention of the Tarot cards to them.
Most Roma abandoned their nomadic way of life long ago, and a good representation of way of life of Balkan Roma today can be seen in the films of the famous Bosnian director Emir Kusturica.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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